1.5 RL Circuits .. ,"."" .. "." .. ".", " .. " ".",." ,""""""',.,',.,.,." .. ".".".

" "" 1 - 35

11"SHigh iPass RL Ciircuit.., ..•...... ,",.,.,""', .•.. ,." , , , " " " ,,1 ~ 3,6

1].5,1 Step II'npLJtVol!age, , , .......•.•... , , ......•.• H , , , 11 - 36

11.6,.2 P~lse Input Voltage." ...............•.. -. ' .. '., .. , ..•... , . H ., , • , ••• " ". '1-37

te,,3 Square W,ave Input Voltage .. , , , .. , . , , .. , . , , , . , . , .. '1 - 39

1.6,A Ramp, Input Volta$l,e . " , " • ". co. ' •••• ' •••••••••• ' •• ' ••••• " ' ••.•• , , .• ,. ",. , , , ,', , , , ~ ~4ID'

17 Low Pass RL Circuit .

1 ~ 41

1 . .7.1 Step Input Voltag'e ". ",. ",. '., .•.•.•.•.•..... , ., ." .•..... ". ,., " ", .•. ",1-41

1.7.2 Pulselnp~t Voltage. , , , , ,. ,,' , " .. , ' . , , .. , .'. ' 1 ·42

1.7.3 Square Wa,ve ~nptlt Voltage .. , .. , .. , .• , ., . , , , . , .•....•. , • , ......• , • ,', .1 . 43

1.7.4 Ramp Inp~t 'Voltage , . , .. , . , , . , ..• , , ..•...... ,', ......• , " , .. , 1· 44

1 .. 8. Attenuators " .. " " .. " .. ".," .. ".,,,.,",.,, " ,,.,'" " " "" 1 ,·45

1.8,1 Compensated AttenuatoL , ., .. , . ' , , .. , , . , , ., .. , . ,. '" 1 • 47

1 ,8,.2 Step Response , , .•............ , , . , .....•. , .. , .. ,. 1 • 47

1.8.3 Use, of Atlenuatorin C.R.O. Probe ......•.• , , • 1 - 51

'1.9 IRLC Cl'r,cuits .. , .. "." , " .. " " " " 1 ,. ,54

1.9.1 RLC Series Circliit ., , , , , .. , " ,. , .. , ".,., 1 ~ 54

1.9 .. 2 RLC Parallel eir,cuit , " , •....... , , " 1 - 57

1.10 Ri',nging Ci'rcuit " " 1 ,·59

Examp~les with Sdluti!ons., , , , .. ,., , ,.1 ._ 160

Review- Q,l.Jestiol1s .. " " .. " , " " " " "." .. "." .. " " .. " 1 - 90

2,1 II ntrodueticn "." .. "" " .. ", , .•....... , , , •.. , , , , .. , .. , , , 2·,1

2 .. 2 Diode and its Oharacteristlcs , .. , .. ,"" 2· 11

2,.2. ~ V-I Characteri:s~cs . , . , . , ..............• , , .......•....•••.•.. < a a 2 ~ 3

2.3 Circuit Models of a Diode .2 - 4

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2.3.1 Practical Diode Model. ,. , . , ,. , , , , , , , ,. , .. ,. , , •. , . 2 ~ 4

2.3 .. 2 Ideal Diode Model " " .. , ,., .. , , , 2~5,

2.3.3 Piecewise Linear ModeJI of Diode ......•.•.• , ....• , .........•.............. 2 ~:5

2.3.4 AnaJysisi of Diode Circuits , .. ", " " .. 2~ 7

2,4 C'Ii,pper Circuits or Limiters " 2.-9

2.4.1 Steps to Anal~se Clipper Clroutts , , . , " 2' - 9'

2 . .5- ·Serie·s 'CH,ppe.rs ,., .. , .. , " , .. ,'" .. e e e •• ".,., •• " ••• ,., ••• , •••• " •••••• , 2 - 10

2.5.1 Senes Negative CIi~per Circuit. , , 2 -1iO

2.5.:2SeJies Positive Olipper C'ircu~ , •.• , , .•. , .•.... , .•. , .•.... 2 - 13

2JI,,3 Clipping above ReferenGe Voltage VR • , , , , , . , . , , , ., " .. , .. , , , .• , .......• 2 ·15

2.5.41 CIi,pping below Reterance Voltage VR •................ , 2 ·1,6

2.5.5 Addjtionall D .. C. SURply in Series with Diode , 2 ·1'8

2,.6 Paralle'l Clippers .• ,.,. , '" '''' ,'" ,'" """"" ,", ,.". ,", , .. , ,,, ,'" , , ,., .. ,. ", "" "" ., .. 2 -211

2.6.1 Basic P,araUel Clipper with Positive CUpping 2 ~ 21

2.6.2 Effect of cul"ll'l Voltage of Diode , 2 - 24

2,6,3 Basic f,arallel Clipper with NegatiVe Llmiting , " ., .. , , • " 2 - 26

2.7 Parallel Clipper Circuits w,ith Reference Volta.ge VR , 2 -29

2.7'.1 Operatiool , " " .. , .. , , , , 2 - 29'

2 7:2 Transfer Characteristics.

2.7.3 Effect ot10uMn Voltage of DIode, , " .. , .•............ 2 - 31

2.7.41 Parallel N.egative Clipperwilh Reference Voltage VR< , ., ••• , • , , , ••• , , , , , • , • ,2 - 32:

2.8 Clippers with Voltage DiVideI' Ciirouit, , , " " 2 - 39

2.9 Two Way Parallel Clipper Circuit ,."., .. " , " .•... , , .. , 2 .. 41

2.'9.1 Operation .. .- , • , .••... , , , , , .. , " , " , " , , , ...•..•. , " , , , 2- 42

2.9.2 Transfer Gharacteristics , , , •. , .. , .. < " •••• , • , , •.••••.•• 2-43

2.10 Clipper Circuits and Wa,veforms , " ,2·· 44

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2:,.11 Transistor Clipper ' .. ' ... ' .... ' ...... ' ... ' .. 0'0 ••••• 0'0 •• " •• " •••••••••••••••• , " •• , •• ,." •• " •• ".2 ~ 47

2.11'.11 Transistor Clipperwith Ramp IllP~t. , . , .. , .; ., ; ., ; ., : 2 ~ 48

2.11..2 Transistor Clippel'with Sinusoidal Input • , . • . , • , • , ; ; ; , • ; . ; ; . ; • ; 2 • 50

2.12 Emitter Coupled Clipper, , , ,,: , , , , , .. 2 ~ 51

2.12.1' Operation , , . "' , ...• " " , , ,.2 - 51

2.122 Transfe r Characteristics of Emitter Coupled Clipper .. , , .•.•.•... ,. 2 • 52

2.13 V'oltage Compar,'afor •.. ,: , .•.. , .. , .. ".", , , , ,." ,,, e e a e .. ,2·53

2 .13 .. 1 A:pplicattons of Com paratar. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. , .. ,. . . . . .. , , .. ,. 2 - 55

2 .. 14 Cla:m,per Circuits •. " " ' '., '., .. , " .. ,., ' ..•. ,,, ,.,,.:.,, 2,- 55

2.~4.1 Negattve Clamper , :' , .. , 2 ~ 55

2.1!4.2 Positive Clamper , .. , , ., , . " , , , ,', .. , , . , , ' ' , , , . ", , . ; .. ~ , •.•. ,. , • 2 - 68

2:114.3 Steps to AnalYle O~a.mpil:lg Network ' , .. , , , .. ,. 2 - 59

2.114.4 AddItion of Battery in ClarQper .•.......•.....• , ; • : •....... ; ..• - .• " •...• 2, - 60

2.14.5 Clamper~pplicatjon ...•• : •••.•.•.•.. , .... : :, ••.. - ..• ; .....• ; •.•.... 2 - 61

2.15 Effect of R,8nd 1R:s on Clamper OlJ.ltpuL,"" :" 2 - 63

2> ~5.1 Calculation of V, .. V2• V; and V; , , 2 ~ 65

2.16 CI'ampil1lg Circuit- theorem ~ " , " " 2 - 70

2.116.1 Proof of Clamping Circuit Thetffelfll " " , 2 - 71

2.17 Practical Clamping C!ircuits " .. " " " ,.2 -72

.2.11.1 Effect of V r of 0 lOde on Clamping a pemfion.. . .. . . . .. . , . . . . .. ., . .. . . .. . . . .. ., . 2.-74

2.1,8 Effect of Diode Characteristics on Clam:ping Voltage 2 - 75

.2.18.1 Biased C~ampirng Oircui! e •• " ,.e, ••••• , • ' .••••••..••••.•.••.•••••• :2 ~ 76

,2.19 Synchrol1li~edClampililg ., ' ' ' ' ' '. "' .. ' , " .""'. "," ".,." ,2 .. 77

2.20 Desi:gn of Clamping Circuit 2 - 19

Examples, with Sol:utions , ' , "".'.' ' " , .. ,., .. ", .. 2' ·,80

Review Questions, "" " " " " " " ".2 - 11.4

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Pulse and Digital CircuIts

ISBN 9789184:310429

All rignls reoo.l'\ied wilh Te~hniccll Publications. INo pori oflhls Dock ~h.Quld be

reproduced in cmy fo~m" Eledron1ic,. M!!cnonia;l ~;, ~otoco,py oreny iolormajio.n1 :sloroge ,ellel rei.rievol ~em witnout prior permis.iQ.nl ir~1 w,ritingl, 'rQm Te(;hni(QllVblkgjign1s. Pv(lO,

!Published by :

1Cchl'lical Publications F'lme8

, II 11, .Amil Rcsidcr.c.,., 'I ~i 2, Shan .... , Pd~. Rune ,. o4! 1 030, Indio"

Pdnter:

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H, ~Mij 1!!d<t~n~l~ E~~t~ F'!.n~,;5aIIlJ. ,R~ .•

p.,n~ .. "11009

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3 .. '1 IntrodlLlc~iol1 " ·.," ," , ...• :3 - 1

3 .. 2 Diode as .a. Swiitch ...• , ,., .. " , .. " .. " .. ,,,.,,,.,:., .. ,.,,., .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ".".", ,." ·3· l'

3.3 Diode Switching Tlmes .. " , , ,., .. ,., .. ,., , : 3 - 2

3.4 Circuit Madel~s of Di:ade """""""""" .. , .. , .. ,.".,., " ,., ,.,., .. ,.,.". ,., ,. ,., ,., ,.3 ~ 4

3.4.1 Practical O:1ode Model ..•••.. , .. , , ., , , , ; , .: , ; , .. , 3 - :5

3..4.2 IdeallDiode Model , , , . . . . . , , , ., . . . . . ., .. , . , , , , . , . 3 ~ 5

3.4,3 Piecewise Linear Mode.11 of Diod'e, " ' , , ' , ' , , . ' , , , .. , , . , , . , . , . , . 3 - I)

3 .. 5 Transistor as a Switch 3 - 7'

3.6 Brea'kdown Voltage Considerati.on of Transistor 3 ~ 12

3..7 Saturation Parameters of ]ransIstor and their Vaniationwitila

Temperature ",." .. " " " 3 - 16·

3.8 [)~slgn 'of Transistor ,Swltoh " •..•....•....• , , :3 - 18,

3,9 TranSistor Switching Times ..•..•..•.... " " " " .. " 3 ~ 21

Revi'ew Question,s .. , , , ,. "" , ,., .. , ,", ,,, .. ,,,., , , .. " :3 - 23,

4 '11 Ilrntmduclion .

- ---------,--.- .... -.--.-.-,--,-,,-. -.- .. -4 - 1

4:2 Types of Multivibrators.",.,",., , , ,.; 4 - 1

42 1 Bistable Multivihmtm

4 2 2 Monostable MultiVibratDr

4-2

42 3 ""stabi'e Multivihrator,

, ". '"''''''''''',,''' """ ...... 4~:2

4.3. Bistable Multivlbr,atol' " , ' " ,., ." ".,." .. ',' H "", , •• , ,,4 - 2.

4.4 Fixed Bias, Translstoe Bistable Multivibrator , 4 - 4

4,4.,1 ILoading Considerations , " ,' , .. , .. , . , , , .. , .. 4 ·10

4.4.2 Calculation of Heaviest Load Current. . " " ...........• " ... ; ; . , ...• ; ; .•. , 4 ·1'0

4.4.,3 'Design of Fixed Bias IBistable Multi'libratof ., " , . , .. , , .... , ... , . . . . . . .. .. ..... 4 -11

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Table of Contents

11 Introduction

1 - 1

1 2 Nonsim.lsoidal Waveforms ..

1 -1

1 .. 2.1 StepWaveforrn ",., , " , " , ",., .......•. ", •........ , ,.,1 ·,2

1 2 2 PIJ'I~se Waveform 1 - 2

1.2.:3 Sq~araWavefcrm : •. ,. , " , • , , ,', , .• " •.• ' .. ' , ..•.•.. , , , .•.•... , , , , 1 ·3

1.2.4 Ramp Waveform , .. ,." .. ,.;, .•............. ; •. " ......• , •.. , 1-4

'1.3 High P,ass IRe C·irCI..Ht .', .• ',.",.", .•.. "" .• , .. ,. 1 - 4

1.3.1 Step InpUJt Voltage .... , .. ; " . ,_, , . "' "' " " .. ., ;>; ., d' .. "' ., ,. 1 - 5

1,3.2 Pulse' Input Voltage ., .. , .. ,' .. , , •.................•............ , 1 ~ 8

1.3,3 Square Wave IrnputVoltage .. ' .. " .. '., ,', ". , , 1- ~1

1.3,4 Ramp InputVoUage" " " "' , 1-119

1,.S.5 Sinusoidal Input. , .•.... , , , , , , , .. , , . , , , ,' 1 ·21

1,3.6 High Pass RC Oireuit as a Differnnftator ; ; , .•.. , , , ...•... , , . 1 ~ 2:3

1411 ow Pass RC Circuit .... ". , ".,1 - 23

11.4.1 Step I npufVoltage ; ; ; ., .. H , • • • • ., H , , , , •• , " .1· ,241

11 ,4.2 P~lse Input Vdltage ; ; ..•. , •.• ' .•.. , .•.•.. , , , . . ' "' .• ' .. ,1 • ,26

11.4.3 Square, Wave Impl!Jt Voltage . _ , , , . "' ' , , ' ., .. , . 1 ·28

U.4 RamplnpufVoltage ; ; ; ; ; d ; ." H , •• ' •••••• , •• , •••••• 1 ·30

11.4.5 Sinusoidal'lnput H • , n .. n.", ••••••••••••• , ••• ; .. , , , • , , • 1 ·33.

1.4.6 Low Pass RC Circuit as an Integrator ., ..... , , . , ..... " , .... ; , , a ••• , 1 ~ 34

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