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# Hydraulics Laboratory

Experiment Report

## Date: 6 November, 2006

Objectives:
• To use the Venturi Meter and the Orifice Meter to measure the rate
of discharge.
• To determine the coefficient of discharge Cd for both the Venturi
Meter and the Orifice Meter.

Theory:
A Venturi meter and an Orifice are both instruments used for measuring
the rate of discharge for a fluid flowing in a pipe.
These instruments are based on the same principle which states the
following:

## "The pressure difference between any two points on a tapering

pipe through which the fluid is flowing depends on the change
of levels and on the change in velocities and therefore on the
volume rate of flow"

Where the flow is led to narrow cross section, at which the velocity
increase and hence a fall in the pressure occur.
A Venturi Meter consists of a short converging conical tube leading to a
cylindrical portion, called the throat, of smaller diameter of that of the
pipeline, which is followed by a diverging section in which the diameter
increases again to that of the main pipeline
An Orifice Meter consists of an orifice plate which has an opening in it
smaller than the internal diameter of the pipeline, placed in a flange
connecting the two portions of the pipeline.

The equation to be used to fine Q theoretical for the pipe line can be
found as follows:

## This can be written on the form;

Actually the discharge rate occurring in the pipe is smaller for the
calculated theoretical values; that’s why a coefficient of discharge is to be
evaluated for each instrument to be used then to calculate the actual rate
of discharge:

## Where Q actual in the experiment is calculated by;

The value of Cd is usually less than 1, for the Venturi Meter it is close to
one, and for the Orifice it is about 0.65, due to the larger losses in the
case of Orifice meter.

Apparatus:
• Hydraulic bench
• Venturi Meter
• Orifice Meter
• Rota Meter
• Peizometers connected to several points on both meter

Procedures:
1. Provide water to the hydraulic bench.
2. Take readings of volume vs. time to calculate the rate of discharge.
3. Take reading to the heads in the required Peizometers.
4. Repeat the past procedures with increasing the discharge rate each
time by using the valve.
Conclusions:
• For both meters it was noted from plots that the difference in
pressures are directly related to the rate of discharge.
• Coefficient of discharge have a varying value depending on the
rate of discharge, where in the Venturi meter the value of Cd
increase gradually at first with increasing the rate of discharge till a
point approaching one, then started to descend with further
increment in the rate of discharge. For the Orifice meter the same
scheme was noticed but with the ultimate value of 0.7.
• The Coefficient of discharge " Cd " for the Venturi Meter was
greater than that for the Orifice Meter, which indicates that the
head losses occurred in the Orifice are larger that them in the
Venturi, this result was predicted theoretically.
• When the Head losses where plotted with the discharge rate, the
following results were accomplished;

##  The head losses increased as the rate of discharge

increased for both meters.
 When the rate of discharge was taken to be the
theoretical value, an unexpected result was obtained
that the head losses for the Venturi meter were larger
than them for the Orifice which is not possible.
 The actual rate of discharge was taken the relation was
corrected some how.

## • A practical error in taking the reading was noticed when the Cd of

that reading was calculated, which showed increasing value of Cd
of the previous results.
• The arrangement of Orifice Meter is much economical than the
use of the Venturi meter, but as seen in this experiment the Venturi
meter provide more accurate results that the Orifice meter, So the
choice of which to use in a specified laboratory depends on the
financial ability of the organization occupying the device and on
the accuracy needed.