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Phases_and_Methods_of_Community_Organization_1

Phases_and_Methods_of_Community_Organization_1

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08/04/2012

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Please remember the Padikaathavan Film bunch dialogue “Yengalai paarthavudan

pidikkaathu. Paarkkap, paarkkathaan pidikkum” Just like that Padikkap
padikkathan community organization puriyum, pidikkum.
O0dOu LßûggOLG LlLddßó. Lßûdd LßûddggßG LlLd@u. =ó ußg|û
¨Community organization" 9 LLddL LLddggßG LlLd@u. LLddL LLddL Lûüu.
dugg|0 dß0 d0dd 0Ldd 0Ldd Lûüu . GO0 Ou|OuüßG Oþ| OO0du
MmLLó ußg|û MgûüOl0O0.
Methods of
Fact Finding / Problem Identification / Need Assessment
& Related Activities
Compiled by
S.Rengasamy
Madurai Institute of Social Sciences

Phases in community organization. Study, Analysis, Assessment, Decision Making, Organization,
Action, Evaluation, Modification and Continuation. Tools and techniques used in various phases.
Methods of negotiation and conflict resolution. Skills required to handle the community organization
methods.


Social Work students are familiar with phases studied in various methods – Case work (intake, study,
diagnosis, treatment, follow up, termination), Group work (planning phase, beginning phase, middle phase,
ending phase). Phases or steps again repeated in welfare administration, social policy, project planning.
Phases are integral part in acquisition of knowledge or carrying out action. Phases are rational – that aid in
making rational decisions. It is inappropriate to use the terminology of diagnosis and treatment in community
organization, instead we use analysis and decision making / deciding to act. But both the processes are
similar. If the students understand these underlying similarities, it will be easy for them to internalize it.
In case work and group work the phases can be described neatly. As a method moves from individualstic to
collectivistic, one cannot confine the phases in a standard phraseology. In community organization and social
policy, description of phases is complex and differs from author to author, reflecting the complex and
diversified nature of the subject matter.
For example in community organization study is used alternatively as fact finding, problem identification,
need assessment, asset mapping, social analysis, opportunity assessment etc. Each alternative has its own
value orientation and methodological specification. Fact finding and problem identification may look similar,
but the usage of problem identification is neutral or academic in nature when compared with fact finding. But
the usage of these different terminologies is not to confuse the learners but to catch the reality – complex,
diversified and risk prone nature of the community life.
Besides these, there is multitude of methodologies available to use in every phase. The conventional survey,
different tools in PRA/ PLA, PPGIS, mapping of different types are some of the methods used by the
community organizers to explore the communities.
Phases in Community Organization
Phase
Any distinct time period in a sequence of events; A short unit of time, or an episode of development
or change, usually within the context of a longer period. The term has been used informally
Study:
Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection:
The cultivation of a particular branch of learning, science, or art: the study of law; personal effort to
gain knowledge: to understand community;
Something studied or to be studied: research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject,
phenomenon, etc.: She made a study of the village.
Analysis
Analysis (from Greek "a breaking up") is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into
smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it.
Assessment
Classification of someone or something with respect to its worth; appraisal; the act of judging or
assessing a person or situation or event; judgment
Decision Making
The act of making up your mind about something, or a position or opinion or judgment reached after
consideration.
And when people ordinarily consider their own definition of decision making, it is typical that they
consider that somehow it is a thinking process, with lots of mental activity involved in choosing
between alternatives.
But this doesn't include the way some people make decisions. You may have heard people saying
I have a gut feeling; I know in my heart: I feel it in my bones
Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and
preferences of the decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be
considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible
but to choose the one that (1) has the highest probability of success or effectiveness and (2) best fits
with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.
Decision making is the process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt about alternatives to
allow a reasonable choice to be made from among them. This definition stresses the information-
gathering function of decision making. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than
eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute certainty because complete knowledge about
all the alternatives is seldom possible. Thus, every decision involves a certain amount of risk.
Organization
Orderly arrangement of group effort; An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective
goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its
environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word (organon) meaning tool. The term is
used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways.
Action A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something;
exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one
body by another; agency; activity; operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action.
Modification
partial or slight change in form; product of such a change; slight reduction; moderation;
change in an organism caused by its environment and not inheritable

What is community organizing?
Community organizing is a long-term approach where the people affected by an issue are supported in
identifying problems and taking action to achieve solutions. The organizer challenges those he or she works
with to change the way things are—it is a means of achieving social change through collective action by
changing the balance of power. The tactics and strategies employed by the organizer are similar to the
processes of leadership including timing the issue, deliberate planning, getting the attention of the populace,
framing the issue in terms of the desired solution, and shaping the terms of the decision-making process.
Why use community organizing?
"A single bracelet does not jingle"- African proverb
Community organizing helps to bring out many voices to add collective power and strength to an issue.
Community organizing is a key part of an overall strategy to make changes in a community that are widely felt,
and that reflect the wishes of the people who are directly affected by alcohol-related community problems.
This requires the organizer to not only listen and be responsive to the community, but also to help community
residents develop the skills necessary to address their own issues in an ongoing way.
At the heart of community organizing are inclusion, ownership, relationship building
and leadership development.
Individual vs. Collective Action
Community organizing looks at collective solutions — large numbers of people who engage in solutions that
impact even more people. These people usually live in the same neighborhood, town or block.
Many traditional agency responses look at individual solutions. Agencies tend to focus on the individual as a
means to solve public health problems.


Problem identification: Social programs are developed to address social problems.
Obviously community organizers have to study and document the existence of the social
problem before developing a program
.
Need assessment / Problem
identification – a crucial first step
in program development – is a
systematic verification of the
existence, prevalence, location,
and importance of a social
problem as it is expressed in
needs for service.
Needs assessment / Problem
identification: Social indicator
method, Survey method: Group method

Fact- finding
Fact-finding includes activities designed to aid the discovery, ascertainment, assembling,
compilation and recording of facts.
Most community problems are sustained by a wide variety of factors, and some are more
influential than others. The challenge is to locate the major factors that have an effect on the
problem requiring correction. To meet this challenge effectively, it is essential to gather
relevant facts regarding the background of the problem.




Why we need Community Organization
http://www.vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/
We need more active citizens and CO is the way to do it
A way of tackling large public issues
Community Organization - A way of solving local problems
Community Organization - A way of improving liveability
Community Organization - A bridge to strong democracy
Community Organization is a recognized route to better health
Community Organization is a way of rekindling community


Principles of Organizing
Experienced organizers know that the
process of organizing is seldom "tidy"
— it doesn't always happen in neat,
predictable steps. It can be thought
of as a process guided by principles
that repeat in a cyclic, rather than
linear, way:

In gathering information on the problem, the Community Organizer may be faced with two
difficulties: obtaining too much information that may
prove to be irrelevant; identifying too little
information from normal sources. Good judgment
must be used to distinguish noise (meaningless data)
from information that helps in analyzing a problem.
Similarly when information is not easily available,
concerned individuals may be required to use
ingenuity, functioning like good investigative
reporter by checking out leads. With the advice of
the knowledgeable researchers, special studies may
need to be conducted as part of the fact-finding
process.

Following are the techniques normally adopted for
fact finding. Documentation (Recording /
Compilation of information), Formal Hearing (to
find out how representative citizens think on a
particular issue or proposal), Action Research
(Research combined with some other type of action
programs), Demonstration projects (to find out
whether a certain program will work or how
effective a particular type of program) and keeping
abreast of new developments and new information in regard to certain subjects












Model 1 . Model 1 . Model 1 . Model 1 . What are the facts to be collected?
1. External conditions and factors
Levels of socio-economic development and its relationship to the area Location advantages Govt
policies & Programs
2. Characteristics of the area
Land resources –Soil & Water Human Resources Quantitative---Age, Sex, Religion etc
Qualitative ----Education, Literacy
3. Social & Institutional Structure
Familial Corporate Units (Families-House) Associational Corporate Units (Caste) Territorial Corporate
Units (Panchayat Raj, Categoric Units (Religion)
4. Delivery System For Social & Economic Services
Economic i.e. Extension, Credit, Marketing Education, Health, Family Planning, Nutrition
5. Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Marketing
Road, Electricity, Irrigation, Telecommunication
Analysis:
Analysis is the application of the six basic analytical questions i.e. what, whom, where,
when, why and how?
What is the problem?
Where does it exist?
Who is affected by it?
When does it occur?
What degree it is felt?
Analysis lies midway between fact finding and planning. It involves collection of data,
exploring the content of the data, breaking up the content or problem, examining the inter
relationships between the constituencies. The purpose of analysis is to gain insight, and
understanding.
Planning can scarcely exist without analysis. A sound plan normally implies that the
planner has the facts and that the facts and the problem have been analyzed as a basis for
the formulation of the plan.
Need Identification
Normative Need: --i.e. a desirable standard---if the individual or community falls short of
this desirable standard then they are being in need. Middle class standard ---’A’ is in need of
‘B’ and ‘B’ is incompatible with the values held in society ’C’ and therefore ‘B’ should be
changed.
Felt Need: --Equated with wants---Felt need is limited by the perception of the people.
People may ask for help without really needing it. Exaggerate it or inflate it.
Comparative Need: -- Relative Need--- this need can be assessed by studying the
characteristics of the people who are receiving a particular service. Community ‘A’ is in
receipt of service, because it has the similar characteristics of ‘AB’; Community ‘B’ also has
similar characteristics, but not in receipt of that service. So Community ‘B’ is in need.
Expressed Need: - Need is demanded.
E.g. Phone Facilities: USA-450 per1000; Europe-380 per 1000; Singapore-60 per 1000; INDIA---4
per 1000 (?) (Highest number indicate normative condition)
Comparative Need My neighbor has a phone.
Felt Need I am willing to be wait listed
Expressed Need I paid deposit for getting phone connection







Qualities of a good organizer
Community organizers think strategically about their work while always keeping the final goal in
mind and continually making contributions to the goal. This is especially important in community
organizing campaigns to enact or change policies. Qualities include:
• Imagination
• Sense of Humor
• Blurred vision of a better world
• An organized personality
• Strong ego/sense of oneself
• A free, open mind, and political relativity
• Ability to create the new out of the old ( Saul Alinsky, 1971 )
Analyzing the facts / Problem identification

What is the problem? Deteriorating Public Health
Where does the problem exist? In the sanitary division No. 36 of Madurai Corporation
Who is affected by the problem? More than 5000 families residing in the 36 division
{geographic} area
When does the problem occur? For the last two years.
Why the problem occurred? Poor drainage facilities; increase in the wastewater
cover.
To what extent the problem is felt? 35% of the patients who attended the local
Medical practitioners are affected by malarial fever
Problem statement: In the past two years, the incidence of malarial fever increased
35% in the sanitary division No.36 Madurai Corporation. 5000 families are affected
due to this public health deterioration.

Community Survey:
The term survey derived from two words i.e. “SUR” (‘to see a particular thing) and VOR”
(From a high place) “Community Survey is a method by which quantitative facts are
collected about the social aspect of a community’s position and activities.

By survey method the Community Organizer can assess existing services and resources in an
area of need as well as gaps in service. Surveying both service agencies and community
residents, asking them how they perceive their unmet needs can identify potential demand for
service.
Steps in Community Survey:
• Planning the survey
• Executing the survey




What's a community?
• In the physical world, communities are typically groups of people (a village, town, for
instance) held together by some common identity or interest. The same holds true for virtual or
online communities in that they, too, are comprised of people with shared identity or interests
coming together for a shared purpose.
• This shared interest or intent offers a strong forum for members of the community to build
relationships and affiliations out of which they can learn from one another and make an impact
on the society or culture around them.
• Coming from two Latin words meaning "with gifts," the term community suggests a general
sense of altruism, reciprocity, and beneficence that comes from working together. Communities
help generate a shared language, rituals and customers, and collective memory of those that
join the group.
The 1998 Encyclopedia Americana defines a community as, "A relatively small, isolated center with
a stable population, in which all economic and social services necessary to life can be maintained.
The community is one of the oldest forms on human social organizations... The ideal type of
community emerges as an intellectual concept when social change threatens to destroy a locality's
isolation, traditionalism, and solidarity.... [This] leads to a newer form -- including occupational
and professional groups, neighborhood groups, and ethnic and political groups -- becomes the
functional equivalents of the older, ecological, isolated community, and they make it possible for
their members to avoid the problems of a multidimensional mass society. Their members can find
a focus for their social relations, loyalties, and interests."
Arthur Dunham’s Classification of CO Methods
1. Methods of Planning and Related Activities
1. Fact finding 2. Analysis
3. Evaluation 4. Planning
2. Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-operative Action:
5. Meeting practice 6. Conference
7. Committee practice 8. Negotiation
9. Organization including Mass organization
3. Methods of Communication:
10. Education 11. Consultation
12. Public Relations 13. Formal written Communication
14. Formal oral communication 15. The interview
4. Methods of Promotion and Social Action:
16. Promotion 17. Legislative promotion
18. Non Legislative procedural social action
19. Direct action 20. Exerting or invoking authoritative Action
5. Methods of Financing and Fund Raising:
21. Fund procurement by governmental agencies
22. Fund raising by voluntary agencies
23. Federated financial campaigning
24. Joint budgeting
6. Methods of Administration:
25. Administrative activities of agencies concerned with social planning.
26. Administration of common services or community organization
27. Recording.
Information requirement to understand a community
1. Basic community characteristics [Physical features and population particulars]
2. How the community
functions to meet its
needs [Physical needs
/Social and Emotional
needs / Political needs /
Economic needs /
Educational and
communication needs]
3. Unmet needs
4. Community resources
[Natural/Tangible
human made things /
Systems of serving
people / Social
relationships/Major
institutions / Financial
service /Human values /
Skills and talents /
Knowledge availability
etc
5. Capacity for disposition
towards purposeful
change
1. Basic community characteristics
Size [small or big] * Common places * Landmarks *
Look [dirty or clean] * Natural features
Population
Number*Demographic break down [male female
/married / unmarried/old/young/] * Population density *
Nature of families [joint/nuclear/male and female
headed/family members]
2. How the community functions? [Function means
community attempt to meet its needs]
2.1. Physical needs
Access to adequate needs * Affordable medical care *
Adequate and safe transport system * Adequate waste
and drainage system * Clean environment * Routine
maintenance
2.2. Social and emotional needs
Safety and security * Pride in the community *
Confident of their own and others abilities * Caring by
others * Groupings * Handling of deviants
2.3. Political needs
Ability to work together * Participation in decision-making * Formal/Informal process of
making community decisions * Formal government structures and leadership positions
* Recognizing community problems * Dominants [vocal] and passive [silent]
* Basis of community power * Carrying out decisions
Understanding a
Community’s Agriculture
Agriculture’s Role in the
Community
1. Environmental Role
2. Economic Role
3. Cultural Role
Laws that Protect Agriculture
Understanding Specific Aspects of
Farming
1. Timeliness and Seasonality of
Farming
Practices
2. Manure Management
3. Odors and Noise
4. Use of Roads
5. Use of Pesticides
6. Animals in Pastures
2.4. Economic needs
Access to goods and services * Income and occupational levels * Opportunities available
[plenty/limited] * Earnings [inside/outside] * Production centers * Forces which influence
economic health
2.5. Educational and communication needs
Ways of learning about the things happening in the community /world * How people decide
about what is true? * Whom they listen and their credibility? * Schools and training
programs * Formal provider of news-their philosophical and editorial basis
Informal methods of providing news * Interest in communicating with one another
3. Assessing the community’s unmet needs
When a community cannot meet its goals or sustain it self, the community has unmet needs
Needs are often undiscovered, undeclared or
considered unimportant by those who could
do some thing about them Recall
*Normative need/Comparative need/Expressed
need/Felt need
Symptoms of need and solution to need –
one should not mistake this as a need it self
E.g. Over crowded clients-inadequate chairs
- Symptom
Putting adequate chairs
- Solution [Both may be wrong]
Timely service may be the solution

4. Community resources
A need arises not because of the absence of
resource. Allocation of resources and our
inability to recognize and develop resources
may result in need. In order to meet the need,
collect the required information about the
resources available in a community.
Natural resources -- Land, Water, Trees etc.
Tangible human made things --E.g.
Libraries, bridges, cars etc
Systems of serving people — Local
government, grievance procedure, games,
health etc
Social relationships — Family, friends,
business associations etc
Major institutions — Temples, schools,
government departments’ etc
Financial services — Money, barter etc
Human quality and values — Honesty,
determination, passion etc
Skills and talents — Carpentry, plumbing etc
Knowledge availability — Science, history etc
Resources that can be used in multiple ways — Temples, meeting places etc
Resources that can be combined to produce new resources — Storage place that can be
used to collect used books

Model Model Model Model Six stages of effective
community organizing:
• Assess the community
• Create an action team
• Develop an action plan
• Mobilize to action
• Implement
• Evaluate
Assess the community
It's extremely important that you get to know the
community you will be working in and the history
of the issue you will address. Allow two to three
months to become familiar with the community, its
history, make-up, demographics, geography and
political leadership. Continue to learn about the
community by going “door knocking “and
conducting “one-on-ones ". The organizer must
learn what community members concerns are, and
find out what they identify as problems, not tell the
community what the problem is.
5. Capacity for change and Disposition to change
The desire for change often involves correcting injustices, but it is not limited to this. It can
also involve providing new opportunities or challenges, escaping the boredom of the routine
All communities have some capacity to change, though some have more constraints than
others. E.g. Public employees legally limited to take political action.
Each community also differs in its disposition to change E.g. Some communities are happy
with the existing conditions

How to find out what we need to know?
Library/Census/City directory/Community profile/Publications/News paper files/Local
magazines/Year books/Resource directories / Impact or issue publications /Lists of local
clubs and organizations/Travel or tourism books/Economic profiles/Community trend
profiles etc

Look for organizations that do at least one of the following things
Sell your community: Chamber of Commerce, Tourism organizations etc
Sell in or from your community: Provision stores, Retail estate associations, Business
concerns
Serve your community: Schools, Temples, Churches, Service providers
State a particular concern about your community: Environmental organizations, Police,
Transport
Study your community: Universities, Planning bureaus, consulting companies.
Guided personal discussions
Focus groups
Surveys and questionnaires

Collecting list
Membership lists *Donor lists *List of officers or board of directors
Officers of political parties *Creating our own lists

A check list that can be used to facilitate discussion. Adapt it to local conditions
For each of the following statements, please indicate your response using the following key:
Strongly agree -5, Agree- 4, Disagree – 3, Strongly disagree – 2, Don’t know -1
1 This community feels like home to me 5 4 3 2 1
2. I can get help from my friends when I need it. 5 4 3 2 1
3. If I need information to make an important decision I know where to find that
information.
5 4 3 2 1
4. The community is able to respond to important issues 5 4 3 2 1
5. I think of myself as similar to the people who live here 5 4 3 2 1
6. People here are confident about the future of our community 5 4 3 2 1
7. I am able to get the services I need in my community 5 4 3 2 1
8. I shop locally whenever I can 5 4 3 2 1
9 The community has strong local leadership 5 4 3 2 1
10 There is a strong sense of cooperation and community pride 5 4 3 2 1
11 Our community is highly regarded in the region 5 4 3 2 1
12 I stop and chat with my neighbors’ 5 4 3 2 1
13 I feel my concerns and opinions about local issues can be heard 5 4 3 2 1
14 The local businesses support the community 5 4 3 2 1
15 I feel safe in my community 5 4 3 2 1
In the past 3 years
16 Have you ever joined a local community action to deal with an emergency? YES/NO
17. Have you ever taken part in a community project? YES/NO
18. Do you help out a local group as a volunteer? YES/NO
19. Have you ever been part of a project to organize a service in your area? YES/NO
20. Have you taken part in any education or training program? YES/NO
21 What do you think are the three most important issues for this community?
22 Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey?
23
Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey?

24 Would you like to make any comments about your community?

Model Checklist

COMMUNITY BUSINESS SURVEY Adapt it to local conditions
Category of Business ....................Number Employed: Years Established . . . . . . . . .
Are you a member of any local business organization? YES NO
If YES which organization/s?
1. Which of the following best describes how you run your business? (One or more)
a. We provide an essential service so customers come to us YES / NO
b. We provide a competitive service and seek customers out YES / NO
c. We provide competitive, quality services and have loyal customers YES / NO
d. We provide specialized services so customers seek us out YES / NO
e. We provide a specialized service and people are referred to us YES / NO
f. We keep trying new ways of winning business YES / NO
g. We have an advertising budget YES / NO
h. We sponsor several local activities YES / NO
i. We sponsor one major local activity YES / NO
j. We employ trainees/ cadets YES / NO
k. We participate in work experience programs YES / NO
Technology and your business
Is there a role in your business for information technology? YES / NO
2. Which of the following best describes the technologies you use?
a. manual bankcard/credit card facilities YES / NO
b. electronic banking for our business needs YES / NO
c. an electronic payroll system YES / NO
d. basic computing- word processing and spreadsheets YES / NO
e. software for stock and inventory control YES / NO
f. commercial software packages YES / NO
g. industry specific software YES / NO
h. internet address and website YES / NO
i. email address YES / NO
j. online catalogue/ ordering facility YES / NO
k. We use industry specific technologies YES / NO
About your potential business growth
3. Which of the following business strategies do you have in place at the moment?
a. We are planning to grow our business YES / NO
b. We have a working business plan YES / NO
c. We have a projected cash-flow for the next 12 months YES / NO
d. We have a marketing plan YES / NO
e. We have a contingency plan for financial emergencies YES / NO
About the Business Community:
5. Yes, completely satisfactory 4. Yes, but not completely satisfactory 3. Somewhat, but need attention to
be satisfactory 2. No not at all. Not satisfactory 1. Don.t know
4. How do you feel about each of the following issues in the business community?
a. The business sector works together well 5 4 3 2 1
b. We know which businesses have leakage to bigger centers 5 4 3 2 1
c. We work to reduce that leakage 5 4 3 2 1
d. We have a .buy local. strategy 5 4 3 2 1
e. The community supports its local businesses 5 4 3 2 1
f. We work together to promote the benefits of shopping locally 5 4 3 2 1
g. The community is open to alternative economic activities 5 4 3 2 1
h. The business sector promotes customer service 5 4 3 2 1
i. The business sector is optimistic about the future 5 4 3 2 1
j. Businesses work together to maximize opportunities for the future 5 4 3 2 1
6. Business, Council and the Community
a. There is a spirit of mutual assistance and cooperation in the community 5 4 3 2 1
b. There is a strong level of pride in the community 5 4 3 2 1
c. Meetings around significant issues in the community are well advertised and open to the public 5 4 3 2 1
d. There is a high level of optimism in the community 5 4 3 2 1
e. There is a strong working relationship between the Council and the business community 5 4 3 2 1
f. Council represents and balances local needs and priorities 5 4 3 2 1
g. All groups are included in community decision-making 5 4 3 2 1
6.You as a member of the community
7. Are you involved in any community organizations outside work? YES/NO
if yes, please provide details:
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
8. Do you undertake any voluntary work/ service in the community? YES/ NO
If YES, please give details of what you do and how many hours each week is involved.
METHODS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
METHODS OF GROUP DECISION
MAKING AND CO-OPERATIVE ACTION

Meaning of Group: Two or more people who interact with and influence each other towards a
common purpose. (Who interact
with one another;
psychologically aware of one
another; who perceive
themselves in a group)
Meaning of Decision Making:
Selection of a preferred course of
action from or more alternatives
Meaning of Group Decision
Making: When two or more
people who interact and
influence each other attempt to
select a preferred course of
action from two or more
alternatives
Group decisions emerge from
group meetings. These meetings
may be called as conferences,
committees, staff meetings etc

Groups in the context of
Community Organization
The work of the organizations is
largely the work of the groups.
Most of the stuff of community organization – discussing, planning, and decision -making
and camaraderie occurs in groups. Building a successful organization demands an
understanding of the functioning of successful groups.

Community organizers see group methods of ensuring authentic participation as a means
towards transformation. Groups are seen as preparing ground for participation. Trust and
dialogues are pre requisite for group process.

Founded on love, humility and faith, dialogue becomes a horizontal relationship of mutual
trust. Trust is established by dialogue; it cannot exist unless the words of both parties
coincide with their actions.

Nor can dialogue exist without hope. Hope is rooted in our human incompleteness, from
which we move out in constant search, which can be carried out only in communion with
other people.

Group decisions require an intense faith in human beings; founded on love, humility and
faith, group decision-making process develops mutual trust. (It requires intense faith in
Synopsis
Meaning of a Group
Meaning of Decision Making
Meaning of Group Decision Making
Groups in the context of Community Organization
The importance of Groups
Understanding the Groups
Stages of Group Formation
Johnson & Johnson / Napier & Greshenfeld
Task roles and Relationship roles
Improving the efficiency of the Groups
Providing proper learning climate
Deciding the size
Group Decision Making
Involvement / Types of decision making
Difficulties in decision-making
Making good decisions
Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision making
Forms of group decision-making
Meeting practice
Conference practice
Committee practice
human being; requires love and humility; requires hope, which is rooted in human
incompleteness; involves critical thinking)

Issues facing the people are often complex and no expert has all the answers. On the other
hand no body is totally ignorant. To discover valid solutions every one needs to be both a
learner and a teacher. ‘A’ may provide a fact; ‘B’ may provide a premise; ‘C’ may provide a
value judgment; ‘D’ may provide a complete alternative; ‘E’ may provide second alternative.
This may lead to valid solutions. To discover valid solutions, every one needs to be both a
learner and a teacher. Groups provide an environment for mutual learning process.

Understanding the Groups
Stages in the development of a group.

The following stages are identified in the life cycle of a group.
Tuckmen and Jenson Napier and Gershenfled
1. Forming Stage
Members are unsure of themselves and
the group. They try to figure out where
they fit in with these new relationships
1. Beginning Stage
This stage is a period of watching, waiting and testing
how to act
2. Storming Stage
It is characterized by rebellion as
members assert their individuality and
resist authority
2. Movement toward Confrontation Stage
After people have dropped their polite facades and
begin acting more like themselves. Questions arise over
who makes decision and how. Members try to firmly
establish their place in the group seeking prestige and
influence. This bound to cause some conflict
3. Norming Stage.
Members establish procedure and a
sense of how they should act in the
group
3. Compromise and Harmony Stage
The group starts reversing confrontative trend realizing
that if continues the group will disintegrate. This period
of goodwill, tolerance for different behaviors and more
acceptance of individuals. Collaboration is increased
and competitiveness is reduced. There is a pressure to
preserve the spirit of harmony
4. Performing Stage
The group concentrates on the tasks to
be achieved
4. Reassessment Stage
The group starts feeling that the pressure to preserve
superficiality makes them to ignore the members
personal needs, suspicions and realize that it stands in
the way of accomplishing goals. The group realizes that
survival depends on increasing shared responsibility as
well as personal accountability. This in turn increases
the trust and individual risk taking
5. Adjourning Stage
When the group completes its work,
which results in a change in the
relationship among its members
5. Resolution and recycling stage
The group realizes that periods of harmony are normal
and conflicts are handled easily and quickly.




Task roles and Relationship roles:

TASKS AND RELATIONSHIP NEEDS IN ANY GROUP
In every group some one is needed to play each of the following roles if the group is to
accomplish its tasks and keep good relationships among its members. Any action that
strengthens the task or relationship level can be considered a leadership action.
Task Needs
Task Component: any action the group
undertakes to accomplish its purpose / goal. If
task component receives little attention, the
group wont accomplish very much.
Relationship Needs
Relationship or Maintenance Component:
Actions not directed at the working of the, but
to enhance the harmony among individuals and
the group. Maintenance component includes
the ability of the group members to work well
together, to effectively manage their conflicts
and to feel good about them. This necessary
after a sequence of intense task activities or
otherwise the group will probably fall apart
1. Starting the discussion or helping the
group to begin a job.

2. Asking for information. Asking group
members what information they have and / or
where the information can be found on the
topic being discussed
3. Giving information. When group member
do not have particular facts that are relevant to
the topic.
4. Asking what people think. Getting group
members’ opinion is for good decision-making.
It is also important for people to be willing to
share what they think.
5. Explaining. Giving practical examples to
make a point clear.
6. Summing up. Repeating what has been
said clearly in few words.
7. Checking to see if everyone agrees
8. Analyzing the problems under discussion
9. Making creative suggestions to resolve
the problems
10. Having clear process for making each
decision
11. Evaluating. Looking at the strengths and
weaknesses of the group’s work and seeing
how it can be improved
1. Encouraging. Being friendly, responding to
and building suggestions made by others.
Showing acceptance and appreciation of others
and their ideas.
2. Giving every one a chance to speak


3. Asking what people feel. Sharing what one
fells and checking group feelings

4. Encouraging shy members, especially
young women or those who less formally
schooled
5. Resolving arguments

6. Encouraging creativity in the group.


7. Sharing responsibilities
8. Developing the confidence and skills of all
members
9. Setting standards. E.g. shall we agree
that nobody speaks more than twice
10. Diagnosing difficulties E.g. may be
some of us are afraid of the consequences of
this decision
11. Relieving tension. By bringing it out into
the open, putting a problem in a wider context,
or making a well timed joke

Improving the efficiency of the Groups
Providing proper learning climate







Deciding the size:
Majority of people find it difficult to speak in a big group of strangers. Also there is usually
not enough time for every one to speak. Therefore if every one is to participate actively, small
groups are essential.
Pairs are useful for
Interviews, intimate sharing, practicing some skills, ti stir a passive sleepy group in to action.
3s are very useful for
Getting everyone thinking and participating actively
Testing out an idea one is hesitant to present to the big group. If two people think it is
worthwhile, one might risk saying it to the whole group
4s, 5s, 6s is useful for,
Good size for a planning team or discuss about more complex situations. The bigger the
group gets, the longer the discussion time needed and the longer it will take to make
decisions.
6-12
This is a good size for sharing ideas and insights when the group has plenty of time. But the
group is bigger than this, it need an appointed animator or leader. All members should try to
be sensitive to the needs of the group (task and relationship needs)
30s
An ideal size to develop the sprit of a community. But it is also necessary with groups of this
size to break into smaller groups of different kinds for different purposes.
30 – 200 >
Useful to inform new ideas and policy. But these groups should be broken in to small groups
and animators or facilitators are needed to break the passivity.

Group Decision Making
Community organizers frequently use a number of small group process in decision-making /
problem solving process. The use of decision-making groups typically called ‘Committees’
is common in almost all community organization settings. Decision-making is defined as
the selection of a preferred course of action from two or more alternatives. Group
decision-making has several advantages over individual decisions making. They are:
Greater knowledge; greater number of approaches to the problem; greater acceptance of the
solution through participation and support; better comprehension of the decision.

Involvement / Types of decision making
It is neither possible nor desirable to involve everybody in every decision. One of the main
skills in democratic leadership is deciding who should be involved in making which
decisions. The basic rule is that the more deeply people are affected by a decision, the more
important it is they should share in making it.
If we analyze how many people were actively involved in making a decision, we will find
they all fall some where along the following line








The plop:
Here the group makes a decision by not making a decision. Not to decide is to decide. Some
one makes a suggestion but drops like a stone into a pond and no one pays any attention to it



Plop Hand Clasp Minority Majority Vote True Consensus
One Person Clique Silent Consensus
all. If the person who made the suggestion really felt enthusiastic about it, the fact that it was
totally ignored could make that person withdraw or resist later suggestions.

The one-person decision:
This is quickly made, but later when the decider depends on free or voluntary support from
others to implement it he /she may find himself / herself carrying it out alone.

The hand Clasp:
One person makes a suggestion. Another says, “what a marvelous idea”, and without further
discussion, the matter is decided. These decisions are more frequent than one thinks, and
often passed unnoticed at the time, but resentment comes to the surface later.

The Clique:
Decisions are made by a small group who plan beforehand to get their way, because they are
better organized than those who disagree. They are often successful on the immediate issue,
but they bring a spirit of rivalry rather than the co-operation in to the group. Sometimes
groups of people who have formerly been excluded or silent form a caucus in order to present
a common agenda. This can be a positive action and check-and- balance to a dominant group.

It is a healthy sign in a participatory democracy.
Minority: these decisions are not consciously organize as those of the clique, but a few
powerful personalities dominate the group, often unconsciously and later they wonder why
the others are apathetic.

Majority Vote:
In big groups this is often the most effective way to make a decision. However, one may lose
the interest or the loyalty of the minority who voted against a decision, especially if they feel
that their point of view was not heard.

Silent Consensus:
Some groups aims at unanimous decisions. These are good, if genuine, but they are rarely
achieved completely on certain issues. Unanimous agreement is some times assumed, when
some members have not felt free to disagree and kept silent.
Consensus:
This as an agreement, often involving compromise or the combination of various
possibilities, after all opinions have been heard. Disagreements and minority viewpoints are
discussed fully. It takes time and care to build a climate in which all feel free to express
themselves, but this method does build unity, cooperation and commitment. It does not mean
listening to people and then doing what we were gong to do in the first place. It means
adapting to accommodate the concerns of all. It may take longer to make a decision this way,
but it will often be carried out more quickly and wholeheartedly.

Difficulties in decision-making:
Every group, to achieve its goal is constantly involved in making decisions. These decisions
may be big, little, easy, hard, right or wrong.

Decision making forms a continuing pattern of relationships among members of a group: a
pattern in which every individual member has some influence. It is amazing to note that a bit
of information may change the mood of the group, a loud objection, an expression of
approval or hostility, envy or admiration, contempt or condescension, can have an impending
decision.

So it is little wonder that group after group has difficulty making the decisions. Some become
paralyzed when confronted with a decision: some argue over a minor point: others rush into a
vote only to reverse their decision later on or fail to carry out the plan: others appoint a
committee to save them from having to decide.

Most of the difficulties encountered by a group in making decisions center around one or
another of the following factors.

Fear of Consequences:
In some groups the possible outcomes of an impending decision may bring divisions and
disagreements. Frank acknowledgement of these fears often suggests how they can be dealt
with effectively. E.g. being in a group, which is not liked by the superiors.

Conflicting Loyalties:
When one person is a member of number of groups, this frequently leads to divided loyalties
about decisions. An atmosphere in which it is possible for these conflicts to be brought out
into the open without the threat to the individual is a help in resolving them. E.g. I would like
to help this community project, but I hardly get any time to spend with my wife and children
these days.

Interpersonal Conflict:
In group of any size personal differences occur which provoke feelings of affection or dislike
among members and which interfere with sound decision making. When two different people
each trying to get things done in their own way, struggle erupts. Often another member who
is not involved in the interpersonal conflict can bring the real problem into the open.

Hidden agenda:
One person may try to get the group to make certain decision, which he /she wants for
reasons which he / she will not share with the group.

Blundering Methods:
A group may be bound by rigid procedures (e.g. always addressing all remarks to the
chairperson) that there is little chance for free expression of differences. or a group may allow
itself to substitute personal opinion for adequate information. Or a group may approach the
decision making process without testing for consequences.

Inadequate Leadership:
A leader may hinder good decision making if he / she restricts the expression of opinion or
discussion on issues too soon. Leaders also may fail to provide assistance in selecting
appropriate methods for decision-making or be insensitive to the factors causing difficulty in
the group.

Clash of Interest:
Sometimes different group or individuals within an organization do have opposing interest
(e.g. workers wanting higher wages and owners wanting higher profits).

Factors, which help in making good decisions:
a. Clear goal
b. Clear understanding of who has responsibility for the decision.
c. Good means of stimulating and sharing ideals
d. Effective leadership and structures to deal with the size of the group.
e. Effective way of testing different suggestions offered.
f. Commitment of the leader to genuine group involvement in making the decision.
g. Agreement on the procedures on what procedures will be most appropriate. (e.g.
consensus, majority vote, secret ballot etc )

Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision- making

Advantages Disadvantages
Greater knowledge
Diversity of ideas
Diffuses the responsibility
Better comprehension
Participation hence acceptance
Greater number of solutions
Protects individuals from embarrassment
Intense pressure to go along with others.
Slow and time consuming
Risky shift
Passing the buck
Strong vocal minority opinion overrides majority
opinion.
Group think [norm for consensus overrides the
Realistic appraisal of alternative of alternative
solution; hesitation to disagree with others]

Different methods of group decision-making

Meeting Conference Committee
Meeting may be defined as
any gathering, assembly or
coming together of two or
more persons for the
transaction of some lawful
business of common concern
Conference means an
informal group discussion
by three or more persons,
with the object of carrying
out open minded
exploration and usually of
achieving consensus or
integration of thinking on
a subject or problem
Committee may be defined as a
group of persons, limited in
membership, by selective
appointment, usually appointed
by some superior authority and
having joint responsibility for
inquiry, deliberation, decision,
action or related activities in
regard to matters assigned to
them
Properly convened [by
formal authority] Properly
constituted [quorum &
chairmen] Proper procedure
[Agenda & minutes]
DO
Face to face contact

Participation
DO


Specialists in the subject matter
Just to discuss matters
When there is conflict of
interest
To get majority idea
To get consensus
To generate group idea
To explore the problem
Both to decide & act
To take joint responsibility

Meeting Practice:
A ‘meeting’ may be defined as any gathering, assembly or coming together of two or
more persons for the transaction of some lawful business of common concern.

The proper functioning of any association of persons, large or small requires that the
members of the association come together from time to time discuss matters of common
concern and take decisions by common consent by the majority.

Meeting may be classified as public meeting and private or business meeting. It is a
statutory requirement for a registered community organization to conduct regular and proper
meetings to transact its business. A registered organization has to conduct executive
committee meeting, annual general body meeting and extraordinary general body meeting.

These meetings should be properly convened (i.e. by proper authority, by proper notice)
properly constituted (i.e. quorum and chairman) and follow proper procedures (meeting
procedure, agenda).

The method of meeting practice usually adopts parliamentary procedure to make decisions.
Parliamentary procedure is based on the democratic principles of majority rule, which
requires that the minority abide by the will of the majority. In turn, the acceptance of the
majority rule by the minority is based on the willingness of the majority to permit the
minority to express its views before action is taken.

Merits and demerits of parliamentary procedure

Merits Demerits
It provides rules and regulations for the
orderly conduct of the business.
Decisions must be made in the fact of
conflicting interests among members
It increases the belief in the organization
It is much too formal method
It decreases the losing factions commitment to the
decisions
It discourages exploration of innovative
ideas in a free and open manner because people
tend to take sides early in the discussion.

Conference
“The term conference means informal group discussion by three or more persons, with
the object of carrying on open minded exploration and usually of achieving consensus
or integration of thinking on a subject or problem”.

Consensus is a co-operative effort to find a sound solution acceptable to everyone.
Consensus occurs after all members have had an opportunity to voice their opinions and can
then arrive at a decision that almost everyone can support. It ensures that each individual’s
concerns are heard and understood and then a sincere attempt is made to take them into
consideration in searching for a resolution. This resolution may not reflect the exact wishes
of each member, but since does not violate the deep concerns of anyone, it can be agreed
upon by all.

Characteristics:
1) It is carried out by a group.
2) Conference normally involves a face-to-face meeting of the group.
3) Conference implies general participation.
4) Conference uses informal group discussion.
5) Conference has some definite subject for discussion.
6) Several groups – Committees Boards, study groups, use conference method.
7) Members should open-mindedly discuss the subject; they should also show interest in
reaching consensus.
8) Conference aims to create a group idea (Not majority idea), which will be better than any
one of the members ideas alone – moreover which will be better than all the members
idea added together.
9) Conference method is not appropriate for large bodies.

Committee Practice
The committee is to community organization as the interview is to casework
1. A committee may be defined as two or more people associated for some purpose towards
which they function as an organizational entity.
2. A committee may be defined as a group of persons, limited in membership, by selective
appointment, usually appointed by some superior authority, and having joint
responsibility for inquiry, deliberation, decision, action, Sponsorship, or related activities
in regard to matters assigned to them.

Characteristics of a Committee:
1) A group with limited membership.
2) Membership is based on selection.
3) Appointed by some superior authority.
4) Joint responsibility.
5) Working on the matters referred to it

Functions of a Committee
Functions of the committee depend upon for what purpose it is constituted. The most
common functions of committees are as follows.
1) Studying the problem. 2) Reporting information. 3) Coordinating work.
4) Distributing work. 5) Solving problem. 6) Making decisions.
5) Monitoring.

Guidelines for Organizing Committees
1) A clear statement of the objectives and functions of the committee.
2) There should be a written assignment or terms of reference.
3) There should be appropriate selection of members.
4) The committee should have competent leadership and adequate executive and clerical
service.
5) There should be appropriate arrangements for follow up after meetings of the committee.
6) There should be appropriate procedures at meetings.
7) There should be adequate preparation for follow up after meetings.
8) The committee should have adequate records.

Organization of a committee:
1. Chairman, 2. Members, 3. Committee Aide / Secretary.
Chairman
- Official head of the committee in both internal and external relationship.
- Decides when meetings should be held.
- Preside the meetings of the committee. As a president, he has to keep the committee on
the track; he has to preserve an atmosphere of freedom and vitality of participation.
- Officially presents the reports to the superior authority.

Members
- The members should be reasonably well equipped for the work of the committee or
should be willing to raise their level of competence.
- The membership should be interested and willing to serve and should have sufficient
time, health and strength.
- The committee membership should adequately represent the interest that needs to be
represented.
- The members should be able to work together as a group.

Committee Aide (Staff Assistance to committee)
Committee aide is a technical resource; he supplies professional assistance to the committee,
he helps the committee in the following ways:
Program Service - He helps the committee to develop its programs.
Organizational Service - Provides the necessary manpower.
Administrative Service - Planning meetings and agendas in consultation with
the chairman - making physical arrangements for
the meetings , sending notices, writing reports and
handling correspondence.

The basic task of committee aide involves working with and strengthening the position of the
chairman. He is to facilitate the work of the committee, to help or enable it to perform its
task effectively, but never to dictate or determine its course of action nor to usurp the
functions of the chairman.

Committee Procedures:
1. Agenda 2. Minutes.
2. Agenda :
A Committee meeting needs a written agenda. The world “ Agenda “ literally means ‘things
to be done’. It refers to the programme of Business to the transacted at a meeting. Agenda is
essential for the systematic transaction of the business of a meeting in the proper order of
impotence. It is customary for all organizations to send an agenda along with the notice of
meeting to all members. Usually routine items are placed first and controversial items later.

The business of the meeting must be conducted in the same order.
Items for agenda may be drawn from:
- Unfinished business from the last meeting.
- Items previously scheduled by the committee for consideration on this date.
- Matters suggested by a member of the committee.
- Communications from outside the committee requiring consideration by the committee.
- Matters which the chairman, committee aide or a member of the committee feels
important to be discussed by the committee.

Loophole Agenda & Hidden Agenda
It means any other business with the permission of the chair. This provides an opportunity
for the members to discuss on matters, which has not been specifically included in the
agenda.

2. Minutes
Minutes may be defined as the permanent, official record of the proceedings of a meeting. It
serves as a reminder of the subjects previously dealt with and the conclusions reached. Once
approved and signed they are acceptable in a court of law as evidence of the proceedings.

The Minutes should begin by identifying the body that is meting; the date, hour and place;
name of the presiding officers, members absent. The Minutes should generally be
chronological, following the actual order of events.







PLANNING IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
More more detailed discussion please see the project planning document

It is true to some extent that planning is a waste of time and it is also true that lack of
planning will almost certainly be a waste of time. To understand planning as a useful activity
and to use it to increase the effectiveness of our work, we need to answer certain questions.

Plan and Planning:
A plan is a set of decisions made on
actions to be taken to reach a goal. It is the
product of the process of planning.
Planning is an active process and it is
opposite of simply allowing events to
unfold. A plan can be said to exist when a
point in the planning process has been
reached.

Plan (appoint in the planning process) is coherent set of operations designed to meet a given
goal. It is determined with sufficient clarity that may be acted upon.

A plan can be a very formal document, or it can simply be the clear understanding of the
actions you are going to undertake.

Both plan and planning is a never-ending activity. Your plan will be shaped and reshaped by
new forces and new information you discover as you proceed with your action. Planning
involves vision, discovery, decision-making and action. It is a purposeful way of looking at
the future with the intent to shape it.

SOME MORE EXPLANATIONS:
1. Planning is a new name for an old activity. Planning means thinking about tomorrow. For
some, planning means foresight; for others, it is a complete reconstitution of our social
system.
2. Planning is not fortune telling; Planning is the design of the desired future and of effective
ways of bringing it about.
3. Planning is clearly a decision making process; but not all decision making is planning
(Decision making is defined as the selection of a preferred course of action from two or more
alternative). Planning is anticipatory decision-making.
4. Planning denotes triumph of reason over superstition; of understanding over ignorance; of
organized initiative over fatalistic helplessness. -- P.R. Dubashi.
5. Planning is a process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some
future course of action.
6. Planning is an orderly arrangement of the future. Absence of planning means absence of
preparation and therefore the path of failure -- P.R. Dubashi.
7. Planning is determining in advance what is to be done? How it is to be done? Whom it is to
be done? And who is to do it? It encompassed setting objectives as well as making day-to-
day decisions on how these objectives can best be achieved. Hence planning involves the
determination of both ends and means – Robinson.
8. The planning process is concerned with current decisions about allocating resources in
order to achieve future objectives.
9. Planning is a series of actions that results in decisions to allocate resources in order to
What is a plan?
What is planning?
Why should we plan at all?
What benefits does it provide?
How much planning we need or don’t need?
How does one plan?
What are some useful planning models?
What are some basic obstacles to planning?
How do we confront them?
achieve future objectives.
10. Planning aims at the optimum use of resources and the rational integration of community
life.
11.Planning is basically a methodology, a set of procedures applicable to a variety of
activities aimed to achieving goals by the systematic application of resources in programmed
quantities and in time sequences designed to alter the projected trends and redirect them
towards established objectives.

Why should we plan? Basic reasons for planning:
Planning is a way of solving the problems by making the very best use of resources.
Planning will guide one’s actions to be effective (in accomplishing the objectives/ purpose)
and efficient (done with a least time and effort) in achieving the goals.

In trying to solve one problem we end up creating another, even larger one. Bad but
unintended consequences are often the legacy of good intentions coupled with little
forethought. But a good plan produces thoughtful action and minimizes the likelihood that
our efforts will simply generate new problems.

Good planning involves identifying both the promise and the difficulties that exist in any
situation. Good planning goes beyond problems; good planning enables one to create
opportunities.

PLANNING IMPLIES:
1. A problem / need which is recognized
2. A planner or planners (group) concerned about the problem
3. A process involving analysis, evaluation and decision making
4. An intention of future action.

Levels of planning
A plan should proceed from the broad to the specific. Any plan needs to include:
One’s sense of ultimate desired condition
E.g. Every pregnant woman in Madurai district receives adequate prenatal care.
A specific target that represents significant movement toward that condition.
E.g. to establish multiservice prenatal care clinic by a specific date
The major activities one need to accomplish
E.g. activities include selection of the clinic site, determination of the range of services,
securing funding, or establishing community support.
The specific steps to get things done.
E.g. what should be done over the next one to three months? For example one may decide
that one first need to build community support and that will lead to involvement of people
who can help to determine the range of services, which will set the stage for fund raising
activities.
* The immediate concern in this plan is to gain the community support. to achieve that the
following steps are necessary.
* Contacting the health department for statistics you can use to describe the problem.
* Identifying other individuals and organizations who have an interest the issue.
* Contacting a particular news reporter to do a story on the issue.





STEPS IN PLANNING
1. Analysis of existing conditions (Diagnosis)
What are the problems?
What are the needs?
2. What do we want to achieve in a particular period? (Objectives and target setting)
This week, this month, this year
3. What are the possible ways of achieving this objective?
Brainstorm proposals
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each proposal?
How much time, money and personal effort will be needed for each proposal?
5. Which proposal do we accept?
This may include several suggestions
6. Who will do what, when and where?
7. At what point do we need to evaluate?
Who should be involved in evaluation?

PARTS OF PLANNING
Ends
Means
Resources
Implementation
Control
Objectives; Desired State of future
Policies, Programs, Projects
Investments to be made: Man, Material, Money
Process of carrying out the plan activities
Preventing or correcting errors

Obstacles in planning:
An unpredictable future.
Lack of skill
Lack of interest
Thirst for action- don’t want to take time to plan
Planning to avoid action
Defining the problem in terms of solution.
Planning to produce a predetermined approach
Groupthink

POSSIBLE AREAS FOR PLANNING IN COMMUNITY ORGANISATION:
1. Specific projects, services, activities, program.
2. A course of action – i.e. deciding legislative strategy
3. Organization reorganization, budget preparation
4. A time schedule – fund raising, establishment of new agency.
5. Formulation of work plan; procedures; standards etc.



Categories of projects
Based on levels Based on time Based on the purpose
Centralized Normal Experimental
Decentralized Crash Pilot
Partially decentralized Disaster Production / Service.
Project Planning and Management
(Project Planning / Project Formulation / Project Implementation / Preparation of Project
Proposal).

One Of the most important administrative developments in the developed as well as in
developing countries has been the initiation and growth of a large number of new programs
projects in every field like agriculture irrigation industry community development social
welfare etc.. The principle aims and objectives of all these programs have been to bring about
overall changes in the existing socio-economic structure in the country providing thereby
dignified way of life to a citizen as a unit and socio-economic up liftment of the society.

So most of the administrators are directly concerned with the program / project
administration than other activities. The capability of administrative system to formulate and
implement, relevant and in able programs effectively constitutes a crucial element in the
process of development. Development requires planning and planning includes a lot of
programs / projects. Plan requires projects and projects require a lot of planning.
As in the case of all definitions, the term program / project has a variety meaning.
Programs / Projects are tools to achieve the plan goals.
E.g. Plan goal – Removal of poverty.
Plan tool – IRDP, JRY, TRYSEM etc.
A project is an investment of resources in a package of interrelated time found
activities. Thus a project becomes a time found task. A Project should have definite
beginning and an end.
A project can be defined as a scientifically evolved work plan devised to achieve specific
objectives within a specific period of time.
Social welfare programs is a plan of related activities interested to be carried into effect
over a period of time, to achieve one or more social welfare objectives. The helping the
community in such a manner that with the passage of time, they may be able to carry out
the activities for their own betterment and thus generate self-reliance.

Characteristics of a project:
1. Each and every project should have a package of interrelated activities.
Eg. IRDP
• Identification of the poor
• Knowing their choice
• Arranging bank assets
• Follow up / advisory activities
• Evaluation
2. Each activity is time found
3. Each and every project should have a set of objectives to be achieved.
E.g. IRDP-Eradication poverty by distributing income-generating assets.
E.I.P-Improving the environment in slums through providing basic amenities like
drinking water, drainage, street lights, toilets and community centers etc.

4. Each and every project should be operated with constraints.
E.g. Eradication of poverty within a democratic framework, within a time frame, within a
limited resource within the present bureaucratic setup.
5. Each and every project should specify the (clientele) target group.
E.g. IRDP – Rural poor, SEPUP – Urban poor.
6. Each and every project should have well defined time sequence of investments.
7. Each and every project should have an in built arrangement to evaluate the program.

Project Life Cycle Phases:
All projects have to pass through certain phases. The attention that a particular project
receives is again not uniformly distributed throughout its life span, but it varies from phase to
phase. At a particular appropriate attention has to be paid.

Following are the general phases of a project.
1. Conception phase
2. Definition phase
3. Planning and organizing people
4. Implementation phase
5. Project clean up phase
The above phases won’t follow a sequence … rather they overlap; sometimes this
overlapping is done deliberately in the interest of compressing the overall project schedule.
There are others who would encourage natural growth.

Conception phase:
Phase in which the project idea germinates. This phase is also known as Identification of the
problem, identifying the performance gap.
It we avoid or truncate this phase, the project will have innate defects and may eventually
become a liability for the investors.
How to implement the project is not the botheration of this phase. It we start thinking about
the implementation during this phase, it will unnecessary delay this phase.

Definition Phase:
The definition phase of the project will develop the idea generated during the conception
phase and produce a document describing the project in sufficient details covering all aspects
necessary for the customer or investors to make up their minds on the project idea.

Planning and organizing phase:
This phase can effectively start only after definition phase, nut in practice it start much
earlier, almost immediately after the conception phase. This phase overlaps so much with the
definition and also with implementation phases. That is why no formal recognition is given
to this by most organizations.

Implementation phase:
Period of hectic activity for the project. It is during this period, something starts growing in
the field and people for the first time can see the project.

Project clean up phase:
Completion and handing over the project.
The curve in this diagram shows that effort to build up a project is very slow, but effort to
withdraw is very sharp. It can also be seen that time taken for the formative and clean up
stage & implementation stage. While this pattern is true for all the projects, the percentage of
effort in different phases would not be the same for all projects. However for the same class
projects the curve may be more or less the same. A life cycle curve can thus represent a class
of projects.

Project Life Cycle Phases – II
Project Planning:
Planning in the context of projects is a means of organizing the work, deciding who does
what, when, how and for whom, determining the resources required, allocating responsibility
communicating among all those involved in a project, coordinating activities and people
involved, controlling progress, estimating term of completion and handling unexpected
events and changes. Planning is also a basis for the authority of a project manager, for the
budgeting and financial control of a project manager, for the self analysis and learning, means
of orienting people to look ahead of a project, and above all, a way of initiating and
maintaining a sense of urgency i.e. time consciousness.

Project Formulation:
Project formulation means developing our ideas in a good shape so as to present it to
decision-makers to take correct investment decisions. Thus, project formulation refers to a
series of steps to be taken to convert an idea or aspiration into a feasible plan of action.
Project Formulation
Project Appraisal
This is called pro project evaluation or pre investment evaluation. In appraisal we have to
answer several question. Whether the project is politically acceptable? Socially acceptable?
Economically viable? Technically feasible? Managerially capable? Environmentally stable?
Project Implementation / Management:
It means actual running and management of the day to day affairs of the project and
monitoring the project.







STEPS IN PROGRAMME / PROJECT PLANNING / DEVELOPMENT

Hage & Aiken
1. PROGRAMME INITIATION
2. PROGRAMME CONTACT
3. PROGRAMME
IMPLEMENTATION
4. PROGRAMME EVALUATION
MURRAY G. ROSS
1. DEFINITION OF THE
PROBLEM
2. STUDY OF NATURE,
MEANING & IMPLICATIONS
OF THE PROBLEM
3. DECISIONS REGARDING
ULTIMATE SOLUTIONS
4. ACTION ON THE SOLUTION
AGREED UPON


IDENTIFICATION /
OBJECTIVE SETTING

FORMULATION OF THE
PROJECT

IMPLEMENTATION /
MANAGEMENT


MONITORING


EVALUATION
Delhecg & Van de ven
1. PROBLEM EXPLORATION
2. KNOWLEDGE EXPLORATION
3. PRIORITY DEVELOPMENT
4. PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT
5. PROGRAMME EVALUATION
O.P. DHAMMA
1. SURVEYING THE EXISTING
CONDITIONS
2. CONSTITUTING A
PROGRAMME BUILDING
COMMITTEE
3. SETTING UP OBJECTIVES
4. PLANNING FOR ACTION


EVALUATION
EXPLANATIONS:
1.1 Evaluation means finding out the value of something.
1.2 Evaluation simply refers to the procedures of fact finding.
1.3 To evaluate is to make judgments, to conduct an evaluation is to provide findings that can
be used to make correct judgment.
1.4 Evaluation consists of assessments whether or nor certain activities, treatments and
interventions are in conformity with generally accepted professional standards.
1.5 Any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or the outcome of
interventions, treatment, or of social change projects is considered to be evaluation.
1.6 Evaluation is designated to provide systematic, reliable and valid information on the
conduct, impact and effectiveness of the projects.

STAGES IN EVALUATION:
PROGRAMME PLANNING STAGE: Pre investment evaluation or Formative evaluation or Ex
Ante evaluation or Pre Project Evaluation or Exploratory evaluation or Need assessment.
PROGRAMME MONITORING STAGE: Monitoring evaluation or concurrent evaluation
PROGRAMME/COMPLETION STAGE: Impact evaluation or ex-post evaluation or final
evaluation.

GENERALLY EVALUATION PROCESS CONSISTS OF TWO STAGES
1. Monitoring activities and tasks (concurrent)
2. Assessing the achievement of the objective (final)

BENEFITS OF EVALUATION:
1. To make decisions about the best use of resources
2. To make changes in objectives or activities
3. To provide feed back to key people, particularly project administrators and funders.
PURPOSE OF EVALUATION:
1. From an Accountability perspective, the purpose of evaluation is to make the best
possible use of funds by the program managers who are accountable for the worth of their
programs.

2. From a Knowledge perspective, the purpose of evaluation is to establish new knowledge
about social problems and the effectiveness of policies and programs designed to alleviate
them.

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING
PROJECT PROPOSALE
1. Details regarding the applicant
A) Name, address, legal status & Standing.
B) Persons responsible for the implementation of the Project
C) Project Manager

2. Details regarding the project Area, objectives and method of implementation.
A) Information regarding the location
B) Description of the situation which is to be changed by the planned project
C) Information regarding the aims and objectives
D) Information regarding the planned measured
E) Integration of the project
F) Implementation
3. Personnel required for the project
4. Cost estimate of the project (Budget)
Salary, employee welfare, travel Consultation Non- Recurring (Capital costs)
Recurring (Operating costs)
5. Evaluation.

Techniques useful for Planning.
Force Field Analysis.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Delphi technique.
Nominal Group technique.

Force Field Analysis
This technique is useful in identifying the current obstacles and current resources. As we plan
and proceed towards our work, a number of contending forces operate in our arena of our
action. Some of these forces drive us towards our goal, while some drive us away from our
goal. A state of tension exists, producing a dynamic situation as forces act upon one another
and maintain a relative balance. This balance represents the current state of affairs.

D
E
F
E
A
T

Helping Forces
P
r
e
s
e
n
t

S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n

Hindering Forces
G
O
A
L










Brainstorm all the forces. These forces may be tangible items such as people or meeting
rooms or intangibles like apathy or personal connections or skills. One can move towards the
goal ether by increasing the helping forces, or by weakening the hindering forces. Sometimes
the more pressure comes from the helping forces; the more resistance develops in the
hindering forces. In such cases it is often best to start by reducing the hindering forces.


ORGANIZATION

Meaning & Definitions:
Organ: A part of the body fitted to carry out a natural or vital activity-- an instrument or
means by which anything is done. ‘Organization’ derived from the term ‘organ’, is a means
to achieve certain purpose through group effort.
Organization means orderly arrangement of the group effort to provide unity of action in
the pursuit of a common purpose-- Dunham
Organization is the planned co-ordination of the activities of two or more people in order
to achieve some common and explicit goal through division of labor and a hierarchy of
authority.--Robinson
Organization is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed,
defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the
purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing
objectives.--Louis A. Allen.

Knowledge of “organization” can help community organizers in many ways:
1. How to organize:
A. When we organize the people, we must understand their level of awareness.
Naive Level of Awareness – People aware about the problem. eg.poverty
Critical Level of Awareness- People know about the laws of the problem e.g. Land is
available but it lie waste & dry.
Organizational level of awareness: People aware about neither a good leader not a good
idea is enough to organize the people. When we organize the people, we must remember
how people in respect organization are used to working and their organization in the past

E.g. Small farmers may not adjust easily in a large co-op farm where work in organized on
expertise co-op form where work is organized based on expertise. Factory worker who is
accustomed to division of work may not adjust in a small organization where division of
work is not followed.

B. The build organization in such a way to facilitate people’s participation:
Choosing right persons for the right job
Providing substantial representation

C. To develop the organization / sustain the interest of the members:
Selecting volunteers or indigenous ‘non-professional aides, coordinators, contact person
etc
Leadership training
Socialization – Motivation and satisfaction of members

C. To understand the organization structure:
To learn the organizational robes, understanding who is who, what is what, why is why of
its informal activity
1. Identifying human resources-to get information and advice, co-operation or help
2. Understanding the power structure.

METHODS OF COMMUNICATION & PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. Public Relations mean the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and
maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public.
2. Public relations include the whole area of relations with the public and with groups and
individuals outside the agency.
3. Public relations is simply the attempt of an organization or Agency to enhance its
prestige, position or product in the community at large.

Public Relations is not Propaganda (1.propaganda is an instrument of politics,2. a power for
social control:3.its function is to attract followers and to keep them in line) Not advertising
(advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of goods, service
or ideas by an identified sponsor); Not publicity gimmicks (any form of socially significant
news about an institution, a service, or a person published in a space or radio that is not paid
for by the sponsor); It is not polished receptionists and telephone answering service. It is
a genuine attempt to improve mutual understanding between an organization and all with
whom it comes into contact, both within and outside the organization.

A community organization relates it self to the geographic community in three distinct ways.
1. Public relations
2. Community services: eg. Maintaining parks, giving awards / scholarships; running free
clinics;
3. Community participation: eg. Sending representatives to Corporation’s Eco-Development
program; sending representatives for peace rally.

Need / Purpose / Objectives of Public Relations:
1. To bridge the distance between organization and its Sub System.
A community Organization consists of several sub systems.
Agency family – Boards, Committees and Staff.---Volunteers --- Clients / Consumers
Co-operating Organizations and Individuals. ---Supporters, Contributors, Members.
Key persons.---Special Public – Professions, Veterans.---General Public
Organization has to bridge the spatial, temporal gaps between the sub-systems
2. To enlist the support of the people for financial support.
3. To promote an understanding of the aims, services and methods of social welfare
agencies.
4. Defense: To overcome the criticism & opposition.

Methods of Public Relations:
Press relations-Issuing press releases–Arranging press meeting –Writing letters to the editor.
E.g. Consumer Protection Council.
Printing Message: Printing pamphlets, notices– Publishing house journals etc. Using
photographs as an aid in printing message. News letters.
Conducting Exhibitions & Trade Fairs
Using Audio Visual media (Radio, film and TV)
Hospitality services.
Advertising


EDUCATION

Education is implicit in much of the community organization works irrespective of its
orientation. If a community organizer oriented to process goal (i.e.) working with the people
to develop their organizational and inter-personal relationship, so as to facilitate community
effort, he has to entirely depend upon the variety of educational methods.

Explanation:
Education generally defined as progressive or desirable changes in a person as a result
of teaching, study and experience. Education consists of two elements i.e., teaching and
learning.

Teaching is defined as the art of assisting another to learn. It includes the providing of
information (instruction) and of appropriate situations, constructions or activities
(experiences) designed to facilitate learning.

Learning is defined as changing one’s way of acting, as a result of practice or of other
intervening relevant experience. Such changes in conduct assume changes in the
responding person.

Education in C.D.
Education, as it is used in C.D., includes the attempt to help people obtain knowledge, and
understanding and develop their capacities, powers, faculties and sense of values.
The purpose of education is to produce changes.
The Changes sought are of five kinds.

Changes in things known, or knowledge. Adult education.
Changes in things done, or skills. Functional literacy.
Changes in things felt, or attitudes. Family life education.
Changes in things valued or appreciation Environmental, Moral, Religious education.
Changes in things comprehended or understanding.

Characteristics of C.O. Education:
It is concerned with adults; largely informal; focused on local problems / services /
environment; numerous methods and media.

CONSULTATION

1. Consultation means giving counsel, advice or assistant to an organization, group,
community or other unit by a person or a team of persons with specialized knowledge, skill,
or other technical qualifications. Consultation, as a method of community organization
implies an advisory relationship and should be distinguished from supervisory relationship.

2. Consultation is a help giving process in which the consultant uses his or her expertise to
facilitate the problem solving of the consultee.

3. A consultant is one who aids the consultee to better understand his / her problem
situation, to develop and evaluate different courses of action, and to generate actions to put
the chosen solution into practice.

4. Consultation is any attempt to intervene in a way that might break a circle by showing
alternative way of doing / thinking.

METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION

1. Administration is a process of defining and attaining objectives of an organization
through a system of coordinated and co-operative effort.
2. Administration may be defined as the sum total of all activities which relate to
• Determination of objectives, plane, policies and programs.
• Securing resources-men, money, materials and machinery.
• Putting all these resources into operation-through sound organization.
• Controlling their performance – to endure achievement of ends.
• Providing sense of achievement to the workers in the operation through financial and
non-financial incentives.
3. Administration is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed
with and through other people.

Components of Administration:
1) Goals 2) Resources 3) People.
Components of Administrative Process / Function:

Planning
Planning is determining
in advance the
objectives to be
accomplished and the
means by which these
objectives are to be
obtained

Organizing
Organizing is the
establishment of
relationships between the
activities to be performed
the personnel to perform
them, and the physical
factors that are needed
Leading
It means
influencing others
through motivation,
supervision, and
communication to
perform their tasks
efficiently.
Controlling
It means reviewing,
regulating and
controlling
performance to
ensure that it
confirms to certain
standards.

Organizing
Administration is both a primary and secondary method in social work. Administration in
C.O. is a secondary method; both are similar in using certain practice methods – i.e., fact-
finding, planning, organization, evaluation, fund raising, public relations.

Aspects of community organization Administration:
There are four important aspects of C.O. Administration.
1) Community organization activities.
2) Program direction.
3) Agency self-analysis.
4) Supervision.

1. Community organization Activities:
a) Continuous services. b) Projects. c) Occasional services.
a) Continuous Services: Continuous services are usually expected to continue indefinitely.
Eg. Sanitation program, Production program; Public relations etc.

b) Projects / Programs: Time bound activities.

c) Occasional Services:
These are separate individual services that are not integral part of either continuous services
or projects. There are three types of occasional services.

1 Recurrent Service:
Occur at more or less regular intervals, some of them are definitely seasonal, the recurrent
activity is not an isolated phenomenon, It has happened before and it is expected to happen
again.
E.g. Sanitation work during festival times
Serving the pilgrims
Wall writings by DK.

ii) Collateral Activities:
These activities are incidental to the main stream of the agency’s service: Collateral activities
take up a substantial portion of the average community organisation worker’s time. This is
likely to be of vital importance, not only for good will and public relations but also from the
standpoint of actual services rendered.
Eg. a) Contributions of C.O. Agency’s staff in meetings, seminars.
b) Furnishing information for others
2) Program Direction:
It means directing and motivating to carry out the agency’s total service programme.
3) Agency self Analysis:
It means application of analytical questions to find out the usefulness & Efficacy of the
agency’s services.
4) Supervision:
Supervision involves overseeing the work. Supervision is a special case of leadership.
Supervisors are the only administrators who direct the activities of the non-
administrations.


RECORDING

1. Recording is documenting the actual work done in the agency or documenting all the
significant things that took place in the agency.
2. A record is an organized statement of facts relating to a particular problem / subject / work
/ program prepared by the worker (writer) or workers (writers) with or without opinions or
recommendations.
3. A record is a document or other auditory or visual product, intended to be used primarily
as a working tool by an organization or individual. A record is intended as working tool. It
is usually unpublished and for use primarily within the organization or some other group,
rather than for the general public.

RECORD VS REPORT:
Record is a substitute for memory.
Report is a communication tool.
Record is used within the agency / by a worker.
Report is used for public consumption.

Functions of a Record:
1) The Historical Function: It gives an account of something that happened – substitute for
memory.
2) For Identification: It identifies person, group or things.
3) To set forth-factual descriptions, analyses, instructions, directions, opinions,
recommendations or suggestions.
4) To set forth plans for the future.

Purpose of Records:
To facilitate and improve the service of the agency/ worker.
To facilitate and increase the effectiveness of executive control and supervision.
To provide material for interpreting activities, problems and accomplishments.
To ensure continuity of work if one worker is replaced by another.
To provide adequate historical record of the agency, its programs and accomplishments.
To provide more adequate teaching material for use in training students, in-service and
orientation trainings.
To provide material for planning; future references and research.

Types of Community Organization Records:
Records can be classified based on (1) The method of writing and (2) The purpose of
writing.
1. a) Narrative record usually describes what happened.
b) Process record describes how and why various things happened and
how the worker made use of the community organization process.
2. a) Operating records main purpose is to facilitate the service and operation of an agency /
worker carrying on community organization activities.
b) Teaching records used mainly in the community organization courses.

Types of operating Records
1) Stream records e.g. Diary, Day sheet, Agency log.
2) Fact sheets.
3) Analysis and planning records.
4) Community organization cases histories.
5) Administrative reports.
6) Historical records.
1. Stream Record: It is a chronological record of the stream of events or developments. The
material is presented chronologically rather than topically.
Eg. (a) Diary: Day to day narrative record kept by a worker.
(b) Day Sheet: A short hand recording of the days activities of a worker.
(c) Agency Log: A form of Diary selective in recording the matters.

2. Face Sheet: Face sheet is a type of record, giving, in itemized form, the “identifying
information” about a committee of the agency, a project or an agency.
E.g. Committee / Project / Community face sheets.

3. Analysis and Planning Records: It records things under six analytical questions.

4. Community Organization Case Histories: The case history is a chronological narrative
record of developments, contacts, and problems concerning some entity such as an agency or
a project. It analogous to a case record for a family or individual.

5. Administrative Reports: It may be formal or informal statutory or non-statutory.
Problems in community organization recording:
Insufficient staff time.
Inadequate clerical assistance.
Difficulty in selecting material to be recorded.
Staff, not interested in recording.
Filling problems.
Lack if recording skills.










































The word ‘conflict’ carries negative
connotations. It is often thought of as the
opposite of co-operation and peace, and is
most commonly associated with violence, the
threat of violence or disruptive (nonviolent)
disputes. This view of conflict as negative is
not always helpful. In non-violent settings it
can often be seen as a force for positive social
change, its presence being a visible
demonstration of society adapting to a new
political, economic or physical environment.
Synopsis
Conflict.
Competition
Aggression
Conflict theory
Conflict handling modes
Conflict resolution
Functional Vs Dysfunctional
Positive Vs Negative
Competition Vs Conflict
Basic properties – incompatible goals, emotional hostility, antagonistic interaction
Levels of Conflict – intra personal (approach, avoidance types), interpersonal, group conflict,
organizational conflict.
Types of conflict – economic conflict, power conflict, value conflict –
Conflict due to personality clashes, conflict due to different needs, roles, goals, interest.
Different needs,
Stages in conflict – antecedent conditions, perceived / felt conflict; manifest behavior, conflict resolution
or suppression, resolution aftermath.
Escalation of conflict – causes.
Methods of conflict resolution – promoting pro-social behavior, approaches to manage conflict (win-win,
win-lose, lose-lose), withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, forcing, third party consultation
(arbitration, mediation)
CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION










Conflict.Conflict is usually defined as a social situation in which incompatible goals and
activities occur between two or more parties (individuals or groups) who hold antagonistic
feelings towards each other and attempt to
control each other.
Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities
occur.
Conflict occurs when an individual is motivated
to make two or more mutually incompatible
responses.
Conflict is a tension between two
or more entities (individuals,
groups or larger organizations),
which arise from incompatibility of
actual or larger responses.

Competition implies an opposition in the goals of the interdependent parties such that the
probability of goal attainment for one decreases as the probability of other increases.
Aggression is a form of behavior intended to inflict injury to a person or object.
Conflict Theory. A theory that views community and society as an arena in which various
groups compete to attain maximum gain for themselves.
Community Conflict
The potential for community conflict exists whenever and
wherever people have contact. Communities faces increasing
community conflicts due to the cultural, linguistic and ethnic
diversity associated with its changing population. Communities
and government services are being redefined and, at the same
time, neighbors are facing unfamiliar lifestyles in their
neighborhoods. Stresses caused by economic or social change
can impact community resources, leaving groups feeling that
they are being denied government services at the expense of
other groups. Law enforcement, schools and local government
officials are increasingly affected by resulting tensions and need
to be prepared when serious conflict erupts.
Community conflict also can occur when individuals or groups
perceive or experience discriminatory behavior directed at them
by an agency or its representative, by members of another
group, or by members of their own group. For example, a high-
profile case of police misconduct, an incident of violence on a
college campus, a hate crime or case of discrimination can
polarize a community. All of these events can produce stress on
community residents, often resulting in disagreements over what
should be done to solve these problems. This stress can even
lead to open conflict within the community.
Conflict (or alienation) approach. A theory of society, which argues that fundamental
tensions or built in contradictions exist between the powerful and the powerless – and these
problems, can be resolved only through radical changes in society.

Conflict handling modes / conflict resolution. Settlement of
disputes that are mutually satisfactory and that receive a long-term
commitment from both the parties.

If there is a possibility to enjoy social justice without recourse to
physical violence in any society then there will be less conflict in that society.
Systems that handle conflict openly and productively can maximize the benefits while
reducing the conflicts
One has to examine both the goals and the means of conflict in order to judge its
acceptability.
Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict
Positive Vs Negative Conflict

Competition Conflict
No direct action of one party to interfere with the ongoing
activities of another e.g. track and field events
Competition occurs within a set of agreed upon rules.
E.g.hockey
Conflict interferes

There is no agreed upon rules.
All is fair in conflict

Basic properties of
conflict:
Incompatible goals.
Emotional hostility
Antagonistic interaction

Levels of Conflict – intra
personal (approach,
avoidance types),
interpersonal, group
conflict, organizational
conflict.
Types of conflict –
economic conflict, power
conflict, value conflict –
Conflict due to personality
clashes, conflict due to
different needs, roles,
goals, interest.
different needs,
Economic Conflict:
It arises due to competing
motives to obtain scarce resources. Each group wants to maximize its gain at the cost of other
party. Economic conflict will not be resolved by improving communication, but by difficult
and detailed negotiations among the parties.
Power Conflict:
Power conflict arises when each party wishes to maximize the influence it has. This type of
conflict usually ends in a victory for one party and a defeat for another, or in a stand off that
involves a continuing state of tension. The crucial issue is not resource scarcity or differences
in basic values, but simply a question of control and related matters such as pride, recognition
and future material rewards that power may bring.

Value Conflict:
It involves incompatible principles and
practices that people believe in- their
ideology, religion, political system and
culture. E.g. Marxist Vs Capitalist,
Religious conversion etc.

Since the value conflicts lie at the very
heart of a person / peoples identity, they
are extremely difficult to resolve.

Most conflict involve a mixture of realistic economic, power or value differences as well as
unrealistic ingredient of misperception and miscommunication. Usually a conflict may begin
from one source but broaden to include other elements.

Other types of conflict:
The more our lives overlap with others, the more likely it is that
there will at times be conflicts. So one can identify different types of
conflicts.

Personality clashes:
It occurs when two people who have to see each other frequently
cause negative feelings and reactions in one another. Often these
people share common goals, but they cannot get along. E.g. he hurts
me
Different needs:
Roles: Role expectation can cause conflict
Goals: lack of clarity or disagreement about the goals of the program
Conflict of interest: e.g. higher wages

Stages in Conflict:














Antecedent Conditions

Perceived Felt
Conflict Conflict

Manifest Behavior

Conflict Resolution
and Suppression

Resolution and
Aftermath

Escalation of Conflict:
Human beings behave in ways calculated to maximize their goals and minimize their loses.
The behavior of each party in conflict imposes constraints on the potential satisfaction of the
other. This tends to escalate conflict. Unless it resolved at an early stage, it become more
intense and hostile to proliferate more issues and involve stronger and more destructive
attempts to control.
Escalation usually feeds on fear, defensiveness, selective and distorted perception, attributing
negative intentions on others
Strengths and Limitations of Approaches to Conflict Management
TRADITIONAL & CUSTOMARY LEGAL ALTERNATIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Strengths Limitations Strengths Limitations Strengths Limitations
Respect for
local values
and customs
Not all people
may have equal
access to the con
flict resolution
Well-defined
procedures
Tend to neglect
indigenous
knowledge
Contributes to proce ss
of community self-relia
nce &empowerment
May not be able
to over come
power
differences
Provides fami
liarity & past
experience
Courts have
supplanted local
authority
Decisions are
legally
binding
Inaccessible to
the marginal
&poor groups
Encourages participa
tion & respects local
customs and values
Decisions are
not legally
binding

Methods of Conflict Resolution:
Promoting pro-social behavior:
Human beings have at least as much potential for caring, sharing and cooperating as they do
for aggression, competing and destroying. Pro social behaviors are activities that have
positive social consequences for others.
Approaches to managing conflict:
Ones approach to manage conflict differ as per ones assumptions 1) people, 2) about conflict,
3) characteristic attitudes, 4) behaviors and typical outcomes.

The Win-Win approach is a conscious and systematic attempt to maximize the gains of both
parties through collaborative problem solving.

1. Forcing- an antagonistic, competitive approach that pushes for an all or nothing solution
Lose-Lose approach is characterized in many ways
1. Avoidance of conflict is preferred to open competition and half loaf is better than one
loaf.
2. Withdrawing- avoiding conflict by retreating or remaining silent
3. Smoothing- playing down differences, emphasizing commonalities and avoiding
discussions on contentious issues
4. Compromising- a simple splitting of differences through negotiation

Two-dimensional model of conflict management:
This model states that assertiveness (to satisfy others concerns) and cooperativeness (to
satisfy others concerns) are both necessary to understand peoples approach and behavior
towards conflict. This model yields five conflict modes
Ways of dealing with conflict / opposition
Conflict / Opposition
Negative Feelings
Anger
Give in Counter anger Attempt to hear other
persons
Turn away Negative Response Involvement with other
persons






Conflict resolution is a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term "conflict
resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. Processes
of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation are
usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution." Processes of
mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.
Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by
which people handle grievances — standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be
wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law,
mediation, and avoidance. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat
predicted and explained by the social structure. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict
resolution
Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for
individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative
dispute resolution. Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among
nations and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject is called
negotiation theory. Those who work in negotiation professionally are called negotiators. Professional negotiators are often
specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators, hostage negotiators or may work
under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators or brokers.
Mediation, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) or "appropriate dispute resolution", aims to assist two (or more)
disputants in reaching an agreement. The parties themselves determine the conditions of any settlements reached— rather
than accepting something imposed by a third party. The disputes may involve (as parties) states, organizations, communities,
individuals or other representatives with a vested interest in the outcome.
Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes — including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political,
economic, and social systems and institutions — that directly affect people’s current lives.
Advocacy can be seen as a deliberate process of speaking out on issues of concern in order to exert some influence on behalf
of ideas or persons. Based on this definition, Cohen states that “ideologues of all persuasions advocate” to bring a change in
people’s lives. However, advocacy has many interpretations depending on the issue at stake, which can be different from this
initial value-neutral definition.
Diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common
challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational or polite manner.
Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. This action is in
support of, or opposition to, one side of an often controversial argument.
The word "activism" is often used synonymously with protest or dissent, but activism can stem from any number of political
orientations and take a wide range of forms, from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political campaigning,
economic activism (such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing preferred businesses), rallies, blogging and street marches,
strikes, both work stoppages and hunger strikes, or even guerrilla tactics.
In some cases, activism has nothing to do with protest or confrontation: for instance, some religious, feminist or
vegetarian/vegan activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than persuade governments to
change laws. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, and
generally does not lobby or protest politically.
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs
and practices that dominate. In other words, it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousness.
Critical pedagogue Ira Shor defines critical pedagogy as "Habits of thought, reading, writing, and speaking which go beneath
surface meaning, first impressions, dominant myths, official pronouncements, traditional clichés, received wisdom, and mere
opinions, to understand the deep meaning, root causes, social context, ideology, and personal consequences of any action,
event, object, process, organization, experience, text, subject matter, policy, mass media, or discourse."





Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management.
Intra micro–micro conflicts:
• Disputes over land and resource ownership, e.g. between private and communal land owners;
• Disputes over land boundaries between individuals or groups;
• Latent family and relationship disputes;
• Disputes due to natural resource projects being captured by élites and/or those who happen to own
Resources of a higher quality;
• Breaking of CPR constitutional or operational rules, such as protection agreements for grazing areas,
fish net sizes, forests, or misappropriation of funds, etc.;
• Disputes over the unfair distribution of work and profits.
Inter micro–micro conflicts:
• Conflict between land-owners and resource users;
• Conflict between indigenous CPR groups, and more recent settlers;
• Disputes generated by jealousy related to growing wealth disparities;
• Lack of co-operation between different community groups;
• Disputes over renewal arrangements for leased land;
• Internal land ownership disputes ignited by the speculation activities of commercial companies;
• Resentment built up due to lack of representation on village committees.
Micro–macro conflicts:
• Contradictory natural resource needs and values, e.g. between wildlife habitat protection and local livelihood
security;
• Cultural conflicts between community groups and outsiders;
• Disputes over project management between community groups and outside project-sponsors;
• Disputes caused by political influence (national, provincial or local);
• Disputes arising from differences between the aspirations of community groups and expectations of NGOs or
commercial companies;



Third
Party





Consultation:
Arbitration: Involves a third party judgment that is arrived at by considering the merits of the
opposing cases and their imposing a settlement.
Mediation: Involves a skilled third party who attempts to help clients reach a compromise on
specific issues that are amenable for negotiation


Strategies of Community Organization
Methods of Conflict Resolution
‘Thou shalt have the situation dictate the strategy’

A strategy is the general framework of or orientation to the activities undertaken to achieve a
goal. It is not a particular action but rather a series of actions that take in to account, the
anticipated maneuvers of people. [Supporters as well as opponents]
A strategy is an orchestration of individual attempts’ that brings together and consciously
blends a variety of different components of action. A strategy takes in to account the actions
and reactions of key allies and adversaries as they bear upon achievement of the proposed
goal.
There are four strategic approaches pursued in community organization
Confrontation Negotiation Co-operation Co-optation
It involves bringing
the demands of one
party to the attention
of another and forcing
compliance
It is a process of
bringing parties with
different needs and
perspectives to an
agreement
It exists when parties
share resources to
accomplish a common
goal
It results when parties
share common beliefs
about matters and
when success or
failure of one party
produces similar
feelings
Situation for which a particular strategy may be appropriate
Target refuses to
meet with us.
Target is
unresponsive.
Need to crystallize or
dramatize the issue.
Need to energize the
issue.
Need to attract the
allies.

Unable to sustain
confrontation
effectively.
Unable to neither
convince nor force the
respondent into full
compliance with our
demands.
To see progress
toward accomplishing
some gain.
When the opponents
have recognized the
legitimacy of the
demands.
When both sides want
to gain or build
relationship.

The respondents have
resources we need
and from which we
can benefit.
When we have
resources to offer.
Situation of mutual
benefit.
Want to increase the
respondents’
dependence on us.
Respondent is O.K
and we want to work
together.
Opposite group is
uncooperative and is
not a good target for
confrontation.
Key individuals in the
opposite group are
amenable to some
sort of affiliation.
Weakening the
opposite by putting
them in our agency
where their opinion is
silenced.
Strengths of a Particular strategy
* Fighting with an
external opponent
may strengthen group
cohesion
* Winning provides
tremendous emotional
uplift
* Mere threat of
confrontation may be
sufficient to
accomplish our
* Likely to end up
more favorable
condition, even if you
don’t get everything
you want
* Other sides ability
to gain some thing
makes them more
accepting of your gain
* Positive relationship
may develop
*Combined resources
* More people to work
* More dependence of
others may alter the
balance of power


* Silencing a
potentially harmful
critic
* Gain some insights
into the working of
the competition
* Gaining access to a
community that has
been closed to you
purpose
Limitations of the strategy
* Loss can be
discouraging
And may lead to
internal puckering
* Non cooperation
from the other side
* Settle for to little
that may weaken the
future demands

* More energy is
needed to maintain
the relationship
* Loss of autonomy
* Others may take
credit for the success
* Letting a fox in the
hen house
* Co-opted members
may manipulate your
transparency

The major elements we need to understand before deciding a strategy

Elements Things to know
Issues Basic facts; causes and effects of problems; solutions applied in other places;
rights and obligation of parties
Target Probable reaction to specific tactic; principal decision makers; degree of
rationale for support or opposition; strengths and vulnerabilities; cohesion
Your Troops Degree of commitment; numbers; probable reactions to opponent’s tactics;
cultural norms; strengths and vulnerabilities; cohesion
Other Resources Awareness of needed additional resources; availability and location of
resources; steps required to gain additional resources

NEGOTIATION

In trying to solve certain problems, community Organizations often find it necessary to
Negotiate with other parties. “Negotiation is an attempt
to hold discussion with those who evidence varying
degrees of resistance, in the hope of ultimately arriving
at an agreement. This is the essence (i.e. arriving at an
agreement through discussion) and the end point of the
negotiating process. In this context a negotiant is anyone
whom the community organization is trying to influence. A
negotiant can be undecided, neutral or hostile.
E.g. Strike by the govt. staff. Activism against lock up
deaths.

The common element in all these examples is that the
community organization attempts to hold discussions with
those who evidence varying degrees of resistance in the
hope of ultimately arriving at an agreement. Thus
negotiation implies a conflict and the promotion of a cause
or certain interests.

In successful negotiation both parties ideally perceive that
they have given up something of limited value to gain
something of major value. If one party feels defeated then
that party won’t show any interest in making the agreement
stable and may be provoked into laying plans for future
retaliation.

Problems in Negotiation:
Many community organizations do not always heave within their capacity the power to gain
success to decision- makers. Unlike in industrial negotiation, community groups lacking
power frequently find themselves prevented from the negotiation process. So community
organizations have to develop their position and power that allows them to sit at the
negotiating table
To gain access to negotiations and enhance their bargaining positions, community
organizations use a variety of tactics.
Tactics to strengthen the Negotiating power of the community organizations
1. Supporting Survival Needs
Eg.Helping politicians in their campaigns
Supporting local departments to get more budget allocations.
Assisting in find raising campaigns.
2. Demonstrating public support and sympathy:
It means demonstrating the decision- makers that they espouse a cause, which has widespread
community support
Eg. Holding mass rallies.
Conducting letter-writing campaigns.
Circulating petitions.
Increasing membership.
Obtaining editorial support.
Organizing leading citizens to contact their legislators.
Signature campaigns.
3. Forming Alliances:
Alliances can be formed with other organizations whose members have similar values.
Broader the base of the alliance more power can be exerted in the negotiating process.
E.g. - Demands one NGO supported by other NGOs.
4. Conducting Behind – The Scenes Discussions
In most of the political situations certain people bear major responsibility for what happens.
Through quite discussions with these persons, the key decision- makers can be convinced to
carryout a course of action promoted by the community organization. In fact these key
leaders sometimes become the crusaders of the cause, and the initiating community
organization may have to be satisfied with little credit even through their objective is
achieved.
5. Targeting pressure points:
Selecting targets that are vulnerable to the special kinds of pressure a community
organization can bring to hear.
Eg. – Road Blockade
Agitation during assembly session
Wearing Black Badge.
6. Threatening:
Negotiation often involves a degree of threat. The fact that rewards can be with held or
punishment inflicted constitutes a threat.
E.g. – Threat of a Lawsuit.
Threats to withdraw support or boycott.
7. Waging campaigns against persons or institutions:
Direct action.

Phases in Community Organization Phase
Any distinct time period in a sequence of events; A short unit of time, or an episode of development or change, usually within the context of a longer period. The term has been used informally Study: Application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection: The cultivation of a particular branch of learning, science, or art: the study of law; personal effort to gain knowledge: to understand community; Something studied or to be studied: research or a detailed examination and analysis of a subject, phenomenon, etc.: She made a study of the village. Analysis Analysis (from Greek "a breaking up") is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it. Assessment Classification of someone or something with respect to its worth; appraisal; the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event; judgment Decision Making The act of making up your mind about something, or a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration. And when people ordinarily consider their own definition of decision making, it is typical that they consider that somehow it is a thinking process, with lots of mental activity involved in choosing between alternatives. But this doesn't include the way some people make decisions. You may have heard people saying I have a gut feeling; I know in my heart: I feel it in my bones Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we want not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that (1) has the highest probability of success or effectiveness and (2) best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on. Decision making is the process of sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt about alternatives to allow a reasonable choice to be made from among them. This definition stresses the informationgathering function of decision making. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute certainty because complete knowledge about all the alternatives is seldom possible. Thus, every decision involves a certain amount of risk. Organization Orderly arrangement of group effort; An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word (organon) meaning tool. The term is used in both daily and scientific English in multiple ways. Action A process or condition of acting or moving, as opposed to rest; the doing of something; exertion of power or force, as when one body acts on another; the effect of power exerted on one body by another; agency; activity; operation; as, the action of heat; a man of action. Modification partial or slight change in form; product of such a change; slight reduction; moderation; change in an organism caused by its environment and not inheritable

What is community organizing?
Community organizing is a long-term approach where the people affected by an issue are supported in identifying problems and taking action to achieve solutions. The organizer challenges those he or she works with to change the way things are—it is a means of achieving social change through collective action by changing the balance of power. The tactics and strategies employed by the organizer are similar to the processes of leadership including timing the issue, deliberate planning, getting the attention of the populace, framing the issue in terms of the desired solution, and shaping the terms of the decision-making process.

Why use community organizing?
"A single bracelet does not jingle"- African proverb Community organizing helps to bring out many voices to add collective power and strength to an issue. Community organizing is a key part of an overall strategy to make changes in a community that are widely felt, and that reflect the wishes of the people who are directly affected by alcohol-related community problems. This requires the organizer to not only listen and be responsive to the community, but also to help community residents develop the skills necessary to address their own issues in an ongoing way.

At the heart of community organizing are inclusion, ownership, relationship building and leadership development. Individual vs. Collective Action
Community organizing looks at collective solutions — large numbers of people who engage in solutions that impact even more people. These people usually live in the same neighborhood, town or block. Many traditional agency responses look at individual solutions. Agencies tend to focus on the individual as a means to solve public health problems.

Problem identification: Social programs are developed to address social problems. Obviously community organizers have to study and document the existence of the social problem before developing a program . Why we need Community Organization Need assessment / Problem http://www.vcn.bc.ca/citizens-handbook/ identification – a crucial first step We need more active citizens and CO is the way to do it in program development – is a A way of tackling large public issues systematic verification of the Community Organization - A way of solving local problems existence, prevalence, location, Community Organization - A way of improving liveability and importance of a social Community Organization - A bridge to strong democracy Community Organization is a recognized route to better health problem as it is expressed in Community Organization is a way of rekindling community needs for service. Needs assessment / Problem identification: Social indicator method, Survey method: Group method Fact- finding Fact-finding includes activities designed to aid the discovery, ascertainment, assembling, compilation and recording of facts. Most community problems are sustained by a wide variety of factors, and some are more influential than others. The challenge is to locate the major factors that have an effect on the problem requiring correction. To meet this challenge effectively, it is essential to gather relevant facts regarding the background of the problem.

In gathering information on the problem, the Community Organizer may be faced with two difficulties: obtaining too much information that may Principles of Organizing prove to be irrelevant; identifying too little Experienced organizers know that the information from normal sources. Good judgment process of organizing is seldom "tidy" must be used to distinguish noise (meaningless data) — it doesn't always happen in neat, from information that helps in analyzing a problem. predictable steps. It can be thought Similarly when information is not easily available, of as a process guided by principles concerned individuals may be required to use that repeat in a cyclic, rather than ingenuity, functioning like good investigative linear, way: reporter by checking out leads. With the advice of the knowledgeable researchers, special studies may need to be conducted as part of the fact-finding process. Following are the techniques normally adopted for fact finding. Documentation (Recording / Compilation of information), Formal Hearing (to find out how representative citizens think on a particular issue or proposal), Action Research (Research combined with some other type of action programs), Demonstration projects (to find out whether a certain program will work or how effective a particular type of program) and keeping abreast of new developments and new information in regard to certain subjects
Model 1 .
1. What are the facts to be collected? External conditions and factors Levels of socio-economic development and its relationship to the area Location advantages Govt policies & Programs Characteristics of the area Land resources –Soil & Water Human Resources Quantitative---Age, Sex, Religion etc Qualitative ----Education, Literacy Social & Institutional Structure Familial Corporate Units (Families-House) Associational Corporate Units (Caste) Territorial Corporate Units (Panchayat Raj, Categoric Units (Religion) Delivery System For Social & Economic Services Economic i.e. Extension, Credit, Marketing Education, Health, Family Planning, Nutrition Infrastructure Facilities for Production and Marketing Road, Electricity, Irrigation, Telecommunication

2.

3.

4. 5.

I am willing to be wait listed I paid deposit for getting phone connection Analysis: Analysis is the application of the six basic analytical questions i. when. The purpose of analysis is to gain insight. So Community ‘B’ is in need. Comparative Need: -. 1971 ) . People may ask for help without really needing it. Singapore-60 per 1000. exploring the content of the data. Qualities include: • Imagination • Sense of Humor • Blurred vision of a better world • An organized personality • Strong ego/sense of oneself • A free.e. what. Community ‘A’ is in receipt of service.e.Need is demanded. examining the inter relationships between the constituencies. and understanding. Europe-380 per 1000. whom. Planning can scarcely exist without analysis. Qualities of a good organizer Community organizers think strategically about their work while always keeping the final goal in mind and continually making contributions to the goal. because it has the similar characteristics of ‘AB’. breaking up the content or problem. where.g. Exaggerate it or inflate it. Phone Facilities: USA-450 per1000. why and how? What is the problem? Where does it exist? Who is affected by it? When does it occur? What degree it is felt? Analysis lies midway between fact finding and planning. This is especially important in community organizing campaigns to enact or change policies. Middle class standard ---’A’ is in need of ‘B’ and ‘B’ is incompatible with the values held in society ’C’ and therefore ‘B’ should be changed.Relative Need--. but not in receipt of that service. Felt Need: --Equated with wants---Felt need is limited by the perception of the people. a desirable standard---if the individual or community falls short of this desirable standard then they are being in need. Community ‘B’ also has similar characteristics.Need Identification Normative Need: --i. A sound plan normally implies that the planner has the facts and that the facts and the problem have been analyzed as a basis for the formulation of the plan. It involves collection of data. and political relativity • Ability to create the new out of the old ( Saul Alinsky. Expressed Need: . INDIA---4 per 1000 (?) (Highest number indicate normative condition) Comparative Need Felt Need Expressed Need My neighbor has a phone. open mind. E.this need can be assessed by studying the characteristics of the people who are receiving a particular service.

increase in the wastewater cover.." the term community suggests a general sense of altruism. isolated center with a stable population. • Coming from two Latin words meaning "with gifts.. neighborhood groups. "A relatively small.becomes the functional equivalents of the older. • This shared interest or intent offers a strong forum for members of the community to build relationships and affiliations out of which they can learn from one another and make an impact on the society or culture around them. asking them how they perceive their unmet needs can identify potential demand for service. Why the problem occurred? Poor drainage facilities." . Steps in Community Survey: • • • Planning the survey Executing the survey What's a community? In the physical world. and collective memory of those that join the group.36 Madurai Corporation. the incidence of malarial fever increased 35% in the sanitary division No.e. The ideal type of community emerges as an intellectual concept when social change threatens to destroy a locality's isolation.Analyzing the facts / Problem identification What is the problem? Where does the problem exist? Who is affected by the problem? Deteriorating Public Health In the sanitary division No. isolated community.including occupational and professional groups.. traditionalism. The 1998 Encyclopedia Americana defines a community as. rituals and customers. [This] leads to a newer form -. are comprised of people with shared identity or interests coming together for a shared purpose. Communities help generate a shared language. Their members can find a focus for their social relations. By survey method the Community Organizer can assess existing services and resources in an area of need as well as gaps in service. in which all economic and social services necessary to life can be maintained.. loyalties.. and ethnic and political groups -. and interests. too. and beneficence that comes from working together. The same holds true for virtual or online communities in that they. and they make it possible for their members to avoid the problems of a multidimensional mass society. Surveying both service agencies and community residents. reciprocity. “SUR” (‘to see a particular thing) and VOR” (From a high place) “Community Survey is a method by which quantitative facts are collected about the social aspect of a community’s position and activities. 5000 families are affected due to this public health deterioration. for instance) held together by some common identity or interest. Community Survey: The term survey derived from two words i. town. The community is one of the oldest forms on human social organizations. communities are typically groups of people (a village. 36 of Madurai Corporation More than 5000 families residing in the 36 division {geographic} area When does the problem occur? For the last two years. To what extent the problem is felt? 35% of the patients who attended the local Medical practitioners are affected by malarial fever Problem statement: In the past two years. ecological. and solidarity.

Methods of Financing and Fund Raising: institutions / Financial 21. Public Relations 13. Timeliness and Seasonality of Farming Practices 2. Committee practice 8. Odors and Noise 4.1. Fund procurement by governmental agencies 22. Methods of Administration: etc 25. Methods of Group Decision Making and Co-operative Action: Economic needs / 5. Non Legislative procedural social action people / Social 19. Environmental Role 2. Methods of Promotion and Social Action: human made things / 16.2. Cultural Role Laws that Protect Agriculture Understanding Specific Aspects of Farming 1. Use of Roads 5. How the community Arthur Dunham’s Classification of CO Methods functions to meet its 1. Capacity for disposition 26. Analysis /Social and Emotional 3. Fact finding 2. Use of Pesticides 6. The interview 4.3. Evaluation 4. Administrative activities of agencies concerned with social planning. How the community functions? [Function means community attempt to meet its needs] 2. Organization including Mass organization communication needs] 3. Meeting practice 6. Methods of Planning and Related Activities needs [Physical needs 1. Direct action 20. Social and emotional needs Safety and security * Pride in the community * Confident of their own and others abilities * Caring by others * Groupings * Handling of deviants Ability to work together * Participation in decision-making * Formal/Informal process of making community decisions * Formal government structures and leadership positions * Recognizing community problems * Dominants [vocal] and passive [silent] * Basis of community power * Carrying out decisions . Formal oral communication 15. Conference 7. Formal written Communication [Natural/Tangible 14. Joint budgeting Knowledge availability 6. towards purposeful change 1. Recording. Economic Role 3. Planning needs / Political needs / 2. Legislative promotion Systems of serving 18. Administration of common services or community organization 27. Exerting or invoking authoritative Action relationships/Major 5. Physical needs Access to adequate needs * Affordable medical care * Adequate and safe transport system * Adequate waste and drainage system * Clean environment * Routine maintenance 2. Negotiation Educational and 9. Manure Management 3. Education 11.Information requirement to understand a community 1. Methods of Communication: 3. Promotion 17. Consultation 4. Animals in Pastures 2. Basic community characteristics [Physical features and population particulars] 2. Federated financial campaigning Skills and talents / 24. Political needs Size [small or big] * Common places * Landmarks * Look [dirty or clean] * Natural features Population Number*Demographic break down [male female /married / unmarried/old/young/] * Population density * Nature of families [joint/nuclear/male and female headed/family members] 2. Fund raising by voluntary agencies service /Human values / 23. Community resources 12. Basic community characteristics Understanding a Community’s Agriculture Agriculture’s Role in the Community 1. 5. Unmet needs 10.

make-up. Allocation of resources and our inability to recognize and develop resources may result in need. geography and political leadership. Tangible human made things --E.Solution [Both may be wrong] Timely service may be the solution 4. collect the required information about the resources available in a community. the community has unmet needs Needs are often undiscovered. barter etc Human quality and values — Honesty. Allow two to three months to become familiar with the community. Community resources A need arises not because of the absence of resource. Symptoms of need and solution to need – one should not mistake this as a need it self E. friends. Over crowded clients-inadequate chairs . determination. and find out what they identify as problems. Libraries. Trees etc. health etc Social relationships — Family. The organizer must learn what community members concerns are. Assessing the community’s unmet needs When a community cannot meet its goals or sustain it self. demographics.2. undeclared or Model Six stages of effective considered unimportant by those who could community organizing: Recall do some thing about them • • • • • • Assess the community Create an action team Develop an action plan Mobilize to action Implement Evaluate *Normative need/Comparative need/Expressed need/Felt need Assess the community It's extremely important that you get to know the community you will be working in and the history of the issue you will address. government departments’ etc Financial services — Money. its history.Symptom Putting adequate chairs . Educational and communication needs Ways of learning about the things happening in the community /world * How people decide about what is true? * Whom they listen and their credibility? * Schools and training programs * Formal provider of news-their philosophical and editorial basis Informal methods of providing news * Interest in communicating with one another 3. Water. meeting places etc Resources that can be combined to produce new resources — Storage place that can be used to collect used books . plumbing etc Knowledge availability — Science. games.Land. schools. Economic needs Access to goods and services * Income and occupational levels * Opportunities available [plenty/limited] * Earnings [inside/outside] * Production centers * Forces which influence economic health 2.5.g. Continue to learn about the community by going “door knocking “and conducting “one-on-ones ".4.g. cars etc Systems of serving people — Local government. not tell the community what the problem is. history etc Resources that can be used in multiple ways — Temples. business associations etc Major institutions — Temples. bridges. passion etc Skills and talents — Carpentry. Natural resources -. In order to meet the need. grievance procedure.

Business concerns Serve your community: Schools. Service providers State a particular concern about your community: Environmental organizations. Have you ever taken part in a community project? 18. Do you help out a local group as a volunteer? 19. please indicate your response using the following key: Strongly agree -5. but it is not limited to this. I am able to get the services I need in my community 8. 3. I can get help from my friends when I need it. Disagree – 3. Temples. Strongly disagree – 2. though some have more constraints than others. Have you ever been part of a project to organize a service in your area? 20. Retail estate associations. I shop locally whenever I can 9 The community has strong local leadership 10 There is a strong sense of cooperation and community pride 11 Our community is highly regarded in the region 12 I stop and chat with my neighbors’ 13 I feel my concerns and opinions about local issues can be heard 14 The local businesses support the community 15 I feel safe in my community In the past 3 years 16 Have you ever joined a local community action to deal with an emergency? 17. Capacity for change and Disposition to change The desire for change often involves correcting injustices.g. It can also involve providing new opportunities or challenges. Adapt it to local conditions For each of the following statements. Don’t know -1 1 This community feels like home to me 2. Have you taken part in any education or training program? 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 YES/NO YES/NO YES/NO YES/NO YES/NO . Police. I think of myself as similar to the people who live here 6. Membership lists *Donor lists *List of officers or board of directors Officers of political parties *Creating our own lists A check list that can be used to facilitate discussion. E. escaping the boredom of the routine All communities have some capacity to change. Guided personal discussions Focus groups Surveys and questionnaires Collecting list Planning bureaus.4. Public employees legally limited to take political action. Each community also differs in its disposition to change E. If I need information to make an important decision I know where to find that information. Churches. consulting companies.g. Tourism organizations etc Sell in or from your community: Provision stores. 4. Some communities are happy with the existing conditions How to find out what we need to know? Library/Census/City directory/Community profile/Publications/News paper files/Local magazines/Year books/Resource directories / Impact or issue publications /Lists of local clubs and organizations/Travel or tourism books/Economic profiles/Community trend profiles etc Look for organizations that do at least one of the following things Sell your community: Chamber of Commerce.5. The community is able to respond to important issues 5. Agree. People here are confident about the future of our community 7. Transport Study your community: Universities.

email address YES / NO j. Are you a member of any local business organization? YES NO If YES which organization/s? 1. We keep trying new ways of winning business YES / NO g. software for stock and inventory control YES / NO f. Don. Which of the following best describes the technologies you use? a. We work together to promote the benefits of shopping locally 5 4 3 2 1 g. . The community is open to alternative economic activities 5 4 3 2 1 h. We sponsor one major local activity YES / NO j. . The community supports its local businesses 5 4 3 2 1 f. We have a marketing plan YES / NO e.. We have an advertising budget YES / NO h. No not at all. We use industry specific technologies YES / NO About your potential business growth 3.t know 4.. industry specific software YES / NO h. We provide specialized services so customers seek us out YES / NO e. basic computing.buy local.. Yes.. There is a strong working relationship between the Council and the business community 5 4 3 2 1 . Council and the Community a. strategy 5 4 3 2 1 e.. Meetings around significant issues in the community are well advertised and open to the public 5 4 3 2 1 d.. We work to reduce that leakage 5 4 3 2 1 d. commercial software packages YES / NO g. We sponsor several local activities YES / NO i... We participate in work experience programs YES / NO Technology and your business Is there a role in your business for information technology? YES / NO 2. Yes. The business sector is optimistic about the future 5 4 3 2 1 j.. Somewhat. but not completely satisfactory 3. The business sector works together well 5 4 3 2 1 b. We provide competitive. .. There is a spirit of mutual assistance and cooperation in the community 5 4 3 2 1 b. Business.. We have a contingency plan for financial emergencies YES / NO About the Business Community: 5.. electronic banking for our business needs YES / NO c. internet address and website YES / NO i. We provide an essential service so customers come to us YES / NO b.. completely satisfactory 4. .. manual bankcard/credit card facilities YES / NO b. How do you feel about each of the following issues in the business community? a. We employ trainees/ cadets YES / NO k. an electronic payroll system YES / NO d. We have a working business plan YES / NO c. We know which businesses have leakage to bigger centers 5 4 3 2 1 c. . We provide a specialized service and people are referred to us YES / NO f. . but need attention to be satisfactory 2. The business sector promotes customer service 5 4 3 2 1 i.21 22 23 24 What do you think are the three most important issues for this community? Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey? Is there anyone else you think would be interested in doing this survey? Would you like to make any comments about your community? Model Checklist COMMUNITY BUSINESS SURVEY Adapt it to local conditions Category of Business . We are planning to grow our business YES / NO b. online catalogue/ ordering facility YES / NO k. Businesses work together to maximize opportunities for the future 5 4 3 2 1 6.. . There is a high level of optimism in the community 5 4 3 2 1 e. . Which of the following business strategies do you have in place at the moment? a. quality services and have loyal customers YES / NO d. There is a strong level of pride in the community 5 4 3 2 1 c..Number Employed: Years Established . Not satisfactory 1. Which of the following best describes how you run your business? (One or more) a...word processing and spreadsheets YES / NO e.. We have a projected cash-flow for the next 12 months YES / NO d. We have a . We provide a competitive service and seek customers out YES / NO c.

f. Are you involved in any community organizations outside work? YES/NO if yes. . please provide details: ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 8. Council represents and balances local needs and priorities 5 4 3 2 1 g. All groups are included in community decision-making 5 4 3 2 1 6. Do you undertake any voluntary work/ service in the community? YES/ NO If YES.You as a member of the community 7. please give details of what you do and how many hours each week is involved.

METHODS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION METHODS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CO-OPERATIVE ACTION Meaning of Group: Two or more people who interact with and influence each other towards a common purpose. Nor can dialogue exist without hope. Most of the stuff of community organization – discussing. group decision-making process develops mutual trust. Meaning of a Group psychologically aware of one Meaning of Decision Making another. from which we move out in constant search. humility and faith. Hope is rooted in our human incompleteness. (Who interact Synopsis with one another. committees. These meetings may be called as conferences. and decision -making and camaraderie occurs in groups. Trust is established by dialogue. planning. staff meetings etc Groups in the context of Community Organization The work of the organizations is largely the work of the groups. Founded on love. Building a successful organization demands an understanding of the functioning of successful groups. Trust and dialogues are pre requisite for group process. which can be carried out only in communion with other people. humility and faith. Group decisions require an intense faith in human beings. founded on love. it cannot exist unless the words of both parties coincide with their actions. (It requires intense faith in Meeting practice Conference practice Committee practice . dialogue becomes a horizontal relationship of mutual trust. Community organizers see group methods of ensuring authentic participation as a means towards transformation. who perceive Meaning of Group Decision Making themselves in a group) Groups in the context of Community Organization Meaning of Decision Making: The importance of Groups Selection of a preferred course of Understanding the Groups action from or more alternatives Stages of Group Formation Meaning of Group Decision Johnson & Johnson / Napier & Greshenfeld Making: When two or more Task roles and Relationship roles people who interact and Improving the efficiency of the Groups Providing proper learning climate Deciding the size Group Decision Making Involvement / Types of decision making Difficulties in decision-making Making good decisions Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision making Forms of group decision-making influence each other attempt to select a preferred course of action from two or more alternatives Group decisions emerge from group meetings. Groups are seen as preparing ground for participation.

They try to figure out where they fit in with these new relationships 2. ‘E’ may provide second alternative. ‘C’ may provide a value judgment.human being. suspicions and realize that it stands in the way of accomplishing goals. The group realizes that survival depends on increasing shared responsibility as well as personal accountability. Storming Stage It is characterized by rebellion as members assert their individuality and resist authority Napier and Gershenfled 1. waiting and testing how to act 2. requires love and humility. ‘A’ may provide a fact. This may lead to valid solutions. The following stages are identified in the life cycle of a group. To discover valid solutions every one needs to be both a learner and a teacher. Understanding the Groups Stages in the development of a group. Collaboration is increased and competitiveness is reduced. Compromise and Harmony Stage The group starts reversing confrontative trend realizing that if continues the group will disintegrate. This bound to cause some conflict 3. Resolution and recycling stage The group realizes that periods of harmony are normal and conflicts are handled easily and quickly. Beginning Stage This stage is a period of watching. Performing Stage The group concentrates on the tasks to be achieved 5. This period of goodwill. Tuckmen and Jenson 1. which results in a change in the relationship among its members . ‘D’ may provide a complete alternative. Reassessment Stage The group starts feeling that the pressure to preserve superficiality makes them to ignore the members personal needs. Movement toward Confrontation Stage After people have dropped their polite facades and begin acting more like themselves. requires hope. There is a pressure to preserve the spirit of harmony 4. Groups provide an environment for mutual learning process. Forming Stage Members are unsure of themselves and the group. Questions arise over who makes decision and how. Adjourning Stage When the group completes its work. Norming Stage. Members establish procedure and a sense of how they should act in the group 4. involves critical thinking) Issues facing the people are often complex and no expert has all the answers. 3. To discover valid solutions. every one needs to be both a learner and a teacher. which is rooted in human incompleteness. tolerance for different behaviors and more acceptance of individuals. ‘B’ may provide a premise. On the other hand no body is totally ignorant. This in turn increases the trust and individual risk taking 5. Members try to firmly establish their place in the group seeking prestige and influence.

Relieving tension.g.g. Encouraging. Setting standards. Starting the discussion or helping the group to begin a job. Having clear process for making each decision 11. Showing acceptance and appreciation of others and their ideas. Giving every one a chance to speak 1. Explaining. Relationship Needs Relationship or Maintenance Component: Actions not directed at the working of the. Looking at the strengths and weaknesses of the group’s work and seeing how it can be improved 3. 7. Encouraging creativity in the group. 6. Asking what people feel. 2. 2. Getting group members’ opinion is for good decision-making. Checking to see if everyone agrees 8. By bringing it out into the open. This necessary after a sequence of intense task activities or otherwise the group will probably fall apart 1. 4. Analyzing the problems under discussion 9. Giving information. Making creative suggestions to resolve the problems 10. especially young women or those who less formally schooled 5. shall we agree that nobody speaks more than twice 10. Sharing responsibilities 8. Task Needs Task Component: any action the group undertakes to accomplish its purpose / goal. Repeating what has been said clearly in few words. but to enhance the harmony among individuals and the group. Maintenance component includes the ability of the group members to work well together. E. 5. Asking what people think.Task roles and Relationship roles: TASKS AND RELATIONSHIP NEEDS IN ANY GROUP In every group some one is needed to play each of the following roles if the group is to accomplish its tasks and keep good relationships among its members. Encouraging shy members. It is also important for people to be willing to share what they think. responding to and building suggestions made by others. Evaluating. When group member do not have particular facts that are relevant to the topic. the group wont accomplish very much. Being friendly. Summing up. Resolving arguments 6. 7. Any action that strengthens the task or relationship level can be considered a leadership action. Diagnosing difficulties E. putting a problem in a wider context. If task component receives little attention. or making a well timed joke Improving the efficiency of the Groups Providing proper learning climate . Sharing what one fells and checking group feelings 4. to effectively manage their conflicts and to feel good about them. may be some of us are afraid of the consequences of this decision 11. Developing the confidence and skills of all members 9. Asking group members what information they have and / or where the information can be found on the topic being discussed 3. Giving practical examples to make a point clear. Asking for information.

the longer the discussion time needed and the longer it will take to make decisions. practicing some skills. But these groups should be broken in to small groups and animators or facilitators are needed to break the passivity. intimate sharing. 30 – 200 > Useful to inform new ideas and policy. we will find they all fall some where along the following line Plop Hand Clasp Minority One Person Clique The plop: Majority Vote True Consensus Silent Consensus Here the group makes a decision by not making a decision. Group Decision Making Community organizers frequently use a number of small group process in decision-making / problem solving process. one might risk saying it to the whole group 4s. Also there is usually not enough time for every one to speak. 5s. Group decision-making has several advantages over individual decisions making. But it is also necessary with groups of this size to break into smaller groups of different kinds for different purposes. Not to decide is to decide. They are: Greater knowledge. Good size for a planning team or discuss about more complex situations. One of the main skills in democratic leadership is deciding who should be involved in making which decisions. 6s is useful for. 3s are very useful for Getting everyone thinking and participating actively Testing out an idea one is hesitant to present to the big group. 6-12 This is a good size for sharing ideas and insights when the group has plenty of time. better comprehension of the decision. Therefore if every one is to participate actively. If two people think it is worthwhile. small groups are essential. All members should try to be sensitive to the needs of the group (task and relationship needs) 30s An ideal size to develop the sprit of a community.Deciding the size: Majority of people find it difficult to speak in a big group of strangers. greater acceptance of the solution through participation and support. The bigger the group gets. Decision-making is defined as the selection of a preferred course of action from two or more alternatives. But the group is bigger than this. the more important it is they should share in making it. greater number of approaches to the problem. The basic rule is that the more deeply people are affected by a decision. The use of decision-making groups typically called ‘Committees’ is common in almost all community organization settings. Pairs are useful for Interviews. If we analyze how many people were actively involved in making a decision. Involvement / Types of decision making It is neither possible nor desirable to involve everybody in every decision. ti stir a passive sleepy group in to action. it need an appointed animator or leader. Some one makes a suggestion but drops like a stone into a pond and no one pays any attention to it .

The one-person decision: This is quickly made. but later when the decider depends on free or voluntary support from others to implement it he /she may find himself / herself carrying it out alone. an expression of approval or hostility.balance to a dominant group. hard. especially if they feel that their point of view was not heard. Consensus: This as an agreement. These are good. often involving compromise or the combination of various possibilities. and without further discussion. but they bring a spirit of rivalry rather than the co-operation in to the group. If the person who made the suggestion really felt enthusiastic about it. It takes time and care to build a climate in which all feel free to express themselves. but a few powerful personalities dominate the group. The Clique: Decisions are made by a small group who plan beforehand to get their way. when some members have not felt free to disagree and kept silent.all. contempt or condescension. Minority: these decisions are not consciously organize as those of the clique. Silent Consensus: Some groups aims at unanimous decisions. because they are better organized than those who disagree. after all opinions have been heard. little. but this method does build unity. a loud objection. the matter is decided. but it will often be carried out more quickly and wholeheartedly. It does not mean listening to people and then doing what we were gong to do in the first place. Difficulties in decision-making: Every group. It means adapting to accommodate the concerns of all. Another says. and often passed unnoticed at the time. one may lose the interest or the loyalty of the minority who voted against a decision. cooperation and commitment. the fact that it was totally ignored could make that person withdraw or resist later suggestions. They are often successful on the immediate issue. but resentment comes to the surface later. These decisions are more frequent than one thinks. often unconsciously and later they wonder why the others are apathetic. This can be a positive action and check-and. Unanimous agreement is some times assumed. Disagreements and minority viewpoints are discussed fully. It is a healthy sign in a participatory democracy. Majority Vote: In big groups this is often the most effective way to make a decision. right or wrong. envy or admiration. but they are rarely achieved completely on certain issues. It is amazing to note that a bit of information may change the mood of the group. It may take longer to make a decision this way. These decisions may be big. can have an impending decision. . if genuine. to achieve its goal is constantly involved in making decisions. Sometimes groups of people who have formerly been excluded or silent form a caucus in order to present a common agenda. The hand Clasp: One person makes a suggestion. However. Decision making forms a continuing pattern of relationships among members of a group: a pattern in which every individual member has some influence. “what a marvelous idea”. easy.

d. Fear of Consequences: In some groups the possible outcomes of an impending decision may bring divisions and disagreements.g. I would like to help this community project. struggle erupts. but I hardly get any time to spend with my wife and children these days. which is not liked by the superiors. Blundering Methods: A group may be bound by rigid procedures (e. Inadequate Leadership: A leader may hinder good decision making if he / she restricts the expression of opinion or discussion on issues too soon. Often another member who is not involved in the interpersonal conflict can bring the real problem into the open. Frank acknowledgement of these fears often suggests how they can be dealt with effectively. An atmosphere in which it is possible for these conflicts to be brought out into the open without the threat to the individual is a help in resolving them. Interpersonal Conflict: In group of any size personal differences occur which provoke feelings of affection or dislike among members and which interfere with sound decision making. Good means of stimulating and sharing ideals Effective leadership and structures to deal with the size of the group. Factors. Some become paralyzed when confronted with a decision: some argue over a minor point: others rush into a vote only to reverse their decision later on or fail to carry out the plan: others appoint a committee to save them from having to decide. b. which he /she wants for reasons which he / she will not share with the group. being in a group. workers wanting higher wages and owners wanting higher profits). Or a group may approach the decision making process without testing for consequences.g. or a group may allow itself to substitute personal opinion for adequate information. Hidden agenda: One person may try to get the group to make certain decision. always addressing all remarks to the chairperson) that there is little chance for free expression of differences. Clear goal Clear understanding of who has responsibility for the decision. When two different people each trying to get things done in their own way. Leaders also may fail to provide assistance in selecting appropriate methods for decision-making or be insensitive to the factors causing difficulty in the group. E. Clash of Interest: Sometimes different group or individuals within an organization do have opposing interest (e. E. c.g.g.So it is little wonder that group after group has difficulty making the decisions. . Most of the difficulties encountered by a group in making decisions center around one or another of the following factors. which help in making good decisions: a. Conflicting Loyalties: When one person is a member of number of groups. this frequently leads to divided loyalties about decisions.

f. assembly or coming together of two or more persons for the transaction of some lawful business of common concern Conference Conference means an informal group discussion by three or more persons. hesitation to disagree with others] Different methods of group decision-making Meeting Meeting may be defined as any gathering. assembly or coming together of two or more persons for the transaction of some lawful business of common concern.g. annual general body meeting and extraordinary general body meeting. Commitment of the leader to genuine group involvement in making the decision. deliberation. consensus. Agreement on the procedures on what procedures will be most appropriate. (e. large or small requires that the members of the association come together from time to time discuss matters of common concern and take decisions by common consent by the majority.making Advantages Greater knowledge Diversity of ideas Diffuses the responsibility Better comprehension Participation hence acceptance Greater number of solutions Protects individuals from embarrassment Intense pressure to go along with others. decision. by selective appointment. secret ballot etc ) Advantages & Disadvantages in group decision. A registered organization has to conduct executive committee meeting. limited in membership. It is a statutory requirement for a registered community organization to conduct regular and proper meetings to transact its business. . Meeting may be classified as public meeting and private or business meeting. majority vote. Disadvantages Slow and time consuming Risky shift Passing the buck Strong vocal minority opinion overrides majority opinion. g.e. usually appointed by some superior authority and having joint responsibility for inquiry. Group think [norm for consensus overrides the Realistic appraisal of alternative of alternative solution. with the object of carrying out open minded exploration and usually of achieving consensus or integration of thinking on a subject or problem DO Face to face contact Participation To get consensus To generate group idea To explore the problem Committee Committee may be defined as a group of persons. Effective way of testing different suggestions offered. action or related activities in regard to matters assigned to them DO Properly convened [by formal authority] Properly constituted [quorum & chairmen] Proper procedure [Agenda & minutes] Just to discuss matters When there is conflict of interest To get majority idea Meeting Practice: Specialists in the subject matter Both to decide & act To take joint responsibility A ‘meeting’ may be defined as any gathering. The proper functioning of any association of persons.

Characteristics: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) It is carried out by a group. by proper notice) properly constituted (i. Members should open-mindedly discuss the subject. Conference normally involves a face-to-face meeting of the group. The method of meeting practice usually adopts parliamentary procedure to make decisions. with the object of carrying on open minded exploration and usually of achieving consensus or integration of thinking on a subject or problem”. 8) Conference aims to create a group idea (Not majority idea). 9) Conference method is not appropriate for large bodies.These meetings should be properly convened (i. quorum and chairman) and follow proper procedures (meeting procedure. Decisions must be made in the fact of conflicting interests among members It increases the belief in the organization Demerits It is much too formal method It decreases the losing factions commitment to the decisions It discourages exploration of innovative ideas in a free and open manner because people tend to take sides early in the discussion. In turn. agenda). Several groups – Committees Boards. It ensures that each individual’s concerns are heard and understood and then a sincere attempt is made to take them into consideration in searching for a resolution. it can be agreed upon by all. they should also show interest in reaching consensus. the acceptance of the majority rule by the minority is based on the willingness of the majority to permit the minority to express its views before action is taken. . Conference implies general participation. Committee Practice The committee is to community organization as the interview is to casework 1. Conference “The term conference means informal group discussion by three or more persons. which will be better than any one of the members ideas alone – moreover which will be better than all the members idea added together. Conference has some definite subject for discussion. but since does not violate the deep concerns of anyone. which requires that the minority abide by the will of the majority. by proper authority. Consensus is a co-operative effort to find a sound solution acceptable to everyone.e. Conference uses informal group discussion. A committee may be defined as two or more people associated for some purpose towards which they function as an organizational entity. use conference method. Parliamentary procedure is based on the democratic principles of majority rule. study groups.e. Consensus occurs after all members have had an opportunity to voice their opinions and can then arrive at a decision that almost everyone can support. This resolution may not reflect the exact wishes of each member. Merits and demerits of parliamentary procedure Merits It provides rules and regulations for the orderly conduct of the business.

There should be appropriate selection of members. 1) Studying the problem. Decides when meetings should be held. The committee should have adequate records. 5) Solving problem. and having joint responsibility for inquiry. he helps the committee in the following ways: . or related activities in regard to matters assigned to them. Appointed by some superior authority. decision. There should be a written assignment or terms of reference. Chairman. Working on the matters referred to it Functions of a Committee Functions of the committee depend upon for what purpose it is constituted. A committee may be defined as a group of persons. Members. The committee should have competent leadership and adequate executive and clerical service. Preside the meetings of the committee. usually appointed by some superior authority. Characteristics of a Committee: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) A group with limited membership. health and strength. Members Committee Aide (Staff Assistance to committee) Committee aide is a technical resource.2. Sponsorship. 5) Monitoring. 4) Distributing work. 6) Making decisions. by selective appointment. Chairman - Official head of the committee in both internal and external relationship. Organization of a committee: 1. 2) Reporting information. 3) Coordinating work. The members should be able to work together as a group. Joint responsibility. There should be adequate preparation for follow up after meetings. The membership should be interested and willing to serve and should have sufficient time. The most common functions of committees are as follows. he supplies professional assistance to the committee. limited in membership. 2. he has to preserve an atmosphere of freedom and vitality of participation. Committee Aide / Secretary. As a president. There should be appropriate arrangements for follow up after meetings of the committee. Membership is based on selection. Guidelines for Organizing Committees 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) A clear statement of the objectives and functions of the committee. he has to keep the committee on the track. There should be appropriate procedures at meetings. 3. Officially presents the reports to the superior authority. action. deliberation. The committee membership should adequately represent the interest that needs to be represented. The members should be reasonably well equipped for the work of the committee or should be willing to raise their level of competence.

Items previously scheduled by the committee for consideration on this date. . 2. Minutes Minutes may be defined as the permanent.Matters which the chairman.Unfinished business from the last meeting. which has not been specifically included in the agenda. the date. Items for agenda may be drawn from: . The Minutes should begin by identifying the body that is meting. but never to dictate or determine its course of action nor to usurp the functions of the chairman. Administrative Service . It is customary for all organizations to send an agenda along with the notice of meeting to all members. Agenda 2.Matters suggested by a member of the committee. following the actual order of events. Agenda is essential for the systematic transaction of the business of a meeting in the proper order of impotence.He helps the committee to develop its programs. It serves as a reminder of the subjects previously dealt with and the conclusions reached. committee aide or a member of the committee feels important to be discussed by the committee. . . The Minutes should generally be chronological. He is to facilitate the work of the committee. Organizational Service . Agenda : A Committee meeting needs a written agenda. sending notices. Once approved and signed they are acceptable in a court of law as evidence of the proceedings. name of the presiding officers. It refers to the programme of Business to the transacted at a meeting.Program Service . writing reports and handling correspondence. Loophole Agenda & Hidden Agenda It means any other business with the permission of the chair. The business of the meeting must be conducted in the same order. Committee Procedures: 1. This provides an opportunity for the members to discuss on matters. official record of the proceedings of a meeting.Provides the necessary manpower. 2. hour and place. The world “ Agenda “ literally means ‘things to be done’. Usually routine items are placed first and controversial items later. The basic task of committee aide involves working with and strengthening the position of the chairman. members absent.Planning meetings and agendas in consultation with the chairman . .Communications from outside the committee requiring consideration by the committee. .making physical arrangements for the meetings . to help or enable it to perform its task effectively. Minutes.

for others. Planning means thinking about tomorrow. Dubashi.PLANNING IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION More more detailed discussion please see the project planning document It is true to some extent that planning is a waste of time and it is also true that lack of planning will almost certainly be a waste of time. Planning denotes triumph of reason over superstition. Planning is determining in advance what is to be done? How it is to be done? Whom it is to be done? And who is to do it? It encompassed setting objectives as well as making day-today decisions on how these objectives can best be achieved. 2. Planning involves vision. or it can simply be the clear understanding of the actions you are going to undertake.R. planning means foresight. Absence of planning means absence of preparation and therefore the path of failure -.R. Planning is a new name for an old activity. What is a plan? What is planning? Why should we plan at all? What benefits does it provide? How much planning we need or don’t need? How does one plan? What are some useful planning models? What are some basic obstacles to planning? How do we confront them? Plan and Planning: A plan is a set of decisions made on actions to be taken to reach a goal. 7. we need to answer certain questions. SOME MORE EXPLANATIONS: 1. Your plan will be shaped and reshaped by new forces and new information you discover as you proceed with your action. 3. A plan can be said to exist when a point in the planning process has been reached. Dubashi. it is a complete reconstitution of our social system. Planning is an active process and it is opposite of simply allowing events to unfold. Hence planning involves the determination of both ends and means – Robinson. 5. Planning is clearly a decision making process. For some. Both plan and planning is a never-ending activity. Planning is a process by which an individual or organization decides in advance on some future course of action. 6. but not all decision making is planning (Decision making is defined as the selection of a preferred course of action from two or more alternative). It is determined with sufficient clarity that may be acted upon.P. 4. Planning is anticipatory decision-making. 9. It is the product of the process of planning. Planning is a series of actions that results in decisions to allocate resources in order to . It is a purposeful way of looking at the future with the intent to shape it. of organized initiative over fatalistic helplessness. of understanding over ignorance. Planning is not fortune telling. To understand planning as a useful activity and to use it to increase the effectiveness of our work. The planning process is concerned with current decisions about allocating resources in order to achieve future objectives. Planning is an orderly arrangement of the future. -. 8. Planning is the design of the desired future and of effective ways of bringing it about. Plan (appoint in the planning process) is coherent set of operations designed to meet a given goal. A plan can be a very formal document. discovery.P. decision-making and action.

11. good planning enables one to create opportunities. . 4. Planning will guide one’s actions to be effective (in accomplishing the objectives/ purpose) and efficient (done with a least time and effort) in achieving the goals.g. Every pregnant woman in Madurai district receives adequate prenatal care. * Contacting a particular news reporter to do a story on the issue. activities include selection of the clinic site. But a good plan produces thoughtful action and minimizes the likelihood that our efforts will simply generate new problems. to establish multiservice prenatal care clinic by a specific date The major activities one need to accomplish E. The specific steps to get things done. a set of procedures applicable to a variety of activities aimed to achieving goals by the systematic application of resources in programmed quantities and in time sequences designed to alter the projected trends and redirect them towards established objectives. * The immediate concern in this plan is to gain the community support. PLANNING IMPLIES: 1. or establishing community support. which will set the stage for fund raising activities. E. Why should we plan? Basic reasons for planning: Planning is a way of solving the problems by making the very best use of resources. what should be done over the next one to three months? For example one may decide that one first need to build community support and that will lead to involvement of people who can help to determine the range of services.Planning is basically a methodology.g. A problem / need which is recognized A planner or planners (group) concerned about the problem A process involving analysis. A specific target that represents significant movement toward that condition.achieve future objectives.g. Levels of planning A plan should proceed from the broad to the specific. to achieve that the following steps are necessary. 3. securing funding.g. evaluation and decision making An intention of future action. Good planning involves identifying both the promise and the difficulties that exist in any situation. determination of the range of services. Bad but unintended consequences are often the legacy of good intentions coupled with little forethought. In trying to solve one problem we end up creating another. 2. Good planning goes beyond problems. * Identifying other individuals and organizations who have an interest the issue. * Contacting the health department for statistics you can use to describe the problem. Any plan needs to include: One’s sense of ultimate desired condition E. Planning aims at the optimum use of resources and the rational integration of community life. E. 10. even larger one.

Programs. Planning to produce a predetermined approach Groupthink POSSIBLE AREAS FOR PLANNING IN COMMUNITY ORGANISATION: 1. Formulation of work plan. At what point do we need to evaluate? Who should be involved in evaluation? Ends Means Resources Implementation Control Obstacles in planning: PARTS OF PLANNING Objectives. this year 3. .don’t want to take time to plan Planning to avoid action Defining the problem in terms of solution. money and personal effort will be needed for each proposal? 5. Who will do what. when and where? 7. activities. Money Process of carrying out the plan activities Preventing or correcting errors An unpredictable future. Lack of skill Lack of interest Thirst for action. this month. program. standards etc. services. 5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each proposal? How much time. deciding legislative strategy Organization reorganization. budget preparation A time schedule – fund raising. Analysis of existing conditions (Diagnosis) What are the problems? What are the needs? 2. 4. 3. A course of action – i.STEPS IN PLANNING 1. What do we want to achieve in a particular period? (Objectives and target setting) This week. What are the possible ways of achieving this objective? Brainstorm proposals 4.e. 2. Specific projects. procedures. Material. Projects Investments to be made: Man. establishment of new agency. Desired State of future Policies. Which proposal do we accept? This may include several suggestions 6.

JRY. Each and every project should have a set of objectives to be achieved. E. Each and every project should have a package of interrelated activities. to achieve one or more social welfare objectives. Plan goal – Removal of poverty.g. Plan tool – IRDP.P-Improving the environment in slums through providing basic amenities like drinking water. E. TRYSEM etc.Project Planning and Management (Project Planning / Project Formulation / Project Implementation / Preparation of Project Proposal). drainage. One Of the most important administrative developments in the developed as well as in developing countries has been the initiation and growth of a large number of new programs projects in every field like agriculture irrigation industry community development social welfare etc. IRDP-Eradication poverty by distributing income-generating assets. IRDP • Identification of the poor • Knowing their choice • Arranging bank assets • Follow up / advisory activities • Evaluation 2. Programs / Projects are tools to achieve the plan goals. Each activity is time found 3. The helping the community in such a manner that with the passage of time. Development requires planning and planning includes a lot of programs / projects. A Project should have definite beginning and an end. The capability of administrative system to formulate and implement.I. they may be able to carry out the activities for their own betterment and thus generate self-reliance. Eg. So most of the administrators are directly concerned with the program / project administration than other activities. The principle aims and objectives of all these programs have been to bring about overall changes in the existing socio-economic structure in the country providing thereby dignified way of life to a citizen as a unit and socio-economic up liftment of the society. Social welfare programs is a plan of related activities interested to be carried into effect over a period of time.. relevant and in able programs effectively constitutes a crucial element in the process of development. street lights. As in the case of all definitions. Plan requires projects and projects require a lot of planning. toilets and community centers etc.g. the term program / project has a variety meaning. Categories of projects Based on levels Based on time Based on the purpose Centralized Decentralized Partially decentralized Normal Crash Disaster Experimental Pilot Production / Service. E. A project can be defined as a scientifically evolved work plan devised to achieve specific objectives within a specific period of time. Thus a project becomes a time found task. A project is an investment of resources in a package of interrelated time found activities. . Characteristics of a project: 1.

Each and every project should be operated with constraints.g. The curve in this diagram shows that effort to build up a project is very slow. The attention that a particular project receives is again not uniformly distributed throughout its life span. There are others who would encourage natural growth. This phase is also known as Identification of the problem. 5. the project will have innate defects and may eventually become a liability for the investors. Definition phase 3. How to implement the project is not the botheration of this phase. but effort to withdraw is very sharp. identifying the performance gap. Each and every project should have an in built arrangement to evaluate the program. E. Following are the general phases of a project. Project clean up phase: Completion and handing over the project.4. Implementation phase: Period of hectic activity for the project. Project Life Cycle Phases: All projects have to pass through certain phases. SEPUP – Urban poor. Planning and organizing phase: This phase can effectively start only after definition phase. it will unnecessary delay this phase. This phase overlaps so much with the definition and also with implementation phases. 6. It can also be seen that time taken for the formative and clean up stage & implementation stage. Definition Phase: The definition phase of the project will develop the idea generated during the conception phase and produce a document describing the project in sufficient details covering all aspects necessary for the customer or investors to make up their minds on the project idea. Each and every project should specify the (clientele) target group. 7. Conception phase: Phase in which the project idea germinates.g. Eradication of poverty within a democratic framework. but it varies from phase to phase. It we start thinking about the implementation during this phase. E. Planning and organizing people 4. 1. That is why no formal recognition is given to this by most organizations. within a limited resource within the present bureaucratic setup. IRDP – Rural poor. It is during this period. almost immediately after the conception phase. nut in practice it start much earlier. At a particular appropriate attention has to be paid. something starts growing in the field and people for the first time can see the project. While this pattern is true for all the projects. within a time frame. It we avoid or truncate this phase. Each and every project should have well defined time sequence of investments. sometimes this overlapping is done deliberately in the interest of compressing the overall project schedule. Implementation phase 5. the percentage of . Project clean up phase The above phases won’t follow a sequence … rather they overlap. Conception phase 2.

A life cycle curve can thus represent a class of projects. allocating responsibility communicating among all those involved in a project. . and above all. Thus. project formulation refers to a series of steps to be taken to convert an idea or aspiration into a feasible plan of action. However for the same class projects the curve may be more or less the same.e. for the budgeting and financial control of a project manager. Whether the project is politically acceptable? Socially acceptable? Economically viable? Technically feasible? Managerially capable? Environmentally stable? Project Implementation / Management: It means actual running and management of the day to day affairs of the project and monitoring the project. coordinating activities and people involved. deciding who does what. a way of initiating and maintaining a sense of urgency i. Planning is also a basis for the authority of a project manager. determining the resources required. controlling progress. Project Formulation: Project formulation means developing our ideas in a good shape so as to present it to decision-makers to take correct investment decisions.effort in different phases would not be the same for all projects. time consciousness. how and for whom. estimating term of completion and handling unexpected events and changes. Project Formulation Project Appraisal This is called pro project evaluation or pre investment evaluation. Project Life Cycle Phases – II Project Planning: Planning in the context of projects is a means of organizing the work. In appraisal we have to answer several question. for the self analysis and learning. when. means of orienting people to look ahead of a project.

Monitoring activities and tasks (concurrent) 2. 1. particularly project administrators and funders. the purpose of evaluation is to make the best possible use of funds by the program managers who are accountable for the worth of their programs. 1.4 Evaluation consists of assessments whether or nor certain activities. the purpose of evaluation is to establish new knowledge . impact and effectiveness of the projects. PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT 5. PURPOSE OF EVALUATION: 1. KNOWLEDGE EXPLORATION 3. 1. PROGRAMME INITIATION 2.5 Any information obtained by any means on either the conduct or the outcome of interventions. PROGRAMME EVALUATION O. PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION 4. To provide feed back to key people. 1. Assessing the achievement of the objective (final) BENEFITS OF EVALUATION: 1. DHAMMA 1.P. CONSTITUTING A PROGRAMME BUILDING COMMITTEE 3. 1. From an Accountability perspective. SETTING UP OBJECTIVES 4. to conduct an evaluation is to provide findings that can be used to make correct judgment. DECISIONS REGARDING ULTIMATE SOLUTIONS 4.6 Evaluation is designated to provide systematic. reliable and valid information on the conduct. PLANNING FOR ACTION IDENTIFICATION / OBJECTIVE SETTING FORMULATION OF THE PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION / MANAGEMENT MONITORING EVALUATION EVALUATION EXPLANATIONS: 1. PRIORITY DEVELOPMENT 4. ACTION ON THE SOLUTION AGREED UPON Delhecg & Van de ven 1. From a Knowledge perspective. ROSS 1. or of social change projects is considered to be evaluation. SURVEYING THE EXISTING CONDITIONS 2. treatment.2 Evaluation simply refers to the procedures of fact finding.1 Evaluation means finding out the value of something.STEPS IN PROGRAMME / PROJECT PLANNING / DEVELOPMENT Hage & Aiken 1.3 To evaluate is to make judgments. treatments and interventions are in conformity with generally accepted professional standards. PROGRAMME MONITORING STAGE: Monitoring evaluation or concurrent evaluation PROGRAMME/COMPLETION STAGE: Impact evaluation or ex-post evaluation or final evaluation. To make decisions about the best use of resources 2. STAGES IN EVALUATION: PROGRAMME PLANNING STAGE: Pre investment evaluation or Formative evaluation or Ex Ante evaluation or Pre Project Evaluation or Exploratory evaluation or Need assessment. MEANING & IMPLICATIONS OF THE PROBLEM 3. PROBLEM EXPLORATION 2. To make changes in objectives or activities 3. 2. GENERALLY EVALUATION PROCESS CONSISTS OF TWO STAGES 1. STUDY OF NATURE. PROGRAMME EVALUATION MURRAY G. PROGRAMME CONTACT 3. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM 2.

Recurring (Capital costs) Recurring (Operating costs) 3. legal status & Standing. the more resistance develops in the hindering forces. One can move towards the goal ether by increasing the helping forces. Nominal Group technique. Force Field Analysis. Evaluation. Helping Forces DEFEAT Hindering Forces GOAL Present Situation Brainstorm all the forces. A state of tension exists. while some drive us away from our goal. Techniques useful for Planning. travel Consultation Non. address. employee welfare. This balance represents the current state of affairs. Some of these forces drive us towards our goal. In such cases it is often best to start by reducing the hindering forces. . A) B) C) D) E) F) Information regarding the location Description of the situation which is to be changed by the planned project Information regarding the aims and objectives Information regarding the planned measured Integration of the project Implementation Salary. GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING PROJECT PROPOSALE 1. As we plan and proceed towards our work. B) Persons responsible for the implementation of the Project C) Project Manager 2. Personnel required for the project 4. Cost estimate of the project (Budget) 5. Details regarding the project Area. Force Field Analysis This technique is useful in identifying the current obstacles and current resources. Sometimes the more pressure comes from the helping forces. a number of contending forces operate in our arena of our action. Details regarding the applicant A) Name. or by weakening the hindering forces.about social problems and the effectiveness of policies and programs designed to alleviate them. producing a dynamic situation as forces act upon one another and maintain a relative balance. These forces may be tangible items such as people or meeting rooms or intangibles like apathy or personal connections or skills. objectives and method of implementation. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Delphi technique.

Organizational level of awareness: People aware about neither a good leader not a good idea is enough to organize the people. B. we must remember how people in respect organization are used to working and their organization in the past E. Understanding the power structure. contact person etc Leadership training Socialization – Motivation and satisfaction of members C. Organization means orderly arrangement of the group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of a common purpose-. eg. we must understand their level of awareness. Naive Level of Awareness – People aware about the problem. To develop the organization / sustain the interest of the members: Selecting volunteers or indigenous ‘non-professional aides. is a means to achieve certain purpose through group effort. How to organize: A.People know about the laws of the problem e. what is what. Identifying human resources-to get information and advice.g. understanding who is who. When we organize the people. ‘Organization’ derived from the term ‘organ’. defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives. When we organize the people.poverty Critical Level of Awareness.--Louis A. Knowledge of “organization” can help community organizers in many ways: 1. co-operation or help 2. why is why of its informal activity 1.an instrument or means by which anything is done. Small farmers may not adjust easily in a large co-op farm where work in organized on expertise co-op form where work is organized based on expertise.g. Factory worker who is accustomed to division of work may not adjust in a small organization where division of work is not followed.Dunham Organization is the planned co-ordination of the activities of two or more people in order to achieve some common and explicit goal through division of labor and a hierarchy of authority. The build organization in such a way to facilitate people’s participation: Choosing right persons for the right job Providing substantial representation C. To understand the organization structure: To learn the organizational robes. Land is available but it lie waste & dry.ORGANIZATION Meaning & Definitions: Organ: A part of the body fitted to carry out a natural or vital activity-. Allen. . coordinators.--Robinson Organization is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed.

service or ideas by an identified sponsor). Defense: To overcome the criticism & opposition.---Volunteers --. giving awards / scholarships. Methods of Public Relations: Press relations-Issuing press releases–Arranging press meeting –Writing letters to the editor. Sending representatives to Corporation’s Eco-Development program. both within and outside the organization. a power for social control:3. running free clinics. planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public. Public Relations is not Propaganda (1. A community organization relates it self to the geographic community in three distinct ways. Key persons. Community services: eg. A community Organization consists of several sub systems. film and TV) Hospitality services. services and methods of social welfare agencies.Clients / Consumers Co-operating Organizations and Individuals. 1. Maintaining parks.2. News letters. position or product in the community at large. Public relations is simply the attempt of an organization or Agency to enhance its prestige. Veterans.---General Public Organization has to bridge the spatial. Not publicity gimmicks (any form of socially significant news about an institution. 3. Public relations include the whole area of relations with the public and with groups and individuals outside the agency. Printing Message: Printing pamphlets. Agency family – Boards. 2. It is a genuine attempt to improve mutual understanding between an organization and all with whom it comes into contact. To enlist the support of the people for financial support. Members.g. E. or a person published in a space or radio that is not paid for by the sponsor). Committees and Staff. a service. Advertising . Conducting Exhibitions & Trade Fairs Using Audio Visual media (Radio. Need / Purpose / Objectives of Public Relations: 1.propaganda is an instrument of politics. sending representatives for peace rally. 3. To bridge the distance between organization and its Sub System. Contributors.its function is to attract followers and to keep them in line) Not advertising (advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of goods. To promote an understanding of the aims. Public relations 2. notices– Publishing house journals etc.METHODS OF COMMUNICATION & PUBLIC RELATIONS 1. 4. Community participation: eg. 3. temporal gaps between the sub-systems 2. Using photographs as an aid in printing message. Consumer Protection Council. ---Supporters. It is not polished receptionists and telephone answering service. Public Relations mean the deliberate.---Special Public – Professions.

or skills. Explanation: Education generally defined as progressive or desirable changes in a person as a result of teaching. largely informal. as a result of practice or of other intervening relevant experience. as it is used in C. as a method of community organization implies an advisory relationship and should be distinguished from supervisory relationship. Changes in things valued or appreciation Environmental. powers. Education: It is concerned with adults. Changes in things done. Education in C..) working with the people to develop their organizational and inter-personal relationship. so as to facilitate community effort. It includes the providing of information (instruction) and of appropriate situations. Functional literacy. constructions or activities (experiences) designed to facilitate learning. CONSULTATION 1. or other technical qualifications. . focused on local problems / services / environment.O.. skill. Moral. faculties and sense of values. he has to entirely depend upon the variety of educational methods. community or other unit by a person or a team of persons with specialized knowledge. 2. study and experience. Consultation.EDUCATION Education is implicit in much of the community organization works irrespective of its orientation. numerous methods and media. or knowledge. The purpose of education is to produce changes. Teaching is defined as the art of assisting another to learn. group. Such changes in conduct assume changes in the responding person.e. Consultation means giving counsel. Education consists of two elements i.e. Religious education. advice or assistant to an organization.D. and understanding and develop their capacities. Adult education. Consultation is a help giving process in which the consultant uses his or her expertise to facilitate the problem solving of the consultee. Changes in things known. Education. The Changes sought are of five kinds.D. Changes in things comprehended or understanding. teaching and learning. or attitudes. Changes in things felt. Family life education. Learning is defined as changing one’s way of acting. If a community organizer oriented to process goal (i. Characteristics of C. includes the attempt to help people obtain knowledge.

3.O. Sanitation program. and to generate actions to put the chosen solution into practice. • Securing resources-men. Organizing Administration is both a primary and secondary method in social work. money. Controlling It means reviewing. evaluation. Administration in C. 1) Community organization activities. . policies and programs. organization. Aspects of community organization Administration: There are four important aspects of C. Components of Administration: 1) Goals 2) Resources 3) People.e. 3. METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION 1. 3) Agency self-analysis. Administration is a process of defining and attaining objectives of an organization through a system of coordinated and co-operative effort. Administration may be defined as the sum total of all activities which relate to • Determination of objectives. Community organization Activities: a) Continuous services. Administration is the universal process of efficiently getting activities completed with and through other people. • Putting all these resources into operation-through sound organization. 4. Public relations etc. a) Continuous Services: Continuous services are usually expected to continue indefinitely. Components of Administrative Process / Function: Planning Planning is determining in advance the objectives to be accomplished and the means by which these objectives are to be obtained Organizing Organizing is the establishment of relationships between the activities to be performed the personnel to perform them. Consultation is any attempt to intervene in a way that might break a circle by showing alternative way of doing / thinking. 2. plane. and communication to perform their tasks efficiently.. 2) Program direction. • Providing sense of achievement to the workers in the operation through financial and non-financial incentives. Administration. A consultant is one who aids the consultee to better understand his / her problem situation. materials and machinery. regulating and controlling performance to ensure that it confirms to certain standards. supervision. to develop and evaluate different courses of action. and the physical factors that are needed Leading It means influencing others through motivation. b) Projects. public relations. Eg. planning. c) Occasional services. fund raising. both are similar in using certain practice methods – i. factfinding. is a secondary method.O. 1. 4) Supervision. Production program. • Controlling their performance – to endure achievement of ends.

Sanitation work during festival times Serving the pilgrims Wall writings by DK. 3. Recording is documenting the actual work done in the agency or documenting all the significant things that took place in the agency. Report is a communication tool. Agency’s staff in meetings. There are three types of occasional services. RECORD VS REPORT: Record is a substitute for memory.g. A record is an organized statement of facts relating to a particular problem / subject / work / program prepared by the worker (writer) or workers (writers) with or without opinions or recommendations. rather than for the general public. This is likely to be of vital importance. 4) Supervision: Supervision involves overseeing the work.O. intended to be used primarily as a working tool by an organization or individual.b) Projects / Programs: Time bound activities. not only for good will and public relations but also from the standpoint of actual services rendered. some of them are definitely seasonal. seminars. Record is used within the agency / by a worker. 2. Report is used for public consumption. c) Occasional Services: These are separate individual services that are not integral part of either continuous services or projects. It has happened before and it is expected to happen again. It is usually unpublished and for use primarily within the organization or some other group. Supervisors are the only administrators who direct the activities of the nonadministrations. the recurrent activity is not an isolated phenomenon. b) Furnishing information for others 2) Program Direction: It means directing and motivating to carry out the agency’s total service programme. Supervision is a special case of leadership. A record is a document or other auditory or visual product. RECORDING 1. A record is intended as working tool. a) Contributions of C. . 3) Agency self Analysis: It means application of analytical questions to find out the usefulness & Efficacy of the agency’s services. ii) Collateral Activities: These activities are incidental to the main stream of the agency’s service: Collateral activities take up a substantial portion of the average community organisation worker’s time. E. 1 Recurrent Service: Occur at more or less regular intervals. Eg.

Day sheet. To facilitate and increase the effectiveness of executive control and supervision. b) Process record describes how and why various things happened and how the worker made use of the community organization process. The material is presented chronologically rather than topically. Types of operating Records Stream records e. b) Teaching records used mainly in the community organization courses. in-service and orientation trainings. a) Narrative record usually describes what happened. Eg. and problems concerning some entity such as an agency or a project. in itemized form. group or things. To provide material for interpreting activities. Stream Record: It is a chronological record of the stream of events or developments. Agency log. directions. Purpose of Records: To facilitate and improve the service of the agency/ worker. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) . opinions. 4. To ensure continuity of work if one worker is replaced by another. 3) To set forth-factual descriptions. contacts. analyses. To provide adequate historical record of the agency. E. (a) Diary: Day to day narrative record kept by a worker. Community organization cases histories. 2. It analogous to a case record for a family or individual. Committee / Project / Community face sheets. Historical records. a project or an agency. Community Organization Case Histories: The case history is a chronological narrative record of developments. Analysis and Planning Records: It records things under six analytical questions. Face Sheet: Face sheet is a type of record. future references and research. 4) To set forth plans for the future. Administrative reports. To provide more adequate teaching material for use in training students.Functions of a Record: 1) The Historical Function: It gives an account of something that happened – substitute for memory. a) Operating records main purpose is to facilitate the service and operation of an agency / worker carrying on community organization activities. Fact sheets. (c) Agency Log: A form of Diary selective in recording the matters. 3. instructions. 2. Analysis and planning records. 1. recommendations or suggestions. Types of Community Organization Records: Records can be classified based on (1) The method of writing and (2) The purpose of writing.g.g. 1. Diary. 2) For Identification: It identifies person. its programs and accomplishments. giving. (b) Day Sheet: A short hand recording of the days activities of a worker. the “identifying information” about a committee of the agency. To provide material for planning. problems and accomplishments.

Staff. Lack if recording skills. Difficulty in selecting material to be recorded. Filling problems. Inadequate clerical assistance. Administrative Reports: It may be formal or informal statutory or non-statutory. . not interested in recording. Problems in community organization recording: Insufficient staff time.5.

withdrawing. emotional hostility. Competition Aggression Conflict theory Conflict handling modes Conflict resolution Functional Vs Dysfunctional Positive Vs Negative Competition Vs Conflict Basic properties – incompatible goals. can often be seen as a force for positive social Conflict is a tension between two change.CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION Synopsis Conflict. This view of conflict as negative is to make two or more mutually incompatible not always helpful. Methods of conflict resolution – promoting pro-social behavior. smoothing. manifest behavior. the Conflict occurs when an individual is motivated threat of violence or disruptive (nonviolent) disputes. approaches to manage conflict (win-win. demonstration of society adapting to a new groups or larger organizations). Aggression is a form of behavior intended to inflict injury to a person or object. interest. value conflict – Conflict due to personality clashes. conflict resolution or suppression. goals. most commonly associated with violence. its presence being a visible or more entities (individuals. perceived / felt conflict. organizational conflict. mediation) is usually defined as a social situation in which incompatible goals and activities occur between two or more parties (individuals or groups) who hold antagonistic feelings towards each other and attempt to The word ‘conflict’ carries negative control each other. In non-violent settings it responses. roles.Conflict . forcing. which arise from incompatibility of actual or larger responses. antagonistic interaction Levels of Conflict – intra personal (approach. group conflict. and is occur. political. A theory that views community and society as an arena in which various groups compete to attain maximum gain for themselves. It is often thought of as the Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities opposite of co-operation and peace. power conflict. Competition implies an opposition in the goals of the interdependent parties such that the probability of goal attainment for one decreases as the probability of other increases. Conflict. Stages in conflict – antecedent conditions. lose-lose). resolution aftermath. economic or physical environment. interpersonal. Different needs. avoidance types). Conflict Theory. Escalation of conflict – causes. third party consultation (arbitration. Types of conflict – economic conflict. conflict due to different needs. compromising. connotations. win-lose.

value conflict – Conflict due to personality clashes. For example. conflict due to different needs. often resulting in disagreements over what should be done to solve these problems. but by difficult and detailed negotiations among the parties. can be resolved only through radical changes in society. interest. Communities and government services are being redefined and. Power Conflict: Power conflict arises when each party wishes to maximize the influence it has. group conflict. goals. at the same time. Functional Vs Dysfunctional Conflict Positive Vs Negative Conflict Competition No direct action of one party to interfere with the ongoing activities of another e. Community conflict also can occur when individuals or groups perceive or experience discriminatory behavior directed at them by an agency or its representative. Conflict (or alienation) approach. roles.A theory of society. If there is a possibility to enjoy social justice without recourse to physical violence in any society then there will be less conflict in that society. or by members of their own group. a hate crime or case of discrimination can polarize a community. interpersonal. Each group wants to maximize its gain at the cost of other party. a highprofile case of police misconduct. by members of another group. Settlement of disputes that are mutually satisfactory and that receive a long-term commitment from both the parties.g. Types of conflict – economic conflict. Communities faces increasing community conflicts due to the cultural.g. avoidance types). schools and local government officials are increasingly affected by resulting tensions and need to be prepared when serious conflict erupts. Systems that handle conflict openly and productively can maximize the benefits while reducing the conflicts One has to examine both the goals and the means of conflict in order to judge its acceptability. an incident of violence on a college campus. Stresses caused by economic or social change can impact community resources. leaving groups feeling that they are being denied government services at the expense of other groups. All of these events can produce stress on community residents. neighbors are facing unfamiliar lifestyles in their neighborhoods. Emotional hostility Antagonistic interaction Levels of Conflict – intra personal (approach. different needs. Conflict handling modes / conflict resolution. Economic Conflict: Community Conflict The potential for community conflict exists whenever and wherever people have contact. This type of conflict usually ends in a victory for one party and a defeat for another. All is fair in conflict Incompatible goals. It arises due to competing motives to obtain scarce resources. power conflict. linguistic and ethnic diversity associated with its changing population. This stress can even lead to open conflict within the community. organizational conflict. which argues that fundamental tensions or built in contradictions exist between the powerful and the powerless – and these problems. Economic conflict will not be resolved by improving communication. E. Law enforcement. track and field events Competition occurs within a set of agreed upon rules. or in a stand off that .hockey Basic properties of conflict: Conflict Conflict interferes There is no agreed upon rules.

religion. recognition and future material rewards that power may bring. Religious conversion etc. Other types of conflict: The more our lives overlap with others. but they cannot get along. but simply a question of control and related matters such as pride. Personality clashes: It occurs when two people who have to see each other frequently cause negative feelings and reactions in one another. E. Most conflict involve a mixture of realistic economic.their ideology.g. Since the value conflicts lie at the very heart of a person / peoples identity. political system and culture. Usually a conflict may begin from one source but broaden to include other elements. the more likely it is that there will at times be conflicts. higher wages Antecedent Conditions Perceived Conflict Manifest Behavior Conflict Resolution and Suppression Resolution and Aftermath Felt Conflict . they are extremely difficult to resolve.g. he hurts me Different needs: Roles: Role expectation can cause conflict Goals: lack of clarity or disagreement about Conflict of interest: Stages in Conflict: the goals of the program e. E. The crucial issue is not resource scarcity or differences in basic values. So one can identify different types of conflicts. Value Conflict: It involves incompatible principles and practices that people believe in. power or value differences as well as unrealistic ingredient of misperception and miscommunication. Often these people share common goals.g.involves a continuing state of tension. Marxist Vs Capitalist.

4) behaviors and typical outcomes. 2. The Win-Win approach is a conscious and systematic attempt to maximize the gains of both parties through collaborative problem solving. Unless it resolved at an early stage. 3) characteristic attitudes.an antagonistic. emphasizing commonalities and avoiding discussions on contentious issues 4. Forcing. attributing negative intentions on others Strengths and Limitations of Approaches to Conflict Management TRADITIONAL & CUSTOMARY Strengths Limitations Respect for Not all people local values may have equal and customs access to the con flict resolution Provides fami Courts have liarity & past supplanted local experience authority LEGAL Strengths Well-defined procedures Limitations Tend to neglect indigenous knowledge Inaccessible to the marginal &poor groups ALTERNATIVE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT Strengths Limitations Contributes to proce ss May not be able of community self-relia to over come nce &empowerment power differences Encourages participa Decisions are tion & respects local not legally customs and values binding Decisions are legally binding Methods of Conflict Resolution: Promoting pro-social behavior: Human beings have at least as much potential for caring. Avoidance of conflict is preferred to open competition and half loaf is better than one loaf. The behavior of each party in conflict imposes constraints on the potential satisfaction of the other. selective and distorted perception.Give in persons Turn away persons Escalation of Conflict: Ways of dealing with conflict / opposition Conflict / Opposition Negative Feelings Anger Counter anger Attempt to hear other Negative Response Involvement with other Human beings behave in ways calculated to maximize their goals and minimize their loses. Pro social behaviors are activities that have positive social consequences for others.avoiding conflict by retreating or remaining silent 3. it become more intense and hostile to proliferate more issues and involve stronger and more destructive attempts to control.a simple splitting of differences through negotiation Two-dimensional model of conflict management: This model states that assertiveness (to satisfy others concerns) and cooperativeness (to satisfy others concerns) are both necessary to understand peoples approach and behavior towards conflict. competitive approach that pushes for an all or nothing solution Lose-Lose approach is characterized in many ways 1. 2) about conflict. competing and destroying. Withdrawing. This model yields five conflict modes . sharing and cooperating as they do for aggression. defensiveness. 1.playing down differences. Compromising. Smoothing. Approaches to managing conflict: Ones approach to manage conflict differ as per ones assumptions 1) people. Escalation usually feeds on fear. This tends to escalate conflict.

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among nations and in personal situations such as marriage. such as diplomats. and the beliefs and practices that dominate. lynching. it is a theory and practice of helping students achieve critical consciousness. some religious. and everyday life. advocacy has many interpretations depending on the issue at stake. law. mediation and diplomacy. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory. and speaking which go beneath surface meaning. hostage negotiators or may work under other titles. Critical pedagogue Ira Shor defines critical pedagogy as "Habits of thought. Advocacy is the pursuit of influencing outcomes — including public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political. The word "activism" is often used synonymously with protest or dissent. process. Diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge. text. or opposition to. both work stoppages and hunger strikes. communities. such as union negotiators. economic activism (such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing preferred businesses). The disputes may involve (as parties) states. In some cases. political campaigning. a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) or "appropriate dispute resolution". mediation. The term "conflict resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. warfare. parenting." Processes of mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution. government branches. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles. social context. in a general sense. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. divorce. or discourse. terrorism. but activism can stem from any number of political orientations and take a wide range of forms. traditional clichés. one side of an often controversial argument. non-profit organizations. event. blogging and street marches. which can be different from this initial value-neutral definition. Negotiation occurs in business. aims to assist two (or more) disputants in reaching an agreement. received wisdom. rather than persuade governments to change laws. to bargain for individual or collective advantage. subject matter. Advocacy can be seen as a deliberate process of speaking out on issues of concern in order to exert some influence on behalf of ideas or persons. Cohen states that “ideologues of all persuasions advocate” to bring a change in people’s lives. although some refer to them as "conflict resolution. Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation. peace negotiators. organizations. writing. object. policy. In other words. legal proceedings. from writing letters to newspapers or politicians. mass media. Based on this definition. dominant myths. and personal consequences of any action. The processes of arbitration. organization. first impressions. The parties themselves determine the conditions of any settlements reached— rather than accepting something imposed by a third party. ridicule. one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational or polite manner. legislators or brokers. to produce an agreement upon courses of action. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances — standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. This action is in support of. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip. ideology. However. Mediation. or even guerrilla tactics. individuals or other representatives with a vested interest in the outcome. can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change." . Professional negotiators are often specialized. to understand the deep meaning. and mere opinions. economic. and generally does not lobby or protest politically. Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that attempts to help students question and challenge domination. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure. feminist or vegetarian/vegan activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly. leverage buyout negotiators. reading. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes. rallies. activism has nothing to do with protest or confrontation: for instance.Conflict resolution is a range of processes aimed at alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. experience. strikes. Activism. and social systems and institutions — that directly affect people’s current lives. official pronouncements. Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. Those who work in negotiation professionally are called negotiators. root causes. genocide. and avoidance. litigation are usually described with the term dispute resolution. feuding.

fish net sizes. forests. Mediation: Involves a skilled third party who attempts to help clients reach a compromise on specific issues that are amenable for negotiation . Third Party Consultation: Arbitration: Involves a third party judgment that is arrived at by considering the merits of the opposing cases and their imposing a settlement. • Lack of co-operation between different community groups.g. or misappropriation of funds. • Disputes over the unfair distribution of work and profits. • Disputes arising from differences between the aspirations of community groups and expectations of NGOs or commercial companies.. such as protection agreements for grazing areas.g. • Resentment built up due to lack of representation on village committees. • Disputes over renewal arrangements for leased land. between wildlife habitat protection and local livelihood security. • Conflict between indigenous CPR groups. between private and communal land owners. • Disputes caused by political influence (national. • Internal land ownership disputes ignited by the speculation activities of commercial companies. • Cultural conflicts between community groups and outsiders. Intra micro–micro conflicts: • Disputes over land and resource ownership. • Latent family and relationship disputes. • Disputes due to natural resource projects being captured by élites and/or those who happen to own Resources of a higher quality. Inter micro–micro conflicts: • Conflict between land-owners and resource users. Micro–macro conflicts: • Contradictory natural resource needs and values. and more recent settlers. • Breaking of CPR constitutional or operational rules.Examples of Types of conflicts arising in Natural Resource Management. • Disputes over project management between community groups and outside project-sponsors. e. provincial or local). • Disputes generated by jealousy related to growing wealth disparities. • Disputes over land boundaries between individuals or groups. e. etc.

Target is unresponsive.K have recognized the and we want to work legitimacy of the together. benefit. There are four strategic approaches pursued in community organization Confrontation It involves bringing the demands of one party to the attention of another and forcing compliance Negotiation It is a process of bringing parties with different needs and perspectives to an agreement Co-operation It exists when parties share resources to accomplish a common goal Co-optation It results when parties share common beliefs about matters and when success or failure of one party produces similar feelings Opposite group is uncooperative and is not a good target for confrontation. A strategy takes in to account the actions and reactions of key allies and adversaries as they bear upon achievement of the proposed goal. particular strategy may be appropriate Unable to sustain The respondents have confrontation resources we need effectively. compliance with our Situation of mutual demands. convince nor force the When we have respondent into full resources to offer. Need to energize the issue. demands. When the opponents Respondent is O. Weakening the opposite by putting them in our agency where their opinion is silenced. [Supporters as well as opponents] A strategy is an orchestration of individual attempts’ that brings together and consciously blends a variety of different components of action. To see progress Want to increase the toward accomplishing respondents’ some gain. and from which we Unable to neither can benefit. Need to crystallize or dramatize the issue. Strengths of a Particular strategy * Fighting with an * Likely to end up external opponent more favorable may strengthen group condition. Key individuals in the opposite group are amenable to some sort of affiliation. the anticipated maneuvers of people. Need to attract the allies. dependence on us.Strategies of Community Organization Methods of Conflict Resolution ‘Thou shalt have the situation dictate the strategy’ A strategy is the general framework of or orientation to the activities undertaken to achieve a goal. even if you cohesion don’t get everything * Winning provides you want tremendous emotional * Other sides ability uplift to gain some thing * Mere threat of makes them more confrontation may be accepting of your gain sufficient to * Positive relationship accomplish our may develop *Combined resources * More people to work * More dependence of others may alter the balance of power * Silencing a potentially harmful critic * Gain some insights into the working of the competition * Gaining access to a community that has been closed to you . Situation for which a Target refuses to meet with us. It is not a particular action but rather a series of actions that take in to account. When both sides want to gain or build relationship.

cohesion Degree of commitment. In successful negotiation both parties ideally perceive that they have given up something of limited value to gain something of major value. probable reactions to opponent’s tactics. This is the essence (i. strengths and vulnerabilities. arriving at an agreement through discussion) and the end point of the negotiating process. steps required to gain additional resources NEGOTIATION In trying to solve certain problems.purpose Limitations of the strategy * Loss can be * Settle for to little discouraging that may weaken the And may lead to future demands internal puckering * Non cooperation from the other side * More energy is needed to maintain the relationship * Loss of autonomy * Others may take credit for the success * Letting a fox in the hen house * Co-opted members may manipulate your transparency The major elements we need to understand before deciding a strategy Elements Issues Target Your Troops Other Resources Things to know Basic facts. strengths and vulnerabilities. community Organizations often find it necessary to Negotiate with other parties. cultural norms. staff. cohesion Awareness of needed additional resources. rights and obligation of parties Probable reaction to specific tactic. “Negotiation is an attempt to hold discussion with those who evidence varying degrees of resistance. availability and location of resources. neutral or hostile. A negotiant can be undecided. If one party feels defeated then that party won’t show any interest in making the agreement stable and may be provoked into laying plans for future retaliation. in the hope of ultimately arriving at an agreement.g. principal decision makers. Strike by the govt. E. The common element in all these examples is that the community organization attempts to hold discussions with those who evidence varying degrees of resistance in the hope of ultimately arriving at an agreement. Problems in Negotiation: . causes and effects of problems. Activism against lock up deaths.e. degree of rationale for support or opposition. numbers. In this context a negotiant is anyone whom the community organization is trying to influence. solutions applied in other places. Thus negotiation implies a conflict and the promotion of a cause or certain interests.

and the initiating community organization may have to be satisfied with little credit even through their objective is achieved. Circulating petitions. – Road Blockade Agitation during assembly session Wearing Black Badge.makers can be convinced to carryout a course of action promoted by the community organization.Helping politicians in their campaigns Supporting local departments to get more budget allocations.g. Waging campaigns against persons or institutions: Direct action. Increasing membership.makers. community organizations use a variety of tactics. Through quite discussions with these persons. Unlike in industrial negotiation. Organizing leading citizens to contact their legislators. . . Threats to withdraw support or boycott. 5. Conducting letter-writing campaigns. 3. which has widespread community support Eg. Conducting Behind – The Scenes Discussions In most of the political situations certain people bear major responsibility for what happens. Broader the base of the alliance more power can be exerted in the negotiating process. Eg. 4. 7. the key decision.Demands one NGO supported by other NGOs. Demonstrating public support and sympathy: It means demonstrating the decision. Obtaining editorial support. The fact that rewards can be with held or punishment inflicted constitutes a threat.g. Tactics to strengthen the Negotiating power of the community organizations 1. – Threat of a Lawsuit. Signature campaigns. Threatening: Negotiation often involves a degree of threat. 6. community groups lacking power frequently find themselves prevented from the negotiation process.makers that they espouse a cause. Assisting in find raising campaigns. E. Supporting Survival Needs Eg. 2. In fact these key leaders sometimes become the crusaders of the cause. Targeting pressure points: Selecting targets that are vulnerable to the special kinds of pressure a community organization can bring to hear. Holding mass rallies. Forming Alliances: Alliances can be formed with other organizations whose members have similar values.Many community organizations do not always heave within their capacity the power to gain success to decision. So community organizations have to develop their position and power that allows them to sit at the negotiating table To gain access to negotiations and enhance their bargaining positions. E.

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