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In mathematics, trigonometry is an important set of disciplines which relate to two and
three dimensional objects; practically anything that you can see around you can be related
to the principles of trigonometry and algebra in the real world, it is very useful in
engineering and construction, where its principles are important in accurately
determining the lengths, sizes and areas of objects without having to actually create them
first. Imagine the need to build a structure with only the basic land - area given to you:
using the principles of trigonometry, you can easily calculate the geometric properties of
objects to an unerring degree of accuracy.
Three Basic Trigonometric Ratios
In a right triangle, the three basic trigonometric ratios are used.
Sine of Theta
Side opposite theta / hypotenuse = b / c

Cos of Theta
Side adjacent to theta / hypotenuse = a / c
Tangent of Theta
Side opposite theta / side adjacent to theta = b / a

More Trigonometric Ratios (Reciprocal Ratios)

 cotangent
 secant
 cosecant
Cotangent of Theta
Side adjacent to theta / Side opposite theta = a / b
Secant of Theta
Hypotenuse / Side adjacent to theta = c / a
Cosecant of Theta
Hypotenuse / Side opposite to theta = c / b

Trigonometry, however, isn't just about using formulae to find the correct angle or size in
school. It describes the relationships that occur naturally between objects and their
similarity in structure. When we compare them using a similar set of ideas, it gives us a
lot of power to understand the basis of other things in life beyond that of just their
appearance. Even though we can look at a circle, an oval, square or rectangle, we can
know that there are principles we can apply to their shape which can be expressed
through one entity: the triangle.
Trigonometry (from Greek trigonon "triangle" + metron "measure") is a branch of
mathematics that studies triangles, particularly right triangles. Trigonometry deals with
relationships between the sides and the angles of triangles and with the trigonometric
functions, which describe those relationships, as well as describing angles in general and
the motion of waves such as sound and light waves. The study of angles and of the
angular relationships of planar and three-dimensional figures is known as trigonometry.
The trigonometry are uses in practical endeavors such as navigation, land surveying,
building, and it is used in number of academic fields. Primarily mathematics, science and
engineering. Among the public of non-mathematicians and non-sceintists. trigonometry
is know chiefly to measure problems. It is often used in ways that are more subtle, such
as place in theory of music others are more technical, such as number theory.
Trigonometry is one of the most advanced ways that can be discussed in a single
article. Often those involve is called fourier series. It found in the 18th and 19th century
French mathematician and physicist Joseph fourier. It is diverse array in many scientific
fields, in particular in all of the phenomena involving seasonal periodicities. Hence the
study of radiation, of acoustics, of seismology, of modulation of radio waves in
cosθ + sinθ + cos 2θ + sin2θ + cos 3θ + sine3θ.


Mathematics enhances critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. It provides

provides perspective on real-life events. Trigonometry is an area of mathematics that
probes the property of triangles. It is used in satellite systems and astronomy, aviation,
engineering, land surveying, geography and many other fields. Precisely, trigonometry is
a branch of mathematics that deals with triangles, circles, weaves and oscillations.

Trigonometry and Architecture

You cannot separate architecture from trigonometry, which is critical for curving surfaces
in building materials such as steel and glass. The science is used to find the heights of
buildings, or create dimensional objects to use in buildings. Trigonometry is used to
make demarcations for cubicles in an office building. It is useful when designing a
building to predetermine geometrical patterns and how much material and labor will
required in order to erect a structure. When the building is erected, it will not only be
strong, it will have accurate measurements.
Digital Imaging
The same science is used in the music industry. Sound travels in waves that is used in
developing computer generated music. A computer will not understand music like a
human being; instead it represents it mathematically by its constituent sound waves.
Precisely, sound engineers who work in advancing computer music and hi-tech
composers have to apply the basic law of trigonometry such as the cosine and sine
function. Music waves patterns are are not as regular as sine and cosine function, but it is
still helpful in developing computer music.

Navigation, Geography and Astronomy

Triangulation, which is an application of trigonometry, is used by astronomers to
calculate the distance to the nearby stars. In geography, it is used to measures the distance
between landmarks. It is also used in satellite navigation systems. For instance, a pilot
taking off from JFK airport in New York will have to know which angle to take off from
and when to turn at a certain angle in the sky in order to reach Heathrow airport in
Example 1: Viewing Angle to an Object
When two vertical objects of different heights m and n stand distance k apart and the tops
of the objects aligned with the sun’s rays on a sunny day, the objects and the shadows
they cast can be represented by a pair of similar triangles as shown below:

The shorter object (with height n) casts a shadow of length j; the larger object (with

height m) casts a shadow of length k+j . Notice that . Using this

model, we can use similar triangles to find the heights of objects.
A 5-foot tall woman stands 15 feet from a flagpole; she casts a shadow 7 feet long which
ends at exactly the same point as the shadow of the flagpole. How tall is the flagpole?

From the picture above, if h represents the height of the flagpole, . Multiplying

both sides of this equation by 22 yields the result: feet. That is, the flagpole is
about 15.7 feet tall.
Angles of Elevation and Depression
We often do indirect measurement using angles of elevation and depression. Angles of
elevation are measured upward from the horizontal, while angles of depression are
measured downward from the horizontal.
The angle of elevation from the bottom of a ski lift to the top of a mountain is 28°. If a
skier rides a distance of 900 ft. on this ski lift to get to the top of the mountain, what is
the vertical distance d from the bottom of the ski lift to the top of the mountain?

A pilot must approach an airport at a descent angle (angle of depression) of 11° toward
the runway. If the plane is flying at an altitude of 3200 ft, at what distance d (in miles
measured along the ground) should the pilot start the descent?

(remember that there are 5280 feet in one mile).

Other Indirect Measurement
A tent is supported by a cable stretched between two poles at a height of 80 inches. The
sides of the tent make an angle of 58° with the ground. How wide is the tent at the

You can now see that trigonometry can help to find lengths that may not be directly

Mathematics is a subject that is vital for gaining a better perspective on events that occur in the
natural world. A keen aptitude for math improves critical thinking and promotes problem-solving
abilities. One specific area of mathematical and geometrical reasoning is trigonometry which
studies the properties of triangles. Now it's true that triangles are one of the simplest geometrical
figures, yet they have varied applications. The primary application of trigonometry is found in
scientific studies where precise distances need to be measured.
The techniques in trigonometry are used for finding relevance in navigation particularly satellite
systems and astronomy, naval and aviation industries, oceanography, land surveying, and in
cartography (creation of maps). Now those are the scientific applications of the concepts in
trigonometry, but most of the math we study would seem (on the surface) to have little real-life
application. So is trigonometry really relevant in your day to day activities? You bet it is. Let's
explore areas where this science finds use in our daily activities and how we can use this to resolve
problems we might encounter. Although it is unlikely that one will ever need to directly apply a
trigonometric function in solving a practical issue, the fundamental background of the science finds
usage in an area which is passion for many - music! As you may be aware sound travels in waves
and this pattern though not as regular as a sine or cosine function, is still useful in developing
computer music. A computer cannot obviously listen to and comprehend music as we do, so
computers represent it mathematically by its constituent sound waves. And this means that sound
engineers and technologists who research advances in computer music and even hi-tech music
composers have to relate to the basic laws of trigonometry.
Trigonometry finds a perfect partner in modern architecture. The beautifully curved surfaces in
steel, stone and glass would be impossible if not for the immense potential of this science. So how
does this work actually. In fact the flat panels and straight planes in the building are but at an angle
to one another and the illusion is that of a curved surface. Neat huh!
Digital imaging is another real life application of this marvelous science. Computer generation of
complex imagery is made possible by the use of geometrical patterns that define the precise
location and color of each of the infinite points on the image to be created. The image is made
detailed and accurate by a technique referred to as triangulation. The edges of the triangles that
form the image make a wire frame of the object to be created and contribute to a realistic picture.
Several imaging technologies that apply the concepts of trigonometry find usage in medicine. The
next time you go in for an advanced scanning procedure, be sure to check out how the sine and
cosine functions you learn at school find a practical application is medical techniques such as CAT
and MRI scanning, in detecting tumors and even in laser treatments. Whoever said studying math
has only an academic value! Need other reasons to know how formulae in trigonometry make life
easier for you? Now we all use patterns and symmetry in relating to objects around us. For instance
there is a need for harmony and symmetrical agreement even if you are just redecorating your
home. You need to be sure about angles and positioning when deciding lighting arrangements. And
although you won't need to write out sine formulae for this one, you will still be using the basic
laws of triangles in deciding the best angle to show off that trendy lamp on your study table!
Did you know that trigonometry is an arty science that can be used to measure the heights of
mountains? So why would we want to measure the heights of mountains. Because this information
is of great value for aircraft designing and navigation. And if this sounds overly technical think
about the time when you last took a vacation at a hill station. You might be surprised how much
this information comes in handy to tourists, for example those with medical conditions that prevent
them from traveling to very high altitudes. So the nest time you want to go trekking you might want
to know the actual altitude you might be traversing.
Learning math sure makes us smart and adept at solving tricky situations. From tacking brain-
teasers and jigsaws to the more complex crises, the application of basic laws of math and geometry
are many. Not only does math provide a strong basis for resolving everyday issues, it undoubtedly
helps handle situations with a positive approach

Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that has greater importance beyond the scope of
grade 12 math. The modern world is vastly filled with angles, and trigonometric
graphs. An architect would use trig to calculate angles and sides which appear in
built structures anywhere. Trigonometric graphs have their particular uses in fields
such as sound, seismology, and CAT and ultrasound in the medical field. Principles
of Mathematics 12 covers some basics of using and manipulating trigonometry, but
it is just the basics in which real applications are used upon.