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Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2010, 1(4): 306-314
Present Status and Scope of Floriculture Developed through Different Biotechnological Tools
R S Sengar, Reshu Chaudhary and Sanjiv Kumar Tyagi*
Tissue Culture Lab, College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patal University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250 110, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Botany, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
Last 35 years have seen a tremendous emphasis on their in vitro tissue culture and micropropagation, while the latter 10-15 years has seen a surge in transformation experiments, all aimed at ameliorating aesthetic and growth characteristics of the plants. Recent modern techniques of propagation have been developed which could help growers to meet the demand of the horticultural industry in the next century. An overview on the in vitro propagation via thin cell layer, meristem culture, regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is presented. Available methods for the transfer of genes could significantly simplify the breeding procedures and overcome some of the agronomic and environmental problems, which otherwise would not be achievable through conventional propagation methods. The international trade in floriculture is estimated to be worth about US $150 billion, with the global demand for ornamentals steadily increasing. Consumer choice is influenced by factors such as plant architecture and flower color. Conventional breeding has been responsible for the introduction of novel traits into ornamental plants and has played an important role in the development of new cultivars. However, a restricted gene pool and failure of distant crosses have led to the exploitation of somatic cell techniques, particularly genetic transformation, to generate plants with desirable traits. Because ornamentals are not used for human consumption, genetic manipulation approaches with these plants may be more acceptable in the immediate future to the general public, in certain parts of the world, than genetically manipulated food crops. Key words: Floriculture, Biotechnological tools, In vitro micropropagation, Genetic transformation Beauty, purity, love and passion are some of the emotions symbolized by the flowers. The feelings of love, affection and joy are conveyed effectively with these non-speaking beauties of nature, for example a lotus conveys purity, rose love, pansy thoughts and narcissus egotism. Flowers have a definite role to play at almost all occasions of human affairs like birth, marriage, worship, adornments and death. Besides flowers, other ornamental plants also play an important role in environmental planning of urban and rural areas and from wasteland development to overcoming pollution. An important aspect of floriculture is that it is a good avenue to generate gainful employment for youth and women of sub-urban and rural areas. The introduction of various in vitro techniques has revolutionized the horticulture sector in India in recent years. The greatest stimulus provided by the tissue culture technology lies in increased speed of clonal multiplication of shoot meristem culture of highly desired strains of plant material besides freeing the clonal material from pathogens. The three major areas of bio-technology, which can help us in crop improvement in general and floriculture in particular are micro propagation systems, including tissue culture, genetic engineering and new methods of in vitro hybridization and recombinant DNA technique. The micro propagation industry in India has made rapid strides. From a mere 0.5 million plants in 1987, the production of plants through micro-propagation has gone upto 22.0 million in 1994. The foreign technology in floriculture generally revolves around the green house, where plants are grown under fully protected conditions. This is required in view of the externally cold climate in these regions. The conditions in green house protect the flowers against precipitation, wind and too much radiation, besides creating a microclimate around the flowers. The trends in floriculture production, on global basis, have been enormously dynamic during the past four decades. Netherlands increased the area by 70% which West Germany increased its consumption of floriculture products by 150%. Per capita consumption of floriculture products was the highest in Switzerland, followed by Holland, Germany, Belgium and Sweden. The demand for potted plants by 2000 AD in Europe is expected to rise by 57%, while the demand for fresh cut flowers in Europe, Japan and USA is expected to be about 38 billion US dollars in 2000AD. India has got the major advantage of producing a significant proportion of its floriculture produce during winter, when the demand for such is
One of the major constraints of floriculture industry is non-availability of constant supply of quality bloom in all the regions of the country. The result of these two studies indicate that the adoption of tissue culture technology will be fully beneficial with BC ratio varying from 1. increase the production and productivity. advanced tissue culture facilities. As an economic preposition. are comparatively well developed in India. Green houses. rangolis and floral arrangements Nursery management and propagation business for supply of plant material Flower and live plant rental services Landscape consultancy Floral perfume industry Efforts are going on worldwide to boost floriculture industry using biotechnology (Hutchinson et al. varying agro-climatic zones. The department of Biotechnology supported the establishment of seven centers for plant molecular biology throughout the country. 2002). availability of cheap labor. Data on various financial parameters are available from two sources. Floriculture industry comprises of: Cut flowers trade of traditional and modern cutflowers and cut foliage. which is still in a nascent stage.36 to 1. However.Sengar et al. is to improve the quality. making it a profitable agri-business. Acclimatization of any crop from one climatic zone to another is normally done through conventional breeding. Fig 1 Tissue Culture inoculated plants in lab Fig 2 Hardening of tissue cultured plants very high in Western countries. the flower crops provide higher income from comparatively smaller areas than other crops. and increase the competitiveness of the product in the market both within and outside the country. Further the investment will yield a return of 566% over 12 years. as these are the main features which determine consumer interest. 1992) and the attention is focused on development of new flower color and novel plant morphology. which includes both the conventional and biotechnology based technologies. cooling. All floricultural crops are climate specific and flowers are transported from one climatic zone to another for sale (Datta and Mitra 1999).75 in the case of BCIL and 1. there are about 50 public research units in India using tools of modern biotechnology for agriculture especially techniques for cell and tissue culture. Non-recombinant technology. it is possible to produce them at a comparatively lower cost. The Indian government allocates an estimated US $15 million annually on plant biotechnology research while the private sector contributes about US $10 million (Huang et al. The basic aim of adopting any new technology in any sector. The Indian plant biotechnology research agenda is 307 . gajras. both fresh and dried used in bouquets. This then became a full-fledged department in 1986 (Sharma 2001). With mild winters in most parts of India. while the recombinant DNA technology is still largely restricted to laboratory trails. Biotechnological development in floriculture The Government of India recognized early on the importance and potential of biotechnology when it set up the National Biotechnology Board in 1982. viz Bio-tech Consortium India Ltd. chemicals. Green house technology could be used only in places of high altitude with frost and very cold climate or in case of special varieties commanding a good export market. bring down the cost. nonconventional and recombinant technologies. India has got a number of other advantages like favorable climatic conditions. Today. Recombinant DNA technology.49 in the case of NHB. garlands. (BCIL) and National Horticulture Board (NHB). etc. equipment machines. packaging and other infrastructural facilities all involve the high cost but the returns are equally lucrative. sound research infrastructure. not to talk of floriculture alone.21 to 1. could be adopted in the next decade. the advanced floriculture technology is capital intensive i e it is hitech and hi-cost technology. venis. storage. After assessing the various factors and the effect of the conventional. it is found that “Tissue-culture” is best suited for the development of floriculture in a big way.
a concept proposed by Haberlandt (1902) and unequivocally demonstrated. Mayer (1956) succeeded first time regeneration of cyclamen shoots from tuber segments on MS medium supplemented with 10. Tissue culture is used for vegetative multiplication of many species and in some cases for recovery of virus-free plants. It has potential application in production of somatic hybrids. tissue and organ culture through in vitro condition (Debergh and Read 1991). tissues and organs of plants has a great potential to generate improved crop plants and ornamentals. Tissue culture of floriculture 308 . and genetic transformation. hundreds of plant tissue culture laboratories have come up worldwide. Several different explants have been used for direct shoot formation. an Australian company Florigene became the first company in the world to sell genetically modified plants by mail order to the general public for home garden use (Lu et al. In vitro culture is one of the key tools of plant biotechnology that exploits the totipotency nature of plant cells. especially in the developing countries due to cheap labor costs. The great potential of micropropagation for large-scale plant multiplication can be tapped by cutting down the cost of production per plant by applying low-cost tissue culture. tissues or organs on a culture medium which is as defined as possible. They are still selling transgenic products of two carnation types in Australia. The in vitro culture of cells. (1958). Ornamental industry has applied immensely in vitro propagation approach for large-scale plant multiplication of elite superior varieties. Many commercial laboratories and national institutes worldwide use in vitro culture system for rapid plant multiplication. and for secondary metabolite production (O'Riordain 1999). and unit cost per plant becomes unaffordable compelling to adopt strategies to cut down the production cost for lowering the cost per plant (IAEA-TECDOC 2004). Tissue culture is a means of preserving species that are rare and threatened and providing an alternative source of plants for commercial. Plant transformation methods and enhanced gene silencing technology can effectively be used to evaluate and authenticate newly discovered endogenous genes to characterize their function in plants as well as to genetically manipulate trait quality and productivity (Dandekar 2003). germplasm conservation. the cultures are maintained under controlled environmental condition”. synseed development. 2003). organelle and cytoplasm transfer. Tissue culture and micropropagation Traditionally plants have been used by indigenous people for herbal medicines. Bioreactor technology may cut down the cost of plant production provided proper precautions are taken to prevent contamination. longevity and form. development of new hybrids and planting material with desirable traits and the genetic enhancement of important crops (Sharma 2001). mutations. Ornamental plants are produced mainly for their aesthetic value. Seeds may germinate erratically and bulbs usually propagate by offsets. As a result. Japan and USA. Annually. In vitro methods are used to speed up propagation. Many commercial ornamental plants are being propagated by in vitro culture on the culture medium containing auxins and cytokinins (Preil 2003. horticultural and traditional medicinal trade. Rapid urbanization and overexploitation of wild species by the horticultural trade and by traditional medical practitioners has led to a decline in many species. elimination of pathogens. for the first time. Tissue culture consists of growing plant cells as relatively an organized masses of cells on an agar medium (callus culture) or as a suspension of free cells and small cell masses in a liquid medium (suspension culture). Successful in vitro propagation of ornamental plants is now being used for commercialization. Tissue culture is the “aseptic culture of plant protoplasts. and the creation of novel variation are important economic goals for floriculturists. genetic manipulations.Present Status and Scope of Floriculture Developed dominated by tissue culture and micropropagation explotation of heterosis vigor. Somatic embryogenesis facilitates cryopreservation. which is to adopt practices and proper use of equipment and resources to reduce the unit cost of micropropagule and plant production without compromising the quality. thus the propagation and improvement of quality attributes such as leaf types.7 μM NAA. Tissue culture is alternatively called cell. Flowering bulbs and other fynbos species are prized in the cut-flower industry. both in vitro and ex vitro to establish optimum growing conditions. Rout and Jain 2004). plant shape and architecture. micropropagation technology is more costly than conventional propagation methods. flower color. Recent progress in genetic manipulation of plant cells has opened new possibilities for improvement of ornamental pot plants. In 2001. cells. However. This makes production too slow to warrant their introduction as new commercial crops. Tissue culture of ornamentals The main difficulty in growing indigenous plants in large quantities is to obtain sufficient plant material. by Steward et al. The success of the system lies in the development of strict protocols for each species. millions of ornamental plants are routinely produced in vitro. It can be employed for large-scale propagation of disease free clones and gene pool conservation. genetic transformation and germplasm storage through freeze-preservation. This involves improving decontamination procedures and determining the defects of various cultural factors on plant growth.
generally applicable to ornamental plants. this simple technology. availability of efficient transformation methods to introduce foreign 309 . Fig 3 Hardening of tissue cultured plants in poly house Fig 4 Flowers developed by biotechnological techniques Micropropagation is undoubtedly the most familiar application of plant biotechnology. (1998) reported the shoot bud regeneration from leaf and petiole explants of Anthurium parvispathum and subsequently establishment in soil. In some cases. the first plants to be propagated commercially utilizing in vitro methods. In vitro clonal propagation of Dracaena deremensis has been reported by several groups (Debergh 1975. height and growth morphology. and Begonia (Takayama 1983). In addition. Heuchera sanguinea (Hosoki and Kajino 2003). thaliana (Clough and Bent 1998). in fact. longevity. isolate and transfer desirable genes from any living organism to plants. Chua et al.cbd. gladiolus. 1996). breeders have been able to create new varieties that have desirable traits but it has its limitation. about 100 companies have plans for selling tissue-cultured plants and more than 30 are already in the market with their products. Genetic engineering of floriculture Genetic engineering holds tremendous potential for genetic enhancement of ornamentals. 1976. laborintensive tissue culture can be bypassed using approaches such as the „„floral dip procedure‟‟ reducing time and cost. Skirvin and Chu 1979. there is no uniform system for international regulation of genetically modified organisms with significant differences between countries (Halsberger 2006). Dillen et al. The Cartagena protocol (www. developed with A. at present. Geier et al. Orchids were. insect and disease resistance. Unfortunately. plants have been regenerated from leaf tissues and petiole segments of Cyclamen (Geier 1977. shape.Sengar et al. has restricted the application of the technology to ornamental plants (Azevedo and Araujo 2003.int/biosafety) is the first attempt to bring uniformity in laws governing genetic modification and many countries are adapting these laws to an agreed consensus on genetically manipulated plants. Miller and Murashige 1976. Antagonism to genetic manipulation. 1983. heterozygous nature of the material makes the alteration of individual impracticable. In India. Schwenkel 1991. This explains the lack of success of traditional techniques in breeding an orange petunia or a blue rose. Genetic modification necessitates transformed cells developing into viable plants. Genetic transformation Integration of specifically desired traits through genetic engineering has been possible in some flower crops. AboEl-Nil (1983) reviewed on the large-scale production of Pelargonium by using different explants. horticultural traits. The possibility of introducing a single gene for desired trait without disturbing the plant‟s genetic makeup as normally experienced in conventional breeding or crop improvement programme is perhaps the most striking feature in the field of agricultural biotechnology. in general. Atta-Alla et al. etc. However. remains limited to a few species and is not. anthuriums. Presently this technique is being commercialized in rose. Over 800 commercial companies are engaged in such activities all over the world and their number is still increasing. including ornamentals. The technique offers not only means for mass propagation but also plays an important role to conserve elite or rare plants that are threatened with extinction. Rout et al. The ability to transform economically important cut flower varieties would allow the use of molecular genetic techniques to modify characteristics such as flower color. One of the main disadvantages of traditional breeding is the limited gene pool in any single species. Phillips 2004). 1989). Recent advancements in molecular biology and genetic transformation have made it possible to identify. The first report on shoot multiplication and rooting of rose (Rosa multiflora) was made by Elliott (1970) by using shoot tip explants and later on followed by others (Hasegawa 1979. Furthermore. and resistance to environmental stresses. Using traditional breeding methods. However. 1981).
by creating compact (dwarf) plants or. India exported floricultural items worth Rs. 2005). plants with novel pigmentation and architecture) at competitive prices. plants compete for light and space. the Australian company Florigene Pty Ltd. have been sold in Australia. chrysanthemum and roses. Maintenance in field gene banks and in-site conservation of germplasm in flower crops are very difficult and risky. Despite significant advances over the past decades. parentage testing. To date.321. 2003). dwarfed plants are difficult to obtain through natural breeding (Busov et al. 1987). Indian scenario In India. The total estimated area under flower crops is in Europe (1500016000ha). including the domestication of wild species and the selection of novel „„sports‟‟ from popular species already in cultivation. Consequently. micro propagation and 310 . Successful attempts have been made to develop protocols for in vitro preservation of flower crops. with live plants worth Rs. Germplasm can also be conserved in vitro by tissue culture or cryopreservation. Netherlands has the maximum area under green houses i e 9000ha out of which 5000 ha is under floricultural crops.253. However. and Moonshade series of transgenic carnations. genetic manipulation programmes have been directed primarily at manipulating flower colour. and in the world export of cut flowers in 1992. genetic engineering has the capability of increasing the gene pool available for crop improvement. Seventy-five million plants of its Moonshadow. 188. it has become necessary to conserve the plant genetic resources.97m US $ followed by Columbia (340. such as carnation. However. novelty may be achieved by regulating plant stature. 44. production of nursery plants and potted plants. Recent advances in genetic engineering makes itself an alternative technology to be used in conjunction with traditional breeding for the improvement of flower crops. exposure of somaclonal variation. and the US in the last 11 years (Mol et al. However. Certainly. Present status Germany is the largest importer of cut flowers with the value of 1. that is. and tolerance to insects and pests (Tanaka et al. Germplasm conservation and characterization of flower crops In view of severe threats posed to biodiversity. The molecular markers have facilitated research on genetic variation at the DNA level. Da Silva and Teixeira (2003) reported that the advances in transgenic biotechnology of members of the chrysanthemum complex are in part possible due to improvements and new and significant findings in regeneration protocols.11). cut flowers worth Rs. Current efforts are aimed at developing techniques for high-value flower crops. including somatic hybridization/ cybridization.40 million. This method has superiority over others as it requires less space and germplasm can be effectively stored for different storage time. in vitro technique is very handy. Moondust. ranging from blue-violet to deep blue.18 million and other floricultural products worth Rs.37 million.Present Status and Scope of Floriculture Developed DNA can be a substantial barrier to the application of recombinant DNA methods in some species. The ornamental industry strives for novelty to generate new products (e g. 2003). The numerous potential applications of DNA fingerprinting have brought about their uses in plants such as in population genetics. flower color. Fukui et al. In nature. An advantage of such a genetic engineering approach lies in the ability to alter a single trait without altering other genetic traits of the plants. Netherlands exported cut flowers worth 2. Chandler 2003. Brand 2006). Moonlite. to produce plants to keep pace with the demand of the rapidly expanding floriculture industry. 24. For safe movements of germplasm. Consumer purchase is governed largely by plant appearance. the introduction of novel traits into ornamental plants and the development of new cultivars have been based on conventional breeding and selection. floriculture industry comprises flower trade.72m US $. The restricted gene pool and failure of distant sexual crosses during conventional breeding have generated interest in exploiting somatic cell technologies. development of efficient transformation methods can take many years of painstaking research. 119.79 million. conversely. resulting in dwarf phenotypes being eliminated during conventional selection. 1999.90) and Israel (123. Japan. 1997). as in the first report in petunia (Meyer et al. especially those propagated asexually. and individual genotype identification and for shortening breeding programs (Ben-Meir et al. it has an estimated area of 37987ha under flower crops (1992-93) with Karnataka having the maximum area of 14253ha and Uttar Pradesh being on 7th position out of 15 places with an area of only 600ha. As regards the present‟s status of floriculture in India. complex polygenic traits such as vegetative growth and flowering are difficult to manipulate using this approach and may take considerable time (Mishra and Srivastava 2004). and genetic transformation (Chandler and Lu 2005. seed and bulb production. primarily of anthropogenic activity. is the only one currently marketing genetically manipulated (GM) ornamental plants. Though the Indian share in floricultural export is negligible but still in 1993-94. Until recently. by increasing plant height. Development of techniques of molecular taxonomy RAPD and RFLP in genomic analysis and classification has opened up new options for germplasm characterization. Construction of residential and industrial units over the orchard land and forests has caused the destruction and loss of several rare and valuable collections in different flower crops.
India is endowed with diverse agro-climatic conditions which help to grow all kinds of flowers. Andhra Pradesh and Haryana have emerged as major floriculture centers in recent times. The development of floriculture based technologies such as the petunia DNA microarray chip (Koltai et al. But still. In India. having a long history of flower production. It has been found that commercial floriculture has higher potential per unit area than most of the field crops and is therefore a lucrative business. in order to increase total share in the floriculture world trade. Commercial floriculture has gained importance over the years. Maharashtra. According to a report of the NHB. gladiolus. almost all through the year. 15-20 and Bird paradise for Rs. Karnataka. Commercial floriculture is becoming important from the export angle. India can tap its huge floriculture reserves. Four. a varied agro climatic condition and versatile human resources. from simple micropropagation of elite germplasms to high technology transformation of target plants. jasmine. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. in the immediate future. in one part of the country or another. camation upto Rs. Though the annual domestic demand for the flowers is growing at a rate of over 25% and international demand at around Rs. aster. Rajasthan have also large areas under floriculture. As per estimates.500 million). rose. Owing to steady increase in demand of flower floriculture has become one of the important commercial trades in agriculture. chemical growth regulators act by modifying or substituting the action of natural hormones. have not yet found place in our crop statistics estimation programme. though the maximum consumption of flowers is in the USA ($12. Though floriculture industry has been the monopoly of a few countries (mainly Netherlands). Maharashtra. It is estimated that 50% of the flowers sold in cities of Madras. rose.8 billion (Potera 2007). Tissue culture approaches. In 2006. With enormous genetic diversity. and the income per unit area from floriculture is much higher than any other branch of agriculture. The domestic flower production goes on increasing annually. Agricultural and processed food products export development authority (APEDA). There are more than 300 export-oriented units in India. anthodium. The liberalized economy has given an impetus to the Indian entrepreneurs for establishing export oriented floriculture units under controlled climatic conditions. desirable traits. Hence commercial floriculture has emerged as hi-tech activity taking place under controlled climatic conditions inside greenhouse. the total area under flower crops in 2008-09 was estimated around 167 thousand hectares. can be combined with traditional breeding to broaden the gene pool available for improvement of ornamentals and to introduce new.000 crore. Present status and growing trade is still in infancy. with a lion‟s share of 70% followed by Columbia and Israel with 12% and 6% share of the global floriculture trade. Today. The global use of plant growth regulators exceeds US $1 billion and increases 311 . Japan ($5465 million) and Italy ($4270 million). 488. cut blooms of roses. antirrhinum. jasmines. the per capita consumption of flowers is the maximum in Norway ($146) followed by Switzerland ($126) and Germany ($88).74 crores in 200809. have a very good market in metropolitan cities. India‟s total export of floriculture and fruit and vegetable seed products was Rs. 20-25. Technical collaborations with foreign companies have been approved for India. About 167 thousand hectares area is under floriculture at present. Indian floriculture industry has been shifting from traditional flowers to cut flowers for export purposes. Production flowers are estimated to be 987 metric tonnes of loose flowers and 113618 million (numbers) of cut flowers in 2008-09. with the improved communication and transportation facilities. 2008) now makes it possible to identify novel genes and. extraction of essential oils. the purchase of ornamental plants in the US alone was US $20. Government of India has identified floriculture as a sunrise industry and accorded it 100% export oriented status. to generate plants with new traits that appeal to the consumer. emphasizing the major opportunities for development and sales of existing and new ornamental plants. tuberose. 90. flowers like many other horticultural crops. Six. Indian floriculture industry has been shifting from traditional flowers to cut flowers for export purposes. most kind of flowers are available in all major markets almost throughout the year. which included traditional flowers such as marigold. West Bengal. The new seed policy had already made it feasible to import planting material of international varieties. stock. Plant hormones control key aspects of growth and development. Bangalore and Bombay are utilized for making gajra and veni and upto 70% of the flowers sold in Calcutta are for decoration purposes. In the markets of Delhi and Bombay a single spike of Qadiolus may sell upto Rs.Sengar et al. Floriculture and seeds in India are being viewed as a high growth Industry. chrysanthemum. More than 50% of the floriculture units are based in south zone mainly in Karnataka. The liberalization of industrial and trade policies paved the way for development of export oriented production of cut flowers. is responsible for export promotion and development of floriculture in India. for Rs. Importance and scope Floriculture is an intensive type of agriculture. tuberose and modern flowers like coronation. gerbera. Similarly. The liberalized economy has given an impetus to the Indian entrepreneurs for establishing export oriented floriculture units under controlled climatic conditions. the largest trader of floricultural products. Floriculture in India is being viewed as a high growth Industry. India‟s share in the international market is negligible.
This is important.000/ha 3904/ha 14. 2008). Dry flowers and plants are becoming more popular due to non-perishability of the produce.327/ha 17. China aster tec.) 12. it is likely that biosynthetic pathways for these compounds will become targets for genetic manipulation in ornamentals. sweet pea.200/ha 41. Because plant development is also affected by other growth hormones. brassinosteroids. tuberose and lilies etc.0 with payback period of 2 years Perennial crop Perennial crop Perennial gladiolus.) 24. (2005) indicated that the floriculture industry would benefit from the introduction of genetically modified novel traits. The people today have become conscious of the hazards of pollution and have understood the importance of plants in its control.0. Jasmine produces concrete @ 3kg/ ton of the flowers which is sold at the rate of Rs. and proof-of-concept has already been demonstrated. Tuberose concrete is also being produced in Tamil Nadu. The net returns from some of the important crops along with their cost of cultivation are given below: Remarks Seasonal crop Seasonal crop can be taken up by marginal growers Seasonal crop Perennial crop for 10 years. modification of plant stature may necessitate manipulation of multiple hormonal pathways.409/ha 13. pansy. salicylic acid.750/ha Commercially. This group constitutes a major share of the export of our floricultural products. marigold.000/ha 27.P. Hence.000/ha 68617/ha 10. Similarly. Dried petals are also exported to Middle East. including auxins. Bulbous plants have become more popular in the recent times like 312 . These plants may be flowering constituting of trees and shrubs or non-flowering which is generally termed as foliage plants. These extracts are used in the perfumery and cosmetic industry. seedlings.000/ha 71.384/ha Net returns (Rs. with payback period of 2-3 years Perennial crop for 8-10 years. The landscaping opens up avenues for bioaesthetic planning. However.. Future research must be directed toward identifying tissue-specific or species-specific inducible promoters that could. and polyamines (Appleford et al. control of pollution (air and noise) and can be used in human welfare for quality living. floriculture is the most important thrust area of production for our small and marginal farmers to upgrade their living by earning more profits from the same area. Moral extracts is another good business in India. Another allied branch of floriculture is landscape gardening which is becoming popular in the urban areas of our country. jasmonic acid. Considerable financial investment is needed to counteract the high costs of developing new cultivars (Robinson and Firoozabady 1993) and obtaining intellectual property rights to protect new varieties from exploitation by competitors. there has been considerable resistance to genetically manipulated products in Europe. and parts of Rajasthan for the production of rose water and Gulkand. for example. Major centers of these are Tuticorin and Calcutta. phlox etc fetches higher profits. stock.Present Status and Scope of Floriculture Developed annually. A genetic manipulation approach could reduce the requirement for synthetic growth regulators.08. ethylene. Indeed.880/ha 3. 8000-10. as the flower consumption per capita in Europe is the greatest in the world. Tanaka et al.735/ha 39. calendula.000/ha 62. although there has been a recent decline in the number of chemicals available because of more stringent regulations (Phillips 2004). Our country has diverse climatic conditions which offer the scope for growing several kinds of commercial flowers. which are today being extensively used for indoor and outdoor landscaping. Crop Chrysanthemum Marigold Aster Rose Jasmine Tuberose Crossandra Anthurium Cost of Cultivation (Rs. leading to longer life indoors almost all kinds of plants and flowers are dried and used in bouquets etc. and bulbs also have sizable sale and profits. outside Europe there has been little criticism of genetically modified plants (Potera 2007). The benefit cost ratio being 2. drive gene expression in vegetative tissues such as those of stem internodes without affecting flowering and seed production. Which is do not require much care and generally earn more profits than many other crops. Unfortunately. The cultivators can deploy a part of their land for growing commercial and common flowers such as marigold. Damusk rose is being successfully grown in Aligarh and Lucknow regions of U. cytokinins. there is considerable potential for manipulating GA signaling in plants. Production and sale of flower seeds.000 per kg. although it is likely that the status of ornamental plants may be reviewed alongside that of food crops. Hybrid flower seed production of crop like antirrhinum. The production The production of live plants in pots/ potted plants can also be taken up by the farmers. The benefit cost ratio being 3. floriculture can open up great opportunities for our poor farmers.902/ha 28. it could be said that. Undoubtedly.
technology could be provided by the state department of horticulture and agricultural universities and for initial investments nodal agencies like nationalized banks. 2006. NBRI. The great potential of micropropagation for large-scale plant multiplication can be tapped by cutting down the cost of production per plant by applying low-cost tissue culture. Jones H D. Acta Horticulturea 588: 83-92 313 . Bangalore. Vainstein A. New York: McGraw Hill Publ. Micropropagation. Applied Botany Abstracts 19: 202-221 Debergh P C.1981. 1991. McAlister B. horticultural crops and commercial crops.BajajYPS. Co. Zimmerman RH. Plant transformation methods and enhanced gene silencing technology can effectively be used to evaluate and authenticate newly discovered endogenous genes to characterize their function in plants as well as to genetically manipulate trait quality and productivity. Ma Q. South African Journal of Botany 64: 296-298 Azevedo J L. Van Staden J. In: Debergh PC. aesthetic value. Bent A F. Scovel G. Plant Journal 16: 735-743 Da Silva Jaime andTeixeira A. Geranium (Pelargonium). 2003. In vitro culture and establishment of Anthurium parvispathum. Evans D J. vol. elimination of pathogens. Wilkinson M D. Intensified vegetative multiplication of Dracaena deremensis. millions of ornamental plants are routinely produced in vitro. Commercialization of genetically modified ornamental plants. genetics and transgenic biotechnology. and the priority crops are cereals. Pearce D W. longevity and form. Lucknow. pp439-60 Appleford N E J. Chrysanthemum: advances in tissue culture. Evans DR. 1000 crore. 1998. production technology and availability of basic inputs along with insufficient cold storage facilities. synseed development. Biotechnology Advances 21: 715-766 Dandekar A M. Thomas S G. Hedden P. Acta Horticulturea 625: 293-305 Datta S K and Mitra R.Hand book of plant cell culture. 2003. 1983. mutations. SharpWR. Activation tagging of a dominant gibberellin catabolism gene (GA 2-oxidase) from poplar that regulates tree stature. Molecular markers in the breeding of ornamentals. These priorities are broadly in line with the agricultural development needs of the country. Chennai. Kunisaki J T. plant shape and architecture. Read P E. Techniques for manipulating quality and productivity traits in horticultural crops.oxidase gene in transgenic wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 56: 112-120 Atta-Alla H. national horticulture board and APEDA (Agricultural and processed food products export development authority) could be approached. The shortfall in target is because of bottlenecks like poor infrastructure and plant material. Mutat Research 544: 223-233 Ben-Meir H. The setting up of cold storage and cargo handling facilities at key airports like New Delhi. Phillips A L. editors. 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