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Compiled by: Lee Kian Keong
October 27, 2010
Abstract
This is a document which shows all the questions from year 2002 to year 2009 using L
A
T
E
X.
Students should use this document as reference and try all the questions if possible. Students
are encourage to contact me via email
1
or message on facebook
2
if there are problems or typing
errors.
Contents
1 Numbers and Sets 2
2 Polynomials 3
3 Sequences and series 4
4 Matrices 6
5 Coordinate geometry 8
6 Functions 10
7 Diﬀerentiation 11
8 Integration 13
9 Diﬀerential Equations 15
10 Trigonometry 18
11 Geometry Deduction 19
12 Vectors 23
13 Data Description 25
14 Probability 28
15 Discrete Probability Distributions 30
16 Continuous Probability Distributions 32
1
akeong@gmail.com
2
http://www.facebook.com/akeong
1
Numbers and Sets Lee Kian Keong
1 Numbers and Sets
1. If log
a
x
a
2
= 3 log
a
2 −log
a
(x −2a), express x in terms of a.
[Answer: x = 4a ]
2. Given that log
a
(3x −4a) + log
a
3x =
2
log
2
a
+ log
a
(1 −2a), where 0 < a <
1
2
, ﬁnd x.
[Answer:
2
3
]
3. Find the values of x if y = 3 −x and 4y −(x
2
−9) = −24.
[Answer: x = 7, x = −9 ]
4. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that
(A∩ B)
−(A
∩ B) = B
5. Using deﬁnitions, show that, for any sets A, B and C,
A∩ (B ∪ C) ⊂ (A∩ B) ∪ (A∩ C)
6. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that, for any sets A and B,
(A−B) ∪ (B −A) = (A∪ B) −(A∩ B)
7. If A, B and C are arbitrary sets, show that
[(A∪ B) −(B ∪ C)] ∩ (A∪ C)
= ∅
8. If z is a complex number such that z = 1, ﬁnd the real part of
1
1 −z
.
[Answer:
1
2
]
9. Express
59 −24
√
6 as p
√
2 +q
√
3 where p and q are integers.
[Answer: 4
√
2 −3
√
3 ]
10. Simplify
(a)
(
√
7 −
√
3)
2
2(
√
7 +
√
3)
,
(b)
2(1 + 3i)
(1 −3i)
2
, where i =
√
−1.
[Answer: (a) 2
√
7 −3
√
3 ; (b) −
13
25
−
9
25
i ]
11. The complex numbers z
1
and z
2
satisfy the equation z
2
= 2 −2
√
3i.
(a) Express z
1
and z
2
in the form a +bi, where a and b are real numbers.
(b) Represent z
1
and z
2
in an Argand diagram.
(c) For each of z
1
and z
2
, ﬁnd the modulus, and the argument in radians.
[Answer: (a) z
1
=
√
3 −i, z
2
= −
√
3 + i ; (c) z
1
 = 2, z
2
 = 2 , arg(z
1
)=−
π
6
, arg(z
2
)=
5π
6
]
12. If (x +iy)
2
= i, ﬁnd all the real values of x and y.
[Answer: x = ±
1
√
2
, y = ±
1
√
2
]
2
Polynomials Lee Kian Keong
2 Polynomials
1. The polynomial p(x) = 2x
3
+ 4x
2
+
1
2
x −k has factor (x + 1).
(a) Find the value of k.
(b) Factorise p(x) completely.
[Answer: (a) k =
3
2
; (b)
1
2
(x + 1)(2x −1)(2x + 3) ]
2. Show that −1 is the only one real root of the equation x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 5x + 3 = 0.
3. The polynomial p(x) = x
4
+ax
3
−7x
2
−4ax+b has a factor x+3 and when divided by x−3,
has remainder 60. Find the values of a and b and factorise p(x) completely.
Using the substitution y =
1
x
, solve the equation 12y
4
−8y
3
−7y
2
+ 2y + 1 = 0.
[Answer: a = 2, b = 12; y = −
1
3
, −
1
2
, 1,
1
2
]
4. Using the substitution y = x +
1
x
, express f(x) = x
3
−4x −6 −
4
x
+
1
x
3
as a polynomial in y.
[Answer: y
3
−7y −6 ]
Hence, ﬁnd all the real roots of the equation f(x) = 0.
[Answer: −1, −1,
3 +
√
5
2
,
3 −
√
5
2
]
5. The polynomial p(x) = 6x
4
− ax
3
− bx
2
+ 28x + 12, where a and b are real constants, has
factors (x + 2) and (x −2).
(a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely.
(b) Give that p(x) = (2x − 3)[q(x) − 41 + 3x
3
], ﬁnd q(x), and determine its range when
x ∈ [−2, 10].
[Answer: (a) a = 7, b = 27, (x −2)(2x −3)(3x + 1)(x + 2); (b) q(x) = x
2
−12x + 37, {y : 1 ≤ y ≤ 65} ]
6. Show that polynomial 2x
3
−9x
2
+ 3x + 4 has x −1 as factor.
Hence,
(a) ﬁnd all the real roots of 2x
6
−9x
4
+ 3x
2
+ 4 = 0.
(b) determine the set of values of x so that 2x
3
−9x
2
+ 3x + 4 < 12 −12x.
[Answer: x = 1, x = −1, x = 2, x = −2 ; x < 1 ]
7. Find the set of values of x such that −1 < x
3
−2x
2
+x −2 < 0.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 2} ]
8. Find the solution set of inequality x −2 <
1
x
where x = 0.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 1 +
√
2} ]
3
Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong
9. Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality
x
x + 1
≥
1
x + 1
[Answer: {x : x < −1, x ≥ 1} ]
10. Find the solution set of the inequality
4
x −1
> 3 −
3
x
.
[Answer: {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 3} ]
11. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graph of y = 2 −x and y = 2 +
1
x
.
Hence, solve the inequality 2 −x > 2 +
1
x

[Answer: {x : x < 2 −
√
5} ]
12. Find the constants A, B, C and D such that
3x
2
+ 5x
(1 −x
2
)(1 +x)
2
=
A
1 −x
+
B
1 +x
+
C
(1 +x)
2
+
D
(1 +x)
3
.
[Answer: A = 1, B = 1, C = −1, D = −1 ]
3 Sequences and series
1. For the geometric series 7 + 3.5 + 1.75 + 0.875 +..., ﬁnd the smallest value of n for which the
diﬀerent between the sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity is less than 0.01.
[Answer: 11 ]
2. For geometric series 6 + 3 +
3
2
+ . . ., obtain the smallest value of n if the diﬀerence between
the sum of the ﬁrst n + 4 terms and the sum of ﬁrst n terms is less than
45
64
.
[Answer: 5 ]
3. Express the inﬁnite recurring decimal 0.7
˙
2
˙
5 (= 0.7252525 . . . ) as a fraction in its lowest terms.
[Answer:
359
495
]
4. Determine the set of x such that the geometric series 1 + e
x
+ e
2x
+ . . . converges. Find the
exact value of x so that the series converges to 2.
[Answer: {x : x < 0} ; x = −ln 2 ]
5. Prove that the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a geometric series a +ar +ar
2
+. . . is
a(1 −r
n
)
1 −r
4
Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong
(a) The sum of the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of a geometric series is 33 and the sum of the ﬁrst ten
terms of the geometric series is 1023. Find the common ratio and the ﬁrst term of the
geometric series.
(b) The sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity of the geometric series 6−3+
3
2
−. . .
are S
n
and S
∞
respectively. Determine the smallest value of n such that S
n
−S
∞
 < 0.001
[Answer: (a) r = −2, a = 3 ; (b) n = 12 ]
6. The nth term of an arithmetic progression is T
n
, show that U
n
=
5
2
(−2)
2(
10−T
n
17
)
is the nth
term of a geometric progression.
If T
n
=
1
2
(17n −14), evaluate
∞
¸
n=1
U
n
.
[Answer: −
10
3
]
7. At the beginning of this year, Mr. Liu and Miss Dora deposited RM10 000 and RM2000
respectively in a bank. They receive an interest of 4% per annum. Mr Liu does not make any
additional deposit nor withdrawal, whereas, Miss Dora continues to deposit RM2000 at the
beginning of each of the subsequent years without any withdrawal.
(a) Calculate the total savings of Mr. Liu at the end of nth year.
(b) Calculate the total savings of Miss Dora at the end of nth year.
(c) Determine in which year the total savings of Miss Dora exceeds the total savings of Mr.
Liu.
[Answer: (a) 10000(1.04)
n
; (b) 52000[1.04
n
−1]; (c) 6 ]
8. Express
1
4k
2
−1
as partial fraction.
Hence, ﬁnd a simple expression for S
n
=
n
¸
k=1
1
4k
2
−1
and ﬁnd lim
n→∞
S
n
[Answer:
1
2(2k −1)
−
1
2(2k + 1)
; S
n
=
1
2
1 −
1
2n + 1
;
1
2
]
9. If x is so small that x
2
and higher powers of x may be neglected, show that
(1 −x)
2 +
x
2
10
≈ 2
9
(2 −7x)
10. Express
1 +x
1 + 2x
1
2
as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x
3
.
By taking x =
1
30
, ﬁnd
√
62 correct to four decimal places.
[Answer: 1 −
1
2
x +
7
8
x
2
−
25
16
x
3
+ . . . ;
√
62 = 7.8740 ]
11. Express u
r
=
2
r
2
+ 2r
in partial fractions.
[Answer:
1
r
−
1
r + 2
]
5
Matrices Lee Kian Keong
Using the result obtained,
(a) show that u
2
r
= −
1
r
+
1
r
2
+
1
r + 2
+
1
(r + 2)
2
,
(b) show that
∞
¸
r=1
u
r
=
3
2
−
1
n + 1
−
1
n + 2
and determine the values of
∞
¸
r=1
u
r
and
∞
¸
r=1
u
r+1
+
1
3
r
.
[Answer: (b)
3
2
,
4
3
]
12. Expand (1 −x)
1
2
in ascending powers of x up to the term in x
3
. Hence, ﬁnd the value of
√
7
correct to ﬁve decimal places.
[Answer: 1 −
1
2
x −
1
8
x
2
−
1
16
x
3
;
√
7 = 2.64609 ]
4 Matrices
1. Matrix M and N is given by M =
¸
−10 4 9
15 −4 −14
−5 1 6
¸
, and N =
¸
2 3 4
4 3 1
1 2 4
¸
Find MN and deduce N
−1
.
Product X, Y , Z are assembled from three components A, B, C according to diﬀerent pro
portions. Each product X consists of two components of A, four components of B, and one
component of C; each product of Y consists of three components of A, three components of B,
and two components of C; each product of Z consists of four components of A, one component
of B, and four components of C. A total of 750 components of A, 1000 components of B, and
500 components of C are used. With X, Y , Z representing the number of products of X, Y ,
and Z assembled, obtain a matrix equation representing the information given.
Hence, ﬁnd the number of products of X, Y , and Z assembled.
[Answer: x=200, y=50, z=50. ]
2. A, B, C are square matrices such that BA = B
−1
and ABC = (AB)
−1
. Show that A
−1
=
B
2
= C.
If B =
¸
1 2 0
0 −1 0
1 0 1
¸
, ﬁnd C and A.
[Answer: A =
1 0 0
0 1 0
−2 −2 1
, C =
1 0 0
0 1 0
2 2 1
]
3. (a) The matrix P, Q and R are given by
P =
¸
1 5 6
2 −2 4
1 −3 2
¸
, Q =
¸
−13 −50 −33
−1 −6 −5
7 20 15
¸
, R =
¸
4 7 −13
1 −5 −1
−2 1 11
¸
Find matrices PQ and PQR and hence, deduce (PQ)
−1
.
(b) Using the result in (a), solve the system of linear equations
6x + 10y + 8z = 4500
x − 2y + z = 0
x + 2y + 3z = 1080
.
6
Matrices Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a)
24 40 32
4 −8 4
4 8 12
,
72 0 0
0 72 0
0 0 72
,
1/18 7/72 −13/72
1/72 −5/72 −1/72
−1/36 1/72 11/72
; (b) x = 220, y = 190, z = 160 ]
4. Determine the values of a, b, c so that the matrix
¸
2b −1 a
2
b
2
2a −1 a bc
b b +c 2c −1
¸
is a symmetric
matrix.
[Answer: a = 1, b = 0, c = 0 ]
5. The matrices A and B are given by
A =
¸
−1 2 1
−3 1 4
0 1 2
¸
, B =
¸
−35 19 18
−27 −13 45
−3 12 5
¸
.
Find the matrix A
2
B and deduce the inverse of A.
Hence, solve the system of linear equations
x −2y −z = −8,
3x −y −4z = −15,
y + 2z = 4.
[Answer:
121 0 0
0 121 0
0 0 121
,
−2/11 −3/11 7/11
6/11 −2/11 1/11
−3/11 1/11 5/11
; x = −3, y = 2, z = 1 ]
6. The matrix A is given by A =
¸
1 2 −3
3 1 1
0 1 −2
¸
(a) Find the matrix B such that B = A
2
−10I, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix.
(b) Find (A+I)B, and hence ﬁnd (A+I)
21
B.
[Answer: (a)
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
; (b)
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
,
−3 1 5
6 −2 −10
3 −1 −5
]
7. The matrices P and Q, where PQ = QP, are given by
P =
¸
2 −2 0
0 0 2
a b c
¸
and Q =
¸
−1 1 0
0 0 −1
0 −2 2
¸
Determine the values of a, b and c.
Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ+nI, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix.
[Answer: a = 0, b = 4, c = −4 ; m = −2, n = 0 ]
8. Matrix A is given by A =
¸
3 3 4
5 4 1
1 2 3
¸
.
Find the adjoint of A. Hence, ﬁnd A
−1
.
[Answer:
10 −1 −13
−14 5 17
6 −3 −3
;
5/6 −1/12 −13/12
−7/6 5/12 17/12
1/2 −1/4 −1/4
]
7
Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong
9. If P =
¸
5 2 3
1 −4 3
3 1 2
¸
, Q =
¸
a 1 −18
b −1 12
−13 −1 c
¸
and PQ = 2I, where I is the 3×3 identity
matrix, determine the values of a, b and c. Hence ﬁnd P
−1
.
Two groups of workers have their drinks at a stall. The ﬁrst group comprising ten workers have
ﬁve cups of tea, two cups of coﬀee and three glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM11.80.
The second group of six workers have three cups of tea, a cup of coﬀee and two glasses of fruit
juice at a total cost of RM7.10. The cost of a cup of tea and three glasses of fruit juice is the
same as the cost of four cups of coﬀee. If the costs of a cup of tea, a cup of coﬀee and a glass
of fruit juice are RM x, RM y and RM z respectively, obtain a matrix equation to represent
the above information. Hence determine the cost of each drink.
[Answer: a = 11, b = −7, c = 22 ;
5/2 1 3/2
1/2 −2 3/2
3/2 1/2 1
; x=RM 1, y=RM 1.30, z=RM 1.40 ]
10. Determine the values of k such that the determinant of the matrix
¸
k 1 3
2k + 1 −3 2
0 k 2
¸
is 0.
[Answer: k = −
1
4
, k = 2 ]
11. Matrix A is given by A =
¸
1 0 0
1 −1 0
1 −2 1
¸
.
(a) Show that A
2
= I, where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix, and deduce A
−1
.
(b) Find the matrix B which satisﬁes BA =
¸
1 4 3
0 2 1
−1 0 2
¸
.
[Answer: (a)
1 0 0
1 −1 0
1 −2 1
; (b)
8 −10 3
3 −4 1
1 −4 2
]
5 Coordinate geometry
1. Given that PQRS is a parallelogram where P(0, 9), Q(2, −5), R(7, 0) and S(a, b) are points
on the plane. Find a and b.
Find the shortest distance from P to QR and the area of the parallelogram.
[Answer: a = 5, b = 14; shortest distance=8
√
2 units; Area=80 unit
2
]
2. The straight line l
1
which passes through the points A(4, 0) and B(2, 4) intersects the yaxis
at point P. The straight line l
2
is perpendicular to l
1
and passes through B. If l
2
intersects
the xaxis and yaxis at points Q and R respectively, show that PR : QR =
√
5 : 3.
3. The sum of distance of the point P from the point (4,0) and the distance of P from the origin
is 8 units. Show that the locus of P is the ellipse
(x −2)
2
16
+
y
2
12
= 1 and sketch the ellipse.
4. The point R divides the line joining the points P(3, 2) and Q(5, 8) in the ratio 3 : 4. Find the
equation of the line passing through R and perpendicular to PQ.
8
Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: 7x + 21y −123 = 0 ]
5. Find the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle x
2
+ y
2
− 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 to
the straight line 3x + 4y = 28. Hence, ﬁnd the shortest distance between the circle and the
straight line.
[Answer: 4 ; 1 ]
6. The lines y = 2x and y = x intersect the curve y
2
+ 7xy = 18 at points A and B respectively,
where A and B lie in the ﬁrst quadrant.
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B.
(b) Calculate the perpendicular distance of A to OB, where O is the origin.
(c) Find the area of the triangle OAB.
[Answer: (a) A(1, 2) and B
3
2
,
3
2
; (b)
√
2
2
; (c)
3
4
]
7. The parametric equations of a straight line l are given by x = 4t −2 and y = 3 −3t.
(a) Show that the point A(1,
3
4
) lies on line l,
(b) Find the Cartesian equation of line l,
(c) Given that line l cuts the x and yaxes at P and Q respectively, ﬁnd the ratio PA : AQ.
[Answer: (b) 3x + 4y −6 = 0 ; (c) 1:1 ]
8. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (x, y) and
x
x
2
+y
2
,
y
x
2
+y
2
respectively, where
x = 0 and y = 0. If Q moves on a circle with centre (1, 1) and radius 3, show that the locus
of P is also a circle. Find the coordinates of the centre and radius of the circle.
[Answer: centre = (−
1
7
, −
1
7
) ; radius =
3
7
]
9. Show that x
2
+y
2
−2ax−2by +c = 0 is the equation of the circle with centre (a, b) and radius
a
2
+b
2
−c.
The above ﬁgure shows three circles C
1
, C
2
and C
3
touching one another, where their centres
lies on a straight line. If C
1
and C
2
have equations x
2
+y
2
−10x −4y +28 = 0 and x
2
+y
2
−
16x + 4y + 52 = 0 respectively. Find the equation of C
3
.
[Answer: 5x
2
+ 5y
2
−74x + 12y + 156 = 0 ]
9
Functions Lee Kian Keong
6 Functions
1. The function f is deﬁned by f : x →
√
3x + 1, x ∈ R, x ≥ −
1
3
Find f
−1
and state its domain and range.
[Answer: f
−1
: x →
x
2
−1
3
, D
f
−1 = {x : x ≥ 0}, R
f
−1 = {x : x ≥ −
1
3
} ]
2. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
1 +e
x
, x < 1
3, x = 1
2 +e −x, x > 1
(a) Find lim
x→1
−
f(x) and lim
x→1
+
f(x). Hence, determine whether f is continuous at x = 1.
(b) Sketch the graph of f.
[Answer: (a) 1 + e , 1 + e ; not continuous ]
3. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
x −1
x + 2
, 0 ≤ x < 2
ax
2
+ 1, x ≥ 2
where a ∈ R. Find the value of a if lim
x→2
f(x) exists. With this value of a, determine whether
f is continuous at x = 2.
[Answer: a =
5
16
; continuous at x = 2 ]
4. The functions f and g are given by
f(x) =
e
x
−e
−x
e
x
+e
−x
andg(x) =
2
e
x
+e
−x
(a) State the domains of f and g,
(b) Without using diﬀerentiation, ﬁnd the range of f,
(c) Show that f(x)
2
+g(x)
2
= 1. Hence, ﬁnd the range of g.
[Answer: (a) D
f
= {x : x ∈ R} , D
g
= {x : x ∈ R} ; (b) {y : −1 < y < 1} ; (c) {y : 0 < y ≤ 1} ]
5. Given x > 0 and f(x) =
√
x, ﬁnd lim
h→0
f(x) −f(x +h)
h
.
[Answer: −
1
2
√
x
]
6. The function f is deﬁned by
f(x) =
√
x + 1, −1 ≤ x < 1,
x −1, otherwise.
(a) Find lim
x→−1
−
f(x), lim
x→−1
+
f(x), lim
x→1
−
f(x) and lim
x→1
+
f(x).
(b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1 and x = 1.
10
Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) 0 , 0 ,
√
2 , 0 ; (b) continuous at x = −1 , discontinuous at x = 1 ]
7. Functions f, g and h are deﬁned by
f : x →
x
x + 1
; g : x →
x + 2
x
; h : x → 3 +
2
x
(a) State the domains of f and g.
(b) Find the composite functions g ◦ f and state its domain and range.
(c) State the domain and range of h.
(d) State whether h = g ◦ f. Give a reason for your answer
[Answer: (a) D
f
= {x : x ∈ R, x = −1} , D
g
= {x : x ∈ R, x = 0} ;
(b) 3 +
2
x
, D = {x : x ∈ R, x = 0, x = −1} , R = {y : y ∈ R, y = 3, y = 1} ;
(c) D = {x : x ∈ R, x = 0} , R = {y : y ∈ R, y = 3} ; (d) No. Diﬀerent domain ]
8. The function f and g are deﬁned by
f : x →
1
x
, x ∈ R\ {0};
g : x → 2x −1, x ∈ R
Find f ◦ g and its domain.
[Answer:
1
2x −1
, D = {x : x ∈ R, x =
1
2
} ]
7 Diﬀerentiation
1. Given that y = e
−x
cos x, ﬁnd
dy
dx
and
d
2
y
dx
2
when x = 0.
[Answer:
dy
dx
= 1,
d
2
y
dx
2
= 0 ]
2. If y = ln
√
xy, ﬁnd the value of
dy
dx
when y = 1.
[Answer:
1
e
2
]
3. Function f if deﬁned by f(x) =
2x
(x + 1)(x −2)
.
Show that f
(x) < 0 for all values of x in the domain of f.
Sketch the graph of y = f(x). Determine if f is a one to one function. Give reasons to your
answer.
Sketch the graph of y = f(x). Explain how the number of the roots of the equation f(x) =
k(x −2) depends on k.
[Answer: f is not one to one function. If k ≥ 0, 1 root. If k < 0, 3 roots. ]
4. If y =
cos x
x
, where x = 0, show that x
d
2
y
dx
2
+ 2
dy
dx
+xy = 0.
5. If y =
x
1 +x
2
, show that x
2
dy
dx
= (1 −x
2
)y
2
.
11
Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong
6. If y =
sin x −cos x
sin x + cos x
, show that
d
2
y
dx
2
= 2y
dy
dx
.
7. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x = 1 −2t, y = −2 +
2
t
.
Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point A(3, −4).
The normal of the curve at the point A cuts the curve again at point B.
Find the coordinates of B.
[Answer: x + y + 1 = 0 ; B(−1, 0) ]
8. Using the sketch of y = x
3
and x +y = 1, show that the equation x
3
+x −1 = 0 has only one
real root and state the successive integers a and b such that the real root lies in the interval
(a, b).
Using the NewtonRaphson method to ﬁnd the real root correct to three decimal places.
[Answer: a = 0 , b = 1 ; 0.683 ]
9. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the graphs y = e
x
and y =
2
1 +x
. Show that the equation
(1 +x)e
x
−2 = 0 has a root in the interval [0, 1].
Use the NewtonRaphson method with the initial estimate x
0
= 0.5 to estimate the root correct
to three decimal places.
[Answer: 0.375 ]
10. Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x
2
+
1
x
where x > 0; give the x
coordinate and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. Determine whether the stationary
point is a minimum point or a maximum point.
The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x
2
+
1
x
and y =
1
x
2
, where
x > 0, is p. Show that 0.5 < p < 1.
Using the NewtonRaphson method to determine the value of p correct to three decimal places
and, hence, ﬁnd the point of intersection.
[Answer: (0.794 , 1.890) , minimum ; p = 0.724 , (0.724 , 1.908) ]
11. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations
x = t −
2
t
and y = 2t +
1
t
where t = 0.
(a) Show that
dy
dx
= 2 −
5
t
2
+ 2
, and hence, deduce that −
1
2
<
dy
dx
< 2.
(b) Find the coordinates of points when
dy
dx
=
1
3
.
[Answer: (b) (1 , 3) and (1 , 3) ]
12. Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y =
x
3
x
2
−1
abd determine their
nature.
Sketch the curve.
Determine the number of real roots of the equation x
3
= k(x
2
− 1), where k ∈ R, when k
varies.
12
Integration Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (0, 0) is inﬂexion point , (
√
3,
3
√
3
2
) is local min. , (−
√
3, −
3
√
3
2
) is local max.
1 real root for −
3
√
3
2
< k <
3
√
3
2
, 2 real root for k = ±
3
√
3
2
, 3 real roots for k < −
3
√
3
2
or k >
3
√
3
2
]
13. If y = xln(x + 1), ﬁnd an approximation for the increase in y when x increases by δx.
Hence, estimate the value of ln 2.01 given that ln 2 = 0.6931.
[Answer:
x
x + 1
+ ln(x + 1)
δx ; 0.698 ]
14. The function f is deﬁned by f(t) =
4e
kt
−1
4e
kt
+ 1
where k is a positive constant,
(a) Find the value of f(0)
3
5
(b) Show that f
(t) > 0
(c) Show that k[1 −f(t)
2
] = 2f
(t) and hence show that f
(t) < 0
(d) Find lim
t→∞
f(t) (1)
(e) Sketch the graph of f.
15. Show that the gradient of the curve y =
x
x
2
−1
is always decreasing.
Determine the coordinates of the point of inﬂexion of the curve, and state the intervals for
which the curve is concave upwards.
Sketch the curve.
[Answer: (0, 0) ; (−1, 0) ∪ (1, ∞) ]
16. The line y +x+3 = 0 is a tangent to the curve y = px
2
+qx, where p = 0 at the point x = −1.
Find the values of p and q.
8 Integration
1. Show that
e
1
ln xdx = 1.
2. Show that
3
2
(x −2)
2
x
2
dx =
5
3
+ 4 ln
2
3
3. By using suitable substitution, ﬁnd
3x −1
√
x + 1
dx
[Answer: 2(x + 1)
3
2 −8(x + 1)
1
2 + C ]
4. Using an appropriate substitution, evaluate
1
0
x
2
(1 −x)
1
3
dx.
[Answer:
27
140
]
13
Integration Lee Kian Keong
5. Using the substitution u = 3 + 2 sin θ, evaluate
π
6
0
cos θ
(3 + 2 sin θ)
2
dθ.
[Answer:
1
24
]
6. Express
2x + 1
(x
2
+ 1)(2 −x)
in the form
Ax +B
x
2
+ 1
+
C
2 −x
where A, B and C are constants.
Hence, evaluate
1
0
2x + 1
(x
2
+ 1)(2 −x)
dx
[Answer:
x
x
2
+ 1
+
1
2 −x
;
3
2
ln 2 ]
7. The gradient of the tangent to a curve at any point (x, y) is given by
dy
dx
=
3x −5
2
√
x
, where
x > 0. If the curve passes through the point (1, −4).
(a) ﬁnd the equation of the curve,
(b) sketch the curve,
(c) calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis.
[Answer: (a) y = x
3
2 −5x
1
2 ; (c)
20
5
√
5 ]
8. Given a curve y = x
2
−4 and straight line y = x −2,
(a) sketch, on the same coordinates axes, the curve and the straight line,
(b) determine the coordinate of their points of intersection,
(c) calculate the area of the region R bounded by the curve and the straight line,
(d) ﬁnd the volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through 360
◦
about the xaxis.
[Answer: (b) (−1, 3) , (2, 0) ; (c)
9
2
; (d)
108
5
π ]
9. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = 6 − e
x
and y = 5e
−x
, and ﬁnd the
coordinates of the points of intersection.
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves.
Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about
the xaxis.
[Answer: (ln 5, 1) ; 6 ln 5 −8 ; π(36 ln 5 −48) ]
10. Find
(a)
x
2
+x + 2
x
2
+ 2
dx,
(b)
x
e
x+1
dx.
[Answer: (a) x +
1
2
ln(x
2
+ 2) + C ; (b) −
x
e
x+1
+
1
e
x+1
]
11. Sketch, on the same coordinate axes, the curves y = e
x
and y = 2 + 3e
−x
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the yaxis and the curves.
[Answer: 2 ln 3 ]
14
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
12. Sketch on the same coordinates axis y =
1
2
x and the curve y
2
= x. Find the coordinate of the
points of intersection.
Find the area of region bounded by the line y =
1
2
x and the curve y
2
= x.
Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the
yaxis.
[Answer: (0, 0) , (4, 2) ;
4
3
;
64
15
π ]
13. The curve y =
a
2
x(b − x), where a = 0, has a turning point at point (2, 1). Determine the
values of a and b.
Calculate the area of the region bounded bt the xaxis and the curve.
Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the xaxis.
[Answer: a =
1
2
, b = 4 ;
8
3
;
32
15
π ]
14. Find the point of intersection of the curves y = −x
2
+ 3x and y = 2x
3
−x
2
−5x.
Sketch on the same coordinate system these two curves.
Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves y = −x
2
+ 3x and y = 2x
3
−x
2
−5x.
[Answer: Point of intersection=(0,0), (2,2), (2,10) ; Area=16 units
2
. ]
15. Using trapezium rule, with ﬁve ordinates, evaluate
1
0
4 −x
2
dx.
[Answer: 1.910 ]
9 Diﬀerential Equations
1. Find the particular solution of the diﬀerential equation
e
x
dy
dx
−y
2
(x + 1) = 0
for which y = 1 when x = 0. Hence, express y in terms of x.
[Answer: y =
e
x
2 + x −e
x
]
2. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation
x
dy
dx
= y
2
−y −2.
[Answer: y =
2 + Ax
3
1 −Ax
3
]
3. Show that the substitution u = x
2
+y transforms the diﬀerential equation
(1 −x)
dy
dx
+ 2y + 2x = 0
into the diﬀerential equation
(1 −x)
du
dx
= −2u
15
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
4. The variables t and x are connected by
dx
dt
= 2t(x −1),
where x = 1. Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1.
[Answer: x = e
t
2
−1
+ 1 ]
5. The variables x and y, where x > 0, satisfy the diﬀerential equation
x
du
dx
= u
2
−2u.
Hence, show that the general solution of the given diﬀerential equation maybe expressed in
the form y =
2x
1 +Ax
2
, where A is an arbitrary constant.
Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1,4) and sketch this
solution curve.
[Answer: y =
4x
2 −x
2
]
6. Using the substitution y =
v
x
2
, show that the diﬀerential equation
dy
dx
+y
2
= −
2y
x
may be reduced to
dv
dx
= −
v
2
x
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the general solution of the original diﬀerential equation.
[Answer: y =
1
Ax
2
−x
]
7. Show that
d
dx
(ln tan x) =
2
sin 2x
,
Hence, ﬁnd the solution of the diﬀerential equation
(sin 2x)
dy
dx
= 2y(1 −y)
for which y =
1
3
when x =
1
4
π. Express y explicity in terms of x in your answer.
[Answer: y =
tan x
2 + tan x
]
8. One of the rules at a training camp of 1000 occupants states that camp activities are to be
suspended if 10% of the occupants are infected with a virus. A trainee infected with a ﬂu virus
enrolls in the camp causing an outbreak of ﬂu. The rate of increase of the number of infected
occupants x at t days is given by diﬀerential equation
dx
dt
= kx(1000 −x)
where k is a constant.
Assume that the outbreak of ﬂu begins at the time the infected trainee enrolls and no one
leaves the camp during the outbreak,
16
Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that x =
1000e
1000kt
999 +e
1000kt
,
(b) Determine the value of k if it is found that, after one day, there are ﬁve infected occupants
(c) Determine the number of days before the camp activities will be suspended.
[Answer: (b) k =
1
1000
ln
999
195
; (c) 5 ]
9. A 50 litre tank is initially ﬁlled with 10 litres of brine solution containing 20 kg of salt. Starting
from time t = 0, distilled water is poured into the tank at a constant rate of 4 litres per minute.
At the same time, the mixture leaves the tank at a constant rate of
√
k litres per minute, where
k > 0. The time taken for overﬂow to occur is 20 minutes.
(a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank at time t minutes. Show that the rate of change
of Q is given by
dQ
dt
= −
Q
√
k
10 + (4 −
√
k)t
.
(b) Show that k = 4, and calculate the amount of salt in the tank at the instant overﬂow
occurs.
(c) Sketch the graph of Q against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20.
[Answer: (b) Q = 4 ]
10. The rate of change of water temperature is described by the diﬀerential equation
dθ
dt
= −k(θ −θ
s
)
where θ is the water temperature at time t, θ
s
is the surrounding temperature, and k is a
positive constant.
A boiling water at 100
◦
C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25
◦
C.
The water takes 1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75
◦
C. Show that k = ln
3
2
.
When the water reaches 50
◦
C, the water is placed in a freezer at −10
◦
C to be frozen to ice.
Find the time required, from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice
at 0
◦
C.
[Answer: Time = 4 hours 25 minutes ]
11. The rate of increase in the number of a species of ﬁsh in a lake is described by the diﬀerential
equation
dP
dt
= (a −b)P
where P is the number of ﬁsh at time t weeks, a is the rate of reproduction, and b is the
mortality rate, with a and b as constants.
(a) Assuming that P = P
0
at time t = 0 and a > b, solve the diﬀerential equation and sketch
its solution curve.
(b) At a certain instant, there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. The epidemic
results in no more oﬀspring of the ﬁsh being produced and the ﬁsh die at a rate directly
proportional to
1
P
. There are 900 ﬁsh before the outbreak of the epidemic and only
400 ﬁsh are alive after 6 weeks. Determine the length of time from the outbreak of the
epidemic until all the ﬁsh of that species die.
17
Trigonometry Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) P = P
0
e
(a−b)t
; (b) 18 weeks ]
12. A particle moves from rest along a horizontal straight line. At time t s, the displacement and
velocity of the particle are x m and v ms
−1
respectively and its acceleration, in ms
−2
, is given
by
dv
dt
= sin(πt) −
√
3 cos(πt)
Express v and x in terms of t.
Find the velocities of the particle when its acceleration is zero for the ﬁrst and second times.
Find also the distance traveled by the particle between the ﬁrst and second times its acceler
ation is zero.
[Answer: v = −
1
π
[cos(πt) +
√
3 sin(πt)] , x = −
1
π
2
[sin(πt) −
√
3 cos(πt)]
v = ±
2
π
ms
−1
; Distance =
4
π
2
m ]
10 Trigonometry
1. Express 4 sin θ −3 cos θ in the form Rsin(θ −α), where R > 0 and 0
◦
< α < 90
◦
.
Hence, solve the equation 4 sin θ −3 cos θ = 3 for 0
◦
< α < 360
◦
.
[Answer: 5 sin(θ −36.9
◦
) ; 73.8
◦
, 180
◦
]
2. Find the values of x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ π, which satisfy the equation sin
3
xsec x = 2 tan x
[Answer: 0,
π
4
,
3π
4
, π ]
3. If t = tan
θ
2
, show that sin θ =
2t
1 +t
2
and cos θ =
1 −t
2
1 +t
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the values θ between 0
◦
and 360
◦
that satisfy the equation
10 sin θ −5 cos θ = 2
[Answer: 36.9
◦
, 196.3
◦
]
4. Express cos x +
√
3 sin x in the form r cos(x −α), r > 0 and 0 < α <
π
2
.
Hence, ﬁnd the values of x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π, which satisﬁes the inequality
0 < cos x +
√
3 sin x < 1
.
[Answer: 2 cos
x −
π
3
;
x :
2π
3
< x <
5π
6
,
11π
6
< x < 2π
]
5. Starting from the formulae for sin(A+B) and cos(A+B), prove that
tan(A+B) =
tan A+ tan B
1 −tan Atan B
If 2x +y =
π
4
, show that
tan y =
1 −2 tan x −tan
2
x
1 + 2 tan x −tan
2
x
By substituting x =
π
8
, show that tan
π
8
=
√
2 −1.
18
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
6. Express cos θ + 3 sin θ in the form r cos(θ −α), where r > 0 and 0
◦
< α < 90
◦
[Answer:
√
10 cos(θ −71.6
◦
) ]
7. Find all values of x, where 0
◦
< x < 360
◦
, which satisfy the equation tan x + 4 cot x = 4 sec x.
[Answer: 41.8
◦
, 138.2
◦
]
8. Find, in terms of π, all the values of x between 0 and π which satisﬁes the equation
tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x
[Answer:
π
24
,
5π
24
,
13π
24
,
17π
24
]
9. The triangle PQR lies in a horizontal plance, with Q due west of R. The bearings of P from
Q and R are θ and φ respectively, where θ and φ are acute. The top A of a tower PA is at
height h above the plane and the angle of elevation of A from R is α. The height of a vertical
pole QB is k ang the angle of elevation of B from R is β. Show that
h =
k tan αcos θ
tan β sin(θ −φ)
10. In the tetrahedron ABCD, AB = BC = 10 cm, AC = 8
√
2 cm, AD = CD = 8 cm and BD = 6
cm. Show that the line from C perpendicular to AB and the line from D perpendicular to AB
meet at a point on AB. Hence, calculate the angle between the face ABC and the face ABD.
[Answer: 59.0
◦
]
11 Geometry Deduction
1. Points A and B are in the side XY of triangle XY Z with XA = AB = BY . Points C and
D are on the sides Y Z and XZ respectively such that ABCD is a rhombus. Prove that
∠XZY = 90
◦
2. The points P, Q, R, S are on the circumference of a circle, such that ∠PQR = 80
◦
and
∠RPS = 30
◦
as shown in the diagram below. The tangent to the circle at P and the chord
RS which is produced, meet at T.
(a) Show that PR = PT
19
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
(b) Show that the length of the chord RS is the same as the radius of the circle.
3. Vertices B and C of the triangle ABC lie on the circumference of a circle. AB and AC cut
the circumference of the circle at X and Y respectively. Show that ∠CBX +∠CY X = 180
◦
If AB = AC, show that BC is parallel to XY .
4. The diagram below shows two circles ABRP and ABQS which intersect at A and B. PAQ
and RAS are straight lines. Prove that the triangles RPB and SQB are similar.
5. The diagram below shows two isosceles triangles ABC and ADE which have bases AB and
AD respectively. Each triangle has base angles measuring 75
◦
, with BC and DE parallel and
equal in length. Show that
(a) ∠DBC = ∠BDE = 90
◦
,
(b) the triangle ACE is an equilateral triangle,
(c) the quadrilateral BCED is a square.
6. The diagram below shows two intersecting circles AXY B and CBOX, where O is the centre
of the circle AXY B. AXC and BY C are straight lines. Show that ∠ABC = ∠BAC.
20
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
7. In the triangle ABC, the point P lies on the side AC such that ∠BPC = ∠ABC. Show that
the triangles BPC and ABC are similar.
If AB = 4 cm, AC = 8 cm and BP = 3 cm, ﬁnd the area of the triangle BPC.
[Answer: 6.54 cm
2
]
8. Prove that an exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle.
In the diagram, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. The lines AB and DC extended meet at the
point E and the lines AD and BC extended meet at the point F. Show that triangles ADE
and CBE are similar.
If DA = DE, ∠CFD = α and ∠BEC = 3α, determine the value of α.
[Answer: α = 18
◦
]
9. The diagram above shows two intersecting circles APQ and BPQ, where APB is a straight
line. The tangents at the points A and B meet at a point C. Show that ACBQ is a cyclic
quadrilateral.
If the lines AQ and CB are parallel and T is the point of intersection of AB and CQ, show
that the triangles ATQ and BTC are isosceles triangles. Hence, show that the areas of the
triangles ATQ and BTC are in the ratio AT
2
: BT
2
.
10. The diagram below shows the circumscribed circle of he triangle ABC.
21
Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong
The tangent to the circle at A meets the line BC extended to T. The angle bisector of the
angle ATB at Pm AB at Q and the circle at R. Show that
(a) triangles APT and BQT are similar,
(b) PT · BT = QT · AT,
(c) AP = AQ.
11. The circumscribed circle of the triangle JKL is shown in the diagram below.
The tangent to the circle at J meets the line KL extended to T. The angle bisector of the
angle JTK cuts JL and JK at U and V respectively. Show that JV = JU.
12. A parallelogram ABCD with its diagonals meeting at the point O is shown in the diagram
below.
AB is extended to P such that BP = AB. The line that passes through D and is parallel to
AC meets PC produced at point R amd ∠CRD = 90
◦
.
(a) Show that the triangles ABD and BPC are congruent.
(b) Show that ABCD is a rhombus.
(c) Find the ratio CR : PC.
[Answer: (c) 1:2 ]
22
Vectors Lee Kian Keong
12 Vectors
1. If the angle between the vectors a =
4
8
and b =
1
p
is 135
◦
, ﬁnd the value of p.
[Answer: −
1
3
]
2. A boat is travelling at a speed of 30 knots. A yacht is sailing northwards at a speed of 10
knots. At 1300 hours, the boat is 14 nautical miles to the northeast of the yacht.
(a) Determine the direction in which the boat should be travelling in order to intercept the
yacht.
(b) At what time does the interception occur?
[Answer: (a) S 58.6
◦
W ; (b) 1341 hours ]
3. The position vectors of the points A, B and C, with respect to the origin O, are a, b and
c respectively. The points L, M, P and Q are the midpoints of OA, BC, OB, and AC
respectively.
(a) Show that the position vector of any point on the line LM is
1
2
a +
1
2
λ(b + c − a) some
scalar λ, and express the position vector of any point on the line PQ in terms of a, b and
c.
(b) Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line LM and the line PQ.
[Answer: (a)
1
2
b +
1
2
µ(a +c −b) ; (b)
1
4
a +
1
4
b +
1
4
c ]
4. In triangle ABC, the point X divides BC internally in the ratio m : n, where m+n = 1.
Express AX
2
in terms of AB, BC, CA, m and n.
[Answer: nAB
2
−mnBC
2
+ mCA
2
]
5. Wind is blowing with a speed of w from the direction of N θ
◦
W. When a ship is cruising
eastwards with a speed of u, the captain of ship found that the wind seem like blowing with
a speed of v
1
, from the direction N α
◦
W. When the ship is cruising north with a speed of u,
the captain of the ship, however found that the wind seemed to be blowing with a speed of v
2
from the direction N β
◦
W.
(a) Draw the triangles of velocity of both situations
(b) Show that tan θ =
tan α −1
1 −cot β
(c) Express v
2
2
−v
2
1
in terms of u, w and θ.
[Answer: −2uw(sin θ + cos θ) ]
6. Position vectors of the points P and Q relative to the origin O are 2i
∼
and 3i
∼
+4j
∼
respectively.
Find the angle between vector
−−→
OP and vector
−−→
OQ
[Answer: 53.1
◦
]
7. The points P, Q, and R are the midpoints of the sides BC, CA and AB respectively of the
triangle ABC. The lines AP and BQ meet at the point G, where AG = mAP and BG = nBQ.
23
Vectors Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that
−→
AG =
1
2
m
−−→
AB +
1
2
m
−→
AC and
−→
AG = (1 −n)
−−→
AB +
1
2
−→
AC.
Deduce that AG =
2
3
AP and CG =
2
3
CR.
(b) Show that CR meets AP and BQ at G, where CG =
2
3
CR.
8. A force of magnitude 2p N acts along the line OA abd a force of magnitude 10 N acts along
the line OB. The angle between OA and OB is 120
◦
. The resultant force has magnitude
√
3p
N. Calculate the value of p and determine the angle between the resultant force and OA.
[Answer: 30
◦
]
9. Let u = cos φi + sin φj and v = cos θ i + sin θ j, where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors.
Show that
1
2
u −v = sin
1
2
(φ −θ)
10. A canal of width 2a has parallel straight banks and the water ﬂows due north. The points A
and B are on opposite banks and B is due east of A, with the point O as the midpoint of AB.
The xaxis and yaxis are taken in the east and north directions respectively with O as the
origin. The speed of the current in the canal, v
c
, is given by
v
c
= v
0
1 −
x
2
a
2
,
where v
0
is the speed of the current in the middle of the canal and x is the distance eastwards
from the middle of the canal. A swimmer swims from A towards the east at speed v
r
relative to
the current in the canal. Taking y to denote the distance northwards travelled by the swimmer,
show that
dy
dx
=
v
0
v
r
1 −
x
2
a
2
.
If the width of the canal is 12 m, the speed of the current in the middle of the canal is 10 ms
−1
and the speed of the swimmer is 2 ms
−1
relative to the current in the canal,
(a) ﬁnd the distance of the swimmer from O when he is at the middle of the canal and his
distance from B when he reaches the east bank of the canal,
(b) sketch the actual path taken by the swimmer.
[Answer: (a) 20 m north of O , 40 m north of B ]
11. The position vectors of the points A, B, C and D,relative to an origin, are i + 3j, −5i − 3j,
(x −3)i −6j and (x + 3)i respectively.
(a) Show that, for any value of x, ABCD is a parallelogram.
(b) Determine the value of x for which ABCD is a rectangle.
[Answer: (b) x = 1 ]
24
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
12. The points P and Q lie on the diagonals BD and DF respectively of a regular hexagon
ABCDEF such that
BP
BD
=
DQ
DF
= k.
Express
−−→
CP and
−−→
CQ in terms of k, a and b, where
−−→
AB = a and
−−→
BC = b.
If the points C, P and Q lie on a straight line, determine the value of k. Hence, ﬁnd CP : CQ
.
[Answer:
−−→
CP = (2k −1)b −ka ,
−−→
CQ = (1 −k)b −(1 + k)a , k =
1
√
3
, CP : CQ = 1 :
√
3 ]
13. The diagram above shows nonlinear points O, A and B, with P on the line OA such that
OP : PA = 2 : 1 and Q on the line AB such that AQ : QB = 2 : 3. The lines PQ and OB
produced meet at the point R. If
−→
OA = a and
−−→
OB = b,
(a) show that
−−→
PQ = −
1
15
a +
2
5
b,
(b) ﬁnd the position vector of R, relative to O, in terms of b
[Answer: (b) 4b ]
13 Data Description
1. The mean and standard deviation of Physics marks for 25 school candidates and 5 private
candidates are shown in the table below.
School candidates Private candidates
Number of candidates 25 5
Mean 55 40
Standard deviation 4 5
Calculate the overall mean and standard deviation of the Physics marks.
[Answer: 52.5 ; 6.98 ]
2. A sample of 100 fuses, nominally rated at 13 amperes, are tested by passing increasing elec
tric current through them. The current at which they blow are recorded and the following
cumulative frequency table is obtained.
25
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
Currents (amperes) Cumulative frequency
<10 0
<11 8
<12 30
<13 63
<14 88
<15 97
<16 99
<17 100
Calculate the estimates of the mean, median and mode. Comment on the distribution.
[Answer: 12.65 , 12.61 , 12.58 ; positively skewed ]
3. The number of teenagers, according to age, that patronize a recreation centre for a certain
period of time is indicated in the following table.
Age in Years Number of teenagers
12  4
13  10
14  27
15  110
16  212
17  238
18  149
[ Age 12  means age 12 and more but less than 13 years ]
(a) Display the above data using histogram
(b) Find the median and semiinterquartile range for the age of teenagers who patronize the
recreation centre. Give your answer to the nearest months.
[Answer: (b) 17 years 1 month , 10 months ]
4. The table below shows the number of defective electronic components per lot for 500 lots that
have been tested.
Numbers of defective
components per lot
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more
Relative frequency 0.042 0.054 0.392 0.318 0.148 0.014 0.032
(a) State the mode and the median number of defective electronic components per lot.
(b) For the lots with defective components of more than 5, the mean number of defective
components per lot is 6.4. Find the mean number of defective electronic components per
lot for the given 500 lots.
[Answer: (a) 2 , 3 ; (b) 2.7 ]
5. The number of ships which anchor at a port every week for 26 particular weeks are as follows
32 28 43 21 35 19 25 45 35 32 18 26 30
26 27 38 42 18 37 50 46 23 40 20 29 46
(a) Display the data in a stemplot
26
Data Description Lee Kian Keong
(b) Find the median and interquartile range
(c) Draw a boxplot to represent the data
(d) State the shape of the frequency distribution. Give a reason for your answer
[Answer: (b) 31 , 15 ; (d) positively skewed ]
6. Show that, for the numbers x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
with mean ¯ x,
¸
(x − ¯ x)
2
=
¸
x
2
−n¯ x
2
The numbers 4, 6, 12, 5, 7, 9, 5, 11, p, q, where p < q, have mean ¯ x = 6.9 and
¸
(x − ¯ x)
2
=
102.9. Calculate the of p and q.
[Answer: 1, 9 ]
7. The following data show the masses, in kg, of ﬁsh caught by 22 ﬁshermen on a particular day.
23 48 51 25 39 37 41 38 37 20 88
69 22 42 46 23 52 41 40 59 68 59
(a) Display the above data in an ordered stemplot.
(b) Find the mean and standard deviation.
(c) Find the median and interquartile range.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data.
(e) State whether the mean or the median is more suitable as a representative value of the
above data. Justify your answer.
[Answer: (b) 44 , 16.8 ; (c) 41 , 15 ; (e) median ]
8. The times taken by 22 students to breakfast are shown in the following table.
Time (x minutes) 2 ≤ x < 5 5 ≤ x < 8 8 ≤ x < 11 11 ≤ x < 14 14 ≤ x < 17 17 ≤ x < 20
Number of students 1 2 4 8 5 2
(a) Draw a histogram of the grouped data. Comment on the shape of frequency distribution.
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean, median, and mode of the breakfast times. Use your
calculations to justify your statement about the shape of the frequency distribution.
[Answer: (b) 12.23 , 12.50 , 12.71 ]
9. The mean mark for a group of students taking a statistics test is 70.6. The mean marks for
male and female students are 68.5 and 72.0 respectively. Find the ratio of the number of male
to female students.
[Answer: 2:3 ]
10. The masses (in thousands of kg) of solid waste collected from a town for 25 consecutive days
are as follows:
41 53 44 55 48 57 50 38 53 50 43 56 51
48 33 46 55 49 50 52 47 39 51 49 52
27
Probability Lee Kian Keong
(a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data.
(b) Find the median and interquartile range.
(c) Calculate the mean and standard deviation.
(d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data.
(e) Comment on the shape of the distribution and give a reason for your answer.
[Answer: (b) 50 , 6 ; (c) 48.4 , 5.97 ]
11. Overexposure to a certain metal dust at the workplace of a factory is detrimental to the health
of its workers. The workplace is considered safe if the level of the metal dust is less than 198
µ g m
−3
. The level of the metal dust at the workplace is recorded at a particular time of day
for a period of 90 consecutive working days. The results are summarised in the table below.
Metal dust level (µ g m
−3
) Number of days
170  174 8
175  179 11
180  184 25
185  189 22
190  194 15
195  199 7
200  201 2
(a) State what the number 11 in the table means.
(b) Calculate estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the levels of the metal dust.
(c) Plot a cumulative frequency curve of the above data. Hence, estimate the median and
the interquartile range.
(d) Find the percentage of days for which the workplace is considered unsafe.
[Answer: (b) 185 , 7.22 ; (c) 184.7 , 9.8 ; (d) 4.44% ]
14 Probability
1. There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conderence. The number of women doctors
and that of women engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. Four participants from this group are
selected randomly to chair some sessions of panel discussion.
(a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected.
855
2618
(b) Given that two women are selected, ﬁnd the probability that both of them are doctors.
33
68
2. In a basket of mangoes and papayas, 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. If 40% of
the fruits in the basket are mangoes,
(a) ﬁnd the percentage of the fruits which are ripe, (0.64)
(b) ﬁnd the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes. (0.4375)
28
Probability Lee Kian Keong
3. Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball, three red balls and six white balls. Find
the probability that all the three balls selected are of the same color.
7
40
4. There are 12 towels, two of which are red. If ﬁve towels are chosen at random, ﬁnd the
probability that at least one is red.
15
22
5. A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers, with 10 male workers earning less than
RM1000.00 a month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000.00 a month. At the end
of the year, workers earning less than RM1000.00 are given a bonus of RM1000.00 whereas the
others receive a month’s salary.
(a) If two workers are randomly chosen, ﬁnd the probability that exacly one worker receives
a bonus of one month’s salary. (0.495)
(b) If a male worker and a demale worker are randomly chosen, ﬁnd the probability that
exactly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary. (0.604)
6. Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and
ten defective ones.
(a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective.(0.1909)
(b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective, ﬁnd the probability that both
transistors are defective. (0.0476)
7. Two archers A and B take turns to shot, with archer A taking the ﬁrst shot. The probabilities
of A and B hitting the bull’s eye in each shot are
1
6
and
1
5
respectively. Show that the
probability of archer A hitting the bulleye ﬁrst is
1
2
.
8. The probability that it rains in a certain area is
1
5
. The probability that an accident occurs
at a particular corner of a road in that area is
1
20
if it rains and
1
50
if it does not rain. Find
the probability that it rains if an accident occurs at the corner.
5
13
9. There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If one blue taxi, two red taxis and ﬁve
yellow taxis are parked there, ﬁnd the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each
other.
[Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays.]
1
4
29
Discrete Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
10. Two events A and B are such that P(A) =
3
8
, P(B) =
1
4
and P(AB) =
1
6
.
(a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive.
(b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs.
7
12
(c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs.
13
24
11. A fourdigit number, in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive, is formed. Find the probability that
(a) the number begins or ends with 0, (0.19)
(b) the number contains exactly two nonzero, digits. (0.0486)
15 Discrete Probability Distributions
1. The independent random variable Y
i
, where i = 1, 2, . . . , n, takes the values of 0 and 1 with
the probabilities of q and p respectively, where q = 1 −p.
(a) Show that E(Y
i
) = p and Var(Y
i
) = pq.
(b) If X = Y
1
+Y
2
+. . . +Y
n
, determine E(X) and Var(X). Comment on the distribution of
X.
[Answer: (b) np, npq ; binomial distribution ]
2. A discrete random variable X takes the values of 0, 1 and 2 with the probabilities of a, b and
c respectively. Given that E(X) =
4
3
and Var(X) =
5
9
, ﬁnd the values of a, b and c.
[Answer: a =
1
6
, b =
1
3
,
1
2
]
3. The discrete random variable X has the probability function
P(X = x) =
k(4 −x)
2
, x = 1, 2, 3,
0, otherwise
where k is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X.
(b) Find E(7X −1) and Var(7X −1).
[Answer: (a)
1
14
; (b) 9 , 19 ]
4. The probability distribution function of the discrete random variable Y is
P(Y = y) =
y
5050
, y = 1, 2, 3, . . . , 100
(a) Show that E(Y ) = 67 and ﬁnd Var(Y ).
(b) Find P(Y −E(Y ) ≤ 30).
30
Discrete Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
[Answer: (a) 561 ; (b)
4087
5050
]
5. A car rental shop has four cars to be rented out on a daily basis at RM50.00 per car. The
average daily demand for cars is four.
(a) Find the probability that, on a particular day,
i. no cars are requested, (0.0183)
ii. at least four requests for cars are received. (0.5665)
(b) Calculate the expected daily income received from the rentals. (160.93)
(c) If the shop wishes to have one more car, the additional cost incurred is RM20.00 per day.
Determine whether the shop should buy another car for rental. (YES)
6. Two percent of the bulb produced by a factory are not usable. Find the smallest number of
bulbs that must be examined so that the probability of obtaining at least one nonusable bulb
exceeds 0.5.
[Answer: 35 ]
7. The independent Poisson random variables X and Y have parameters 0.5 and 3.5 respectively.
The random variable W is deﬁned by W = X −Y .
(a) Find E(W) and Var(W)
(b) Give one reason why W is not a Poisson random variable.
[Answer: (a) 2 , 4 ]
8. The probability of a person allergic to a type of anaesthetic is 0.002. A total of 2000 persons
are injected with the anaesthetic. Using a suitable approximate distribution, calculate the
probability that more than two persons are allergic to the anaesthetic.
[Answer: 0.7619 ]
9. A type of seed is sold in packets which contain ten seeds each. On the average, it is found that
a seed per packet does not germinate. Find the probability that a packet chosen at random
contains less than two seeds which do not germinate.
[Answer: 0.7361 ]
10. The probability that a heart patient survives after surgery in a country is 0.85.
(a) Find the probability that, out of ﬁve randomly chosen heard patients undergoing surgery,
four survive.
(b) Using a suitable approximate distribution, ﬁnd the probability that more than 160 survive
after surgery in a random sample of 200 heart patients.
[Answer: (a) 0.3915 ; (b) 0.97 ]
11. The probability that a lemon sold in a fruit store is rotten is 0.02.
(a) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in packets, determine the maximum number
of lemons per packet so that the probability that a packet chosen at random does not
contain rotten lemons is more than 0.85.
31
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(b) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in boxed each containing 60 lemons, ﬁnd using
a suitable approximation, the probability that a box chosen at random contains less than
three rotten lemons.
[Answer: (a) 8 ; (b) 0.8795 ]
12. A computer accessories distributor obtains its supply of diskettes from manufacturers A and B,
with 60% of the diskettes from manufacturer A. The diskettes are packed by the manufacturers
in packets of tens. The probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer A is defective is
0.05 whereas the probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer B is defective is 0.02.
Find the probability that a randomly chosen packet contains exactly one defective diskette.
[Answer: 0.2558 ]
16 Continuous Probability Distributions
1. The time to repair a certain type of machine is a random variable X (in hours). The probability
density function is given by
f(x) =
0.01x −p, 10 ≤ x < 20,
q −0.01x, 20 ≤ x ≤ 30,
0, otherwise,
where p and q are constants.
(a) Show that p = 0.1 and q = 0.3.
(b) Find the probability that the repair work takes at least 15 hours.
(c) Determine the expected value of X.
(d) If the total cost of repair of the machine comprises a surcharge of RM500 and an hourly
rate of RM100, express the total cost of repair in terms of X, and determine the expected
total cost of repair.
[Answer: (b)
7
8
; (c) 20 hours ; (d) RM 2500 ]
2. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
0, x < 0,
5
4
−x, 0 ≤ x < 1,
1
4x
2
, x ≥ 1.
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
(b) Calculate the probability that at least one of two independent observed values of X is
greater than three.
[Answer: (b)
23
144
]
3. Continuous random variable X is deﬁned in the interval 0 to 4, with
P(X > x) =
1 −ax, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3
b −
1
2
x, 3 < x ≤ 4
with a and b as constants,
32
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(a) Show that a =
1
6
and b = 2,
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph
(c) Find the probability density function of X
(d) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of X.
[Answer: (d)
5
2
, 1.190 ]
33
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
4. The lifespan of a species of plant is a random variable T (tens of days). The probability density
function is given by
f(t) =
1
8
e
−
1
8
t
, t > 0
0, otherwise
(a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T and sketch its graph.
(b) Find the probability, to three decimal places, that a plant of that species randomly chosen
has a lifespan of more than 20 days.
(c) Calculate the expected lifespan of that species of plant.
[Answer: (b) 0.779 ; (c) 80 days ]
5. The continuous random variable X has the probability density function
f(x) =
4
27
x
2
(3 −x), 0 < x < 3,
0, otherwise.
(a) Calculate P
X <
3
2
.
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X.
[Answer: (a)
5
16
]
6. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
x −1
12
, 1 ≤ x ≤ b
0, otherwise
where b is a constant.
(a) Determine the value of b.
(b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph.
(c) Calculate E(X).
[Answer: (a) b = 4 ; (c)
14
5
]
7. The continuous random variable X has probability density function
f(x) =
1
25
(1 −2x), −2 ≤ x ≤
1
2
3
25
(2x −1),
1
2
≤ x ≤ 3
0, otherwise.
(a) Sketch the graph of y = f(x)
(b) Given that P(0 ≤ X ≤ k) =
13
100
, determine the value of k.
[Answer: (b) k =
3
2
]
34
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
8. The number of hours spent in a library per week by arts and science students in a college is
normally distributed with mean 12 hours and standard deviation 5 hours for arts students,
and mean 15 hours and standard deviation 4 hours for science students.
A random sample of four arts students and six science students is chosen. Assuming that X
is the mean number of hours spent by these 10 students in a week,
(a) calculate E(X) and Var(X),
(b) ﬁnd the probability that in a given week, the mean number of hours spent by this sample
of students is between 11 hours and 15 hours.
[Answer: (a) 13.8 , 1.96; (b) 0.0.7814 ]
9. The random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 100. It
is known that P(X > 1169) ≤ 0.117 and P(X > 879) ≥ 0.877. Determine the range of the
values of µ.
[Answer: {µ : 995 ≤ µ ≤ 1050} ]
10. The mass of a small loaf of bread produced in a bakery may be modelled by a normal random
variable with mean 303 g and standard deviation 4 g. Find the probability that a randomly
chosen loaf has a mass between 295 g and 305 g.
[Answer: 0.6687 ]
11. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n = 500 and p =
1
2
.
Using a suitable approximate distribution, ﬁnd P(X −E(X) ≤ 25).
[Answer: 0.9774 ]
12. The mass of yellow water melon produced by a farmer is normally distributed with a mean of
4 kg and a standard deviation of 800 g. The mass of red water melon produced by the farmer
is normally distributed with a mean of 6 kg and a standard deviation of 1 kg.
(a) Find the probability that the mass of a red water melon, selected at random, is less than
5 kg. Hence, ﬁnd the probability that a red water melon with mass less than 5 kg has
mass less than 4 kg.
(b) If Y = M − 2K, where M represents the mass of a red water melon and K the mass of
a yellow water melon, determine the mean and variance of Y .
Assuming that Y is normally distributed, ﬁnd the probability that the mass of a red water
melon selected at random is more than twice the mass of yellow water melon selected at
random.
[Answer: (a) 0.1587 , 0.144 ; (b) 2 , 3.56 ; 0.1446 ]
13. Tea bags are labelled as containing 2 g of tea powder. In actual face, the mass of tea powder
per bag has mean 2.05 g and standard deviation 0.05 g. Assuming that the mass of tea powder
of each bag is normally distributed, calculate the expected number of tea bags which contain
1.95 g to 2.10 g of tea powder in a box of 100 tea bags.
[Answer: 82 ]
14. The lifespan of an electrical instrument produced by a manufacturer is normally distributed
with a mean of 72 months and a standard deviation of 15 months.
35
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong
(a) If the manufacturer guarantees that the lifespan of an electrical instrument is at least 36
months, calculate the percentage of the electrical instruments which have to be replaced
free of charge.
(b) If the manufacturer speciﬁes that less than 0.1% of the electrical instruments have to be
replacedfree of charge, determine the greatest length of the gurantee period correct to the
nearest month.
[Answer: (a) 0.82% ; (b) 25 months ]
36
Numbers and Sets
Lee Kian Keong
1
Numbers and Sets
1. If loga x a2 = 3 loga 2 − loga (x − 2a), express x in terms of a. [Answer : 2. Given that loga (3x − 4a) + loga 3x = 2 1 + loga (1 − 2a), where 0 < a < , ﬁnd x. log2 a 2 [Answer : 3. Find the values of x if y = 3 − x and 4y − (x2 − 9) = −24. [Answer : 4. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that (A ∩ B) − (A ∩ B) = B 5. Using deﬁnitions, show that, for any sets A, B and C, A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊂ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) 6. Using the laws of the algebra of sets, show that, for any sets A and B, (A − B) ∪ (B − A) = (A ∪ B) − (A ∩ B) 7. If A, B and C are arbitrary sets, show that [(A ∪ B) − (B ∪ C)] ∩ (A ∪ C) = ∅ 8. If z is a complex number such that z = 1, ﬁnd the real part of 1 . 1−z [Answer : 9. Express √ √ √ 59 − 24 6 as p 2 + q 3 where p and q are integers. [Answer :
√ √ 4 2−3 3 ] 1 ] 2 x = 7, x = −9 ] 2 ] 3 x = 4a ]
10. Simplify √ √ ( 7 − 3)2 √ √ , (a) 2( 7 + 3) √ 2(1 + 3i) (b) , where i = −1. (1 − 3i)2 [Answer :
√ √ 13 9 (a) 2 7 − 3 3 ; (b) − − i] 25 25
√ 11. The complex numbers z1 and z2 satisfy the equation z 2 = 2 − 2 3i. (a) Express z1 and z2 in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers. (b) Represent z1 and z2 in an Argand diagram. (c) For each of z1 and z2 , ﬁnd the modulus, and the argument in radians. [Answer :
(a) z1 = √ √ π 5π 3 − i, z2 = − 3 + i ; (c) z1  = 2, z2  = 2 , arg(z1 )=− , arg(z2 )= ] 6 6
12. If (x + iy)2 = i, ﬁnd all the real values of x and y. [Answer :
1 1 x = ±√ ,y = ±√ ] 2 2
2
Polynomials
Lee Kian Keong
2
Polynomials
1 1. The polynomial p(x) = 2x3 + 4x2 + x − k has factor (x + 1). 2 (a) Find the value of k. (b) Factorise p(x) completely. [Answer :
(a) k = 1 3 ; (b) (x + 1)(2x − 1)(2x + 3) ] 2 2
2. Show that −1 is the only one real root of the equation x3 + 3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0.
3. The polynomial p(x) = x4 + ax3 − 7x2 − 4ax + b has a factor x + 3 and when divided by x − 3, has remainder 60. Find the values of a and b and factorise p(x) completely. 1 Using the substitution y = , solve the equation 12y 4 − 8y 3 − 7y 2 + 2y + 1 = 0. x [Answer : 4. Using the substitution y = x +
1 1 1 a = 2, b = 12; y = − , − , 1, ] 3 2 2
1 4 1 , express f (x) = x3 − 4x − 6 − + 3 as a polynomial in y. x x x [Answer :
y − 7y − 6 ]
3
Hence, ﬁnd all the real roots of the equation f (x) = 0. [Answer :
−1, −1, √ √ 3+ 5 3− 5 , ] 2 2
5. The polynomial p(x) = 6x4 − ax3 − bx2 + 28x + 12, where a and b are real constants, has factors (x + 2) and (x − 2). (a) Find the values of a and b, and hence, factorise p(x) completely. (b) Give that p(x) = (2x − 3)[q(x) − 41 + 3x3 ], ﬁnd q(x), and determine its range when x ∈ [−2, 10]. [Answer :
(a) a = 7, b = 27, (x − 2)(2x − 3)(3x + 1)(x + 2); (b) q(x) = x − 12x + 37, {y : 1 ≤ y ≤ 65} ]
2
6. Show that polynomial 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 has x − 1 as factor. Hence, (a) ﬁnd all the real roots of 2x6 − 9x4 + 3x2 + 4 = 0. (b) determine the set of values of x so that 2x3 − 9x2 + 3x + 4 < 12 − 12x. [Answer :
x = 1, x = −1, x = 2, x = −2 ; x < 1 ]
7. Find the set of values of x such that −1 < x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 < 0. [Answer : 8. Find the solution set of inequality x − 2 < 1 where x = 0. x [Answer : 3
{x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 1 + √ 2} ] {x : 0 < x < 1, 1 < x < 2} ]
[Answer : {x : x < 0} . x 1 Hence. Determine the set of values of x satisfying the inequality x 1 ≥ x+1 x+1 [Answer : 10.Sequences and series 9. ) as a fraction in its lowest terms. Find the solution set of the inequality 4 3 >3− . . Sketch.75 + 0. D = −1 ] {x : x < 2 − √ 5} ] 3 Sequences and series 1. C and D such that A B C D 3x2 + 5x = + + + 2 )(1 + x)2 2 (1 − x 1 − x 1 + x (1 + x) (1 + x)3 . C = −1.01. . For the geometric series 7 + 3. is a(1 − rn ) 1−r 4 .875 + . converges. Prove that the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a geometric series a + ar + ar2 + . 1 < x < 3} ] 1 11.. [Answer : 359 ] 495 4. Find the constants A. Find the exact value of x so that the series converges to 2. For geometric series 6 + 3 + 11 ] 3 + .. x ≥ 1} ] {x : 0 < x < 1. . ﬁnd the smallest value of n for which the diﬀerent between the sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity is less than 0. [Answer : A = 1. the graph of y = 2 − x and y = 2 + . solve the inequality 2 − x > 2 +  x [Answer : 12.5 + 1. . [Answer : 2.7252525 . . Express the inﬁnite recurring decimal 0. B = 1. Determine the set of x such that the geometric series 1 + ex + e2x + .. on the same coordinate axes. .725 (= 0.. 64 [Answer : 5] ˙˙ 3. x = − ln 2 ] 5. . x−1 x [Answer : Lee Kian Keong {x : x < −1. . obtain the smallest value of n if the diﬀerence between 2 45 the sum of the ﬁrst n + 4 terms and the sum of ﬁrst n terms is less than . B.
. ﬁnd a simple expression for Sn = k=1 4k 2 1 and ﬁnd lim Sn n→∞ −1 1 1 1 − . 30 [Answer : 11. Express as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . They receive an interest of 4% per annum.04) . 62 = 7. Express 1 as partial fraction. The nth term of an arithmetic progression is Tn . show that (1 − x) 2 + x 2 10 ≈ 29 (2 − 7x) 1 1+x 2 10. Liu.001 [Answer : (a) r = −2. (b) 52000[1. r2 + 2r [Answer : 5 1 1 − ] r r+2 1− √ 1 7 2 25 3 x+ x − x + . (c) 6 ] n n n Hence. 2 n=1 [Answer : − 10 ] 3 7. 1 + 2x √ 1 By taking x = . 3 (b) The sum of the ﬁrst n terms and the sum to inﬁnity of the geometric series 6 − 3 + − . Express ur = 2 in partial fractions. (b) n = 12 ] 10−Tn 5 6. . 4k 2 − 1 (a) 10000(1. Mr Liu does not make any additional deposit nor withdrawal. whereas. Miss Dora continues to deposit RM2000 at the beginning of each of the subsequent years without any withdrawal. (b) Calculate the total savings of Miss Dora at the end of nth year.8740 ] 2 8 16 . Find the common ratio and the ﬁrst term of the geometric series. Sn = 2(2k − 1) 2(2k + 1) 2 1− 1 2n + 1 . . Mr. Determine the smallest value of n such that Sn −S∞  < 0. evaluate Un . show that Un = (−2)2( 17 ) is the nth 2 term of a geometric progression. 2 are Sn and S∞ respectively. At the beginning of this year. ﬁnd 62 correct to four decimal places.04 − 1]. Liu at the end of nth year. 1 ] 2 [Answer : 9. a = 3 . ∞ 1 If Tn = (17n − 14). .Sequences and series Lee Kian Keong (a) The sum of the ﬁrst ﬁve terms of a geometric series is 33 and the sum of the ﬁrst ten terms of the geometric series is 1023. Liu and Miss Dora deposited RM10 000 and RM2000 respectively in a bank. (c) Determine in which year the total savings of Miss Dora exceeds the total savings of Mr. . If x is so small that x2 and higher powers of x may be neglected. [Answer : 8. (a) Calculate the total savings of Mr.
deduce (PQ)−1 . and Z assembled.64609 ] 2 8 16 4 Matrices −10 4 9 2 3 4 1. A. and 500 components of C are used. ] 2 3 ∞ ∞ 12. ] square matrices such that BA = B−1 and ABC = (AB)−1 . 1 If B = 0 1 x=200. Hence. solve the system of linear equations 6x + x − x + . and N = 4 3 1 −5 1 6 1 2 4 Find M N and deduce N −1 . Z representing the number of products of X. (a) show that u2 = − + 2 + + r r r r + 2 (r + 2)2 ∞ Lee Kian Keong (b) show that r=1 ur = 3 1 1 1 − − and determine the values of ur and ur+1 + r . and one component of C. Hence. z=50. 2 n+1 n+2 3 r=1 r=1 [Answer : (b) 3 4 . R = 1 20 15 −2 7 −5 1 −13 −1 11 Find matrices PQ and PQR and hence. and two components of C. [Answer : 2. Q and R are given by 1 5 6 −13 P = 2 −2 4 . C = 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 ] 1 3. 7 = 2. Y . and Z assembled. 0 1 [Answer : 1 A= 0 −2 0 1 −2 0 1 0 . Y . four components of B. A total of 750 components of A. Each product X consists of two components of A. Q = −1 1 −3 2 7 −50 −33 4 −6 −5 . With X. B. and four components of C. (a) The matrix P. Y . 6 10y 2y 2y + 8z + z + 3z = 4500 = 0 = 1080 . Show that A−1 = 2 0 −1 0 . [Answer : 1− 1 √ 7 1 1 2 1 3 √ x− x − x . 1000 components of B. C are B2 = C. ﬁnd C and A. Y . ﬁnd the number of products of X. Z are assembled from three components A. (b) Using the result in (a). each product of Z consists of four components of A.Matrices Using the result obtained. Product X. ﬁnd the value of correct to ﬁve decimal places. three components of B. each product of Y consists of three components of A. Expand (1 − x) 2 in ascending powers of x up to the term in x3 . y=50. 1 1 1 1 . C according to diﬀerent proportions. B. Matrix M and N is given by M = 15 −4 −14 . one component of B. obtain a matrix equation representing the information given.
= −15. Determine the values of a. 1/72 72 −1/36 7/72 −5/72 1/72 Lee Kian Keong −13/72 −1/72 . where P Q = QP . and hence ﬁnd (A + I)21 B. y = 190. B = −27 −13 0 1 2 −3 12 Find the matrix A2 B and deduce the inverse of A. −7/6 −3 1/2 −1/12 5/12 −1/4 −13/12 17/12 ] −1/4 7 . a = 0. [Answer : −3 (a) 6 3 1 −2 −1 5 −3 −10 . m = −2. = 4. The matrices A and B are given by −1 2 1 −35 19 A = −3 1 4 . [Answer : 3 3 8. (b) x = 220. y = 2. (b) Find (A + I)B.Matrices 24 (a) 4 4 40 −8 8 32 72 4. b. 6/11 121 −3/11 1 2 6. The matrices P and Q. Hence. b = 4. z = 160 ] 11/72 [Answer : 2b − 1 4. x = −3. −3/11 −2/11 1/11 7/11 1/11 . where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix. n = 0 ] [Answer : 10 −14 6 −1 5 −3 −13 5/6 17 . Hence. 3 A−1 . z = 1 ] 5/11 [Answer : 121 0 0 0 121 0 0 −2/11 0 . Matrix A is given by A = 5 4 1 2 Find the adjoint of A. b and c. 5 = −8. are given by 2 −2 0 −1 P = 0 0 2 and Q = 0 a b c 0 1 0 −2 0 −1 2 Determine the values of a. where I is the 3 × 3 identity matrix.0 0 12 0 72 0 0 1/18 0 . c so that the matrix 2a − 1 b matrix. Find the real numbers m and n for which P = mQ + nI. c = −4 . (b) 6 −5 3 1 −2 −1 5 −3 −10 . a2 b2 a bc is a symmetric b + c 2c − 1 [Answer : a = 1. ﬁnd 4 1 . solve the system of linear equations x − 2y − z 3x − y − 4z y + 2z 18 45 . The matrix A is given by A = 3 1 0 1 −3 1 −2 (a) Find the matrix B such that B = A2 − 10I. c = 0 ] 5. b = 0. 6 −5 3 1 −2 −1 5 −10 ] −5 7.
where I is the 3 × 3 identity 1 (b) Find the matrix B which satisﬁes BA = 0 −1 [Answer : 0 8 0 .80. Two groups of workers have their drinks at a stall. If P = 1 −4 3 .40 ] 1 k 10. 2) and Q(5. where I is the 3 × 3 identity 9. The straight line l2 is perpendicular to l1 and passes through B. 3. obtain a matrix equation to represent the above information. [Answer : 5/2 a = 11.0) and the distance of P from the origin (x − 2)2 y2 is 8 units. The ﬁrst group comprising ten workers have ﬁve cups of tea. two cups of coﬀee and three glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM11. 1/2 3/2 1 −2 1/2 3/2 3/2 . Hence determine the cost of each drink.k = 2 ] 4 (a) Show that A2 = I. z=RM 1. 4) intersects the yaxis at point P . 0 2 1 (a) 1 1 0 −1 −2 1 k = − . 9). x=RM 1. RM y and RM z respectively. The straight line l1 which passes through the points A(4. Find the shortest distance from P to QR and the area of the parallelogram. Find the equation of the line passing through R and perpendicular to P Q. If l2 intersects √ the xaxis and yaxis at points Q and R respectively. 0) and B(2. Show that the locus of P is the ellipse + = 1 and sketch the ellipse. [Answer : √ 2 a = 5. (b) 3 1 1 −10 −4 −4 3 1 ] 2 5 Coordinate geometry 1. 8 . b = 14. −5). 0) and S(a. Matrix A is given by A = 1 1 0 0 −1 0 .30. −2 1 matrix. c = 22 . b) are points on the plane. Area=80 unit ] 2. Find a and b. Hence ﬁnd P −1 . b = −7. The sum of distance of the point P from the point (4. b and c. show that P R : QR = 5 : 3. Determine the values of k such that the determinant of the matrix 2k + 1 0 1 −3 k 3 2 is 0. R(7. 16 12 4. The cost of a cup of tea and three glasses of fruit juice is the same as the cost of four cups of coﬀee. 4 3 2 1 . The point R divides the line joining the points P (3.10.Coordinate geometry Lee Kian Keong 5 2 3 a 1 −18 −1 12 and P Q = 2I. 2 [Answer : 1 11. 8) in the ratio 3 : 4. y=RM 1. shortest distance=8 2 units. If the costs of a cup of tea. a cup of coﬀee and two glasses of fruit juice at a total cost of RM7. Q(2. The second group of six workers have three cups of tea. Q = b 3 1 2 −13 −1 c matrix. a cup of coﬀee and a glass of fruit juice are RM x. Given that P QRS is a parallelogram where P (0. determine the values of a. and deduce A−1 .
(a) Find the coordinates of A and B. 2) and B 3 3 . C2 and C3 touching one another. 2 2 √ . where their centres lies on a straight line. If C1 and C2 have equations x2 + y 2 − 10x − 4y + 28 = 0 and x2 + y 2 − 16x + 4y + 52 = 0 respectively. Hence. respectively. (c) Find the area of the triangle OAB. radius = ] 7 7 7 9. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (x. The lines y = 2x and y = x intersect the curve y 2 + 7xy = 18 at points A and B respectively. [Answer : 9 5x + 5y − 74x + 12y + 156 = 0 ] 2 2 . x2 [Answer : 1 1 3 centre = (− . y) and (b) 3x + 4y − 6 = 0 . − ) . The parametric equations of a straight line l are given by x = 4t − 2 and y = 3 − 3t. ﬁnd the ratio P A : AQ. Find the perpendicular distance from the centre of the circle x2 + y 2 − 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 to the straight line 3x + 4y = 28. Find the equation of C3 . (b) Calculate the perpendicular distance of A to OB. where 2 x2 + y 2 +y x = 0 and y = 0. [Answer : (a) A(1. where A and B lie in the ﬁrst quadrant. 3 (a) Show that the point A(1. (b) 3 2 . [Answer : 4. 1) and radius 3. ﬁnd the shortest distance between the circle and the straight line. Find the coordinates of the centre and radius of the circle.Coordinate geometry [Answer : Lee Kian Keong 7x + 21y − 123 = 0 ] 5. 4 (b) Find the Cartesian equation of line l. (c) 1:1 ] x y .1] 6. show that the locus of P is also a circle. Show that x2 + y 2 − 2ax − 2by + c = 0 is the equation of the circle with centre (a. The above ﬁgure shows three circles C1 . ) lies on line l. (c) ] 2 4 7. (c) Given that line l cuts the x and yaxes at P and Q respectively. [Answer : 8. where O is the origin. b) and radius a2 + b2 − c. If Q moves on a circle with centre (1.
10 . 1 + e . Hence. x − 1. continuous at x = 2 ] 16 2 ex − e−x andg(x) = x ex + e−x e + e−x 5. otherwise. x ≥ − Find f −1 and state its domain and range. h [Answer : 1 − √ ] 2 x 6. Given x > 0 and f (x) = √ x. x→1 (b) Determine whether f is continuous at x = −1 and x = 1. x > 1 (a) Find lim− f (x) and lim+ f (x). (c) {y : 0 < y ≤ 1} ] a= 5 . Rf −1 = {x : x ≥ − } ] 3 3 (b) Sketch the graph of f . (c) Show that f (x)2 + g(x)2 = 1. x→1 x→−1− x→−1+ lim f (x). determine whether f is continuous at x = 1. x=1 2 + e − x.Functions Lee Kian Keong 6 Functions 1. The function f is deﬁned by x − 1. ﬁnd the range of f . ﬁnd lim h→0 f (x) − f (x + h) . The function f is deﬁned by 1 + e x . [Answer : 3. [Answer : 2. Hence. determine whether x→2 (a) 1 + e . With this value of a. x + 1. ﬁnd the range of g. x ∈ R. [Answer : (a) Df = {x : x ∈ R} . The function f is deﬁned by √ f (x) = (a) Find lim f (x). Find the value of a if lim f (x) exists. The function f is deﬁned by f : x → √ 3x + 1. The functions f and g are given by f (x) = (a) State the domains of f and g. (b) Without using diﬀerentiation. [Answer : 4. x ≥ 2 where a ∈ R. 0≤x<2 f (x) = x + 2 ax2 + 1. not continuous ] f is continuous at x = 2. x<1 f (x) = 3. lim− f (x) and lim+ f (x). Df −1 = {x : x ≥ 0}. −1 ≤ x < 1. x→1 x→1 f −1 1 3 :x→ 1 x2 − 1 . Dg = {x : x ∈ R} . (b) {y : −1 < y < 1} .
x dx dx 5. 2 (b) 3 + . x = } ] 2x − 1 2 7 Diﬀerentiation 1. 0 . (d) State whether h = g ◦ f . Function f if deﬁned by f (x) = 1 ] e2 dy d2 y = 1. Sketch the graph of y = f (x). If y = cos x d2 y dy . where x = 0. D = {x : x ∈ R. x+1 g:x→ x+2 . x = −1} . x = 0. y = 1} . x ∈ R \ {0}. 0 . [Answer : 1 1 . Given that y = e−x cos x. (d) No. √ Lee Kian Keong 2 . Functions f . Dg = {x : x ∈ R. x = 0} . y = 3} . y = 3. x = 0} . ] 4. [Answer : f is not one to one function. ﬁnd the value of when y = 1. 3 roots. If k ≥ 0. x ∈ R Find f ◦ g and its domain. ﬁnd dy d2 y and when x = 0. If y = ln xy. If y = x dy . If k < 0. (b) Find the composite functions g ◦ f and state its domain and range. x g : x → 2x − 1. Diﬀerent domain ] [Answer : 8. x h:x→3+ 2 x (a) 0 . Determine if f is a one to one function.Diﬀerentiation [Answer : 7. Give reasons to your answer. dx [Answer : 3. show that x2 = (1 − x2 )y 2 . R = {y : y ∈ R. dx dx2 [Answer : dy √ 2. 1 root. Give a reason for your answer (a) Df = {x : x ∈ R. discontinuous at x = 1 ] (a) State the domains of f and g. x = −1} . Sketch the graph of y = f (x). 1 + x2 dx 11 . Explain how the number of the roots of the equation f (x) = k(x − 2) depends on k. g and h are deﬁned by f :x→ x . show that x 2 + 2 + xy = 0. (c) State the domain and range of h. (b) continuous at x = −1 . The function f and g are deﬁned by f :x→ 1 . =0] dx dx2 2x . x (c) D = {x : x ∈ R. (x + 1)(x − 2) Show that f (x) < 0 for all values of x in the domain of f . R = {y : y ∈ R. D = {x : x ∈ R.
[Answer : 11. . the graphs y = ex and y = a = 0 . Find the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y = 2 abd determine their x −1 nature. 1 1 The xcoordinate of the point of intersection of the curves y = x2 + and y = 2 . −4). Show that the equation 1+x 0. If y = sin x − cos x dy d2 y = 2y . Find the coordinates of B. show that the equation x3 + x − 1 = 0 has only one real root and state the successive integers a and b such that the real root lies in the interval (a. p = 0. dx 3 (a) Show that [Answer : (b) (1 .908) ] 2 t and y = 2t + 1 t x3 12. [Answer : x + y + 1 = 0 . Using the sketch of y = x3 and x + y = 1. 0) ] 8. A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x = 1 − 2t. where k ∈ R. 1. (0.5 to estimate the root correct to three decimal places. B(−1. minimum . A curve is deﬁned by the parametric equations x=t− where t = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation x3 = k(x2 − 1). Use the NewtonRaphson method with the initial estimate x0 = 0. 0.683 ] (1 + x)ex − 2 = 0 has a root in the interval [0.890) . 3) ] (0. [Answer : 2 . where x x x > 0. Show that 0. when k varies. dx t +2 2 dx dy 1 (b) Find the coordinates of points when = .794 . deduce that − < < 2. Using the NewtonRaphson method to determine the value of p correct to three decimal places and. is p. and hence. t Find the equation of the normal to the curve at the point A(3. y = −2 + .Diﬀerentiation Lee Kian Keong 6. Sketch. 12 . Find the coordinate of the stationary point on the curve y = x2 + where x > 0. on the same coordinate axes.724 . hence. ﬁnd the point of intersection. 1].375 ] 1 10. dy 5 1 dy =2− 2 .5 < p < 1. give the xx coordinate and ycoordinate correct to three decimal places. 1. Sketch the curve. [Answer : 9. The normal of the curve at the point A cuts the curve again at point B. b). Determine whether the stationary point is a minimum point or a maximum point. show that sin x + cos x dx2 dx 2 7.724 . b = 1 . 3) and (1 . Using the NewtonRaphson method to ﬁnd the real root correct to three decimal places.
6931. 4ekt + 1 3 5 (c) Show that k[1 − f (t)2 ] = 2f (t) and hence show that f (t) < 0 (d) Find lim f (t) t→∞ (1) (e) Sketch the graph of f . By using suitable substitution. Show that the gradient of the curve y = x is always decreasing.698 ] x+1 14. 3 real roots for k < − or k > ] 2 2 2 2 2 13. x2 − 1 Determine the coordinates of the point of inﬂexion of the curve. − ) is local max. 3 2. Hence. Sketch the curve. Show that 1 ln x dx = 1. ﬁnd 3x − 1 √ dx x+1 [Answer : 1 2(x + 1) 2 − 8(x + 1) 2 + C ] 3 1 4. [Answer : 27 ] 140 1 13 . [Answer : (0. 0. The function f is deﬁned by f (t) = (a) Find the value of f (0) (b) Show that f (t) > 0 4ekt − 1 where k is a positive constant. . 8 Integration e 1. 0) ∪ (1. Find the values of p and q. Show that 2 (x − 2)2 5 dx = + 4 ln x2 3 2 3 3. estimate the value of ln 2. If y = x ln(x + 1). (− 3. ( 3. 2 real root for k = ± .01 given that ln 2 = 0. √ √ √ 2 √ 2 √ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 real root for − <k< .Integration [Answer : Lee Kian Keong √ √ √ 3 3 √ 3 3 (0. 0) . evaluate 0 x2 (1 − x) 3 dx. ) is local min. ﬁnd an approximation for the increase in y when x increases by δx. 15. 0) is inﬂexion point . and state the intervals for which the curve is concave upwards. ∞) ] 16. where p = 0 at the point x = −1. [Answer : x + ln(x + 1) δx . Using an appropriate substitution. The line y + x + 3 = 0 is a tangent to the curve y = px2 + qx. (−1.
Sketch. The gradient of the tangent to a curve at any point (x. (b) sketch the curve. [Answer : 8. Given a curve y = x2 − 4 and straight line y = x − 2. (3 + 2 sin θ)2 [Answer : 1 ] 24 5. ln 2 ] x2 + 1 2−x 2 7. (b) determine the coordinate of their points of intersection. If the curve passes through the point (1. the curves y = ex and y = 2 + 3e−x Calculate the area of the region bounded by the yaxis and the curves. (d) π ] 2 5 (a) y = x 2 − 5x 2 . evaluate 2 + 1)(2 − x) 0 (x [Answer : x 1 3 + . π(36 ln 5 − 48) ] 11. on the same coordinates axes. [Answer : (b) (−1. [Answer : 10. evaluate 0 6. (a) sketch. −4). Sketch. x2 + 2 x dx. the curves y = 6 − ex and y = 5e−x . (d) ﬁnd the volume of the solid formed when R is rotated through 360◦ about the xaxis. Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves. Calculate the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the xaxis. dy 3x − 5 = √ . y) is given by x > 0. x+1 e [Answer : (a) x + 1 x 1 2 ln(x + 2) + C . on the same coordinate axes. Find (a) (b) x2 + x + 2 dx. on the same coordinate axes. [Answer : 14 2 ln 3 ] . (c) 3 1 20 √ 5] 5 9. B and C are constants. the curve and the straight line. (b) − x+1 + x+1 ] 2 e e (ln 5. and ﬁnd the coordinates of the points of intersection. 1) . 6 ln 5 − 8 . 0) . where dx 2 x (c) calculate the area of the region bounded by the curve and the xaxis. Express 2x + 1 Ax + B C in the form 2 + where A. (c) calculate the area of the region R bounded by the curve and the straight line. 3) . (c) 9 108 . Using the substitution u = 3 + 2 sin θ.Integration π 6 Lee Kian Keong cos θ dθ. (2. (x2 + 1)(2 − x) x +1 2−x 1 2x + 1 dx Hence. (a) ﬁnd the equation of the curve.
Find the particular solution of the diﬀerential equation ex dy − y 2 (x + 1) = 0 dx for which y = 1 when x = 0.Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong 1 12. Sketch on the same coordinates axis y = x and the curve y 2 = x. 2) . has a turning point at point (2. Calculate the volume of the solid formed by revolving the region about the xaxis. [Answer : 1. The curve y = x(b − x). ] 1 2 15. Find the coordinate of the 2 points of intersection. Determine the 2 values of a and b. Using trapezium rule. π ] 2 3 15 14.10) . Sketch on the same coordinate system these two curves. [Answer : a= 8 32 1 . Find the point of intersection of the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. Hence. 1). 4 64 .910 ] 9 Diﬀerential Equations 1. Calculate the area of the region bounded by the curves y = −x2 + 3x and y = 2x3 − x2 − 5x. (2. π ] 3 15 a 13. where a = 0. [Answer : (0. with ﬁve ordinates. Area=16 units . (2. express y in terms of x. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation x dy = y 2 − y − 2. evaluate 0 4 − x2 dx. Show that the substitution u = x2 + y transforms the diﬀerential equation (1 − x) into the diﬀerential equation (1 − x) du = −2u dx dy + 2y + 2x = 0 dx y= 2 + Ax3 ] 1 − Ax3 y= ex ] 2 + x − ex 15 . . [Answer : 2. 0) . 1 Find the area of region bounded by the line y = x and the curve y 2 = x.b=4. Calculate the area of the region bounded bt the xaxis and the curve. (4.2).0). [Answer : Point of intersection=(0. dx [Answer : 3. 2 Find the volume of the solid formed when the region is rotated through 2π radians about the yaxis.
A trainee infected with a ﬂu virus enrolls in the camp causing an outbreak of ﬂu. Express y explicity in terms of x in your answer. ﬁnd the general solution of the original diﬀerential equation. where A is an arbitrary constant.Diﬀerential Equations 4. The variables t and x are connected by dx = 2t(x − 1). dt where x = 1. Show that 2 d (ln tan x) = . dx x Hence. Assume that the outbreak of ﬂu begins at the time the infected trainee enrolls and no one leaves the camp during the outbreak. 3 4 [Answer : y= tan x ] 2 + tan x 8. dx sin 2x Hence.4) and sketch this solution curve. the form y = 1 + Ax2 Find the equation of the solution curve which passes through the point (1. [Answer : 6. show that the diﬀerential equation x2 2y dy + y2 = − dx x may be reduced to v2 dv = − 2. Find x in terms of t if x = 2 when t = 1. 16 . Using the substitution y = v . The rate of increase of the number of infected occupants x at t days is given by diﬀerential equation dx = kx(1000 − x) dt where k is a constant. The variables x and y. One of the rules at a training camp of 1000 occupants states that camp activities are to be suspended if 10% of the occupants are infected with a virus. dx x=e t2 −1 +1 ] Hence. ﬁnd the solution of the diﬀerential equation (sin 2x) for which y = dy = 2y(1 − y) dx y= 1 ] Ax2 − x y= 4x ] 2 − x2 1 1 when x = π. show that the general solution of the given diﬀerential equation maybe expressed in 2x . satisfy the diﬀerential equation x du = u2 − 2u. where x > 0. [Answer : 7. Lee Kian Keong [Answer : 5.
from the moment the water is put in the freezer until it becomes ice at 0◦ C. the water is placed in a freezer at −10◦ C to be frozen to ice. [Answer : Time = 4 hours 25 minutes ] (b) Q = 4 ] 11. [Answer : 10. The rate of change of water temperature is described by the diﬀerential equation dθ = −k(θ − θs ) dt where θ is the water temperature at time t. after one day. (a) Let Q be the amount of salt in the tank at time t minutes. θs is the surrounding temperature. There are 900 ﬁsh before the outbreak of the epidemic and only P 400 ﬁsh are alive after 6 weeks. Starting from time t = 0. A boiling water at 100◦ C is left to cool in kitchen that has a surrounding temperature of 25◦ C. solve the diﬀerential equation and sketch its solution curve. A 50 litre tank is initially ﬁlled with 10 litres of brine solution containing 20 kg of salt. and calculate the amount of salt in the tank at the instant overﬂow occurs. with a and b as constants. The rate of increase in the number of a species of ﬁsh in a lake is described by the diﬀerential equation dP = (a − b)P dt where P is the number of ﬁsh at time t weeks. 2 When the water reaches 50◦ C. Show that k = ln . 3 The water takes 1 hour to decrease to the temperature of 75◦ C. [Answer : (b) k = 1 ln 1000 999 195 . distilled water is poured into the tank at a constant rate of 4 litres per minute. The time taken for overﬂow to occur is 20 minutes. (c) Sketch the graph of Q against t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 20. where k > 0. the mixture leaves the tank at a constant rate of k litres per minute. Determine the length of time from the outbreak of the epidemic until all the ﬁsh of that species die. and b is the mortality rate. and k is a positive constant. (b) At a certain instant. there is an outbreak of an epidemic of a disease. 17 . 999 + e1000kt (b) Determine the value of k if it is found that. Show that the rate of change of Q is given by √ dQ Q k √ . there are ﬁve infected occupants (a) Show that x = (c) Determine the number of days before the camp activities will be suspended. =− dt 10 + (4 − k)t (b) Show that k = 4.Diﬀerential Equations Lee Kian Keong 1000e1000kt . (a) Assuming that P = P0 at time t = 0 and a > b. a is the rate of reproduction. The epidemic results in no more oﬀspring of the ﬁsh being produced and the ﬁsh die at a rate directly 1 proportional to . Find the time required. √ At the same time. (c) 5 ] 9.
which satisfy the equation sin3 x sec x = 2 tan x [Answer : θ 2t 1 − t2 3. 2 1 + t2 1 + t2 Hence. Find also the distance traveled by the particle between the ﬁrst and second times its acceleration is zero. prove that tan(A + B) = If 2x + y = π . ﬁnd the values θ between 0◦ and 360◦ that satisfy the equation 10 sin θ − 5 cos θ = 2 [Answer : 4. x = − 2 [sin(πt) − 3 cos(πt)] π π 2 4 −1 v = ± ms . Hence.8 . show that 4 tan A + tan B 1 − tan A tan B 1 − 2 tan x − tan2 x 1 + 2 tan x − tan2 x π √ π By substituting x = .9 . in ms−2 . where 0 ≤ x ≤ π. r > 0 and 0 < α < √ 36. 8 8 tan y = 18 . Find the velocities of the particle when its acceleration is zero for the ﬁrst and second times. ﬁnd the values of x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. Find the values of x. . [Answer : 2 cos x− π 3 .3 ] ◦ ◦ 0. 180 ] ◦ ◦ ◦ 2. Distance = 2 m ] π π 10 Trigonometry 1.π ] 4 4 .Trigonometry [Answer : (a) P = P0 e Lee Kian Keong (a−b)t . < x < 2π 3 6 6 ] 5. x: 2π 5π 11π <x< . Express 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ − α). Starting from the formulae for sin(A + B) and cos(A + B). solve the equation 4 sin θ − 3 cos θ = 3 for 0◦ < α < 360◦ . [Answer : v=− √ √ 1 1 [cos(πt) + 3 sin(πt)] . which satisﬁes the inequality √ 0 < cos x + 3 sin x < 1 3 sin x in the form r cos(x − α). where R > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ . Express cos x + π . show that sin θ = and cos θ = . π 3π . A particle moves from rest along a horizontal straight line. (b) 18 weeks ] 12. If t = tan . At time t s. the displacement and velocity of the particle are x m and v ms−1 respectively and its acceleration. show that tan = 2 − 1.9 ) . is given by √ dv = sin(πt) − 3 cos(πt) dt Express v and x in terms of t. 196. [Answer : 5 sin(θ − 36. 2 Hence. 73.
138. such that ∠P QR = 80◦ and ∠RP S = 30◦ as shown in the diagram below. where 0◦ < x < 360◦ . where r > 0 and 0◦ < α < 90◦ [Answer : √ 10 cos(θ − 71. The height of a vertical pole QB is k ang the angle of elevation of B from R is β. Show that h= k tan α cos θ tan β sin(θ − φ) √ 10. [Answer : 59. Hence. where θ and φ are acute. The points P . which satisfy the equation tan x + 4 cot x = 4 sec x. . Points A and B are in the side XY of triangle XY Z with XA = AB = BY . Q. in terms of π. Find. S are on the circumference of a circle. AB = BC = 10 cm. The top A of a tower P A is at height h above the plane and the angle of elevation of A from R is α. meet at T . Points C and D are on the sides Y Z and XZ respectively such that ABCD is a rhombus. with Q due west of R.0 ] ◦ 11 Geometry Deduction 1. Express cos θ + 3 sin θ in the form r cos(θ − α). ] 24 24 24 24 9. AD = CD = 8 cm and BD = 6 cm. Show that the line from C perpendicular to AB and the line from D perpendicular to AB meet at a point on AB. R. (a) Show that P R = P T 19 .Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong 6. [Answer : 41. Prove that ∠XZY = 90◦ 2.6 ) ] ◦ 7. In the tetrahedron ABCD. AC = 8 2 cm. Find all values of x. . calculate the angle between the face ABC and the face ABD. The triangle P QR lies in a horizontal plance. all the values of x between 0 and π which satisﬁes the equation tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x [Answer : π 5π 13π 17π . The bearings of P from Q and R are θ and φ respectively. The tangent to the circle at P and the chord RS which is produced.2 ] ◦ ◦ 8.8 .
Show that (a) ∠DBC = ∠BDE = 90◦ . Show that ∠ABC = ∠BAC. Each triangle has base angles measuring 75◦ . AXC and BY C are straight lines. AB and AC cut the circumference of the circle at X and Y respectively. (c) the quadrilateral BCED is a square. 5. with BC and DE parallel and equal in length. Prove that the triangles RP B and SQB are similar. where O is the centre of the circle AXY B. 4. The diagram below shows two intersecting circles AXY B and CBOX. (b) the triangle ACE is an equilateral triangle. Show that ∠CBX + ∠CY X = 180◦ If AB = AC. 3.Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong (b) Show that the length of the chord RS is the same as the radius of the circle. P AQ and RAS are straight lines. 20 . The diagram below shows two circles ABRP and ABQS which intersect at A and B. The diagram below shows two isosceles triangles ABC and ADE which have bases AB and AD respectively. 6. Vertices B and C of the triangle ABC lie on the circumference of a circle. show that BC is parallel to XY .
If AB = 4 cm. Hence. the point P lies on the side AC such that ∠BP C = ∠ABC. show that the areas of the triangles AT Q and BT C are in the ratio AT 2 : BT 2 .Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong 7. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. The lines AB and DC extended meet at the point E and the lines AD and BC extended meet at the point F . In the diagram.54 cm ] 2 8. If DA = DE. ∠CF D = α and ∠BEC = 3α. Show that triangles ADE and CBE are similar. determine the value of α. The tangents at the points A and B meet at a point C. The diagram above shows two intersecting circles AP Q and BP Q. [Answer : 6. 21 . where AP B is a straight line. Show that ACBQ is a cyclic quadrilateral. If the lines AQ and CB are parallel and T is the point of intersection of AB and CQ. Prove that an exterior angle of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the opposite interior angle. show that the triangles AT Q and BT C are isosceles triangles. [Answer : α = 18 ] ◦ 9. AC = 8 cm and BP = 3 cm. 10. Show that the triangles BP C and ABC are similar. ﬁnd the area of the triangle BP C. In the triangle ABC. The diagram below shows the circumscribed circle of he triangle ABC.
The angle bisector of the angle JT K cuts JL and JK at U and V respectively. The tangent to the circle at J meets the line KL extended to T . (c) Find the ratio CR : P C. (c) AP = AQ. 12. [Answer : (c) 1:2 ] 22 . A parallelogram ABCD with its diagonals meeting at the point O is shown in the diagram below. The angle bisector of the angle AT B at P m AB at Q and the circle at R.Geometry Deduction Lee Kian Keong The tangent to the circle at A meets the line BC extended to T . (b) P T · BT = QT · AT . Show that JV = JU . Show that (a) triangles AP T and BQT are similar. 11. The circumscribed circle of the triangle JKL is shown in the diagram below. AB is extended to P such that BP = AB. The line that passes through D and is parallel to AC meets P C produced at point R amd ∠CRD = 90◦ . (a) Show that the triangles ABD and BP C are congruent. (b) Show that ABCD is a rhombus.
however found that the wind seemed to be blowing with a speed of v2 from the direction N β ◦ W. 23 . At 1300 hours. (a) Draw the triangles of velocity of both situations tan α − 1 (b) Show that tan θ = 1 − cot β 2 2 (c) Express v2 − v1 in terms of u. m and n. If the angle between the vectors a = 2. (b) 1341 hours ] ◦ 3. from the direction N α◦ W. (a) Determine the direction in which the boat should be travelling in order to intercept the yacht. P and Q are the midpoints of OA. ∼ ∼ ∼ − − → −→ − Find the angle between vector OP and vector OQ [Answer : 53. When a ship is cruising eastwards with a speed of u.6 W . A yacht is sailing northwards at a speed of 10 knots. CA and AB respectively of the triangle ABC. The lines AP and BQ meet at the point G. the captain of the ship. and AC respectively. with respect to the origin O. CA. OB. BC. A boat is travelling at a speed of 30 knots. [Answer : nAB − mnBC + mCA ] 2 2 2 5. and R are the midpoints of the sides BC. Position vectors of the points P and Q relative to the origin O are 2 i and 3 i + 4j respectively. B and C. Q. where AG = mAP and BG = nBQ. (b) a + b + c ] 2 2 4 4 4 4. [Answer : −2uw(sin θ + cos θ) ] 6. Express AX 2 in terms of AB. When the ship is cruising north with a speed of u.1 ] ◦ 7. where m + n = 1. the point X divides BC internally in the ratio m : n. The points L. the boat is 14 nautical miles to the northeast of the yacht. ﬁnd the value of p. (b) At what time does the interception occur? [Answer : (a) S 58. 1 1 (a) Show that the position vector of any point on the line LM is a + λ(b + c − a) some 2 2 scalar λ. and express the position vector of any point on the line P Q in terms of a. the captain of ship found that the wind seem like blowing with a speed of v1 . The position vectors of the points A. In triangle ABC. b and c.Vectors Lee Kian Keong 12 Vectors 4 8 and b = 1 p is 135◦ . M . (b) Find the position vector of the point of intersection of the line LM and the line P Q. The points P . are a. [Answer : (a) 1 1 1 1 1 b + µ(a + c − b) . Wind is blowing with a speed of w from the direction of N θ◦ W. BC. w and θ. b and c respectively. [Answer : − 1 ] 3 1.
for any value of x. A canal of width 2a has parallel straight banks and the water ﬂows due north. (b) sketch the actual path taken by the swimmer. 40 m north of B ] 11. show that dy v0 x2 = 1− 2 . the speed of the current in the middle of the canal is 10 ms−1 and the speed of the swimmer is 2 ms−1 relative to the current in the canal. (a) ﬁnd the distance of the swimmer from O when he is at the middle of the canal and his distance from B when he reaches the east bank of the canal. The position vectors of the points A. The resultant force has magnitude 3p N. vc . dx vr a If the width of the canal is 12 m. where i and j are perpendicular unit vectors. C and D. Let u = cos φ i + sin φ j and v = cos θ i + sin θ j. Taking y to denote the distance northwards travelled by the swimmer. −5i − 3j.relative to an origin. where CG = CR. (b) Determine the value of x for which ABCD is a rectangle. where v0 is the speed of the current in the middle of the canal and x is the distance eastwards from the middle of the canal. 3 Lee Kian Keong 8. (x − 3)i − 6j and (x + 3)i respectively. Calculate the value of p and determine the angle between the resultant force and OA. (a) Show that. are i + 3j. The xaxis and yaxis are taken in the east and north directions respectively with O as the origin. is given by vc = v0 1 − x2 a2 . A swimmer swims from A towards the east at speed vr relative to the current in the canal. A force of magnitude 2p N acts along the line OA abd a force of magnitude 10 N acts along √ the line OB. [Answer : 30 ] ◦ 9. 3 3 2 (b) Show that CR meets AP and BQ at G. with the point O as the midpoint of AB. Show that 1 1 u − v = sin (φ − θ) 2 2 10. The angle between OA and OB is 120◦ . The points A and B are on opposite banks and B is due east of A. The speed of the current in the canal.Vectors − → 1 − − → 1 − → − → − − → 1− → (a) Show that AG = mAB + mAC and AG = (1 − n)AB + AC. [Answer : (b) x = 1 ] 24 . ABCD is a parallelogram. 2 2 2 2 2 Deduce that AG = AP and CG = CR. B. [Answer : (a) 20 m north of O .
If the points C. k = √ . ﬁnd CP : CQ . The mean and standard deviation of Physics marks for 25 school candidates and 5 private candidates are shown in the table below. The points P and Q lie on the diagonals BD and DF respectively of a regular hexagon ABCDEF such that BP DQ = = k. A and B. BD DF − − → − − → − − → −→ − Express CP and CQ in terms of k. a and b. − − → 2 1 (a) show that P Q = − a + b. The lines P Q and OB − → −→ − produced meet at the point R. nominally rated at 13 amperes.5 . P and Q lie on a straight line. A sample of 100 fuses. 25 . CP : CQ = 1 : 3 ] 3 13. [Answer : √ 1 − − → − − → CP = (2k − 1)b − ka . where AB = a and BC = b. The diagram above shows nonlinear points O. Hence. If OA = a and OB = b. with P on the line OA such that OP : P A = 2 : 1 and Q on the line AB such that AQ : QB = 2 : 3. relative to O. CQ = (1 − k)b − (1 + k)a .98 ] 2. 15 5 (b) ﬁnd the position vector of R. [Answer : 52.Data Description Lee Kian Keong 12. 6. are tested by passing increasing electric current through them. The current at which they blow are recorded and the following cumulative frequency table is obtained. School candidates 25 55 4 Private candidates 5 40 5 Number of candidates Mean Standard deviation Calculate the overall mean and standard deviation of the Physics marks. determine the value of k. in terms of b [Answer : (b) 4b ] 13 Data Description 1.
Find the mean number of defective electronic components per lot for the given 500 lots.318 4 0. Age in Years 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number of teenagers 4 10 27 110 212 238 149 [ Age 12 . 12. 12. 10 months ] 4. according to age. (b) For the lots with defective components of more than 5. [Answer : (b) 17 years 1 month .means age 12 and more but less than 13 years ] (a) Display the above data using histogram (b) Find the median and semiinterquartile range for the age of teenagers who patronize the recreation centre. The number of teenagers.148 5 0.054 2 0.4. positively skewed ] 3. 3 .58 . [Answer : 12. Numbers of defective components per lot Relative frequency 0 0.61 . Give your answer to the nearest months. The number of ships which anchor at a port every week for 26 particular weeks are as follows 32 26 28 27 43 38 21 42 35 18 19 37 25 50 45 46 35 23 32 40 18 20 26 29 30 46 (a) Display the data in a stemplot 26 .Data Description Currents (amperes) <10 <11 <12 <13 <14 <15 <16 <17 Cumulative frequency 0 8 30 63 88 97 99 100 Lee Kian Keong Calculate the estimates of the mean.7 ] 5. that patronize a recreation centre for a certain period of time is indicated in the following table. the mean number of defective components per lot is 6.042 1 0.014 6 or more 0. Comment on the distribution.032 (a) State the mode and the median number of defective electronic components per lot. (b) 2. The table below shows the number of defective electronic components per lot for 500 lots that have been tested. median and mode. [Answer : (a) 2 .65 .392 3 0.
11. x3 . where p < q. Find the ratio of the number of male to female students. (c) 41 . (b) Find the mean and standard deviation. 12.Data Description (b) Find the median and interquartile range (c) Draw a boxplot to represent the data Lee Kian Keong (d) State the shape of the frequency distribution. 16. 15 . q. [Answer : 1. 9. Calculate the of p and q. Time (x minutes) Number of students 2≤x<5 1 5≤x<8 2 8 ≤ x < 11 4 11 ≤ x < 14 8 14 ≤ x < 17 5 17 ≤ x < 20 2 (a) Draw a histogram of the grouped data. 5. for the numbers x1 .9 and ¯ 102. (b) Calculate estimates of the mean. [Answer : 2:3 ] 10. . have mean x = 6. 9 ] 7. xn with mean x. . (d) positively skewed ] The numbers 4. Use your calculations to justify your statement about the shape of the frequency distribution. The following data show the masses. [Answer : (b) 44 .50 .5 and 72. 23 69 48 22 51 42 25 46 39 23 37 52 41 41 38 40 37 59 20 68 88 59 (a) Display the above data in an ordered stemplot.71 ] 9. Comment on the shape of frequency distribution. and mode of the breakfast times.8 . [Answer : (b) 12.0 respectively. in kg. ¯ (x − x)2 = ¯ x2 − n¯2 x (x − x)2 = ¯ (b) 31 .23 . p. The mean mark for a group of students taking a statistics test is 70. 6.6. 15 . The masses (in thousands of kg) of solid waste collected from a town for 25 consecutive days are as follows: 41 48 53 33 44 46 55 55 48 49 57 50 27 50 52 38 47 53 39 50 51 43 49 56 52 51 . 7. . Show that. 12. (c) Find the median and interquartile range. (e) State whether the mean or the median is more suitable as a representative value of the above data. . 5. The mean marks for male and female students are 68.9. x2 . (e) median ] 8. Justify your answer. of ﬁsh caught by 22 ﬁshermen on a particular day. 12. Give a reason for your answer [Answer : 6. The times taken by 22 students to breakfast are shown in the following table. median. (d) Draw a boxplot to represent the above data.
(d) 4.194 195 . ﬁnd the probability that both of them are doctors. (b) Calculate estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the levels of the metal dust. (d) Find the percentage of days for which the workplace is considered unsafe. 855 2618 33 68 (b) Given that two women are selected. Lee Kian Keong (e) Comment on the shape of the distribution and give a reason for your answer.7 .179 180 .4375) 28 . The workplace is considered safe if the level of the metal dust is less than 198 µ g m−3 . (c) Calculate the mean and standard deviation. 70% of mangoes and 60% of papayas are ripe. (c) 184. (c) 48. Hence. Metal dust level (µ g m−3 ) 170 . (b) Find the median and interquartile range.44% ] Number of days 8 11 25 22 15 7 2 14 Probability 1.Probability (a) Construct a stemplot to represent the data. If 40% of the fruits in the basket are mangoes. 2. (d) Draw a boxplot to represent the data. [Answer : (b) 50 . (0. Four participants from this group are selected randomly to chair some sessions of panel discussion. (b) ﬁnd the percentage of the ripe fruits which are mangoes. estimate the median and the interquartile range.97 ] 11.22 .64) (0. [Answer : (b) 185 . In a basket of mangoes and papayas.174 175 .199 200 .4 .8 . (c) Plot a cumulative frequency curve of the above data. The level of the metal dust at the workplace is recorded at a particular time of day for a period of 90 consecutive working days.184 185 . (a) Find the probability that three doctors are selected. 6 . The number of women doctors and that of women engineers are 12 and 5 respectively. There are 20 doctors and 15 engineers attending a conderence. 9. 5.189 190 . Overexposure to a certain metal dust at the workplace of a factory is detrimental to the health of its workers. The results are summarised in the table below. (a) ﬁnd the percentage of the fruits which are ripe.201 (a) State what the number 11 in the table means. 7.
three red balls and six white balls.(0. Three balls are selected at random from one blue ball. The probability that an accident occurs 5 1 1 at a particular corner of a road in that area is if it rains and if it does not rain.495) (b) If a male worker and a demale worker are randomly chosen. ﬁnd the 15 probability that at least one is red. (0. 40 4.0476) 7. (0. (a) If two workers are randomly chosen. ﬁnd the probability that exacly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary. 13 9. The probability that it rains in a certain area is . Show that the of A and B hitting the bull’s eye in each shot are 6 5 1 probability of archer A hitting the bulleye ﬁrst is . workers earning less than RM1000. Find 20 50 5 the probability that it rains if an accident occurs at the corner. There are 12 towels. with archer A taking the ﬁrst shot.Probability Lee Kian Keong 3.] 4 29 .00 a month and 17 female workers earning at least RM1000. The probabilities 1 1 and respectively. 2 1 8. At the end of the year. (0. two red taxis and ﬁve yellow taxis are parked there.00 whereas the others receive a month’s salary. If one blue taxi. ﬁnd the probability that both transistors are defective. There are eight parking bays in a row at a taxi stand. If ﬁve towels are chosen at random. 1 [Assume that a taxi may be parked at any of the parking bays. Two transistors are chosen at random from a batch of transistors containing ninety good and ten defective ones. (a) Find the probability that at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective. 22 5. Find 7 the probability that all the three balls selected are of the same color. Two archers A and B take turns to shot. ﬁnd the probability that two red taxis are parked next to each other. two of which are red. A factory has 36 male workers and 64 female workers.1909) (b) If at least one out of the two transistors chosen is defective.604) 6. ﬁnd the probability that exactly one worker receives a bonus of one month’s salary.00 are given a bonus of RM1000. with 10 male workers earning less than RM1000.00 a month.
7 12 13 24 11. 2. (b) Find P (Y − E(Y ) ≤ 30). digits. The discrete random variable X has the probability function P (X = x) = where k is a constant. . (a) Show that E(Yi ) = p and Var(Yi ) = pq. . (b) If X = Y1 + Y2 + . . . x = 1. (a) Determine the value of k and tabulate the probability distribution of X. y = 1. where i = 1. 0.0486) 15 Discrete Probability Distributions 1. . 3. . (b) the number contains exactly two nonzero. [Answer : 4. Comment on the distribution of X. b and 4 5 c respectively. 8 4 6 Lee Kian Keong 10. 30 . 19 ] 14 a= 1 1 1 . Find the probability that (a) the number begins or ends with 0.b= . 100 5050 (a) 1 . (0. . (b) 9 . binomial distribution ] 2. npq . b and c. is formed. (b) Find the probability that at least one of the events A and B occurs.19) (0. . A fourdigit number. + Yn . 2. Given that E(X) = and Var(X) = . (b) Find E(7X − 1) and Var(7X − 1). otherwise (a) Show that E(Y ) = 67 and ﬁnd Var(Y ). where q = 1 − p. ﬁnd the values of a. The independent random variable Yi . 1 and 2 with the probabilities of a. . in the range 0000 to 9999 inclusive.Discrete Probability Distributions 3 1 1 . (c) Find the probability that either one of the events A and B occurs. P (B) = and P (AB) = . . n. determine E(X) and Var(X). Two events A and B are such that P (A) = (a) Show that the events A and B are neither independent nor mutually exclusive. takes the values of 0 and 1 with the probabilities of q and p respectively. ] 6 3 2 k(4 − x)2 . The probability distribution function of the discrete random variable Y is P (Y = y) = y . 2. 3 9 [Answer : 3. 3. [Answer : (b) np. A discrete random variable X takes the values of 0.
7619 ] 9.5 and 3. [Answer : 0.00 per day. The random variable W is deﬁned by W = X − Y . The probability that a lemon sold in a fruit store is rotten is 0.5. (a) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in packets.5665) (160. out of ﬁve randomly chosen heard patients undergoing surgery. Using a suitable approximate distribution.02. The average daily demand for cars is four.93) (c) If the shop wishes to have one more car. (a) Find the probability that.7361 ] . [Answer : 35 ] 7. the additional cost incurred is RM20. at least four requests for cars are received. on a particular day. (a) Find E(W ) and Var(W ) (b) Give one reason why W is not a Poisson random variable. On the average.Discrete Probability Distributions [Answer : Lee Kian Keong (a) 561 . (a) Find the probability that. (b) 0. Find the probability that a packet chosen at random contains less than two seeds which do not germinate.97 ] 0. determine the maximum number of lemons per packet so that the probability that a packet chosen at random does not contain rotten lemons is more than 0. 31 (a) 0. (YES) 6.85. A total of 2000 persons are injected with the anaesthetic. four survive.3915 . [Answer : (a) 2 .0183) (0. it is found that a seed per packet does not germinate. Two percent of the bulb produced by a factory are not usable.85. (0. (b) Calculate the expected daily income received from the rentals.002. ii.5 respectively. ﬁnd the probability that more than 160 survive after surgery in a random sample of 200 heart patients. (b) Using a suitable approximate distribution. [Answer : 10. Find the smallest number of bulbs that must be examined so that the probability of obtaining at least one nonusable bulb exceeds 0. A car rental shop has four cars to be rented out on a daily basis at RM50. A type of seed is sold in packets which contain ten seeds each. The probability that a heart patient survives after surgery in a country is 0. The independent Poisson random variables X and Y have parameters 0. calculate the probability that more than two persons are allergic to the anaesthetic. The probability of a person allergic to a type of anaesthetic is 0. [Answer : 11. 4 ] 8.00 per car. i. Determine whether the shop should buy another car for rental. no cars are requested. (b) 4087 ] 5050 5.
0 ≤ x < 1. with 60% of the diskettes from manufacturer A. x < 0. 0 ≤ x ≤ 3 P (X > x) = 1 b − x. 10 ≤ x < 20.8795 ] 12. [Answer : 0. (c) Determine the expected value of X. (b) Calculate the probability that at least one of two independent observed values of X is greater than three. The diskettes are packed by the manufacturers in packets of tens. 32 (b) 23 ] 144 . f (x) = q − 0. otherwise.02. x ≥ 1. The probability density function is given by 0. 5 f (x) = 4 − x. express the total cost of repair in terms of X. 4x2 (a) Find the cumulative distribution function of X. 3 < x ≤ 4 2 with a and b as constants.1 and q = 0. The time to repair a certain type of machine is a random variable X (in hours). where p and q are constants. The continuous random variable X has probability density function 0. The probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer A is defective is 0. [Answer : (b) 7 . (b) Find the probability that the repair work takes at least 15 hours. (d) RM 2500 ] 8 2. and determine the expected total cost of repair. Continuous random variable X is deﬁned in the interval 0 to 4. A computer accessories distributor obtains its supply of diskettes from manufacturers A and B. 1 . [Answer : 3. ﬁnd using a suitable approximation.01x − p. 20 ≤ x ≤ 30.2558 ] 16 Continuous Probability Distributions 1. with 1 − ax. Find the probability that a randomly chosen packet contains exactly one defective diskette. the probability that a box chosen at random contains less than three rotten lemons.05 whereas the probability that a diskette produced by manufacturer B is defective is 0. [Answer : (a) 8 . (a) Show that p = 0.01x. (d) If the total cost of repair of the machine comprises a surcharge of RM500 and an hourly rate of RM100. (b) 0.Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong (b) If the lemons in the fruit store are packed in boxed each containing 60 lemons. 0.3. (c) 20 hours .
6 (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph (a) Show that a = (c) Find the probability density function of X (d) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of X. Lee Kian Keong [Answer : (d) 5 .190 ] 2 33 . 1.Continuous Probability Distributions 1 and b = 2.
(b) Find the probability. otherwise. 0. 1≤x≤b f (x) = 12 0. 100 [Answer : (b) k = 3 ] 2 (a) b = 4 . 25 3 f (x) = 25 (2x − 1). otherwise (a) Find the cumulative distribution function of T and sketch its graph. The continuous random variable X has the probability density function 4 x2 (3 − x). t > 0 f (t) = 8 0. determine the value of k. that a plant of that species randomly chosen has a lifespan of more than 20 days. (a) Sketch the graph of y = f (x) (b) Given that P (0 ≤ X ≤ k) = 13 . [Answer : 7. (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X and sketch its graph. 2 (b) 0. (c) Calculate the expected lifespan of that species of plant. The continuous random variable X has probability density function x−1 . (a) Calculate P X< 3 . 0 < x < 3. [Answer : 5. The lifespan of a species of plant is a random variable T (tens of days). [Answer : 6.Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong 4. (c) Calculate E(X). The probability density function is given by 1 1 e− 8 t . (a) Determine the value of b. (c) 80 days ] (b) Find the cumulative distribution function of X. f (x) = 27 0. The continuous random variable X has probability 1 (1 − 2x). (c) 14 ] 5 (a) 5 ] 16 density function 1 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 1 ≤x≤3 2 otherwise. 34 . to three decimal places.779 . otherwise where b is a constant.
Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong 8.96. (b) 0. calculate the expected number of tea bags which contain 1. the mean number of hours spent by this sample of students is between 11 hours and 15 hours. determine the mean and variance of Y . 2 12.1587 . In actual face. [Answer : (a) 0. (b) 2 .56 . (b) If Y = M − 2K. 0. where M represents the mass of a red water melon and K the mass of a yellow water melon.144 . Assuming that the mass of tea powder of each bag is normally distributed. The mass of a small loaf of bread produced in a bakery may be modelled by a normal random variable with mean 303 g and standard deviation 4 g. is less than 5 kg. A random sample of four arts students and six science students is chosen. It is known that P (X > 1169) ≤ 0. The lifespan of an electrical instrument produced by a manufacturer is normally distributed with a mean of 72 months and a standard deviation of 15 months.9774 ] 0. ﬁnd the probability that the mass of a red water melon selected at random is more than twice the mass of yellow water melon selected at random. Determine the range of the values of µ.0. [Answer : 0. and mean 15 hours and standard deviation 4 hours for science students. 35 . [Answer : 82 ] 14. Tea bags are labelled as containing 2 g of tea powder. 3. selected at random. ﬁnd the probability that a red water melon with mass less than 5 kg has mass less than 4 kg. The random variable X has a binomial distribution with parameters n = 500 and p = Using a suitable approximate distribution. 1.6687 ] 1 .95 g to 2. The mass of yellow water melon produced by a farmer is normally distributed with a mean of 4 kg and a standard deviation of 800 g. The random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 100. Assuming that X is the mean number of hours spent by these 10 students in a week. The number of hours spent in a library per week by arts and science students in a college is normally distributed with mean 12 hours and standard deviation 5 hours for arts students. (a) Find the probability that the mass of a red water melon. (b) ﬁnd the probability that in a given week. Hence.117 and P (X > 879) ≥ 0.10 g of tea powder in a box of 100 tea bags. Find the probability that a randomly chosen loaf has a mass between 295 g and 305 g. 0.1446 ] 13.8 . The mass of red water melon produced by the farmer is normally distributed with a mean of 6 kg and a standard deviation of 1 kg. [Answer : {µ : 995 ≤ µ ≤ 1050} ] 10. ﬁnd P (X − E(X) ≤ 25). Assuming that Y is normally distributed. [Answer : (a) 13.05 g and standard deviation 0.7814 ] 9.877.05 g. the mass of tea powder per bag has mean 2. [Answer : 11. (a) calculate E(X) and Var(X).
1% of the electrical instruments have to be replacedfree of charge. determine the greatest length of the gurantee period correct to the nearest month. [Answer : (a) 0.82% .Continuous Probability Distributions Lee Kian Keong (a) If the manufacturer guarantees that the lifespan of an electrical instrument is at least 36 months. (b) If the manufacturer speciﬁes that less than 0. calculate the percentage of the electrical instruments which have to be replacedfree of charge. (b) 25 months ] 36 .
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