FORM 2 The world through our senses 1.

Sensory organs Sensory organs Skin Nose Tongue Ear Eye Type of senses Touch Smell Taste Hearing Sight Stimuli detected Touch, temperature, pressure, pain Chemical in air Chemical in food Sound Light

2. Pathway from stimulus to response Stimulus → receptors→ nerves → brain →nerves → effectors → response 3. Sense of touch is the sense that is sensitive towards the touch pain, pressure, cold and heat. 4. The skin of human is divided into two layers, dermis and epidermis. 5. Types of receptors : – Pain receptor – Heat receptor – Pressure receptor – Cold receptor – Touch receptor 1. Sensitivity of skin depends of two factors: – Thickness of the epidermis – Number of receptors 1. Sense of smell is the sense that can detect stimuli produced by chemicals. 2. The sensitivity of nose depends of two factors: – The strength of the smell – The presence of mucus 1. The sense of taste is the sense that can detect stimulus produced by flavoured chemicals. 2. The tongue is the sensory organ for taste. 3. The tongue enables us to detect sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. 4. The surface has many taste buds. 5. The sense of hearing is the sense that can detect source of sound produced by vibrating object. 6. The function of each part of the ear a) Pinna – collects and directs sound wave into ear canal b) Ear canal – directs sound waves to the eardrum

The sense of sight is the sense that can detect light stimulus 2. Short-sightedness – Near object are seen clearly – Distant objects look blur . 3. The function of each part of the eye a) Sclera – maintains the shape of eyeball . 2. Light can be reflected. Light travels in a straight line. controls the size of the pupil f) Pupil – allows light to enter the eye and controls the size of the pupil g) Lens – refracts and focuses light onto the retina h) Ciliary muscle – changes the thickness of the lens i) Suspensory ligament – supports and holds the lens j) Vitreous homour – maintains the shape of the eyeball k) Aqueous humour – refracts and focuses light entering the eye l) Retina – detects light stimulus and changes it into impulse m) Optic nerves – transmit nerve impulses from the retina to the brain c) d) e) f) Light and sight 1. absorbs and prevent internal light reflection in the eye d) Conjunctiva – protects the cornea e) Iris – determines the colour of the eye. protects the eyeball b) Cornea – allow light to enter the eye . dispersed. focuses light onto the retina c) Choroid – supplies oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Defects of vision and corrections 1. the light will be deflected.Eardrum – vibrates and transfers sound waves to the ossicles Ossicle – intensify the vibration Eustachian tube – balances air pressure Oval window – transfer sound vibration from the middle ear to inner ear g) Cochlea – convert sound vibrations into nerve impulse h) Semicircular canals – detect position and movement of head to keep us stay balance i) Auditory nerves – transfer impulses from the cochlea to the brain 1. Light is a form of energy that can be detected by our eyes. This deflection is known as refraction of light. The rate of reflected light by a surface depends on the colour and nature of the surface. 4. refracted. 5. When light travels at an angle through a medium of different density.

3. Astigmatism is a problem of hazy vision caused by irregular surface of the cornea. The stereoscopic vision is a vision using both eyes at the front of the head. Stimuli and responses in plants Tropism . colour blindness. 3. Optical illusion occurs when the brain cannot interpret nerve impulses received properly. 5. Advantages of the stereoscopic vision : – Sees three-dimensional pictures of object – Enables more accurate estimation of distance and position Monocular vision is a vision by animals with eyes at the side of the head Advantages of the monocular vision : – Have a wide vision field – Cannot estimate distance accurately Sound and Hearing 1. astigmatism and blurred vision. Sound can be transferred through solids. 6. 1. 4. Astigmatism can be corrected with a cylindrical lens or through surgery. The blind spot is the place where the optic nerves leave the eyeball. liquids. 1. gases. 5. Sound is produced by the vibrations of objects and is a form of energy carried in the form of waves. Sound cannot be transferred trough a vacuum. Surface that are smooth. Colour blindness is a hereditary defect. 7. 2. 2. even and hard are good sound absorbers and produce weak echo. – Eyeball is too long or big – Eye lens is too thick – Image is formed in front of the retina – Wear glasses with concave lens Long-sightedness – Distant objects are seen clearly – Near objects look blur – Eyeball too short or small – Eye lens is too thin – Image is formed behind the retina – Wear glasses with convex lens Defects of the eye include blindness. 2. Sound can be reflected or absorbed by the surface of an abject.1. 4.

5. Growth of a part of a plant towards an external stimulus is known as positive tropism while growth away from an external stimulus is known as negative tropism. Types of tropism : a) Phototropism b) Geotropism c) Hydrotropism d) Thigmotropism 1. Plants cannot move from one place to another but can move towards a stimulus. 5. Tendrils of plants show : – Positive thigmotropism – Negative hydrotropism Nutrition 1. hydrogen and oxygen. 2. 3. 2. Phototropism is the response of a plant towards light stimulus. water. 2. Ration of hydrogen to oxygen is 2 : 1 . The movements of plants are influenced by stimuli such as light. chemical substances and contact with external objects. 4. Classes of food – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Fats – Vitamins – Water – Fibre – Minerals 1. Tropism is the growth in parts of a plant in response towards or away from an external stimulus. Thigmotropism is the response of plants towards touch. Shoots of plants show : – Positive phototropism – Negative phototropism 1. Hydrotropism is the response of plants toward water. 3. Geotropism is the response of plants toward gravitational pull. 6. Roots of plants show : – Positive phototropism – Positive geotropism 1. Tropism involves tips of shoots and roots of plants.1. 4. Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon. gravity.

4. 3. 4. Function of carbohydrates : a) To supply energy b) As stored food in animal and plant cells Food test for carbohydrates : a) The presence of starch can be tested by iodine solution. and finally a brick-red precipitate is formed. The ration of hydrogen to oxygen is more than 2 : 1. Starch food such as bread. b) A red coagulation is formed when food containing proteins is heated together with Million’s reagent. milk. Proteins are nutrients containing carbon. . 3. galactose b) Disaccharide [ made up of two units of simple sugars ] Example – lactose. 1. Cellulose such as those found in the plant cell walls. sugar cane. sucrose c) Polysaccharide [ made up of many units of simple sugars ] Example – starch. fruits. The basic unit of proteins is amino acid. glocuse solution for two minutes. orange. Some proteins also contain sulphur and phosphorus. Function of fats: a) As a rich source of energy 1. galactose.3. The basic unit of fats is fatty acids combined with glycerol. oxygen and nitrogen. When Benedict’s solution is heated gently in a water bath. 1. b) The presence of glucose. 4. the solution changes colour gradually from light blue to green. 2. cellulose (fibre) 1. lactose and maltose can be tested with Benedict’s solution or Fehling’s. hydrogen. the solution changes to dark blue or blue-black. hydrogen and oxygen. When the iodine is dripped onto a starch solution. maltose. glycogen. rice. potatoes. 1. yellow. fructose. Carbohydrates can be divided into three types based on the number of simple sugars in the molecules: a) Monosaccharide [ made up of one unit of simple sugar ] Example – glucose. 3. 2. Fats are compounds that contain carbon. Sugary food such as honey. 2. Carbohydrates are formed from simple molecules known as simple sugars. Function of protein: a) For the growth of the body b) For formation of new cells c) To synthesise other protein compounds d) To provide energy Test for proteins: a) The test for the presence of proteins in food samples is known as Million’s test.

and zinc. Function of water: a) As a solvent for chemicals b) As a transport medium c) To regulate and maintain body temperature d) To regulate pressure of body fluids e) As lubricant to reduce friction between joints of bones f) To assist smooth peristalsis. 3. The SI unit to measure the amount of energy in food is joule (J). g) As moist substance in cells. Water is expelled from the body through physiological processes such as perspiration. 1. Water makes up about three quarters or 70% of our body weight. Fibre is important to encourage peristalsis in intestines and ensure the smooth movement of food substances as well as facilitate defecation. Vitamins are organic compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen. 2. 3. Test for fats: a) The test for the presence of fats in food samples is known as the alcohol – emulsion test. 6. urination and defecation. Fibre is the part of food that cannot be digested by our body. The lack of fibre can cause faeces to store in the large intestines for a long period time. A balanced diet is important to: . 2. Calorie is defined as the amount of heat needed to increase 1g of water by 1°C at 1 atmospheric pressure. A cloudy white (milk-like) emulsion indicates the presence of fats or oils. 2. nitrogen. Some vitamins also contain oxygen. b) A few drops of ethanol are added to a very small amount of fats and mixture is shaken vigorously to dissolve fats. Fibre is made up of cellulose that exists as the main building material in the plant cell walls. 1. respiration. tissues and internal organs. E. 1. b) As a heat insulator c) As a solvent for vitamin A. An equal amount of distilled water is added. Factors that determine a person’s balanced diet: a) Age b) Body size c) Sex d) Occupation e) Climate f) State of health The amount of energy in food is known as calorie. this condition is called constipation. d) Prevent the loss of water. D. It is difficult to get rid of faeces that have turned dry and hard in the large intestines. 7. 8. 4. 5. cobalt. 4. and K.1. Minerals are inorganic substances present in the form of ions.

stomach and small intestine 10. bile from the gall bladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. chime is mixed with two types of secretions. Physical digestion involves the break down of large pieces of food into smaller pieces by physical action of chewing and grinding by the teeth. Chemical digestion is the process of breaking down complex food into simpler form by chemical means. 4. c) Lipase to break down fat. The digestive system breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. 3.1. They are duodenum. jejunum and ileum. the stomach wall will secrete gastric juice that contains hydrochloric acid. b) Protease to break down proteins. Digestion is said to take place if food is found in the alimentary canal. 3.There are three types of digestive enzymes: a) Amylase to break down starch. 1. 6. proteins into amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The small intestine is made up three parts. This condition is known as malnutrition. Saliva softens the food particles and shapes them into a lump called bolus. a) Maintain optimum health of the body b) Ensure body growth c) Repair and replace old or damaged tissues d) Ensure sufficient energy for the body according to its needs Diet imbalance in the long run causes a person to contract deficiency disease. 9. The small intestine secretes enzymes to complete the digestion of food and absorption of digestive products. The passage of food in the alimentary canal is as follows: Mouth → oesophagus → stomach → small intestine → large intestine → rectum → anus 6. 7. Digestion is a process of breaking down large or complex food molecules into simpler and smaller soluble molecules that are readily absorb by the body. 4. proteases and water. Chemical digestion in the alimentary canal occurs in the mouth. 8. 5. 2. Digestion in the body is carried out by specific system known as the digestion system. 2. In the duodenum. 5. Bile is directed into the duodenum from the gall bladder via the bile duct. . Bile is a yellow-greenish liquid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. When the food enters the stomach.

Starch Pancreatic amylase maltose . It is alkaline because it contains sodium hydrogen carbonate salt. This aims to increase the surface area of fats for the action of enzymes as well as accelerate the digestion of fats. Function of enzymes in the pancreatic juice: a) Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch into maltose. Bile also emulsifies fats that are it breaks up fats into smaller droplets by reducing the surface tension of fat droplets. Bile neutralizes acids in the stomach and provides an alkaline medium for the action of enzymes from the pancreatic juice and small intestine. 8. Bile does not contain enzyme.7. This process is known as breakdown of fats or emulsion. 9.

4. e) Lactose breaks down lactose into galactose and glucose. The small intestine has special adaptability characteristics to increases its efficiency in the process of absorption. 2. vitamins and minerals will be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine by diffusion. 1. Biodiversity 1. 6. 3. Proteins Protease polypeptides 1. Villi also contain many blood capillaries and lacteals to increase the absorption of products of digestion. Products of digestion. 5. This process is known as absorption. Invertebrates : – Without backbones – Main support is exoskeleton and fluid pressure . 3. Undigested substances such as fibre will be converted into faeces before being expelled from the anus by defecation. b) Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. c) Maltase breaks down maltose into glucose. Animals can be divided into vertebrates and invertebrates. Vitamins and minerals are not digested in the alimentary canal as they exist in their simple original forms. Food must be handled with care to prevent food poisoning and to retain nutrients. Fat Lipase Fatty acids + Glycerol c) Protease breaks down proteins into polypeptides.b) Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. 7. A classification system is required to group living things methodically because of their large number and types. 1. Villi increase the surface area to speech up the absorption process. d) Sucrose breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose. Function of enzymes in intestinal juice: a) Protease breaks down polypeptides into amino acids. 2. The surface area for absorption is about 40m². Vertebrates : – With backbones – Main support is endoskeleton which consists of bones.

reptiles. 2.1. amphibians. The characteristics of vertebrates are as follows : Classes of vertebrates Fish (Pisces) Characteristics – Live in fresh water or sea water – Body is covered with slimy scales – Fins and tails are used to swim and balance the body – Breathe through gills – Cold-blooded – Lay eggs – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Mammals – – – – – Can live on land and in the water Have moist and exposed skin Cold-blooded Lay eggs Have webs Do not have external ears Have dry and scaly skin Most lay eggs Cold-blooded Breathe through lungs Have one type of teeth Teeth are sharp and cone-shaped Live on land Covered with feather Feathers are waterproof and can trap heat to keep the body warm Can swim Can fly Lay eggs Warm-blooded Breathe through lungs Do not have teeth but use beak to peck Hard scaly legs and sharp claws Most live on land Cover with hair or fur Skin has sweat glands Warm blooded Breathe through lungs Amphibians Reptiles Birds . birds and mammals. Vertebrate can be divided into five groups. namely fish.

paddy 1. Species is a group of organisms that have common characteristics that can breed among themselves to produce fertile offspring. Monocotyledons – Seed has one cotyledon – Fibrous root system. guava tree 1. 2. Interdependence among living organisms and the environment 1. bougainvillea. Flowering can be divided into two groups. which consists of many roots of equal size – Leaves have parallel veins – Stem is non-woody and soft – Example : wild grass. Plants can be classified according to their common characteristic. Classification of plants by common characteristics: a) Grow on land b) Grow in water c) Woody stem d) Shrub e) Flowering f) Non-flowering g) Have seeds h) Have spores i) Net-veined leaves j) Parallel-veined leaves 1. the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. Non – flowering need to reproduce through spores. 3. 3. Cotyledon is the main seed leaf for the germination of new seedlings. 3. Invertebrates are animals without backbones. balsam plant. which consists of small roots that branch out of one main root – Leaves have net veins – Stem is woody and hard – Examples: rose tree. Plants can be divide into flowering and non-flowering 2. Population is a group of organisms of the same species living in the same habitat. orchid. . sugarcane. maize. Dicotyledons – Seed has two cotyledons – Tap root system.1. 4. 2. Cotyledon contain starch as food for the seeds that are unable to make their own food 5. palm trees. Ecology is the study of relationship between living things as well as the relationship between living things and the environment. angsana tree.

water. 5. Competition takes place when organisms living in the same area compete to obtain common needs such as shelter. There are different types of interactions. 9. such as prey-predator.4. Examples of interdependence between living things are: a) Supply of gases b) Sources of food c) Shelter 1. Preys are organisms hunted by the predators for food. Living organisms are interdependent. Predators are organisms that hunt and eat other organisms for food. – Mutualism →A relationship in which both organisms benefit. 6. A community consists of several types of interdependent populations of organisms living together in one habitat. All organisms living in a habitat interact to maintain the balance in the habitat. 1. 2. Biological control is a method to control the number of a pest organism [prey] by using its predator. 4. symbiosis and competition. or light. The stronger organism will dominate an area and the smaller or weaker one will be eliminated or die. food. Habitat is the natural are where an organism lives and reproduces. Organism obtains food and protection from their habitats. 2. 6. – Parasitism →A relationship in which one organism benefits but the organism that is harmed is the host. Competition occurs when the common needs in an ecosystem are limited. mate. Living things and non-living things interact with one another to maintain a balanced ecosystem. . Interaction is important for the survival of living things. 8. →The parasite lives on or inside its host body and obtains nutrients from the host. 5. Examples of symbiosis are: – Commensalism →A relationship in which one organism [the commensal] benefits and the other [the host] is not affected. 3. →The organism that benefits is the parasite and the organism that is harmed is the host. 7. Ecosystem is made up of organisms that interact with one another as well as with non-living things in their surroundings. 3. 7. minerals. 4. Symbiosis is any close relationship or interaction between two organisms of different species.

5. Carbon Water + Dioxide Light Chlorophyll Glucose + Oxygen 9.Consumers can be divided into three types: a) Primary consumers b) Secondary consumers c) Tertiary consumers 1. Decomposers are microorganisms that break down tissues of dead organisms into simpler substances. 4. 6. Green plants are known as producers because they can make their own food by using carbon dioxide. A pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms at each stage of a food chain. A food chain shows the relationship between food and organisms in an ecosystem. consumers and decomposer according to their relationships in term of sources of food. 9.Carbon cycle is the continuous cycle of taking and returning carbon in the form of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Primary consumers are consumers that feed directly on plants and are normally herbivorous animals or omnivorous animals.Consumers are usually animals cannot make their own food. Producers are organisms that can manufacture their own food 8. Water and solution . Secondary consumers are consumers that feed on primary consumers. 11. water and energy from sunlight. 6. 2.5. 8. Tertiary consumers are consumers that feed on secondary consumers. Organisms can be classified as producers. 7. 7. 10. Scavengers feed on dead plants and animals and break them down into smaller parts. Oxygen cycle is the continuous process of taking and returning oxygen into the atmosphere. 3. Biological control is better compared to chemical control [use of pesticides] because it is non-toxic and does not harm other organism which is not pests. Photosynthesis is a process in which green plants manufactures food from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. Consumers are organism that obtain food from other organisms 10.

Electrolyte is added into the water to increase the conductivity of water and to speed up the process of electrolysis. 2. 7. Liquid mixtures can be classified into solutions and suspensions. The way of breaking water using electrical energy is known as electrolysis. Kinetic theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave. There are three types if solutions: a) Dilute solution b) Concentration solution c) Saturated solution Dilute solution is produced when a little solute is dissolved in a solvent A concentrated solution is produced when a lot of solute is dissolved in a solvent. 2. 3. 3. There are two types of electrodes: a) Anode [positive electrode] b) Cathode [negative electrode] Water is formed from two elements: hydrogen and oxygen Oxygen is released at the anode. Evaporation is the process of liquid changing into water vapor at any temperature lower than the boiling temperature of the liquid. The volume of hydrogen is twice the volume of oxygen. liquid and gas. A saturated solution is produced when the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solvent until no more solute can be dissolved. 4. Solution is a product of mixture formed when a solute dissolves in a solvent. 4. Hydrogen is released at the cathode. depending on the nature of the solute and its liquid solvent. 6. 3. 1. Water can exist in three states. 3. O. the ratio of the volume of hydrogen to oxygen in one water molecule is 2 : 1 A water molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. 5. Factors affecting the rate of evaporation: a) Humidity of air decreases b) Surrounding temperature rises c) Surface area of water d) Air movement Solute is a substance that can dissolve in a liquid. Water changes blue cobalt chloride paper to pink. 1. Water changes white anhydrous copper sulphate to blue. Water is a compound. the components of water can only be broken down chemically. Therefore. 2. 7. So. Electrode is an electric conductor in the form of a plate or a rod immersed into water.1. 4. 2. 9. 6. the formula for water is written as H. solid. 8. Solvent is a liquid that dissolves a substance. Therefore. 5. 1. . 4.

. A suspension is the mixture obtained when a substance is suspended in a liquid and does not dissolve in it. the more hydroxide ions in the solution. 6. and other salt 1. the greater the alkalinity of the alkali. Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature to produce a saturated solution. the fewer the hydrogen ions in the solution. water. Rate of dissolving a) Size of solute particles b) Rate of stirring c) Temperature of solvent d) Volume of solvent e) Water is known as the universal solvent because it can dissolve most substance. The properties of acids: a) Have a sour taste b) Have a corrosive nature c) Have pH values less than 7 d) Reacts with metals e) Changes a moist litmus paper from blue to red Acid = metal → hydrogen = salt f) Reacts with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide. g) Turns lime water cloudy 1. 7. e) Reacts with ammonium salts to produce ammonia gas. water and other salts. 1.5. Mass of solute (G) Solubility = Volume of solvent (100ml) 8. The properties of alkalis: a) Taste bitter and smooth like soap b) Have a corrosive nature c) Have pH values of more than 7 d) Changes moist litmus paper from red to blue. The greater the pH value. A solution is the mixture obtained when a substance dissolves in a liquid. 2. so the acidity of the acid also decrease. The greater the pH value. Acid base indicators are chemical substances that show colour changes in acidic and alkaline solutions. 3.

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f°¾¯  .

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