,

..

Ca!alo"in;;·

in Puhlicat

ion I Jat a

systems.

- Desil(ll and c"'lsl"",'li",,

~. I';pc Van Laan, Thomas

,I.,

This buuk is dedicated
I](,(,l'ssary

to i tu is«: uli« Hut]:

gill'l'

us IIIi' support Smith.

Iii com plct ; our uiurl:

l trccssvn,

Hunt er-Ta ylor, Wlldl' Lursun, u n d

(;('lll'l'i('[I('

hv Md;,awHill, ln« All r'Khts reserved. inih·d S[ .. It's of Ame r u-a. Except us permitted l lnit ed Siaies C"pvri;d11 Act of 1!i7!i. no par t "I may ft'fHodun_·d or dist r ihutr-d in a nv UW<!U!-i, or sturt·!! in a du+a lun,e- o( rr-t r u-va l
prtuf wr n t en pt·fmi:-.siull Ht lilt' puldi",IH'r

til!.'\ /;I/uh
HW" Nill/HIi iff

Ii ('n'

Hitt

,

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n

/1(11'1",

III,' AI/lll'l(,'

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und Ih"/ITlH/lldiulI,>uIJrI-"I.'I}rllfh
.~'dlllulhfJl/k

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1111

Pr\llllllc~

.1

Aclmcwledgml!U'Il111

CIHllptef 1.
1.1 1.2

and Power Plant Evolution 5

1.3
1.4

Introduction liieioricill Ol/ilIrview 01 OVllrvilllW 01 Thermoelectric Comm@rcial Nuclll!!r Reactor: Ol/l!Irvi~w

2.1 2.2 2.3

Introduction Hlillory 01 Applicable Docurnents jCodel§, SII'lIldIlVdll, Rlllcomml!lnded Practicell, lind Quidu) Ov«llrvilllw of Applicable nocuments Reiliting 10 Pipinlil 2.3.1 Amerleiln Inllliitule 01 51111111 COl1lllvuclion 2.3.2 Amlliricllln Nalionlll SllIndllrdll inl§lilullll 2.3.3 Manufactur@vs Standllvdizlltion Socillily 0111'1111 VillI/III IIInd Indu'try 2.3.4 Society 01 M«IChllll1icllli EngimllivlI 2.3.5 Jurlllldicliol1l1l Boundarilill 2.3.& Amarican Sociely for TIII,lIng lind MllIlerillltll 2.3.1 IJl1i1orm Boiler and Pvelaur4il 'lfllllllllllllWIl Society 2.3.11 Nlltionlll Board 01 Boilev lind Pressure lIeuellnllpeclorlil 2.3.9 Amllricllln SOCill1y 01 Reivigerlliion, lind Air

HI

30

Conditioning Engineev,
2.3.10 Fabricllliion Institule 2.3.11 SlIlely lind Heallh Adminillltr!lliion 2.3.12 Americ!!1l Welding Society 2.3.13 Building Codell 2.3.14 NucilllllV Reguilitory. Comnuesion 2.:U 5 TllchniCliI Pubucatlene 30

2.3. HI Iniemllilonlli Standard;
2.3.11 Inhllrl'llllllonlli Atomic Energy Agency Atomic Indu81rlal Forum 2.3.19 Inlltilulll 01 Nuclear POWIIVOperation I! 2.3.20 Nllltionlill Fire Prolection Anocililtion 2.3.21 Americlln Nuclear Socililly Rolli ollhll OUllllily Auuvlllncli Organizlltion Within Ihill Nucllllllf Inelllililry

2.3. Hi

2.~

6.3 11.4
lUi

6.6
6.1 DrlllwillQIIl C4lIW4I)Omlit~ DfIRw,ino;IIl lind SCIIIEII MIXIIIII Piping iil~tric Orlllwmglll Str@itlllll IllIomlltl'k::lII ill"l-SIiInrk::CIIIlllllP1l'ctioo Drawingil i

SW4lY8rll(;1I1II 8111111111plalllllll MI.IIUplll-Pipe fiellrainl

!"ramell

61
nutOl'lIItiul 01111&11 Pipmg CIXI.1iI for lit 1i2

flDill.lflil rh4ll0l'~!I

62
53 64
1i6

Strltlil ClIllIgOMII 51rlllill limit. Oeclllilionillii Imd ServiclI llllv(!I11 Commiitlllit Projllcill e:U.1 POWllf Piping Cod4ll 0:11.3 ChClmic4II1 Phil'll and P4I!troieum RCilil'l«lry Piping CIXIII 931.1 NuclclIlIiIr Pow., Piping CIXIIII 831.1 GIllIIi 'l"rllnimilllllioo and Distribulioll Piping CIXlIiI ASME Boilll&f I1Ind PrlllllllYflll 11111111111111 CIXIIII. SIiIclioll III. Subncaioll H9 ASMIE Boil., III!nd Prllillll.ifll VIilIilIilIiII CIXIIII. SlIIction m. SUbMCaiol'l1 HC and NO

611 69 70 12
16 11

1. t 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Hi 1.1 1.1 1.9 :i'.10 1.11

InlroducliQIl Prllpliluilion olinlormllliion lind 0l1li111 Rllquirlld lor Pipe Support Dllllllign SlIIllIIction 01 Pipe Support lOC1l1io1'll1 Mariling Support 011 IIII0mlllliricil PiP1l' Slrlllll Al1l11lYlil Oetlllrmill&llioo 01 Support Design lO!Dc:i!l PiP1l' Support: Conceptulill Dellign Pipe Support: D«IllIIilD61ign D4IllIIil Deillign Dr4lwillg lind Bill 01 M!Dteriilllll Chllc!!ing flilbriciilion. Inlllllllllltion. lind Verification 01 AI-iBuill Configllflliion

210

Chapter I. Mal'llJa' Calculation MethQdlil
1.1

11.2

Introductior, Strength of Ml!lteriall tU!.l SlrClIIII-Slr!Din Relationship 1.2.2 luilll Stuluelll 1.2.3 Slreneiil

82
tl.l

1.2.4
1.2.5 DlIIli@ction Support AmllYlilll 1.3.1 local Sarlllllil EvalulIItion 11.3.2 Evaluation et VcmdclrIIS'HardwlIIfll 1.3.3 Struclural Anlll'Yllilll of Support Sleel 1.3.4 E1I1I1I.Iaiionof Structural Aitillchm4llnil S4Imple Problem!!

15
Il1trlXlucaioo SUlLilIIIiMd lOllidl SUllIiamllld lOllldll-Wlllighi SUlllilIIIil1llld lO4ldl-PUIIIIIIIIlf41 OecflljOl'lIl11ludl Oecllllliol"lllllilollldl-Wind Oecllillioollilludl-fielilli Io'lIIIilfl!B Dilllch4lrg' Oecniol1lllllollc:iIl-Sllililmic lo'ibrllli<1I'I EIII~lIrlilicm ludl DtIIllllrminalilicm €II 'l"hClrmallll04ldlll IIInd SInlU41!11 Oelllllrmmlliion 01 Thermlill MOvllllfI1IIInl1ll Comi:lin4llioo Compl.lllllf Cllk::uI!IIliooll

15
Ill' 117 91 1'1.4

102 103
HI!!

9.
9.1 Introducucn 11.1.1 Introduction 10 the Computer 9.1.2 input/Outpul Devices 9.j.3 Centrlll' Procening Unit Compuler·Aided Design lind [lrlliling Computer-Aided Engineering 9.3.1 tntroducuon 9.3.2 input Methoos lor Compuler·Alded EOQil1llerll1g ~.3,3 SllImp!e Structural Analysill Problem 1.3.4 Slim pi iii Pipe Siren Problem

112
121

1211
1211 134 150 150 11.2 9.3

2115

151

of systems. attention 10 the support of these systems to a lack of material Oil the the full scope of this book includes power, and chemical and goes beyond the system to show the role of criteria in the setting of the as a whole. The intention has the theoretical basis and the

field. the fields of piping and support have significant desires to optimize and economic as well as new forms of technology, have led to To protect the public in the nuclear and numerous international, state, and local have been enacted since the late 1960s. In response, various groups have established codes and standards The concern for safety has forced the design criteria aimed at ensuring the of under unusual conditions, such as those ruptures, or in-line equipment loads. The traditional were inadequate to meet these new thus tools were and have been the as an extension of the power of computers. design .has become a task for the

in chemical

new analast few In such

both the value of the traditional methods and of engineering progress. For normal loads are usually low in magnitude and may hardware for support. Circumstances such as these may addressed hy traditional design which the text therefore and presents. In addition, this hook discusses

design The

of such state

of the art methods

as com-

this hook a value The text emphasizes the documents with the power especially those associated nuclear power industry, because the most compteset of technical and documentation These requiremost cases are more severe than those of fossil hydroelecand cornrnercinl and can he said to them. It is to note thai the evaluation 01' applicable standards, guide!>, regulations, recommended pracis an process. this hook addresses those docuthat are viewed as signilinmt to the subject at the lime of puhlithe latest edition oi' a document is discussed except where an earlier version has historical Of other siguificance. Since 1111' minimum guidelines, and utt en cover a ions, SOIlW have 111'('11 modilied or have had porthe authors ill order 10 t hose areas considered Hecause of this, I he reader is herein out of context, ions. of and sUjljlort and analysis are explained visual aids ami sample I'akliial iOIlS, which will serve 10 clarify criteria as well as problems normally hy t he piping The text is also designed 10 serve as a reference hand hook and currently ill the piping industry, at process, or industrial facilities. Since the material covered provides source for data and it is that engineers and will use this text as II dailv reference and design tool. Therefore, design (iata is ext racted from commonly used herein. Adrlit Ihe d!:'sigll and analysis proalong wit h informal ion to aid Ihe ill Ihe met hod for application til other situat ions may encounter. Methods presented here not only emphasize analysis but stress til!' various types of commercially avuilable used in the industry, along with their selection criteria. iii what I he author» believe 10 lie I he mosl for a reader with minimum foreknowledge .. f piping Hcalil'fs may read only those sections Ihut hest herein and standards
I.m"'~.,.{1

discussion that of a

and of codes

piping

and other documentation required when systems. deal wit h 4 outlines stress 5 covers the determination of support loads. cover the actual details of ami support 'V ""d IJ'U-' , 6 describes the various types ami uses of support process, from

ami installation structurul
the use of the computer computer calculations

with respect 10 While the material is believed 10 he currect, authors do not warrant it suitable for any use. The same recommendation that was made earlier with respect to codes continues the reader is to refer to Ihe actual suunes restrrcuons upon t he lise of the This book originated from II set of student lecture notes a series of and analysis seminars which the authors conducted over 100 at elect ric utilities. for architects and and 1.11 technical centers ill six major cities United States. The material feedback from the students seminars. It is thai educational groups such us and centers will consider this hook as the hasis for a techami The ami computeruse III' of the academic curriculum. Much as this book has IWlldill'd from Ihe fel'dllil!"k from host, al endthe authors reali/t, il I·Hull! benefil ~Iill further from readers' comments. The aut hors Iherelure welcome suggl'suons for for Iulure ed iIiOlls.

serve liS an introduction Lo the engineer unfaer i introduces the subject of systems historical and Iechniral hodies

lions for the assistance American National Standards Institute of Mechanical

and Management,

Inc.

James

F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation Standardization Society of the Valve and Information Co. Power Services, Inc.

Nuclear

Terracom Services
Research Council Electric Corporation

Certain Grinnell

pages

in this book have been Literature with

01 ITt'

Grinnell

1.1 Introduction

purposes. is generally considered to include the ""'''I,'''' including in-line components such as heat exchangers, and tanks are also considsystem. The contributions of systems are essential in lin industrialized water to citwater to farms, and water to and systems are the arteries of our industrial processes; transmit the steam to turn the turbines which drive generators, thus the that illuminates the world and powers machines. LI illustrates the of Piping systems account for a of the cost, at times as much as one-third of the total investment. 1,2 is an artist's illustration of another type power that burns fossil fuels, 1,3 illustrates a computerized model showing the and These an enormous amount of within a smaller area than the chemical process of within a very confined area call be an added of a piping system is established 1.1 Iluid from one point

power MW nuclear

power

superstructures systems. This book will review piping system power as well as all relevant teria used to engineer, This

()OO M W foss iI supports, whil« a 1100supports and restraints. must he built lor 1111.' purpose

book hoth describes the

...'Ii""",.nu

the development of sl n'ss and shows their role in Ihe

such criteria as the type of fluid iJeing transported, pressure or energy loss cost power J, desired available materials of construction, etc. the of systems and their supports, the factors that need into consideration depend on the type of plant in which the be installed. As noted, systems constitute a major in process and power plants, so economy is usually the major COIlAn occurs the design of piping and restraints when the minimization of environmental hazard nrernier motivating factor. For nuclear submarine piping sysspace limitations may be of critical of systems

Figure

the

as a whole,

The

textuseful Ior illslrudiollal The text desnih.,s the and

discussion of ('odes alld stand;m lIlaiH'S and n·fen'Il(,1' purP"St's, t echnicul basis for and pradi('al approaches svst ..ms wit h allt'lIl ,n allowahl .. nilt'ria, '1'111'
11Ir<

1.2

Historical

Overview of

WIh'1l
1<Ili"n, hI' Il<lSil' 1""ls IIst'd hy lnuu.ms wr-n-

TIlt'
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lilt' lilt'

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ft'qllirt'd t

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indusl

rlill

n'\"ltll

i011.

'1'111' l'h,I'! rlcal It,y,,llIl ion il i! ..n~ll'fil'lt II.S. PIIl'fhV IISI'. En'l! Ihough dt'dri{'ilv {'III'rg\' {' till' tad I hal il {"I II1l0! hl~ '!Ivl'nit'lll (hi' lIIi1de IH' form "I' t he hoolilillg U.S, indusl!'v, 'I'll!' illlr"dlll'lioll, IIII'd till' d('dri!'al dr-m.uul, "f tur hine (!:HI7 [" till' 1!I~Osj wit s!l'ilm I kllllH'falnres 1;00°F (:! Hi°!, I <llld g;lllgl~ flrl'ssun's .. I :100 (~ MN/Ill'II pos!'d t he twxl ilIajor I sv,,(pm TII,'sl' d('sign conditions P)(('('l,tkd saft, 1';10.1 11'.>11
valtH's

11:,0° F

(~;t~O('

II, I hus

I he illl r .. dlld

j"ll

"I

t'ast s(o,d for

As lalt' as 1;1~:I, til!' prt'SSlIfI' was "t ill tll,ball,d, hut! lit' I n'lHI toward n'qllin'llll'llh had "In'ild" IWglll1. HI' I~J~I, Ih!' SI!'HIil gall!.!,' pn'sslIn' had illn";ls"d to Iii ( I I\IN/IiI 'j, d"uhlillg III Ilisl a ft,w VI'ars lilt· v,'ar l.ur-r. sl,'am I'rI'Ssllll'S .uul )('lllpI'r;!ltll'I's of I~OOpSI ({1 MN/III ') ;lIld ,IHI",," 1:17 "(', WI'fI' illhi"\'I,d, d('III"lIs!ralilig th('.advilll('('S llIi1dto ill IIf' d('vl'lllpnli'lli , 0.1"<1111 g('III'I';lI",. illid <tliadlt'd piping. !I:)" :--01111' I HHI°!<' (:)!J:l°('l wr-n- ill Sl'wvin' Will! l~oo°F
nilit·"I,'{jlllfHIIII'Il!S.

Ifi I!IO( ')
high-I"IIIP"fil!tlrt'

prlOll'l'lt,d, using iHlSli'lIifit'
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('lInt'lIllv,

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gilllgl'
IlI'W

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is

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the numerous state, Lind local have been enacted over the past 20 years. III response, various f:WUps have established codes and standards ing This text collects and this dahl in such u way that piping can refer to those codes and standards that to specific or The text focuses on both traditional and activities to ensure the analysis, for ensures the safe their structural and under to occur over the lifetime 011 he installation. Ihis has been a mathematical

To protect

design

loads are

tlt'sign rriteri» under unusual condit ions, such as those pipe ruptures, or in-line equipment loads. The magnitude of t lu-se design criteria lools for slress have InTi! only ill the past 10 years. The art of has ()penlllt' I he bailiwick of the (If t·"IIlIHllers allows more accurate determination of I IIll' and supporting structures. muk methodology for most role of computers I hese newer mel allal\"sis.

1.3 Overview of Thermoelectric Power Plants
Most 01 Ill' eledric
\

power ill the United Slates IS rur n-ut lv fossil fuels and high turbines. The sdedcd is usually hased 011 ecollomic runsiderutions principal elements:
("ost

III
'uuqHitf'ri/t·d

!Hudd til piping :--'V~lt'lIl~ . Mur ntt«. L'(f }

{(

'II/ull''>

\

II/

{'(lI/',(IIIIIII111

.,",'\-'(1'/11..,

.J
,

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1\

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cost includes the cost of such components condenser, Ieedwater pumps, fuel and waste structures, and cost is calculated based on the average anticipated lifetime. Such future costs are often difficult to estievents, such as the oil of the early may suddenly and radically them. The cost of the must be balanced against cost of fuel operation and maintenance as well as the future UC'l:UIiIUII"""'''''''''''' the plant. For a nuclear power plant is its coot and significantly cost than would be found in a fossil fuel 1.5 illustrates how electricity is .....ru'r .. ,,"... , fossil fuel consisting thermoelectric station. The or the listed, are as follows: container into which water is fed lind heat is applied by fuel is a boiler. This heat the water into steam much and generator. The turbine is a device used to change the in steam to much as a windmill uses air. A turbine conof blades mounted on a shaft that turns. In most fossil fuel stathis shaft rotates at 3600 rpm. The generator is a device which It has two parts, a stationary made of coils of part that is a connected to the tur container where the steam used in the turbine is back to water is a condenser. It accomplishes this by circucool water inside tubes which causes the steam to cool and con011 the outside of the tubes, much as misty water forms on a mil" after a hot shower. This water is called condensate. The condenser sst of tubes cool so that the steam condenses into water. The water, as circuit of condenser tubes are cooled in and condensate pump. The hot well is a reservoir at the botthe condenser which provides a place for the condensate to colThe condensate pump is a mechanism that moves the condensate the hot well toward the boiler. heaters. For more these devices heat the conbefore it enters the boiler so that less fuel is used in the boiler. the heaters use some of the same steam that turned the turbine, This steam is removed before it enters the condenser and reduces the amount of heat lost to the condenser cooling water.

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and feedwater

pump. The main pump tn the boiler at very

that returns tile condensate pressure is the boiler feed

1

and air The air into the furnace of the boiler to helps the fuel to burn better by before it enters the boiler.

the air

and ,tad. The ts fI device used to remove and collect over from the burning of fuel after the furnace. The is fA large fall that burned gases out of the boiler. The .tcu:h ill simply Ii tall

len

Screenhouse.

The screl'llhuuse willier [i.e., river or ocean) rack, which prevents items, the screens, which seaweed. and tish Irorn the which force the cooling water

is Ii located near a source €If which houses the fllilowing: the t rusli such 88lngs, from entering the buildremove smaller items such as twigs, water; end the pump s the condenser,

the generation of when Willer is !If fuel to form steam. The steam passes through the of the rotor axle connected to it When 8 roil of wire within a magnetic tield, producing must be delivered through transmission wires 10 the user as !I(lllrl as it is aince cannot he stored ill economical manner. The fuel used in 1.5 is not power plants may lise coal, natural 188, or even refuse 88 fuels. The steam generators shown In 1.5 could lIisel use the heat of fission (splitting of atomic pari ides I nuclear fuel to boil the water. A nuclear power plant, therefore, produces in milch the same way as a fossil fuel plant, except t hut the fuel is fissionllble material (e.g., uranium or plutonium). Note Ihal is nuclear there is no such thing as nuclear electric I"'WN. once regardless of fuel type, is used 10 generate 1,!t'I·hit· ill the same way whether in a fossil fuel or nuclear power plant. For II fair of energy content, the nisi of energy availnbb lissionable fuel must be increased, compared 10 fossil fuel, hy a fadll' account (!If the additional engineering, design, licensing, and decom effurts associated with nuclear power. Since nuclear power for engineering lind design (including piping) are fur than those associated with fossil fuel power plants, the overall CII!d nuclear power may exceed the cost of fOSllil fuel power. Fossil fuels be abundant however, some face depletion

or

within the Ioreseeable future. Alternative energy s"urn", such lis nuclear power and are needed while more allradivl' !'II!'rgy sources (solar, fusion, etr.) lire heinK developed. . Most of the electric power currently used ill the Iltu!!'" Siaies 'is duced plants using fossil fuels and turbines. utilize steam-driven generators of flO~MW 10 I:lHIIMW with steam from boilers rlllO,OI~1 I" 10,000,000 lh/h (I, I00,000 to 22,000,000 The 197:1-1!:174 lIil embargo threw the world's eiwr~y hHlllIu'e into comIt put numerous strains on both Ihe l'l<>lwmic lind technical resources of iudustrialized nations. 'I'he at least the trialized na 1ions. Like oil, uatural gus is also prey to like oil, it is a Iinite energy source, recent est imates indicate that om 1111 tura I gas reserves may than the nISI of recovery is uncertain and may he prohibitiv« lIil and naturnl gas life vital feeds teres in the fertilizer, and needs fur oil and natural gas require considerauon various sources of energy for the f uture. We cannot eliminate uncertainty from om attempts 10 sl'e the future. all the U.s. population and economy grow, there is g.",,1 rea son III believe that the demand fOf electric energy will grow 100. the transportation, and life at home will heavily influenced the reliabihty and ply. To maintain thai supply, conservation, and nuclear electricity are reported to he necessary. The 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power accident caused the United States to stop and reevaluate its attitude toward its nuclear power energy generation prutessionals still helieve tOil! nuclear power is indispensable to industrialized natiuns. A survey of U.S. scientists was conducted iii 19110, !Iller the Three Mile Island accident. The detailed quest ionuuire 011 energy issues was sent t .. 11 random sample of {II scientists listed in Amf'nnm Men (lml WfJ'1lf'fl0/ Sfll'fln', U) scientists in energ y rdilled lind (:1) .. ~ . . . 1-' SCI 1'111 isis ill he I.S related "0 nuclear em-rg y The . ,". s"i~Il';" ". «SaS were asked II> rame the energv sourres whuh were expected I.. mak e Ihe gft'lil. ': I"tllllnhllholls III om needs lIy the vear 2000. The qlJt>sliwlIIllire Iisted III sources. rllil~ill~ aiphuht'l hom hiomuss 10 wind I T II' xrwe r. 11 ne 1.1 surnruar rzes lilt' n'sl"'llses I.. Ihe quest ionuaire, rr-Iat iv« I.. si~ ellerl:Y sources. Most fesp<>lIdl'llls viewed ("oal ~s I he SOUfce of the ful me, follow(·11 oil, nut urn] gas, H uiservat ion,

c_er~~

1Ie Our "1"
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the utilizatiun (If nudelllf power continues to KWW wllrldThii> dermml>trateli that nuclear power will continue to he Ii primary contributor ou the scene, of its immediate future iii the States.

t

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iii

s

ditfenmt nuclear power reactor designs are commercially available. hw; been that at leut 1200 combinauons lie reactor type variIiIhlet; ellist. The reader is referred til other teats for some IIf these variables comhinatnu» •. Nuctear p"wt:r Ior peaceful me in the United States in Wfl7 with l>ucceSl>!'u! !If a 6O-MW unit at Shippint:l.I4lrl. Ilerllltiylvllllia. the mld-I~~, tWI.! lYpe!lllr eummerciel reactors-c the h4lililll(-water reactor mWHI IImeJ the re!ldllf WWHI-- had evolved u the tWII mail! types reacturs in the United Staten. AVIJWximalt'iy &J percent the wlJrltl's :)11 nuclear plants reported lhwut(h 191i2 use these relu'hlf types, Huth the HWH and .. WH are ndll'd -wlIll'r rt'(I('because their clllIll>lnt, IIf heal transfer medium. is urdinury the lil(ht iS4ILIlIJe !If I!llumic wl'i~hl II liS til hydnlt:ell IIf deuterium {atllmil' weillht 21. HWIt is similar III the l"liler ill it j"lleiSii Iue] I'uwer "ialll ill I hill IIII' ill'lhe 1"111'1 used directly III huil the Ieedwater, IlWdUI'iuj( the sll'am is driVel! the turbine which turns the electri« j(l!lIcraluf. illsh'ali .. I I"c)JI;l-iil the reactor Iue], lhe liS!!ilm .... the nucleur hid III hea}. '1'111:'BWH is fueled IIy slij(hlly enriched uranium Unr exruu 2111 ;11~rnmL "'ll iSllhl.~1 in the f"rm «II urnnium IIxide pdtl'ls hl'ltl luiIt'S ill the cure. W~ler h; pumJ.K'd Ihwllj(h ihl' n,n', the heal the Iissi4lnillj( uranium, I'm sh'l:IlID which is piped III the turbine. This pWn'ss j(ives IIII' rl'udor f'-ClII", 'I'he rdal of IIII' rt'lId"r I" III(>

'"

..

'"

II.

lie

s,.sll'lllS

is

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III

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Illi
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I

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reactor enriched held in the the core to transfer heat from the however, under pressure to prevent boiling, hence the reactor. This coolant is circulated through the known as the steam generator, where heat is ",,""'"'n,''' to the Ieedwater on the shell side. The feedwater boils in the to steam, which to the turbine. of reactor has the of isolation of the side) from the feedwater and main swam (secswam is used to electricity in exactly This swam drives the turblrte which is essentially the same in all IS too. A is nothing more than a steam-electric generation stain which the reactor takes the place of a furnace and the heat comes the of uranium rather than from the burning of fossil 1.8 indicates the tremendous amount of as well as the complexity of 1.8 illustrates

2.1

Introduction

demands on the power to generate energy has brought forth ever more of systems has increased for power in and specifically for nuclear power Standardization can, and does, reduce the cost, and confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable differences ill rnent, systems, materials, and Standards can also document practice in areas such as and installation. Within an engineering standardization is furthered the vehicle of othcial company Between organizations, it is often dards, Between it is "'N',,~n,,' rnents and standards. For example, the General Trade which became effective and efficient
estab

lishes 1:1 code to promote the use of international standards local and national standards, and certification technical barriers to trade. Most of the architectural or United Stales and western Europe have reference power of varying fuel type and reference phmb reduce the cost allocated since many components and systems are for similar types of standards are generally

and to prevent from firms in the

11

19

industry often munici-

UeVl>:llUIJI

of Mechanical has also developed nuclear power

standards. For example, the (ASME) has an active stanthe ASME Boiler and Pressure

there is a compelling need for standards and safety of the Most of the approved and those now in preparation. are related to

of codes and standards to systems is nresenteu here with a discussion of some of the organizations that nW"M"'.,.'" these standards.

use of boilers in the late 17008 led to the need for regulations

which would

the public fCOIncatastrophic boiler failures. Boilsteam with pressures far above that of the atmosphere. Carelessness and of operators, design of safety valves, and ~b."ti,"no led to many boiler ruptures and explosions in the until sufficient regulations were imposed. committee of the Council of the City of Philadeladdressed the of steamship boiler explosions. This committee that state legislators institute a law requiring the pressure to be listed on the boiler. safety valves to be used,

lives. More than two decades of 27 boilers at the Mine in town and killed thousands. Just over 10 years on March 1905.!1 boiler in a shoe in Brockton, Massachusetts, 117 others. As a result of the 1905 the first known 1908, Ohio rules similar to those of MassachuseUs. Other states and to adopt many to the legislative council of the ASME to resolve conflicts and prevent future disasters. This led to the ultimate creation of the ASME described later in this demonstrated a need for standards to protect In addition to the need for boiler for purposes, the industrial revolution created the need for standardization mechanical for the smooth the maintenance of As a result of the codification of for there has been a remarkable history of in The ASME and Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co. have data that demonstrates in safety. In response to obvious design and standardization numerous societies were formed between 1911 and 1921. such as the American Stalldards Association (ASA), now the American National Standards Institute (ANSI); the American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Society (AWS). Codes and standards were established to methods for manufacturing, and data. The intent of various applicable documents is often since definitions 01 a code, standard, recommended not understood. The following definitions are Code. A group of general rules or fabrication, installation, and manner that it can be adopted by a
group

Standards. and Insurance Co. was founded for such purposes under charter the Connecticut Most of the earlier explosions resulted in the loss of life of one or two persons and III number of injuries. More disastrous boiler explosions have such as on the steamboat Sultana on the Missis1865. This accident resulted in the loss of 1500

Documents prepared a believed to be good and proper which are written with mandatory Documents group good engineering the verb should is

practice and the verb shall is

agencies, organizations, and various methods which are conwithout any specific recommendation Of requiremay be used at the discretion. in order to have COllprocedures and to avoid one project differ from others. It is another way to standardize the specific Most of these are standards modspecific design philosophy. recommended practices, and of persons representing societies, consultants, and occabodies. These codes arc usually developed by volunare experts in their providing their accuCommittee besides must also be of moral standing since they hear as of srxiety's documents make known specific areas of concern and idenin the form of basic principles. Generally, n(OI1II1I'U(IrIS Of cautions to he followed in the standardizefor safety considerations. Economics and enforceare basic considerations for any code and must be considerations. Although some technological lags codes are reviewed and periodically to hold minimum. , .. "" ... v the concurrence of an overwhelming majority (between twothirds and 90 of committee members is required to formulate a 01' standard. Codes thus establish practices acceptable to the as a whole. Codes and standards, as well as being be considered "design aids" since they provide guidfrom experts. If one does not comply with standards, professional suits may especially if this noncompliance results in an omission which causes failure. '''''''''1'''''' come in the form of addenda, errata sheets, or new edithe code on a triannual basis). When a code requireand an official interpretation is requested, the resultcommittee response may relax that requirement; in that case the would be 11 code case [or the ASME codes and be number for subsequent identification. These code cases do not constitute revision of the code, and users of the code cases are cautioned sure to the given problem. Code changes are usually retroactive and are 6 months after the dale of issue, unless otherwise. in-house

The codes for mechanical are those ellect the time the purchase order is awarded. These codes and standards should be listed in the system which may have to be or revised once the I.uter revisions to be issue is occurs in the code and way, the or to the attention of the owner to determine whether The inclusion of the code to the basis must he documented. for comCOIl-

2.3

Overview

of

Documents

to
To protect the numerous government regulations have been enacted. III response to these and in the interest of public societies design guidelines, and codes in existence create the need available data as a reference to identitication of active in the standards enables the reader to foclls 011 that affects the engineering and design work of a should he used only as II and for instructive purposes. The user ula reference cannot substitute this information for the chenr's ::;p,. ilication or for any regulatory commitments.

t
t

2.3.1 American Institute of Steel Construction

The AI~;C was founded ill 1921. The firs! AIS(, manual was issued ill 1926. ill its eighth edition, the manual has invaluable ill proand codes 10 maximize structural steel The AISC code contains design design for structural steel. Its use is recummeuded for the or bridges, or any steel structure, those restraints.

Am@riclIIn N.tionai

Sllln&ilrdl il'lllltilut@!l

established in 1911:1as the American Standards Association this group changed its name in 1967 to USA Standards Institute (USASII. In 1969, the name was to the American National Standards Institute IANS!). Standerde issued are prefixed with ANSI, may have originally been termed ASA or USASI. ANSI is the clearinghouse for more than 200 major organizations which nevetoe standards. It aids in the precision and quality of the U.S. standards system and the only recognized mechanism the United States for es~blishing lI~ndards u U.S. rultionals~ndardB. This mechanism requires that every proposed standard submitted to A NS I fm be subjected to a of public review and comment. any interested party may obtain III copy of the draft lind submit comments. All comments must be fully considered by the committee, ANSI's Board uf Standards Review (BSR) then determines, on the basis of the evidence presented, if national consensus exists. its federated membership, eouncile and committees,

Indu.!ry
Inl

and petroleum rehnery pipi", petroleum tr ..".portllli ..., "illi", system UA.·.; ..... A. piping Nuclear p.... er pi"ing (superseded by ASME. S"C'!i"" lin ,;u Ir""omi •• i"n and diatribution ";1';"1 1i1liidi"l1 services piping

I!:IUI

Table

2. l . ANSI also has dimensional standards fur and bolts, and valves. Since the issuance of standards .. n,Il'''I,nl1' process, users should find that date of issuance to which committed before using the standard in any 2.3.3
Manu'llicturer. Stanc:illlrc:iiutioll Society of d1e VllllvlII IiInd fitting III indy.try

is

IIIl

are

" Identifies

what standards

lUI!

<eu",,,,.,.. organizes the required

life required

ftor competent and or, if none ., Pwvides effective

to undertake
competence organizations efficient use of resources

their run and

procedures that and effective

The Manufacturers Standardization teer (If the valve and sury standards which are considered These MSS standards are SI'·515 SP·69
SP·77

national volun The MSS issues advi the

management services to ensure to eliminate duplication or effurt Lendll its 1.0 the standard wruers

Pipe Hangen lind Supports: Meterial», Design, lind MUlluflidurer" Pipe Hllinl!e~8and Supports: Selection lind Application Support Contractual Helllltionahips GuidelineiS (or ripe Hangere 11111:1 Supports: Fahrication and lnstalle tio» Pradices GuidelilleiS on Terminology of Pipe Hangers end Supports
Society of MeclulIlliclll

Nut all U.S. standerds are issued ANSI. The ASME, the AISC, and numerous €Ither organizations issue standards and codes IAI Nuclear-related standards are published as ANSI N series standards and lire authored standing committees IIf both the American Nuclear Society {ANSI and the ASMK A listing of all stan dards and applicable tu piping design, together with their effective edition reference, appears in an of the Code Pressure (ANSI B:lI). The ANSI/ASMf.~ lUI Code f!lf Pressure is at present a noncode in the United Stales, although most U.S. slate legislative Ixldies and Canadian provinces have adopted these codes as legal require ments. The minimum design of these codes have been the industry as a standard for all outside the jurisdiction of other codes, i.e., the ASMI<~Hoiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The c:.. vered hy the separate sections of the code are listed ill

81'·119 ~H'.!IO 2.:U

Am.ric.n Ellg!n'IHUI

II group of mel to review laws the construetiun and operation of steam boilers monwealth or Massachusetts II.Ild the Ohio slate til the 19115 MasliIIchuseHs,lmiler the basis fllr the Iorrnation of ASM K the states' codes lind 10 Iormulate a materials standard. III 191:1, the committee issued the lirst preliminary report tu 2000 mechanical engineers, professionals, and insuraru-e issued ill I!H4, Section I of the ASME code WIIS one of the first codes and standards ill the United States. The ASME

III Hili, in New York

data ill Section which defined for various types of materials. Today, the covers the and construction of power boilers, heating boilers. nucleae components, and any pressure vessel which operates III II pressure of at lead 15 psi. These seetions of the code, with their issue year, are summarized: ASME Boibr ~nd Pr~flllI!.Ir. V.fIINt Cod4Il ~II I«~
I: PowM
~fII

its areas €If concern in 1924

:!>Klioo IV: Hillllifl9 boiklril!iu,,"

U'l

19231.

the

Sect ion I V is ,'wlsiru.! ion uKle lint! or steam boilers which lire This sedi .. 1l presents ultrusonics. visual allli leak
@j

:!>K~

'If: N<l<'IdIIIllllr(,l(;li"illlluuninli~

ji@llllll\1ld 1'1 1 Hllll.

methods
:!>K~

for use by the code: current,
VI: RKommlln~ Mlill

101'Cllr~ 11100~ralioo

".u,hng boil<llfil (illlllll.Nld ill

(III~

11'1 111114" Thill

electric and miniature service. The section and tracuon service.
U: MalIMl&IIIIIPfIIClkll~!i

construction code covers and bilil· includes power boilers used in This section is divided
Oil

lllti. Section
Ii

VI regulates

to the Huiler mom accessories 11m.! lind water
:!>KIloI') 1922,.
VII:

steel and caat-iron maintenance, and and facilities. automatic treatments lire covered.
mills

boiler», this fuel
in

(ilitwN 11'1111241·

intu

RKGmln9rwHd

101' I:lIIrll @I PO"'<lIf ooliliOr~ (i!l!lu~d

parts CA, H. snd C) and contains ferrous materials; nonferrous materials; and IiIler metals.

Similar to Section maintenance of
:!>KI~

VI, this section

addresses

the

and
section 011 Ihe

VUI: PrClul.ln, 1lII1Ie4ll18,Olllillli@n 1 lillltll.Nld m UI:!SI.

This

pro-

1«6i@n1il: i116.II:illllf ... 1Vplanl c:~nlfllliillll.Nld po iIl1IMiJ). Division I of Secuon III is subdivided into seven subsections. Divisioll 2 of Section III WII· the of concrete containment vessels. The subsections of Dilli· are IlII follows: Gennall)l!$Cl'lplWI1

vides basic rules for the construction, Iebrication, certificatioil (If pressure vessels. These rules life formulated of and construction desre ned for pressures up to HOOO (55 X Ht Pa). are also covered.
SIIc~

basis

Rules and design criteria for items which are curnmon I.. all RU'" HdillllS, Ihm indiUlinl! 111'111'£111 requirements. Hulet! fur CIUl! I which lUI' Ih,_ within the reactur c!lolllni pressure CISllli I components include the reaclor vessel, pipifll, pumps, lind VIIIVeli. Rules fur C'.fIII 2 which lire IhOllieIhal lire import ant Iu §!Ieety lind rllr emergency c.. re CHulil1!(, accident mit illllli"I'l, containment heat removal, lI"slllnidenl lissi,," pr"dOll'l removal, IImG containment isolation. ClIIS>! cumponeuts :1 include pressure vessels, piVin". pumps, valves, lind wl"rlll(e tanks. Rules fllr Clalill :1 cumponents, whicb lire those Iound in the "(MIl inl! water and lIuxiliary Ieedwater systems. CllltIB :1 "tlIllj)<,nt'llh include pressure vessels, pipinl:. pump!!, VII I VI'!I, and 81orlll:" lank~, Rule» for containment vessels, which are referred t .. as ('lass MI' <metal containment]. This subsection contains rules for "Illy the containment vessel And dues nut include pipill!(, pumps or valves, since Ih,l1II' portiuns of the cuntainrnent system lire l!imerlllly
designed as CIIIII6lI 2 Subsecti.m Nfo' contain» the rules fur CllltIB I, :!, :1, IIlId Me ""m lIullptlrls. These may I,., plste lind shell. line .. r. or stau ""pptlrls, These items lice used 10 suppur! the v"ss"ls, P'OI"PS, lind pilliill( systems.

an alternative

Division provideu vessels out lrned ill Division I. The rules are more restrictive ill the choice of materials which may he used, but the rules stress values in the range of temperatures over which the value is controlled the ultimate or More precise lire and some common details are Permissible fabrication procedures are delineated, IIlId more lind lire called for. The rules ill this section vessels to be installed at atationery locat iuns.
Prllllllllurll 1111111"1$, I)jlli!lion 21111$1.1" in 151:25,.

vm:

10 construction

for pressure

:!>K~ Ill[: We~.Md bi'1II1I1I'Ig Wilikll~ q €iul.&liOdill 111311- This section 1't1V· ers the of welders and in order to with the code. Under procedure eurh process is hsted and ! he essential IIlId nonessential variables of ell('h prowess life out qualiticat iuns lire als« included,
SKIioo
l(:

f~rglllllllH.inlorCliOd

plnhc

prlllUI.I<1D

VIlUIIIIII i,uUllld

on 1!1691.

TillS

section establishes specificat iona (or the fabricate such vessels. It sets limits 011 the and sets rules under which fllilnC!lIillg outlines the for stamping and

and resin used service condilions It

asaermnv of power Steel-plate cast-iron sectional heating Lined portable water heaters Locomotive boilers Miniature boilers Nuclear vessels lind piping systems Nuclear vessel nsrlll Nuclear instellation Nuclear vessel safety valves RP pressure vessels Power boilers Pressure vessels (Division I) Pressure vessels (Division 2) Miniature pressure vessels Pressure-vesael safety valve. Boiler valves

Title 10 of the Code of Federal makes ASME code nuclear power components. These less of the local jurisdiction's
2.3.5 Juri~dictional boundaries

uv

When more than one code provides criteria for a system or components, or when various sections of a code different the limit of those criteria must be defined. It is understood that structures are according to AISC and and other mechanical are designed to the ASME code. 'The transuion between the building structure {jill! the support structure determines which code is ::!. and 2.2 mark the code group having a which defines these

)(1: Rukl$ tor il1-urvice

il111P4llcli0111 nuctear power plant components 0

'This section outlines the for maintenance of condition and for returning power in a safe or maintenance shutdown. to service following a including all the sections previously discussed, is in most states, and with the code is required in the United States and Canada in order to for certain insurance and licenses. Additionally, countries must comply with the in order to receive nuclear fuel from the United States. the code has numerous editions, it is that the code year as well as the applicable addenda with which the design be stated in contract documents. ASME issues fabricators of within the jurisdiction of code official stamps certifying their engineering and quality control competence. 'The ASME code is the code known to require thirdinspection. Failure to satisfactorily meet inspection will cause the ASME to force the fabricator to cease this of fabrication. 'The ASME code stamps and their coverage are listed Table 2.2 an indication of the areas addressed hy the codes. Discussion of Uniform Boiler and Pressure Vessel Laws Society and the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors later in this nr""ull ... an overview of the , aspects of the code. Note that ASME code is utilized even when the local jurisdiction does Insurance company or legal requireof either fabrication or ultimate use usually make it noncode would be used. Within the United

.,
JI 1

!

V
~I

r

..i.S~lI:'- S~TIO'"
NI'" C~I"fRIA

m

._
.--_

r+:

r-

--;-1
I'

.1

,

<I'
'1

,

l-I
,__
-

I

~

1'19'''l1li2.1 Author-,' iliterpr~llIti,,,, jurisdict iona! huundaries hetween pipe support structure

"I ASl\lE IIlId AIS!' iluddiliK s t r uct ur e 1111.1

current

issues of the AISC and ASME codes have not sanctioned definitions. contractors are cautioned to have boundaries defined for their specific The engineer the technical specifications the boundaries of building 2.3 shows the boundaries between ditferNote that in the the piping class changes at a with the valve within the jurisdiction of the class.

t.L,,,H\$

II

"'.,,&@I
"fe ••
~'6

H'Il.'M.f\fl1!

WIi"&..l)

St e e m Gene'~IUI

Pump
CIi:tS£ (Httal 2 Vessel E)(chiUlytH)

L-<J
Cta s s 1 Pump

I (j

11

CldS~

:3

V4!vO

:xj

,I I( )
Cta s s 2 Pump

lagena

Cta s s Class

J

s y stem.

Re actor Re sruuat

c ootaur heat

sy

st e.u
s v sr em w

2 System,

r emcvat

Class

3 system,

Component

c octmq

ater

Sy:.ICIH

Figur@ 2.3

('(lmpollt'lit

da:isdin!tiun

typical

code

jur isduuon

ill" PWH I'owe, plant.

2.3.6

AmeriClB1l SOCiety

'or

IUDd

Matlllrilllil

j

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) was founded 1898 standards on the characteristics and suppliers, and services and to promote related knowlThe 198:1ASTM standards consist of 66 volumes divided among sections on standard specifications, test detiniand related topics. All "~'c....na been tested and assigned ASTM numbers and Based 011 ASTM testing and the ASME and AISC codes establish the maximum allowable stresses for materials as function of Usually ASME-accepted materials are an S preceding the A for A-:16 is an ASTM-endorsed structural steel while SA-:i6 is an ASME-emJorsed piping material. 2.3.7
Uniform Boiler and Pre,sstlre

laws

VE!uel

This is a
boundaries Authors' inter pr et atiun of ,'oml'iex ASME and A!SC fur pipe suppurts in which supplementary huiltlinl( stee]

is

noncommercial, is to secure uniformity ill the affect the boiler and pressure-vessel industry, users. The promotes nationally

recommends the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as the standard construction lind the Inspection Code of the National Hoard of HOlier Pressure Vessel for administration and inspection. several states have not the ASME code. the code as relates to nuclear is in effect since the Nuclear Regulatory CommiSSIOn in its Code of Federal Regulations lOCFR50.55(a). manthat the ASME code (Section is required. In addition. the use the ASME code is for insurance purposes. National Bo~udot Boiler and Preul.lre

.,
i

sufficient headroom in work environments. For to OSHA rules, the shall not he less than 7 It and no shall lower than 6 It H in above the floor. OSHA

2.3.12 The

American "" ........, ... was founded in 1919 and the art and practice of weld
IS

A WS

In~~ctor,
promotes ( ) uniform enforcement of boiler and pressure-vesand (2) standards for of boilers, and parts; (:H a standard of qualifications and exarninawho are to enforce the requirements of the code; and one uniform code and one standard stamp to be placed on pressure vessels, and parts constructed in accorwith the code. The National Hoard of Boiler and Pressure Vessel nsnectors is the enforcement agency of the ASME Boiler lind Pressure group

2.3.13 codes include requirements to the structural soundness of Within the United States most states have adopted one of three national codes with state The Standard Code (SHC). Code International (SHCCI), is Code (HHC), Code Administrators International Inc. (BOCA), is northeast and midwest. The Uniform Code ( the International Conference of Officials used in the west. 2.3.14 Nuclear The Atomic Commission (A which was the forerunner of the NHC, was founded in 1946 as a result of an ad of abolished and the NHC was created under the Ad of 1974. 1975, responsibilities were further divided between the NHe and the Energy Research and (ERDA), separating the regulatory and power. All of the nuclear power The of energy forms. such as Is the Department of EliDA. The NHC is a regulatory agency which acts as the of the federal gover nment, issuing nuclear and, above cunstruct ion permits and plants. The NBC's rules and regulations are issued

...hi"......

AmeriClllln Society of w ..,.. ti"" h"'''' lind Air Conditioning of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air (ASH RAE) is to advance the technology of heatair conditioning, and ventilation for the benefit of the

purpose

Pipe fllbrh::llltion Institute purpose Fabrication Institute (PFIl is 10 serve proven fabrication industry both at the design level and in by providing recommended procedures which been demonstrated collective to fulfill code compliof the

and Health Adminisirl'atiol"l therefore such and Health Administration was created by ('onhold the foftl' of law in oil st at es OSHA as clearance for 1lH'IIIlS of fllTess and egrf.'SS and

its regulations
matters

site criteria, of the CFR are of particular

Number
1.26

n".,U'H ••'"

of Defects and
1.29

of Production lind Utilization Facilities Reactor Site Criteria guidance on or numerous documents in order to research, and to to provide data on problems. inform and the documents are discussed in the following sections. The NRC issues guides to describe and make available to the methods acceptable to the NHC specific parts of the NRC to delineate the staff in evaluating specific or postulated to Regulatory guides are substitutes for regulations, and compliance with them is not always Methods and solutions different from those set out in if approved the NRC. Regulatory guides on piping design are listed in Table 2.3. are generally divided into four sections:

146 IAIi
1.57

1.60
1.6 ! 164 67

I.otl

Ul5

Quality (;wup Ctassiticauous and SllIlld""b lor Wul"r. Steam. Radioactive- Wasie·Containing Componeut s of Nuclear Power Plants (Revisions 3, 2/76) Quality Assurance Prog rarn Requiremeurs (ilesign II",i Constructjon] (Safety Guide zs, 6/7!7~. Seismic Design Classificatiun mevisi"" ~, '!.l7tiJ Protection against Pipe Whip Inside {'""tammenl (5/7:0 Design Limits lind Loading Coruhinat ions for Seismic C"tegury I Fluid System Components (5/7:1) Design Limits lind Loading Comhinauous for Metal Primary Reactor Containment System COIllP'""'IltJ; (6/7:1) Design Response Spectra for Seismic Design or Nuclear Power Plants (Hevisiun, I, I U7:l) Damping Values for Seismic Deslllll "I Nuclear Power Plunts (10/ 7:0 Quality Assurance Hequiremeuts tor t he iJesil(ll "f Nuclear Power Plants (Hevision 2, 6176) l nst.allatiun of Overpressure Prut ecuun ievices (10/7:0 Init ial Test Program. fur Water·Cooled H"udor Power l 'lants (Hevisiun I, 1/77) Preoperational and Initial Startup Testing of Feedwater ""d Condensate Systems fur Boiling Water Heactor !'"wer I'la .. ts (He vision I, 1/77) Code Case Acceptability-ASME Sect ion HI De"gn "",I Fabrication (Revision 10, HI??) Code Case Acceplability-ASME Section III Materials (Itevisiou
W,I\177)

Introduction.
I:IC~:eJ:'U1'l.Ile

This describes method of compliance.

regulation

and an

Discussion.

tll!l.llJlllinllltlu!U as

This part describes the background with an to how the method of compliance was established.
I.I:!:! 1.124 1 LIO
II

Collection, Storage. and Maiutenance of Nuclear Power I-'IIInl Qu"lily Assurance Hecurds (Heviaion :1, 10/76) Combining Modal Hesponses and Spatial Components ill Seismic Response Analysia (Revision I, ~/7Ii) Design of Main Steam Isolation Valve l."akul:" Control Systems for Boiling Waler Reactor Nuclear Power Plants (Hevision .6/
76)

standards

This section describes the acceptable method of in detail and discusses the applicability, if any, of ANSI to the method of only after the applicant have the alternative of developing their own rnethit is usually not feasible to do so because of the lengthy involved. Levels of documentation include the (SAR), quality assurance manual, implementing controls, and specific instructions.

Development uf Floor Desigu Response Spectra for Seismic Desil:n of Floor-Supported Equipment or Components [Hevision 1,1/78) Service Limits and Loading Comhinauuns fur Cles. Linear-Type Component Supports (Hevision I, 1/7t1) Service Limits and I.,,"ding Cumbinat i'>lIS for Clas« I Plate Shell-Type Component SUI''''''!' (I{evision I, IO!7Hj Auditing of Quality Assurance I'rol:"""S lor Nucle ar Power Plants (Hevision I, 9/!!O, :U:! I)

issue 1;1 bulletin to correction of

\

\

Ii group

of licensees

NRC inlllpectic:m llil'ld lIu'iforCetmEll'lt dir.ciht$!J. When the NRC becomes aware of inadequacies or defects in a facility that seem to be of nature, the NRC Office of and Enforcement may

some cases, is not ance at the individual facility). The

Caiis to bulletin

carriea

to the action of a bulletin. Thus, II force. Rather design lind evaluation for nuclear plant lind restraints are included in these "''''''''1,'''', IE Bulletin 79·14, Seismic Analyses for As- Built Systems, which nuclear plants reeiatanee of their piping systems, caused large reIUl!lIYIl18 and in eonstruction changes in

NUREG reports have no otlieial as and in most cases serve to document a current situation. In those cases where II NUREG report is written to document a !Italf positioll, it must be some other vehicle such as an ,I<: bulletin. 2.3.14.4 lk:4Im1lH «tllent f«tpMtii. For each licensed abnorma! events must be reported 1.0 the NHe. for licensed facilities are defined in in lice use provisions, and in the technical specifications. The abnormal events lire desoccurrences," and the reports are known as licensee event reports (LERa •. Til sort, store, retrieve, and evaluate information licensee events the AEC established. in the summer of I !}7:I, tER file. This file III centralized source of data for assessment of abnormal events in the nuclear as well as a reference and index tu the SIIUfce material (LEH) for more detail. This file is accessible not 1.0 the NHC but also to the Shlndlllrd r.lIH&wpI.nll. The director of standard review (SRI's) as for use in 1.0 construct lind operate nuclear power There lire over 200 SHPs. Each SHI' is identified the safety analysis report (SAl{) section to which it The SHl's specify what technical information ill in order I." obtain a con~lrlJdion permit. .u,..... <1 for the guidance of the slaff reviewers of the Nuclelu ,..... Reactor iNRH) otlice of the NRC who perform the detailed safety review of applications to construct or operate nuclear power pillllts. A purpose of the SRP is to the and of staff reviews. A second purpose is 1.0 present a well deli ned hase from which to evaluate changes in the scope and reviews. Another purpose of the SRI' is to making information about regulatory matters availahle. intended to understanding IIf the statf review process ested members of the public and the nuclear power Table 2.4 lists the SRPs which have a of pipillK lind restraints,
2.3.15 T Glchniclill j:I!JblicllIlionl

the NRC ill informed about III aitUl!tion which does not fof II bulletin in eitMr or immediacy, but could hllwe generic impliClltioM. In aheM ~ lUI inllpedion and Imforcement circular ill iIIII!!ed. Generally. III cireua.1I' I't!commends that llceneees review the information and take certain specific preventive IIdiuml. Since the circular identifiee potentilll problema not of
UCCI!~IIOI1aIIIY

the criteria

immediatehealth and safety significance, no reporting is required. Thus, the circulse ill Ii mechanism for the diesemineuon or information "P,,""m"" areas lind recommended licensee actions. newest c&telory of inspection and enforcement (IE) issuence is the notice. The IE information notice provides early notification matter. It is iasued when the NRC becomes aware lIigniliclmt matter but does not yet know the extent or seriousness or the deficiency. Licensees life expected 1.0 review the information (or 1.0 their facility, bill no specific action is required I'm response is required. If further evaluation warrants additional licensee the requirement will be upgraded by illlluance !If Ii circular bulletin. circulere lind information notices require no formal response, Office of IIInd Enforcement hill! indicated that licensee <I...... m ••ni .. and resultant actionll life subject to audit by HUREG W4I'pMtll. These documents are formal reports issued by NRC which clirry the NUREG series code. They may contain infurmlltiml to be considered in NIlC licensing lind policy decisions, may present the results or NRC licensing and policy decisions, or may present the results or technical research conducted for the Nile. There lire four catNUREG reports:

2.3.14.5

nr

" NUHEG:

technical

or procedural

reports written as

written
II

hy tine or more NHe (If NIH',spolIsored

NUHEG/CH: technical reports research (i.e., contract report) NUREG/CP: IJn~(~n'R:

documentation of discussions held lit NRC'sponsoH'd meetings, or workshops [i.e., conference rwct'edin~s) technical reports translated fur the NBC

Tech~lical papers may be prepared by I(WIlP!l, edurat ionu! or.:a. Im:atlllns, individuals. or ell~illeerin~ firms. These papers may be Issued or in trade of usefu] techru nil papers life the Welding Hesean-h Council (WHC)lIulletill l!lH '''Set' ondary Stress Indices for IUlc~rHISlrlldmHI AUadHllt'1i1s I..

s"i.mi,· ('Ia""ih ....tion Sy.l~m ~" .. llly I;",up CI..""iliuli o" !'hllli U.,..i~n for Prnleclion PU<!Ilul ..ted !'ipinK ~'III,lu, s ill e ~'Iuid Sy.lem. oullllide u>nI4lJn~M"1 l>ele,min ..liu" ..I Rr ..all. l..ocal~ lind i)y"..mi.. Elfecllll "_",i.. ted ",itll the P""lulated R~n 01 ripil»l s"i.mi<: I"pul s"n..mi< Syatem I»yWlmic Tnli"l Al\IIllfIIMl 01 M«rumiclll Syatema amI Code ClaM I, 2, and ;) CIlm~IIII, IIIndCllre Support Sirucluf. CHolr,,1 RHd OrivIP
of COOlpoMlII1SuW",IIII,

tice and Guides issued the IAEA is <llIiy for meml,,'r stales who enter into an agreement with the IAEA fm the IISSIS lance in connecuon with the tiun, or
2.3.11 Alomic IndullltEillll forum

The Atomic Industrial Forum (AWl is a (If lind individuals interested ill the and utilization (II commercial nuclear energy. i<:::;wblished III I!.If);I, t he Forum has more than 00) organizstional members in the l lnued States and some 20 countries. Through conferences, and committee activities, the All" abreast of technical lind economic issues. and inferrnation program stlilf many and nontechnical brochures and II the Nuclear Industry is

Shellll

Systems") and 107 due to Esternel

the cm.mtri~ also iIIIIue IwndiUds and codes. For Deutsches hl.$titl.ll FUr Normu", IIwndard ill used in W~t (IerThe 8ritish Swndards Imtitute in the United Kin£dom also iuu~ many IIWndtll'da. there are two Iroop!l whose sole purl,UIJ,«;lJnIUJUn and approval or lIohmwry international stanthe Internatillnai Swndlirdization OrSlllnization (ISO) and its oolmterpart in the electrical/eledwnia fields. the International Electro·
technical Commillllion (HOC), ISO ANSI u the official U.S. m~'ml~l', lind lEe accords similar recognition to the U.S. Nstillnal Comwhich is tIIlfiliated with ANSI. RI:l,;.,1I!t!)', II third body, the Pacific Area Standards Cungfet!S IPASC), wu formed ANSI in cooperation with the nalillnal standards associaticDIlsllf Al.I8tl'lAlia, and New ualand. The purpose of the ISO and lEe and the ability of the nations of the in these .. n' ...... .. " In*erM~ Atomic; reviewing, amending, and

the Institute operation Its purposes. in brief, are to estsbhsh for excellence in nuclear operation and 1..0 conduct tions to assist utilities in meeting these benchmarks. mines edecational and for
(I NPO) to ensure

The electric

estabtished

of Nuclear of evalue INPO aiso deterpersoliliei and

accredits

The

National

Fire Protection Association " ...,.....,"" regulations to lire ..... "1"'''''-' many of the NFPA

hIiZIUJS.

The American Nuclear (ANS). established in 1954, is scientitie and educatiunal orgllllizutillil made up of I :!,OOO individual scientists IIlId active in nuclear science and technol 0KY· Its main include the advancement of science sud
Ill!'
t'IlCOIlHIj("IlWI.1

The l lnited States IIf International Atomic .,,'''''"'', .. the otlice IIf NRC. Nuae that

IIAI<:AI documents

research, and dissenunatiun vuce and

01

all with

ft'sped

to

lIud"ar

s,·i

of the Auun:'lnce within the Nuclear .........,,nI , NRC has made it clear that electric utilities and their suppliers must quality assurance practices applicable to all work associated with the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power the scope of a total assurance program is responsibility. The senior management determine the extent of the total assurance program for the a specific group of people are held responsible for and COli trolling They may be called inspecquality assurance, etc. Regardless of the group's it must develop objectives. the setting of the project can concentrate on essentials, programs to achieve the desired results, have a visible and timetable for their accomplishment, and measure progress. has its unique requirements. Therefore, a total quality assurance program must be tailored to tit the particular project. The qualprogram and its supporting systems must be adapted to the project A successful assurance program should not be the management of any other organization, although serve as an excellent There exist four major documents that define exactly what basis for these should be: Code of Federal American National Standards
00

8. Identification 9. Control of 10.

and control of processes

parts,

components

r. Test control
12. Control of 13. 14. and test storage, and test, and operating status

15. Control of nonconforrnances 16. Corrective action
17.

assurance records

18. Audits The assurance department for the overall program auditing, and ciencies are identified and corrected. the manual and the proceof the program. The critical IS assurance those tools for

Part 50, Appendix B Institute (ANSI) N45.2 Subsection NCA-4000

Pressure Vessel Code (ASME), Section

these four documents have distinct characteristics which make appear the bulk of the requirements contained in each are the same. All four standards consist of at least 18 sections or

I.

control Procurement Instructions, control
material, !'quil'm!'fI!, /lnd s!'rvln's

and procurement and

document control

..

..

support restraint of and jet shield fabrication contract (if

.. Coordination The duties

include with to ensure that the and associated components are delivered to the site and erected in accordance with the codes and technical specifications, construction and There are a number of technical documents tout the helps to which methods and phases of analysis, procurement, and in-line components systems. reviews the establish which documents are needed and when are to be submitted to the client and to other participants for review sud The preparation of these documents is normally the three of documents include

of the

3.1

Introduction ann construction may be activities associated with under the direction of a responsible for all activities control and accountability. submit to the manager on not. on tech-

P, ~

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department engineers to a specific areas of responsibility: systems; components; buildventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); and the

St.-Hlu,",

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Erection Technical SYllum delluiplion dWlllwinlllll ilIIOmehiCll Fllli:lriclltiuirn ilIIOmetriCll Support

isometrics

Design eoecificstione

Vallie

lind

mlscellaneous

inIine

drlllwifll@ CIl.mli)llllllite drllwinllll

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Piplfll ill-!I!lrviCll inspection drawings
1f.I111:1I_nllll: IIIIrnd d~illn

reports
drliwifllil

rupture

impinlll!ment drllwifll$ Clilrtifilild ~pool piece sheeu

COMuudion ~i!ln

dep!llrtmellt

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reports

All-built drlll.iflle
IUld field

1.,"'2 .. of plant I. specification lind equipment
MAJN Slt.AM y It.

t \ i,

Sl*"Pt
i

SystfM t C

orders [i.e.,

turbine] are
eetimawil and cash How
and lists.

oos-s

ill begua, with the greate!lt effort

..

I1C~IUlJlnll, drawings.

3.

The detail design Imd

are finalized .

...11> .. ."1,,,.

COlrnpie~!il durin,

ie mainly concerned with the preparation of those docuphase 3 or the development. 111 this phase coordinated ucllange or information among the major on the

u~_"""''''''' eoeeeraune

system

design. and therefore

all piping

ill the flow This ill the systems .... ,"''''11..'''' the master plsn of each plant system. It indicates
the types of preeeaa equipment lind interconnecting piping required 10 the function for which the system is intended. ftm~ also known as the CHId ins(rumenlalwlI is usually the initial drawing in the piping design proCHI!. This document shows the in the system, the instrumen of the process. and the piping connections between The PlhlD showa the supporting services
.... TO .. "'.

The

line number nominal diameter

provides

ut a

II minimum

of illformlll

jon:

belollgs are
III
lISU

•I

nurnher

for the lillc

safet y dass (if lipplicahld

NUCLEAR tOWfk flANI [DMtONINi CUNlkOL I I II I
!JAIl S I OffkAI 'H,

AC(

I "lSI f

Sill
(lNI

CLASS

IH[~
tlNI

fHS
IS'

I
('

S

II 51 I

line numbers refer to Ii 3-in boiler feed system, 824-in (OOO-mml main steam 1'1 16-in nominal-diameter containment line CIa&! 21, with unique identifien 8, 51. snd 34, respectively. The numbera are u to trace the the line list The Jine list contaioo IRlliinM on the project, grouped system end then numerically by number. The line list all for the line, including, but not limited 10, well thicknese or schedule, fluid contents, temperature and pressure [design and insulation thickness, and appliceble code. A page (rum a line liat is shown in :1.3. In addition to a line list, most maintain Ii valve list of all valves in the iiYl.ltems. The valve number, identilieii the sYlitem, dUll, and POIIIIibiy type of valve. valve numare -MSS-MOVF-OOOlamd I-MSS- V -0220. These numbers identify I valvea from the main Iteam lIystem. The first valve is 8 flanged while the IIeCOnd ill Ii manually valve. The 0001 lind 0220, these valves. specification issued rflr each specitic joh describes the au be used in the dellign and construction of the piping systems f4~r the This specification dictates appliclIl~ie piping material8, fabricatioll components, lind supports. mswrial8 mUlit be considered in the specification. not because allowsble streeses vary with material hut also because cor il! concern. Corrosion may be defined 118 the undesired deteri4Jflltilli1 a material through chemical or interacwith the environment or destruction materials by pure rnechanica! Failure occur!! corrosion when the corrosive agent renders the system of performing its function. this corrosion process has enviwnmenl.tli. electroaspects. lin the cumhilllllioli of lind mechanical Iaetors, numerous types of l"lIfmeehaniarns can be active The rate of corrosiou is the environmental effects:

or

2.000

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III I

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i
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I

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11155

l~O

1

.0

!.'O

or

11iSS - 1:"0

all cases, an increase increase in the corrosion rate.

in temperature

results

In increasing the at which a fluid passes metal surface will tend to increase the corrosion rate. This factor affects the corrosion rate of material. Factors to consider are the of the fluid, the concerttration of solids, and the presence of or reducing Corrosion processes have been classified in many different ways. Several corrosion are direct chemical corrosion, crevice corrosion, erosion corrosion, biological corrosion, and stress corrosion.

4. All tem

should be be drained. Intermediate

and all low in the sysshould be avoided.

5. A minimum headroom of 7 ft measured from the lowermost of the should be maintained in areas. 6. should be avoided in front of pumps or other maintenance; should not be run above

7. In-service must be considered

in the

line and are used the pipto out the piping and to generate the design drawings. of the size and schedule indicated must be routed between equipshown on the flow diagrams. will be affected by system pipe weight, installation and material costs, pressure requirements, and equipand structure locations. The major equipment and building locations should be available on arrangement and strucmay vary depending on the design criteria involved. When is involved, the can be easily supported at large minimal amount of hardware. Thus, for non-safetythe concern is to minimize the pipe length by a more direct route. If the loads are other than simple weight the may need to be close to the building steel. Therefore, for should be located adjacent to the walls and ceil." ..A''''''II!; in the use of more piping hut also savings in the

and maintenance All components, and in a neat and simple manner. room for free access to all operating to component removal, and sufficient maintenance area. Free area should be near the location of in-line such as valve operators, snubbers, etc., for the same reasons. Suitable access and maintenance clearances are illustrated in :1.4and :l.S. Fol-

of the pipe and any attached equipment during operamust be accommodated by the flexibility of the piping run.
'hor4lf,,,r,,,

equipment usually require low the pipe routing in this area should permit supports close to the nozzle to take loads

classification should be grouped, if possible, at the same elevation in order to promote the common supports.

figUfll 3.4

Minimum
(Cuurtesy

access dimension",
of Efll5,neertnx

(a)

downstairs.

f'lofl'HflX

NOli VAlVI ,liM MAV I:U iU~N( U

3.4
Once the is that show the routing. The ment used the piping design groups. and views. (A plan view is a view from view is a view seen from a point in the horizontal A view of a system is shown in :Ui. vessels and as well as show the in eleva I 3.7) are needed to systems are usually routed in sections com Lined with 90" elbows rather than following the shortest route to the of termination, This the route to follow the structural steel support work. 3.7 illustrates an elevation view of the system. III this me in the of the system are more visualized. Some areas of the piping system that are not identified ill the view can be clarified in the elevation view. For ill :l.6, the elevation of the attachment to tank ident ified. In the to the nozzle is more evident. shown as a solid

GIV!

VALVES

Pl£NIY

Of tHAOROOM

A

Tonk ~''----'

Riser

Pi,,,,,,,,,.

Mllintenallce pointers-convenient lind M{m.a,~ml!nl. lnc.)

valve locat ions. (Cuurtesy of f:n!lill""""M

these recommendations permits maintenance crews to work within comfort zones of their body Additionally, valve operators and other should avoid projecting into walkways where they might constitute hazards. connections between piping and should be provided the which will occur periodic maintenance, Piping should be arranged so as not to interfere through manholes. doorways. or

r
,

l
Plan figUf41 l.1I

1'1"" view 01 piping

r
Noulfl A

line. In some may Ill:' shown with the diameter drawn to scale in order to facilitate interference checks. The inline components, such as valves, and reducers, lire it must he located 0111 the accessible reference ill structures such M walls or columns. Columns life identified as intersections of column which lire labeled numbers in one direction and letters ill the other, shown in :l8. In a circular building, of interest either may be dimensioned [rom the center of the or be identified azimuth lind radius, WI shown in 8 reference for a dimension, one should consider that measurements taken will most at that location. Locations which are not easily such as the centerline of the stmllge are !lot recommended reference lind should be avoided. If one location is dimensioned to column lines and 1111 on the then lilly other point on the Another reference for the piping system is the north arrow. The north arrow is shown on the piping and serves as constant direction of reference for and The north indicated is true north; father, it is a reference axis chosen The north arrow is usually selected to he of column lines lind thus to the structural steel. has been established,

l

ElevollQ!:l_

t Looking novlh}

90·
/

/

il[

I

COlmpO'II~

n, .....d.......!lindScllal4llMoHII '

lAllllnll:MliliOii.e

of a them ill mI need for Ii the work of 1111 discipliML Thill ill n~ry to allocate space and to prevent interferences, groopIB WIe the to out their thua emu ring tM of each dilldpline to proof any other, IU,IIlWnUI8 are "'ayerings" of tlquipment, and strucfound ill II single lues IIInd include systems, cable

other These serve coordinated lind effective use of availuhle space. is shown ill :1.III on Ii basis as do not always use composite as a ,,,,,I. Instead, a scale model may lie used. The scale model is II reduced versiun of the under construction, including structures, and Thill visual assists in the lind installation of and supports. The cost of a scale model may lie as as 11.1 percent the total cost. For if the cost of 1111 I WO·MW nuclear ia the scale model can cost es much as $:I,UOO,UOO. This cost is 1.0 lie offset reduced lime lind mminuzauon of construction interference. The model is similar to drawings ill that it must show the most current lind loeauons. If are drastic. the model may have to be reconstructed. Although the model is 1111 excellent 1001, it for must design Once are conthe model, exact dimensions must lie .. htaiued [rom
IIlld
II

trays,

UVAC systems, tools lo ensure

:u
groups 011 groups tind it necessary 1.0 work from isometrics life three-dimensional shown ill two dimensiens on ing isometric ill used where conceptual exact scaled dimensions, Isometric are ing erectisn purposes end as stress analysis models. :U I shows sample isometric views of systems, The threedimensional etfect is created by the two h(lriwll~1 aaes 1.1: lind r] IIf the system 30" clockwise ami :W" Irem the horizontal axis of the paper while the vertical axis conforms t41 the vertical Ollis of the paper. thai is nut parallel til (JIll' the three major axes can he components the other Illes. From the metriai need nut lie drawn IH scale; the I(illes dimensions relative 10 the center of the centerline elevat ion is III uue point Oil the A vertica] reference dimension is 11l'1'ded euch lime the devalio!! dlanl(e!l, Dimensions aloll!: I tit' pip,' 1!:'1l~1 lire h allcl lu the Illes of the hlliltlillt: Tht· rulurnn lines ill order 10 specify its 1""'lliun ill I Ill'

An isometric shows the complete hom one .. f to another. It is prepared to facilitate Iahrication lind assemIn its form, the isometric may contain informut ion confabrication and erection as well as the most current support datil. When life used by the and construction groups, isometrics give Ii dearer presentation of conthan is available from plans and elevations. supports are required to protect the system hom the conditions. design conditions can var y from the 11I8ds up to comples transient loads asecciated wilh rupture. Initial selections of support locations lind types life 011 design loadings, pipe size, system configuration, lind buildsteel locations, with the design the minimization of the number of supports lind restraints. The initial support locatiuns and types should he marked on the isometric for use the stress IIn8The various types of supports as well as criteria for them life discussed in 5,6, lind 7. Ir, the course of the stress fllhricatioll, or installation, support function, location. or direction of action the isometric should be to reflect this

Streas isometrics life developed by using the piping and isomet rica I"IS references. These isometric serve as models for the stress analysis work lind so must show 1111relevant information. As seen in the stress isometric in 3.12. the items are npeded t.. lie included: I. The !lind coordinate direction system should lie shown with the positive linear indicated fur the .1:, y, and z reference axis, dimenwhile

2. The system must lie located with respect to II reference location. The centerline elevation and two horizontal sions from column lines ere usually used ill the elevation, IIInd aairnuth are used in circular ;1.

'"

node points should be selected iii locntiuns of slich as of estimated high stress or dellect inn The may lie estimated by the ,,!'.1Il boundary comlitiolls. Additiollal node !luill!!> are III concentrated loads [i.e. ell'. I, support parameter transi! iun points, lind .:eomelry intersec! ion puurts. a aualysi« is Ilt'illl( it may he necessary 10 add node 10 serve as lIlass ""ints ill the model. Eadl liode must he numhered uuiquelv

5. Dimenaions 6. Other

between node should to each of the three

be
II:U~S_

resolved into com-

design parameters (such lIS material, valve support seismic etc.) may be shown either 011 the isumetric itself documents. isometric

c

f

9

as are is ill rIO way to use the minimum number or SUPPIICIa that permit ali atress criteria to he mel. The locauons shown Oil the isometrics represent only those suggested locations where needed supports may be installed. (OF restraints) life usually dllSSitied 10 both direction and Iunction. The directions of reslreinlace those to the three local axes of the pipe, skewed restraints with components in more than one of these directions are found The local axes (or a in the horizontal reference in located on the
supports

(.)

~ e

• Vertical... Axial:
II!

direction
run (sometimes

10 .....
c

~
._
'.::

called and the axial aaes (some-

~ .. ...
c
::I

Lateral: to both the vertical times called transverse axisl

':::'

J
~ ~

E ..
~ .. '" t .. ~ a .. E ..
E

of restraint in terms uf resistance to cases. For example, a II force W counter II weight while little resistance to either thermal nr loads. Ii snubber .", -iv ,,"_ or function names are also degrees of freedom restrained. For of downward loado are purl s. Irallslllltionalllllld three rotational) are

Q.
'I)

'"'(,

~ ,.;

or supof freedom Hhwee called anchors . ill from I to 5 degrees uf freedom. are knuwn as rest raint s However, this hook uses the Keneric -term support for all supports I1l1d restraints {fur except in those csses where a Inure specitir- term
IS

.i ..

reHenllltion 011 the stress isumetri« veutions are sumet irnes

is

of hsrdwllre I ype 1111111111anchor may n'pn'sl'lIiI'd

rep
('011

(see

3.12, NP 100,400, and 490), an

or some other simple

Anchors are required at the and end of stress analysis The anchor is used as a location of transition between the pipe the building structure, or simply the continuation of the Forces moments from one side of the anchor are not transto the piping beyond. Anchors may be added to stress that are too to handle in order to break up the two or more problems. Such a use of where possible, to reduce construction costs. uses the stress isometric as the model 4. As significant changes and support configurations further design or the isometric will revision, and it may be neethe stress analysis for the new conditions. piping and generally two types are when stress analyses are prepared. One is called a report and is required for all assurance seismic category This report confirms either analysis or test data that component can satisfy the code requirements applicable to seismic These are defined in the project design specification. second is called a stress report and is required for ASME code, Section Class 1, Class MC, and Class 2 components designed accordNC·3200. stress is a complete set of stress analysis calculations which establishes that the component satisfies all safety requirements and is ,,<.11,,""""""" (01' all conditions, as specified by the rules of ASME Section III. Stress reports and seismic reports usually contain a checklist to ensure that compliance with all requirements has been reviewed and by the cognizant engineers. In the United States, stress must be approved a professional engineer licensed in the in which the nuclear plant is constructed.

til

0

z

_

ru
H

H

<I

it

!~: ~~~ ~
!O

..
X

~€

.

..
>

LL
H

w
0.
til
H

u

II

til

~h !5!

i

~

E~a

,o
ul

(/)

z

systems normally require in-service inspection to give detection of potential failure, with the degree of attention given proto the criticalness of the system. In some systems, in-service is not performed until and unless leaks occur. However, power periodic inspection for maintenance purposes is pruFor nuclear power plants, Section XI of the ASME Boiler and PresVessel Code outlines the rules for in-service inspection. Piping design must reflect minimum clearances necessary for equipment that performs pressure

4.1 introduction should underthe and therefore the
HS H

and regulations. These system design and
~JllltlV'."i

group

:! introduced

If the
need not be areas of concern and in the form of The ANSI PresCode series and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel are the governing standards for the systems. contain information the such as material stress values and equal ions and other environments. of this chapter will deal with this extracted Of summarized from the codes. However, it should not lie construed that the herein are and The code information summarized here should not be by competent citic situations.

maximum mum aubscribe to one of two failure theories in tbe of piping aystems. The ANSI B:II codes as well as ASME Section Il}, Subsections NC and ND (CI&!I!Ies 2 and :H, have as hrulill the maximum principal stres» making this theory the basis (or moot applications. Thia theory etates that yielding occurs the of any of the three mutually perpendicular principal stresses exeeeda the strength of the m!.lterilli. This method has the V<l"....... ,," of easy 1.0 apply; and when it is used with II suitable factor it safe results. more detailed evaluation or the state of stresses in ill material coupled mllre accurate failure theory would permit the use of allowstresses without Il reduction in This more accurate failure thewhich forms the basis for Subsection NR (CI_ I) of ASME, Section the maximum shear stress This states that failure when the maximum sheaf stress in III material exceeds the shear in III uniaxial lest sample lit or maximum sheer stress T ..... is to one-heff the difference between the largest and smallest of the three principal atressee, II!I illustrated in the Mohr', circle shown in 4.1. In 4.1. lind @J are the principal stresses in the material. and '1> 1t. and 1;1 the sheIn stresses. Mnimum shear stress 1:1 '" (al - (1,,)/2. So yielding eccura when

orthogonal

both theories seem for system the sheaf stress theory seems more conservetivs than the maaistresa theory since it considers the effects of stresses. However, if !.III three stresses ill II material the shear stresses calculated would be zero, ami the maximum would allow unlimited stresses. For this reason, the stresses.

4.2.2

Stl4It1ll1il e4II€~1§

or

Various failure modes could affect a stress cerrosion, and brittle fracture. These are not covered by the but the effects of these failure modes must be considered engineer when out and system. The failure modes that the piping codes address lire excessive deformation or plastic instability, or incrementa] cycling in the range; and highstrain these failure modes is caused a different type of stress lind so it has been necessary to separate them into three dirferent categories lind set different limits for each. The piping codes have broken the types of stresses. lind the failure modes they against, into the

st re ss . stress • Peak
sl

Plastic deformation Plastic instability failure collapse

ami
10

incremental

~~
divisions

2 operations (by deleting the par-

ress.

fwm "vdle

the mathematical

2), the CI_ I code defines a stresa called the equivalent combined stresses, or stress intensity. This stress intensity

iIB defined es twice the maximum sheer stress, and yielding is said to occur when the stress intensity exceeds the yield of the material.

<p.

4.1 Mull,', t'i,d~, ms s inrum shear strf'HK

by 'ffi"''''''',1 is not self-limiting. IS the entire cross section the structural material used in piping then failure can be prevented removal of the Illading IIr strain in the material. stresses may be further categorized as general brane stress, hx-al membrane stress, and These three categories are of interest because the the entire section has reached the stresses may exceed however. under this stress stute behave as stresses and redistribute themselves as the 10cIII wall distortion occurs. The failing moment would be that the entire cross section of the pipe in plasti« fiber. the permissible primary the calculated stress) may be increased over the moment shape (actor.

',f

stress is developed structure

in a structure

displacements, whether thermal I!Ind'lor Ilnd restraint movements. Under seconua tem must conform til imposed straim, father than forces, S41 that the Call be satisfied by system distortiona, Distortiun of the piping sYlltem 811 well liS local yielding tends to relieve the developed stresses due 80 theee IIUeues tie uid to he self-limiting. stresees are chluified liS those stresses caused comtraints of which caUH distortion, stresses are UU~ which cause virtually no dilltortion and therefore strees levels. "".... ".'11''''''' would be thermal wall or atress coneentratkm at a diocontinuily such U i!I 01' III weld. Peak stress the slri!!llil in 8 local and ill . for causing
Sln;UfI

Str@llUl jjmi~1iI

limill!

fill'

limit

each stress type have been determined elutic and

the

material behavior)

All mentioned inducil$

Ii

a ill assumed tu filii when an applied general primlDry membrane atress to the yield

5,/5, .'",,,,, re 1.... di .. 1t ver.... de ••,," lorn.!. (reda"Kul,,,

of the material. Faihrre under a moment requires that the total cross section be lit the yield this will not occur until the moment is increased above the yielding moment III the the factor. Combination of these membrane and would result in reduced allewables for both and membrane stress. 118 shown ill 4.2, in which S, == tensile stress, So '" bendstress, and "" stress. The stress [irnita defined for genmembrane stresa (~S,) lind for combined calculated have been shown to provide an vent failure. Limits fur stresses are in terms of allowable calculated 81 ress range. The secondary stresses, when combined with stresses (If even when taken alone, are to slress the pipe ill! point The reason for this allowable overatress is tbut II load which initially forces the into the range after a few cycles, "shake down" and be reduced til elastic action in the system. Thill stress theory can 1.Ieunderstood by a

an

which is

"''''''V"',

"" calculated stress S2 == residual stress due to deforshows the calculated stress value would be equal to the product the modulus of E and the strain e, resulting in a value which When the displacement is removed, the tlAI~-e~:u,,'''' the yield will retain Ii residual distortion the strain less the strain. This distortion will a residual stress, opposite in nature to that developed during loadto the difference between the calculated stress value and material stress. This residual tension stress, for example, be overcome on each subsequent loading before the can The elastic-and the allowable-range the value of the or E« For this reason, the stress range may be as as (times suitable factor of This "shakedown" is also known I:IS and it can be hastened the process known M in which a pipe is OInd,,,,,,hr,,ulliv cut and installed short to the prestress normally deformation. This pretensioning of the piping system reducmz the calculated thermal stresses (and the actual in the system; however, there is 110 difference in range to the whether it is or self-sprung. The calculated stress range in a system may not be reduced through any kind of prestress.

the third type of stress, stress, is caused is a secondary stress, and produces virtually distortion. FOIl'these reasons, peak stresses cannot cause failure from or the continued cycling of high-stress concentrations may cause Ii crack which propagates and results in ""~I""'l['" This failure mechanism is called Note that the term which was adopted well over a century ago, be the best choice of word. The actual aspects of this phenomenon are different from the process of biological fatigue. First, fatigue failoccur with little 01' 110 warning. Also, periods of rest with the stress removed will not lead to any healing or recovery from the effects of the stress. Thus, damage once done during the fatigue procumulative and normally unrecoverable. failure is ciassified in textbooks under two different and in both cases the failure is caused by different mechanisms. With one type of fatigue, significant plastic strain each This type of fatigue, called lou=cvc!» [atigue , is loads and a small number of cycles before failure.

The second type of results from strain this mechanism is called high-cycle includes those failures occurring within failure has been understood and used ill the this type of fatigue is of the type. In a stress level known as the erulurance an infinite number of times without is calculated. most of the loading encountered would be of the low-cycle expected to occur less than times the service life of the system. For low-cycle failure will occur with stress levels in the plastic range. The stresses which cause in the are the stresses. For every a fatigue curve can be analysis which correlates peak stress range with the number of failure. A curve, also known as the SoN curve, is shown in Fig. 4.4. The stress SA is defined as one-half of the calculated peak stress. that the number of load N that the system is fewer than the number for the stress failure may be the alternating stress may be vary in the system service life. These variations make the direct use of the fatigue curves inapplicable since the curves are ueveronen for constant-stress amplitude operation. engineer to have a theory or hypothesis, verified vations, that will use of the curve for the One asserts that the fraction of any stress level S, to the ratio of the number of of

In

-

106

0.

V)

C
105

Number of cyCles Figure 4.4 Typical fatigue curve

10 failure

Piping

at

that would produce failure stress level to the total number of to occur if that stress level. This means that failure is
(42)

usage factor
11, ""

=

L~ for all stress N,

levels

number of cycles of cycles to Iailure curve

at stress level i at stress level i as per material

"" number

since more complex cumuimnrovement In

of the safe shutdown (see level The codes allow stress levels for level B not sutlicient to allow damage to occur. Leoel C are normally those associ!lied with the accidents of the During level C the systems must be capahie of their safety functions to shut down the It ClUJCCLen that any damage will occur these components would be to of service after a level C is safe sh ut doum which is deli ned as the maximum earthquake to occur at the at any time. The limits set by the codes for level C deformation in areas of structural damping values are are those associated with the most extreme accidents design conditions, such as a loss of coolant accident. yet loads and and in the piping. As long as the components retain their their function, an increase in

one-half

OCC8IiOI'l81 loadl

Ind SeNlce Levell

codes separate primary loads and stresses into two types based duration of their application. The first is called sustained or loads which can be to be present virtually at all times of sustained loads would be weight and presiosmnea associated with the normal operating COI1The second is called occasional loads, or loads which are a small fraction of the piping system operating time. of occasional loads are winds, fluid relief valve ",>&I·th.'II6I,Ir .. and high-energy break. levels are defined for nuclear piping by the Section m. They are, in order of decreasing likelihood and IC[I~WlIII~ ~~'''~.'' .. , of occurrence, levels and also known as emergency, and respectively. The piping codes the stress levels permitted, but they do not define types of loadbe considered under each service level. The responsibility for deterthe to be considered under each service level rests with the owner upon advice of the architect or engineer and concurrence the NRC. The definition of loading combinations would be recorded in "a.o~';j"''''''''''''''' or, in the case of a nuclear in the safety refer to design conditions to which the piping system the performance of its specified service function. ..." e ...,,,"','\1 be loads due to operating pressure and weight. UI.I'UlHU!:; include those occasional loadings which the piping must withstand without requiring repair. Usual of level B loadings would include fluid hammer, relief valve disand basis earthquake defined as the maximum to occur within the lifetime of the plant or
11J1J1!ni'U~~

As described in 2, the need for a national code for pressure evident from 1900 to 1925. To meet this H31 initiated in March at the request of the sole sponsor. After several years of a the committee into separate industry committees power fuel gas with each issuing its own code. The ASM E has these are published jointly as codes. contain basic reference data and formulas necessary for
I. for code usage

and component standards
for the pressure

standards

which are

2. systems

for the elements of component parts and assem

4.

and movements forces

for the evaluation and limitation associated with pressure,

of stresses and external

for the fabrication, for

and erection and

of of

where P "" internal .. outside diameter
= resultant

pressure of

(gauge), psi Od'a) in (mm) in (mm)

t ; '" nominal wall thickness of

may not be followed but must be adhered sections of this chapter provide summaries of the stress contained in the more codes. Where metunits are not in the original code, conversion has been by the authors. summaries are for instructional purposes and the reader is to obtain a copy of the complete code of to appliany code 831.1 Power scope of the 831.1 Power for the materials, for power and service piping systems stations, industrial and institutional central and district systems both on the propof and within of the users. Power services include, not limited to, steam, water, gas, and air services. discussed in this code include those for relief devices, and the pressure-containing It also covers restraints and other the pressure-containing

moment on cross section due to weight other sustained loads, in-Ib (rnm N) in" (the product U.75i shall never be from

Z '" section modulus of

i "" stress intensification factor taken as less than 1.0) == basic material allowable allowable stress tables, Str\l)uefj dl.l~ to occniol1ll1l loading II.

stress at maximum temperature
(kPu)

other sustained meet the

loads, and occasional

loads

(uses)

1.15 for occasional loads acting less than 10 percent of
"" 1.2 for occasional

loads

period

less than I percent

Mfj = resultant moment loading 011 cross section due to occasional loads; if is only one half the moment range should be used, inIb (mrn N)

Streu r!Drage due to stresses must

«9 !I! pili"1 llIion loading I. 1

The effects of thermal

the following

(uses)

where M,
StU.IIIIIEUI

range of resultant
(rnm-N)

moments

due

to

thermal stresses
(cold)

in

dll(l to Illltitained loadingll.

sustained

The effects of pressure, weight, and mechanical loads must meet the of the Iol-

== allowable stress range for thermal expansion == 111.25S,

+

0.2580),

psi (k Pe) temperature
oper-

S, .. basic material allowable stress at minimum
from the allowable

stress

psi (IIPa)

I
lSI
IlllIhl

= stress range reduction
= s ust ainr«] 81 ress

factor for cyclic conditions modes (see Table 4.11
cBlcul"',,d in Eq
:\1

81

<7000 7000- 14,000 14,000- 22,000 22,000- 45,000 45,000-100,000 >1000,000 Pipiflll Code. (Cuurle.yof A.SME.)

0.9 0.11 0.7

<Hi
0.5

that the piping be designed for a metal the maximum temperature The B31.1 code states shall be to be the same as the fluid unless calculations are to support other values. no circumstances shall the be less than the of the temperature and the outside wall temperature. basic material allowable stresses to be used for and Sh for most are determined by selecting the minimum value of the following stresses: (1) 0.25 times the ultimate tensile strength of used at 0.25 times ultimate tensile at installation temperature, 0.625 times the strength at or 0.625 times the yield at installation These values are tabulated for a wide range of materials and in Appendix A of the B31.1 code. factor i is applied as an factor of and other locations where stress concentrations failure could occur. The B31.1 code requires the use common value for in-plane and out-of-plane moments as well as for torsion. The formulas for stress intensification facare in D of the code and are also shown in Table 4.2. 831.3 Chemk:4111Plllnt and P~tr@kI!Jm

"'!
Q:l

M

<::

"0

"1

..
(:)

.. '?- di1
<::

"

.5

M
00

.(

... 2i. .....
OQ.

Ej

'"

-

r-

if.)

CJ)

0

a

CJ)

Cod.
scope of Code B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping within the limits of facilities processing petroleum, or products. A few examples are refineries, loading and natural gas Excluded from B31.3 are carrying nonhazardous with an internal gauge pressure lower than i5 (l03 kPa) and a below 366°F (lOOCC); steam and feedwater per ANSI and plumbing, sewers, and fire protection systems. to be considered for B31.3 are pressure, weight (including shock), wind, earth-

o

o

m

vihrauon Iluid lead iOIlS, Iher. to expansion and cOllimclioll, thermal and due to support, anchor, lind terminal IIWllemellt!l. The require. menta of the ANSI 8:11.:1 code life as follows: Str".MI duIJ 10 fiult&lIMd loading,. The sum of the 8L due to pressure, weight, lind other sustained When 81. ill the thickness of the allowances (or erosion, or grll(we beaic allowable atress lilt maximum metal temperature. Stre'MilI duIJ to OCCIII,iofIl111 .din.o.. ~ due to pressure, lind other sustained by ocCilsionalloads such as wind or Wind and forces need not be considered as

.;; ,_
0

'" 0 t .;:; l0

."

if)

..;:; 0

'" 0 t

Str~', rllll1~ due to IIUpllllulion !c>.dings. shall be to

The

s!
where

t 4Sfl'"
S~ '" resultant

s,

2Z

M, .. tmeionlli

moment, modulus

in Ib (rnrn

NI

Z ..

section

of pipe, in" (mm']

z

Ci

.. ,. '" ..

z w ~
..: '0
s-.

0

..
'" ~
where
D,
m

(4.6) sha]! be ulculaled
(llSCS)

as

illpillne
uut

atress

intensilil'siion

factor

(fl

I" '"

·or plane

stress

iut e "sihnilillll 'lId", momeut , iii II, moment,
(111m

s e
s

!:i

M ~ in·plllile

NI Nl

8
s:
til

1lt:

~~ ~-

.., C ~

8
i.J
L.

~

M" '" lJut·"r·plsllelM:'lIdiIlK

ill It. [mm

The
S •. :s SA where S~

stress rlUl!:e limit must be !U'.!.:,s,
O:!:"'i,,I, psi 11d',,1 IS,,)

'" <;>

j

II'

III :!:.I.\

s, I. pSi

tkl',,1

blisi"

IIUuwahie>

SirlOSS

III minimum

metal

temperature,

psi

1111'111
calculated lunl(iludiruil stressee due 10 pressure, other austaiued loadings, pei (kPIII) stress rllnge reduction ber .. r futl-tempesature weight , and

(lIdor fur cyclic nmliilons for tul al nurn cyclu over life, per T .. llle 4.1

4,4.4

S:U.'

Gill TrlllOiunluKin!llnd

otiltributioo

C~

bMic material allowable IItr~ to be IJIIed for S, and Sh (or must mllteriadll a.re determined by se1ectilll the minimum value of: «I) one- third the minimum tel1llile at room temperature, (2) one (Ii the tensile III (3) two-thirds of the ,.. "'...", ..., nummum Iltreillth at room temper.awre, (.. , two-thirds IIf lit desiln for lIIW1tenitic stainless IIInd certain nickel 18110)'11,where this value milly be a high a ........ u ee s . 151 100 percent the IIverage etrees fur a 0,01 percent rate per WOO h (6) 67 percent of the averlij(e stress [ur rupture at 1&( 100,1100 h, and 17100 percent of the minimum stress fur rupture the end Ilf IOU,OUO These values have been tabulated fur approved h. mliterililis and temperatures in A of the code, ttl 1,:1code the UIIe separate stress intensification factum 1I1'IUI&me lind lIut·or-plane moment loadings, with nil intensiticauon (.,f torsional moments, The formula (or the intel1llifiin Table 4,2,

or

The scope of Code H31.8 Gas Transmission and I h~1rihut ion encompasses in gas dislrihulioll systems up to customers" meters, Excluded from this code is piping with metal Lemperllhue!! below -20"1" ( 29"CI or above 450"1" (2:1:!"C); meters; in oil natural ga extraction plants, etc" thai is covered other ANSI 1:131code at piping systems. pressures fur waste gages; and petroleum

or

SiI'elUl4ll111 l.l\li I@ primlll'l d IoadinQ', The sum of the stress and the I di pressure . )en IIlg stress due to external loads such wea"hlof lind contents, wind, etc" shall be limited to

S,

:5

u 75SFT
S ~ specined minimum yield strength, psi UtI'a}

where

T

=

temperature

Iactoe , for steel (see Tallie type flllet .. r:

~ constructiun

8:U,1 was the original Nuclear Power Cude which has since Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure V~I
the withdrawal. this rode still may see UIIe oocklit lin Illder lIuclear phmll which had 1i:1I.7 a the code of record, !!COile !If this code covered those systems designed ttl provide barrier fllr u(ely·related systems in nuclear power 1<;lIICluded hom this rode is specifically covered by other secII( the pressure piPilll code (such a the conventional steam piping 1»( III nudellf which would be designedacecrding ttl 1i:11,I); IJIIed for prOCelllling nuclear some parts of piping marine inl!talilitimls subject to supplementary requirements under ITIIU~lIe building and distrihutioll steam pip· wilh a I(al.ll:e pressure leIIII than 15 110:1 11I'aim hot-water heating sy!>tems with Ii gauKe pressure leIIII than :10 psi 1206 nonnuclear roof !lum drains, sewers, 'ire systems, and piping for IIf components Clf 1.41018 end ANSI n:U.1 introduced uret)' classea to nuclear pipinll:, calling for sepl'rileria I'llf Class I, 2, and:) Cin order of tu the the the appru-

2~~IOF ;I<MIO~'

(lll.Clur
U4!l'n

I~".

IWWI

,1:.41'"

017·1'1

II :~i7
II~;U II :I(~I

4IH'·.' 121""1 ') ~!~I·" I:.!:I:.!·",

Str.II

rllnge due to expanlion be as and limited to s
0.72S

stress range S/i
(410)

P = design gauge pressure,
= outside

psi (k l'u) in (mm)

diameter

of pipe, in (mm)

'" nominal wall I '" moment of inertia.

where S. "" resultant torsional
m

bending stress = iMJZ. "" lOOOiMJZ, kPIi stress '" bending moment,
in -Ib (mm

in"
of mechanical

=
Pi '"

resultant moment due to combination loads, in-Ib (mm-N)

1.5 for level A. 1.8 for level S, 2.25 for level C value, psi (kPa)

resultant

N)

== allowable design stress

'" torsional moment, '" stress intensification minimum

in-Ib (mm N) factor (kPal SltrelUl rlllnge. This evaluates a stress range as the system goes from one load set moment, and force loading) to any other load set which follows in time. It is the range of pressure, temperature, and moments between the two load sets which is to be used in the calculations. For each of load sets, calculate S,,: 2t

'" section modulus of pipe, inl

StnulIUl1I due to pilll explllnfiloll loadingfll. The sum of the expanstress range, the longitudinal pressure stress, and the longitudinal stress due to primary loadings shall not exceed the specified minimum S. ANSI B3tS uses in-plane and stress intensification facfor which formulas are in Table 4.2.

+ +

21 21

+
+
(\E".II>a1'«-"61'61 indices for

uses
component under

IOO{)C1D"M,

ASME Boller !lind PrIllIUUlf. '11.'111111 Cod., Section III, Sub,.ction HB Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section details the requirements pertaining to those sections of nuclear piping as CIIlSS 1. This piping code is an outgrowth of, and has the CIIlSS 1 section of the previously discussed B31.7 code. The consideration in the design of piping under subsection NB are pressure, weight (live and dead loads), impact.earthquake, ."w ..... "". and loadings induced thermal and contraction. The stress which must be met to satisfy the Class 1 code are follows: PrimaI)' IItWililllintefllity check. isfied when The stress intensity limit is satThe
(USCS)
14.11)

C, = secondary stress investigation

M, == resultant range of moment which occurs when system goes from one service load set to another, in-Ib (rnrn-

N)
Ta, 1'b == range of average structural
(OC)
"a,b

temperature on side a or b of gross or material JI.'
0

== coefficient of thermal expansion on side a gross structural or material at room temperature, in/(in·QF) [mm/Imm of two sides material room temperature,
psi (k Pa] psi (ltt'a)

Of

b of

II

"I' gr oss ilL

P" = range of service pressure, limit applies:

+

If this
nent primary stress investigation indices for specific component under

is not satisfied for all may still be qualified by using the described below; range calculation.

of load sets, then

the cornpodjscon-

If S; exceeds its limit for of load sets, a simplified elastic-plastic analysis may be perstress ratchet is not present. This analysis is required load sets that the secondary range check. The two sets of equations must be
Iatl,c-DlaII~IUIC dlacOl'ltlmlity
fiQwGiI 4.5

T.

Cl I,

Ternperutur

e distr ibutiun

in

II

pipe wall.

(414)

Peak Itf~1UI

in which T, = resultant range of moments due anchor movements, in-Ib (mm N), and
(USCS)

nmge and Please refer to internal surface external surface tern"" average temperature of J.'l', == d x + (1'" + wall thickness == temperature as function of distance wall. For each condition peak stress values must be calculated: t ------2( 1I

p)

K.f':,! I
-

,I

resultant range of moment which occurs when system goes from one service load set to another, moments due thermal and thermal anchor moments, in ·111 (mm-N) "" stress index for component under K.I == local stress indices for component
v "" Poisson's

the thermal stress ratchet must be evaluated and dern.,,,,,,',,n.·v before a simplified elastic-plastic discontinube performed. This ratchet is a function of the I I equation must be satisfied:
(4.16)

under

ratio of material

II '"

absolute value of range of temperature difference between temperature of outside surface lind inside SIUface of pipe Willi, morne 11I alent linear temperature distribution (see
(OC)

3.3:1, 2.00, 1.20, and

0.80 for x

"" 0.:1, 0.5, 0.7, and

u.s.
For each
1.111

absolute thermal

value of range of that port.iuu nonlinear the wall thickness
4.;»), OF (OC)

must he cait-uial
Hl)

maximum

pressure

for conditions

under

considerut ion, psi 2 material psi (kPa) under where
1.0

for Ierritic material "" modulus of elasticity

and 1.3 for austenitic at room temperature,

value taken at average lluid temperature

j
m,
YI

1.0

II

material

parameters

given

ill

Table

51roIII 1110 III duo to sustained loadings.

other sustained
Ml1teri!!1
m
2.0 2.0 3.0

The effects of pressure, loads (SL) must meet the of the

n
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3

+

z

(Uses) (4.
(SI)

1.7 !.7

+

m. Subeecticn
The

Boiler and Pressure V_Ie Code SecNR (Courtesy of ASME.)

stress indices fur the particular investigation

component

under

intensities

are used to evaluate the

the cumulative This is done

P

= internal

design gauge pressure, psi (kPal of pipe, in (nun} in (mill) wall thickness,

D" = outside diameter
In = nominal = resultant

number of times each stress cycle of type I, 2, 3, etc. is repeated the life of the system shall be designated as n I, nl> fl" etc. Cycles shall be such that the maximum stress stress intensity use the applicable fatigue curve to deterthe maximum number of cycles if this were the only fatigue curves are found in the appendices to code.I These values shall be called N .. N2, N3, etc. of stress cycle, calculate the usage factor:
StUUlllllilUI
""

moment loading on cross sect iun due to weight and other sustained in ·11l(rnrn . N) allowable
81 ress at

Z = section modulus of pipe, in' (mm "

So

= basic material

(kPa)

temperature,

psi

The pressure ( occasional loads may be replaced
S!.p '" --;,----,

of the above

ami that for

Pdl (4.20)

where P ==

or peak gauge pressure,

as applicable,
in (nun)

psi (kPa)

'" nominal inside diameter due to occuional loadings.

of pipe,

N,

11.2

U, "" ~ . N,

other sustained must meet the usage
SUI.

loads, and occasional of the

usage factor U is the sum of the individual
U,

B
21" =

+
-t
:S (k

ruses,
IIISh Pa) lSI

+

LI,

+

S',tI

21"

ASME Boiler IIInd Pressure Veuel Section III, Sublectionll HC and HD

where J',,, .. = peak gauge pressure, psi
Mil = resultant

scope of Subsections NC and ND of the AS~E Boiler and Pr~ssure Section encompasses the requirements pertaming to sections of nuclear piping designated as Class 2 and Class 3, respecFor discussion of the determinations of piping class, see Chap. 2. The to be considered for Subsections NC and ND are effects of expansion, and other sustained and occaThe to be satisfied in order to meet the requireSubsections NC and ND are IlS follows:

moment loading on cross section due 10 occasiollal loads, such as thrusts from relief or safety loads Irom pressure and lIow and if required. effects of anchor to may L~ excluded If they are included under exp!lllsioo; inJb
(mrn-N)

to those conditions For service levels C lind D value 1.28" should he

Str.IIU~~IUI dl.l. te thermal must meet either

The effects of thermal

expansion

(uses)

(4,'2:l)

+

(uses)
(4.23) (SI)

"" range of resultant moment due to thermal expansion (also moment effects of anchor displacements due to earthquake if not included under occasional in -lb (rnm N) = allowable stress range for psi (kPa) allowable stress at minimum temperature, psi

5.1 Introduction The purpose of stress analysis is to ensure the safe verifying their structural and

== basic material
(k Pa)

'" stress range reduction

factor for

conditions,

as per Table

Strene,

due 10 I.Inulpe&lited anchor movement.

anchor movement

as

The effects of an unresettlement) must meet

(uses)

(4.24)

resultant moment due to anchor movement. basic material allowable stresses to be used for S, and SfI for most materials are determined by selecting the minimum of: (I) 0.25 times the ultimate tensile at temperature, (2) 0.25 times the ultimate tenInK''l:UI~UIat installation temperature, (3) 0.625 times the yield strength and 0.625 times the strength at installation ternThese values for approved materials are tabulated in the appenthe codes. Subsections NC and ND require use of both stress indices, as used in Subsection and Ii common stress intensification factor for both inand bending moments as well as for torsion. The formulas for these are in to the code and in

values of, stress nozzle the stress analyst is for loads for the support so that the system may be restrained The for stress analysis of systems are laid out in a system of rules and standards for safe design, In the industry, the code is a series of codes administered under the authorization of ANSI and ASME. The various their requirements, and the under their tion are discussed in Chap. 4. is typically organized into two broad overall and detailed component The system is defined distribution system all in-line (vessels, pumps, and include the in-line as well as the piping supports. The system analysis is used to the to the component analysis in the form of equipment nozzle loads and support loads. In this way, system is usually separated from the component In many instances, the separation is necessary because tiona within the team the component to the analysis. System while component

son to

ing are these loads to

as well as methods for load.

5.2
"",,."',,"', are typically divided into two main categories an~ ~hen in Basically, pipelines are usually divided and cold Hot lines are defined here as those that have a "'1.1'C''''~'''''' in excess of 150"F (66"C). The fundamental reason division is that hoi lines must potentially a flexibility to determine thermal forces, stresses, and displacements. hot and cold systems are further subdivided into and smalllines. Typically, those lines with nominal diameters of 2 mrn) and under are classified as small; those with diameters of 2.5 (65 mm) and are large. . third category which piping systems may be divided is b~ code. codes more rigorous analyses than others, depending on of hazard associated with failure. For example, a hot, largenuclear Class 1 system would probably require a sophistianalysis, probably with a modal or time history .... ,"''''''". whereas a cold, small-bore system designed to B31.8 code would probably be restrained by using chart methods 011' judgment. the codes developed from the same original code-the ASA Code for Pressure Piping, published in June 1935. Because of this common ancestry, many features are shared by these codes. One of these features is the classification of loads into three types: sustained loads, or due to forces present throughout normal operation; occasional or those due to forces present at rare intervals during operation; or those due to displacements of pipe. Examples of within each of the three categories are weight and wind, seismic load, vibration, pipe rupture, relief valve (occasional); and pipe thermal expansion, settlement, and differential anchor displacement owing to seismic or thermal equipment movements The loads on the pipe must, in all cases, be transmitted from to the structure. This is done by use of pipe supports and restraints. To ensure that the supports and restraints are capable of it is necessary to calculate the loads generated by "''''''''''15 the conditions listed above and to combine them to arrive at a design load. methods used to determine pipe support loadings under various hand calculations to sophisticated cornputon the of the problem and the f <I". ·,1,,,,, 1;.1",1 1",,,1 as previously noted, are classified as those forces which are present the normal These loads include both and pressure

loadings.

5.2.1 Sl.lltain~d ........... -All systems must be designed for systems can be described as irregular space frames which are not selfsupporting; must be with supports to prevent collapse. The supports must be capable of the entire of the system, that of the pipe, components, and the supports themselves. The method of estimating stresses and support loads due to weight is to model the pipe as a loaded its length. This is especially suitable in cases where the travels in COIltinuous horizontal runs, a minimum of in-line components or geometry The of the beam is to the distance supports. There are two possible ways to model the on the end conditions assumed-the simply supported fixed-end beam. a simply supported the maximum stress and support loads are
(J

'" 8Z
2
(J

Wu
(51)

1-'= where

WL
(52) = bending

stress, psi (Nzmm ') of pipe, in (rnrn)

W

=

weight per linear unit of pipe, Ill/in (Nzmm} force on support, III (N)

L=

F Z
=

section modulus of pipe, in' (111m ') the maximum stress and support loads are

(J

WP =-_
12Z
')

r

WL

the load on each half of the suspended However, on the model chosen, the stress in the pipe varies. Depending allowable stresses, the beam model chosen could affect spacing. supports force reaction, the as those in the simply beam model. However, of support is not free to rotate fully, since it is parits attachment to the segment beyond the runs were of length and equally loaded, segment end rotations would cancel each other, causing the pipe to behave as filled-end beams. Therefore, the true case lies somewhere between the models. For simplicity's most analysis have adopted a which stress is calculated as IJ = WU/OOZ), = WU/(8Z) may be used when conservatism runs of horizontal are used, it is relatively and subsequently support loads due is determined
(5.5)

size

Steum, air.
Idled mrn

~U",

-----I

III 2

ft 7 10 12
14

III

:l

25 50 75
100 150

4 6 Ii 12 16 20 24
,,~HIW

2. :10 3.7
4:1

'-----~:1 f) 4,0 4,6 5,~

200
:Jl)O

17 19 Z:l '27

5,~
5,8 7,0

~~
:10 :i[}

21

t-::

~illnn.flrr spacings

Since most systems are not made of runs, the standard support may not be Locations of supports should consider supports should be located as near as such as etc. From a best location for support attachment is however, this location is often difficult, because of restrictions caused attachment configuration manufacturers' or operation and maintenance space needs. When it is necessary to calculate stress loads in the the modeled as a concentrated force, the effects of which can be on the loaded beam.
"""' .. <I • ..,.

maximum allowable lipan between supports for horiwntsl in (mm) S "" Illiowable weight stress (dependent on pipe material, temperature, pressure, and code used), (N/mm~) with all other terma u previously defined force on the from each side is F "'" WLl2, would be equal to
80

the weight load

(5.6)

support spacing calculations, Manufacturers StandardizaStandard Practice SP-69 has provided recommended for various piping sizes. These spans (see Table 5.1), which have been by ASME and ANSI, have been determined hy standard wall-thickness pipe, filled with water, limto a maaimum combined bending and shear stress of 1500 psi (10.3 and maximum pipe sag of 0.1 in (2.5 When these recommended are adhered to, the stress levels in the piping system due need not be explicitly

2. When of direction in a horizontal the pipe and associated supports, such as with It IS that the be to three-fourths of the standard span shown in Table 5.1, to promote stability and reduce eccentric It is preferred that the supports be located neal' elbows to reduce moments due to between supports. Note that supports directly on elbows are not recommended since any attachment will stilfen the elbow and require complex stress evaluations. span does not to vertical runs of therefore no stress, as the to gravity loads in a riser. selected, and the number of supports per riser length and the desired distribution of 3. The standard

various tloon. It is recommended half riser, to prevent

be located on the upper forces in the the pipe under ita Guides mllY be used on vertical risers to reduce sag eacessive piping deflectione. These are usually in span intervals of twice the nominal horizontal span listed in Table 5.1 lind do not carry any

that Ii support due to

or

the 2:I·ft (7·mlslllnde.d "1'811. or 17.:.!511 15:t1l ",I Tlw"'o,e. Ilw , .... , ""I'pml sh uu ld be located iii II poinl convenient I.. h"oIr1,,,~ "Ipel """'me, II"" Iilinll the iniermeditlll' 81'1111within the reduced "lIo"'ahle In II", '8"'. t he ""I" P"~I will be located halrway down the l nis r un , 17 fll!i:l ",11<"",1''''''' rhe "81'r, If supported properly, ",;111<.. ".",;1 !In ,.... ,I (or"" I" II.. 1te .~n lind thua lid liS II .. I that locali"" The d',ls.". h",,, 1''''''' (' ,.. 'h" rtser '" less thae the 'pan, so n" "ddil'olllll.""I",,1 ne e .J included Hn Ihi8 ~I:menl of pipe.

"",,,,,,,,1

;-,unnon locations should be selected I1Mf eaee or and construction IIIInd to minimize mental structural meterials used to tiraflllmit t..I'MI

steel to the suppleback to the

structure.
cases where the piping does not loads mill)' be determined This method involves system into with supports which mlly be modeled as free and wived This weight balancing is done segments such that the number of supports in the is to the number of forces and moments on the segment due to For a hcrizonte] pipe run may til one verticil I force lind one moment about the lat. uis II Iliad; therefore. two supports are to make a determinste !lY!ltem. A pipe run that direction in a Iwri:wl'li.al !lUI[)jeCU:~ a vertical force and two perpendicular t41 moments. and three hangers before a solution could be found. An the technique of balancing is presented below, with reference to the piping isometric shown in 5.1.
ft. 1 .1...,",8 II pipeline cunnect iug '''' .. equipment nuz zle« lal Nule that 1111 pipe in ."11 [>I iM 12·i n 1:14III·mm~numin .. 1 diam schedule, lilled wilh "'Iller and covered ",ilh 4~in n 14mml Ihi,·k iIlUlilll;on; 11111 elhmvs are lonll ... dius, and .. 1I valves lire i!\O psi« W:14 U',,' pres· sure u.1inlllllllle valves. Puints .II and II are equipment nuzzles l'Idinf( as aruh .. " The desillne< is (Alced ....ilh the I!lsl! of sUPP',rlinK this 11111' wei!:hl '-ur '.wolvu b"lh locllllinllihe supp ... l. and <'",kulalinK liwi, IIIlId, the rules I ,€! out previously (ur 1'><:lIIlinl(.. .,i!(hI "ul'"".I". I he .. «",!Cine!'v .. "uld proceed hy tirst determining ,h ... "laIHIf"cl span H~f~rri"l( 10 I'd, ......... th .. t the atandard span fo. so.Ir .. i~hl l:lin 1:11"1111011 e ",..ter-frlled pille is 2:1 h (7 rn] Therefore t h e <1;.1""'· e betwe ..." any Iwo "'I'I'",ls .!rllillhl h... izont a] .p..na should .... I exceed 2:1 fI (7 rn I lor I his sysiem Pipe should be selected 1i,.1 n"II' concentr et ..d "''''I(hls in I his '·as e , h'It. Th e sUIlP'"h should he 11M ....... II' p" .... illl ... 10 the v .. lves, u"",d cl e ,inK .11.1.. 111111."", inspect] .. n, lind maintenance requirements. For Ihi s e s urnpl e, '''1'1-'''''8 ",ill 1,e selected 1111poinlS H IIInd F, ",hich 111'"1"("IIII I fi nUft rnm] from ed ,,~ p',i n am .illlnd I!'leF ~l3nd.m! hurizonilli pipe run betwe e n ""inl fj ..1111I... ,is .. r cha,,~~s di, ....li"" III Ilw I h.. rizunrat plane. so Ih@'dislllHll'e I" the ,,~.I slll'l,,,,1 shouh] ""I e""·~,lll7f'li,,, ... s

As 81"lld previously, there ,s"enerally no "I}fIIIre'lUl,emell' I", "",,;<1'"1: supports on II riser,. since lillie moment, and Iherefore limiled ,1'.'6, ;.II"' ner III"d by the w"'lghl 1,,111<11011.As noted, the ,ise , .11""kl he support.d AI ~ I'"ill' Oil the upper hilI( uf ih height. The nurnbe of suppo,t. ""I";,,,d I", t he rrser depends lin the of the 8Ul'p",1 ha,dwa.e and the desired d,"!rihUI;o" of weighl (0 11;" building .1 ee 1 structure In II1Is uwmille. the ",,~i""N chooses 10 use I",,, .Ul'porl.!! on the rise r. located IlII po;nl. II ami f; The distence between th e riser, which sets sa .. 801'1,,,.11 or the III",er h",;, o nt .. 1 Sl'I1In, lind p'.i,,1 F ,.221'1 164 m}. Therefore, 1111 .ddilio"al '''1',,,,.1. fur Ih.8 sellmenl because this distance i. within Ih,,:.n n (1 rn] 8I1o"'al.l., The distance h~lwe"" points F .. nd II in Fil( ;•.2 IS 2:111 (7 m}, I",wever. srru-e there '8 QI change 10 pipe direction in the hll,izunl .. 1 pia III'. thi •• I'"' .. ne-e ... ceeds the reduced . span or 17.2ft fI (5.26 m] Theref",e" ,upporl is ''''111i,ed and ia III' IIIpomt close I.. the elb .... lind COIIVerllI!'II' I .. 1o".ldilll: '11'1'1. w IhiS elise a Once suppnrh have been 1'lCliled on the syst ern , Ih e ~n~"w'" "'"., millie Ih~ I<".d'nls "" them. As the inilillli $1,,1'. wei"hl' of the ,,'pi"K rn .. Ie ri"l~ lind in-line must be determined lind 11I1>,,1.. led There ere !lv.illlhie IIIId puhlished by va,io"s I'Il'in~. 1""" "'1'1''''1. "4IU'lllml~m. manuf ..eturers. tahlea, .. sample .. f ... huh i. I', ....... ,,,d in '1',,1.1., 5.2, we'll1l$ IIf cHml-"menl8 otccu,dinl( I.. "'P" size. The typea IIf round in Ihi" p.ohlem m",,,' "f 12 II, CU~I mm) nominal pipe, filled with w .. ter will. 4!) in ( 1 rum]

"i""

"~"~II "'llm~I~'

is determined, for calcul .. tiune.

one need unly

verrfy

t hat

If 1101, the l',eVIOIi. I:aicultll'ons mine the 'iIlPOld .. the mcre ased 1".. <1.111(

r

it rs he] .. w Ihe 8,""m"d vHI"e .h",,1<1 he ''''11'",.,<1 jo

Total 119 Ih/lt 111:17 1'41"'1 3)( ~H ~ '111>1:12 I'll 411)( ~U !III I!> t4:1ii mlbll:l:l:I I'll

...,mp"n,,"ls II., 10""" .. ,111>1,,1<:<1, i>e~ln , .. hre.k I h e- 1"1'''';( "y.I e- rn into segmente represeur ing determinate at ruct ure«. The Ii", '.g"',,'" t se e Fill. 5.1) may be chosen between poinis It and Ii tstraig ht """l,,"lsl "'" wuh ".,,' supports] or bel ween poinrs It lind (' [change or dire.:llOIO In 1 l"'rtwIl, ..II'I"ne h.. ",ilh three This problem Illustrate. the lat ter ,h",n Guvily on Ihis segment (viewed ill plan, F,,, 5 'La' ""II ~.,,,e'''le (one IIlo"lIlhe y 118;S 0' vertical direction Support 1"'1111" "' IIw noz zle (poinl the supports (poinls Ii and (') ..lfer resiat ance , .. Ill" 1 .1"'1: The centers .... or grlllvily oi the var iuus piping component weillhls lUI' a, (,,110"'" Valve: Pipe:
1170 II> (52U6 8.5 NI at 15 fI HI 46 m) hum

No"" that the """'Mllt of the pipe and pil""~ the des'gn engineer may, for """Iysi. purposee,

X 119 ~ 774 lb (;1444 N)

a' 6.25

1'",,,1

A
A I" 1111 rI, Ii '"

II II 91 rn] [s om

Iml<''''
Pipe;
NIIII'

:l991b (I:l:I~NI "I 105 poinl C 1:1.5 X 119 = WI21h

H (:12 rn] (Will

1'<""'

(45!J:1 N) 11115.75 (175 m] t nw..,d h

1''';''' ('
'IS ,h"wII

in Fill

The IlIclIIl;on of the center IIf "ravily of an "Ih..w .. <1.,1"''''111.,,1, 52b, by the equation
/ill (',,,. W) distsflt'e to croat'r Hf t(rlllvity milcmoc VilJ't' &U4u'hf'tj tu rlhuw hhmension$ 01 fJ.E!'nd HI e lbow,
t ad

wh€re 4J

m

IJ!IUII0 Hlrrf'8.JHlfHiwK t'OOliIMie-n@

tUlt-> IluHt"U"IIJU'It f)

lit ...,tli e- f

wuh It

"'" flAUIUUof

cur vet ure of ett.. lw tdunenlillonn ton~I~h..·u' ""lIll

dmu'H:'''oO:')

". an~le

w:! The 1"lId
199 II) 11332 I'll / 1012 ("~H
It>

on

the

MupI'<"l

III

p"jn'

(' can I.., deterrnmed

hy

,·II'M"1Ol1(

the

'..

IS

I'll

t .. run ihwulI:h I",jlll!! A lind 8 lind by 8umminl( the mumenh "b"ul Ihlll ...... AccordillJil til 1111)111""8o( 8ulin, tile summation .. f moments !Ahuut the • lUis wiil eqW1lI UfO, The support load lit puilll (' can be round ilia r"I1"""s:

,[M,

uses
II I Q_I~ I0 I

1111.1$;

~IJ~i

- 10121" 751 t 10('
up)

~! 1'Il!_ lP,>
SI unit s:
(I
m m

Ml7 II>t,u<hlll!

1:I:IWII!>1
2M!! N lUl'l

450:1(175'

I :1115(,

I' 0, R II - <0,81

e

Kn ..... ",IC the (loinl A: \ [Ai,
e

RUPI'<lrt

load iii 1,,,,"1

I',. t he ""KlIle"r

'H"

luke

11>1 "umple I'II'I>I~ '~lIler ,,( ICrM\'11 y

lises

,,,,ih
II 17111 fll I

H

.)51411>'''1'1

'" '"
o ~ ~ ~

00

.~~oo~-+-=o~~~~_"'~--~--t_-_t---i_----t_-_t--1

1

~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ !~ I~ I~ I: ~: §~
tM

C"')

8

(f;
..-j

"<
r'4

N

:2

"0
.......

.... o

f--

C"'--

SS 8"'

--

f---

t-------l'-- __

?:l""

-~
-

§s~

._---._

-.e,

~

---I---.-

"'r .
<Dif.>

§s~ ~

""'

M
C1l

00

--

..._-.

-_-~--+-+--~---.~ rf-"':
"If'

N

t.ci

---+----1---+._-

N

._.

- ... ~---~

..

S<:

~"<

C")-

~"<

M-

S<: r.:o
1"I$'

;)5.,., ;2""
NN-

--_._.-._
N..-I

;)5"<

C"?-

~"<

8

'--,1--_
.-<1....-1

~ '"

N

s·,.,
1"""1

---_.+__

-1

('f)

8

.--

~ ~ ~,~ ~ l,,? _r'4 _.--i __
.. __ .._

--

.. -1-·---- ---.
N~

S~

~
I-+_+_

O

~

~
~

~
.... --+--+----.+--~

_' +----11--

~

o

..

.... -

~M

~N t-

.__

i: 1- __ ~: ~~ +-.__
1--__

.. ---1

----

..--+----1

---1----+.-+---I---.....IC.

.. +---t---J -_
;---_

-'-1.-. o
N

__ .

1----_
o

""

-'-"1---

<D
---. --~.-

~U~
__

;;;1···- .... ---.-+_ ----4'.----. .. -

R~
t
o Q.
c

~~
_

L. --

---+---

U

..

c,

<::

;::
U

""

'" '"
o

SI units:

I~ :
~~

SiS"!

;::

...

~:
O<Q

8"'! §-: ~en ... 00 8en 8 ,.... ....
~ao

en

""
.-<

o

~

5~06(O.46)

f

1.228

- :!441I UIl)-

I:l:!21:12)-

450:ICUti)

t

Lli4!JI:I :t6)

15,955 N (up)

00

I~~ I~~ ~~
,__w

""

~ .... ~

The third equilibrium nozzle A: tF,
es. ()

equation

[P,

o can

be used 10 lind

t

he support

;2;..:

SiS",!
:::00

~;:

"""" ~:;s ~tD
~oo

uses

units:

I§~
'C""
N

~"'!

"'W
. ,__",

0",

~~
."

55"*: ",00 '" ..:
~oo

I~~

~: ~:
55"!
'" 1-

'" '"

o~
SI units: ~ II II

II -

1!70

t

:1574 down)

774

- 299

Wl2

t

[,!l7

""
N I-

916 II:! (reacting

"" ~~
c-a

5206

+

15,955

:1444

I :J:12

450:1 i 2!l49

~

:::~ ::ct>

119 N (down)

""
N <l>

---

'"
~

§"! ",,'"

.
I U

~~
::::i""

I~~
:

I~~
~""

.~~
i"'!
<")<tl

~;;; ~;;; ::

goo
....

~~

~'':

........ ~~

.... ~:;; "" 55'" ",00
~~

~:'l
M

8",
N
-",

'"
.... ""
C;;
O'l

The loads calculated lit It and B are the tut al "ding on t he supports at these locations. At point ,however, the load cakullited represents only th at COil tributed from the segment on one side of the support. To rumplet e the load calculst ion. it is necessary to continue the operat iun. The next segment chosen for analysis is that funning between points (' and l), as shown in 5.:1. about load on the support point C: units:
IUD ~ 1607(lO) 2321 II> (r."cllog -- 299W5j upward) 1012(425)

8""

...

!II point

J) can

be determined

by s"lving

[M,

II

N . eN ....

,__

"" .... ::<::w

8"'! ~'"

55"'! ~'"

.
M

uses
I)

o~
SI units:

~oq _w

~~

80q

w

:'is''' ........

~'" ~'" .... '" -'"
""00 • eN

..... "'''' 00'"
8'" .-<.0
il",

ct>

...

o

305V

7149(:l05)

~ 1:132(29)

~ 4W3( U)

~

i

il"'! ~~ ... w
~~ ~~

U ~ W,:!34 N (up)

§;'3
000

:

i

"' ....

.... '" ; .... ""

I~~ ~;;;

1:0.-:

~'" ~'" ..... '"
....0 0

By selling the sum of the forces acung on the segment the support at point (. can be calculated:

equal

to

zero, the

on

I~'"

8"l- ioq .... <
:!t

"'..: c

..
t!&l

:::'" "" ~;;; .- .... <.Oct>
~ ...
e .. cc

t

j
..ci
(,(J

'ij

,:"' <:> •

j ...

.. ~ ::'.8
C.c

~

.8 e-t
c

e

..

.s

~ ..,

.8 .. .8 '0 ~e .......
",,'"

..

-..,
e e

.. !!
::l ...

""

.!.Sil

~~

~

~] ~ a ... .8
(J

£ :, £ .. t .:. ... '

-~
OIl 0

~ ;:
OJ ._ - C>..~ 0

... .8 o<&::
C ;j

~ e: !2

<:>
(J

1:'0

...

., e

...

G3

15 II (4 S8 rn)

tl
;....
@l

>

o:l

-0

1012

+

2321

- 1332 - 4503 calculation

+

10.33.

of the load on the C is again only the partial must be to 1000dcalculated from segment the total reliction of the at point C is (597 + 597 '" lb) (5296 N) (the pipe 1000don acta downward). calculation the load on must be in a like manner, since segment C-D provides from one side. The segment on the of point D is II riser section, running between D and E. Loadings Oil multiple supports on II riser ClIlUIOl solved by determinate analysi», since no momenta IIU! developed on the segment. Indeterrnianalysis shows that when the two supports are essentially rigid, the weight the riser between the two supporta is divided equally between the two. Thus contribution to the support at point D is (20 X 119)/2, or 1190 Ib (5296 N). on riser supports may be tailored to suit the engineer's needs through and variable- or conetant-apring supports. For example, support at D had been a spring to a hot (operating) of 1500 lb (6675 N), the support at point be forced to assume lin additional loed or i 190 + 2321 - 1500 - 2011 lb (8949 N). This would be done the steel at point D were not capable of supporting the entire calcuload. 1011(18 may be distributed between supports on II riser without disturbing the balance of the system. the system into segmenta E·F lind F-G-H and using the above for each of the supports in Fig. 5.1 may be calculated.

C; the result

Slip JOlnl I'iglmlli.i§

Pipe slip joint.

Sl.iltalru~d lo~dl-prGIUlI.m~

are under internal pressure from the fluid This pressure is known for creating stresses in the rather than on the This is because pressure forces at the crOS8section tension in the pipe wall, as shown to zero net loads on the system as a whole. In Fig. force at any cross section is to P(Ap) -- (PAp/AmlAni = 0,

where P = internal press me, psi internal area and = metal area of When the wall is not continuous from anchor pressure force cannot be counteracted tension in the pressure force must be resisted when devices (such as or as a result of thermal joint (see 5.5) is of a sealant material to prevent Huid The free to move within the cannot transmit the pressure forces to the those forces due to friction of the the of device, the bellows sists of a series of metal corrugations welded to the The bellows looks like and behaves as an when a compressive force is under tension. Since the bellows has a constant as well as a limited and load it does not have the to transmit pressure forces. A restraint is each side of the to prevent the pressure force from and the pressure The pressure force developed in the is to the pressure times the cross-sectional area over which it IS In the elise of the slip joint, this is to the area covered the outer dimension of the pipe, Of

where

D"

pipe outer

diameter

The

area for a bellows is the maximum cross-sectional or

area

([l.9)

maximum

internal

diameter

cor rug at ion

is by this internal in the

manufacturer.

Probl~m 5.2 Consider the example illustrated ill Fig ;) 7 t lus example 2in (300-mm) diameter pipe is under IHI internal g~"g .. pressure of 250 psi ( kPa) and has a slip joint located at point C. The pipe is restrained by anchors (full tranalational lind rotational restraints) at poillls A and E. and vertical (Y axis) restraints at points Blind D. The force due to pressure IH the slip Join' must be absorbed by restraints on both sides of the joint. The joint Iorce, for II nominal 12-in (:100mm) diameter pipe with internal gauge pressure "f LbO psi (17:!4 k Pa] is lilted 118 follows:
12.7.';)' 4
OJ

U-shaplld buill up of lIulld helldi

~ :11,919 III

Corrugated light Qa9ll sheer On the C-f)

;

142,()()5 N

E side of the expansion joint, this pressure for.-" is resisted by D. This restraint must be designed 10 withsrand the pressur"
deadweight, thermal forces, lind any ot he r

force in to pipe which it will be subjected.

Toridlil Icircutar l or semi loroidal (elliplical) lillol 9Il9Il strip

On the A-R-(' side of Fig. 5.7, the situation is dilferenl ill t hat a moment is because of the run of the pipe pur alle] 10 the x axis prior the restraint at B. This pipe segment may be modeled as II beam hx"d III oue end and pinned at the other with tin eccentric loading (as shown ill Fig. 5.11). From beam theory.
Ph 2

1./'"

j

:11'1>

Round4ld or S-$haplld
formlld trorn lighl 9Il9Il c'Ilindil, (bl SO II liS 25 ml
Vel t r Co! Suppar f

lI..

POll

sron
)01

nl

lel e apansion joints.

Piping the loads on the anchor and restraint can be calculated, 042,005 N), b '" 15 ft 14.58 m), a = 50 ft 05.25 rn]: with P

mal movements are too may be Snubbers act as

because

of hardware

cost and support locations

1. Select initial locations

to

to

cussed in Sec. 5.2.
restraint must be to withstand the load of 46,283 lb

2. Determine

(205,997 N) (of uplift, in this case), lind the anchor must be calculated force and moment, in addition to any other

the support span for occasional loads in this section. Reduce this span until it coincides of the span found in step . supports at all locations.

:1.
4. On hot

OcC811lollUili load

I

determine locations where supports may be used in Sec. 5.~J. These locations will coincide with locations where "free thermal" movements are minimal. At all other a snubber will be A number programs (such as may be used to this step.

to Ii system a small . (typically of the plant's life are usuall~ classified as occ~This classification encompasses loads which vary from penOO]CSlilV annueu live loads (such as snow), extreme natural phenomena "',.""."'" earthquake), postulated plant accidents [pipe rupaccident (LOCA), in the case of nuclear plants], and An"r~,U"''''1l (relief valve . occaseonar loads will subject a system to horizontal loads as well as vertical loads, whereas sustained loads will normaH~ be It is quite likely that the support locations for occasionslloads will not coincide with those required for susloads. It is recommended where possible, a little extra conservatism be into the piping design, to the use of the locations for both sustained and occasional loads. This can the calculated occasional-load spans to coincide with of the sustained-load spans. The additional cost incurred due design will be more than offset the economy the use of a structure for functions.

which are

Occasional discussed in this relief valve and seismic and vibration Some codes allow for an increase in allowable stress levels of structural materials used for piping and supports. This allowable stress may be for these loads because they are short in duration and will not hasten creep failure failure under sustained loads at Lure) of the
5.3.1

Occnioll8l1 load I-wind

conditions, an estimate of which 5.9. This wind which usually varies with IS estimated from observances.

A the wind
modeled

iii caused system.
as a uniform load

the loss of momentum of localized the force
over the for fluid How as follows:

to the direction of the wind. The
from Bernoulli's C
:J86.4 1000

F=

(uses)
(SI)

where F =

linear dynamic

pressure

luad

011

projected

(N/m)
I.J
1) 11

Ib/fl

pressure.Tb/It pipe diameter, including of air, Ihm/It'

' (N/m')

=

~fi

insulut iun,

ill (111m)

11
1 ()(X) 100
U

uf uir, It/s (rn/s]

r--..
~
1--

..

i__

-...

o

~--L
\.

.-

t·_.-

10 f---.-

~

01

r-....
10 10'

...

r·········

.- t-..

r10'

001

0I

10' 10'

105 106 10' 10'

Reynolds nurnbe
(11)

1 ()(X) 100 -_U

o

10 117

Reynolds number
(b)

flg'''1II5.11l Dra;: coetticients. "quare platea.

(a) circul ar cylinder":

(b)

cirr-ular and

The value I)f the coefficient ill I! function of the of the structure dimenllionle!18 flow factor called the number. 5.1 (10 lind b ilhJlItrate!l the coefficient for Ii [a pipe) and for flat support components) versus the Reynolds number. (Null' 0111 the support lIIIually need be considered in cases .....""",.r. hall a lIurflictl area projected into the wind.] "'~"_~"'a number ill III dimcmlllionl~ which gives an of turbulence in ftuid 8ow. values of the Heynolds number indicate llteat:iy Illite or leminsr flow while high values indicate hlilmient or turbulent 80w of the fluid. Thill factor ill calcuall

Nenl, the Reynolda

number

i. r.. und u. loll"",,",

or

From Fil. I). lOa, C. im found to he about 0.6 for I!I Reynold. ",,,,,I,,,, .. r lUi )( The IinelU drill force CIlII he calculated, by usin!! .. !luol furlo< or 1:1, iii.

follows:

(uses)
(Sit eir density,
IJ

or

lhrn/It ' (k,,/m 'I his [rn/s]
m structural

wind velocity, pipe diameter

lengf.h, in (mrn)

" ,. dynamic

vifICosity "f air, lbf s/It ' Ikg/1m

811 from Fig.

'I'hta force must nuw he apl'li.d 811d distr ibut ed over t he I""'"K 'y"I.·", previoualy. the wi lid load is apphed to only those IIf iit e p.p. I"" jecllllK perpendicular lu the wind direct inn; in Ih,. n13" , thai i~ tllIO"1: ""Y paretlel to the y or z ui., 118 shown in rill 5.11. ..,m:m,,,... parullel to the assumed wind direcrion ... ,·h •• run ".~m""i. will experience minimal wind loadi"!! in the, <lire"'i .. n S~l:me"l

"",I",,,.

this perameter, Will or Under

the

coefficient

may be estimated

ctlrlllin conditiona, an additional factor of mllY be used in calculating the wind load on a Thill (Ilctor, which I11.1u811y ranges between 1.0 lind 1.3, ill to account the effects non-eteady-state air 8ow. The load calculated '1IF""""'''~''' should be multiplied this Iactcr when necessary.

or

Pw~ 5.3 An esample of the jusl described is ""orked lIul I""" I" demunllhllle the major Iteps thllt I~ taken lUI'" minimum I.. desi!(" II pip system f"r IIuldool wind In.dinll_ (This "uml'l" does nul include the .. ,re ds limy migile esrrted by lhim wind.1 lid I lin outdoor pipin« system, or thn (2oomm' nom;" ..1,Ii a m (W.S·mml insulatiun, I.. !!Ipostulated maximum wi .. d in the nurlh,sHulh directiun. is II lank connection al 1I11l/1 A, .. imd pifM!""I"'lIlh" building 1111 point I. The aupport eflEineer is required I.. <I.. ,,,, mine the !"!!Ids lit I directiun restraints C, E, and U. The linllilep in clliculat;nl! wind I" ..ds IIIl supports is '" delNmi.w Ih e li"l'a, wind l..lId per projected lenKlh of pipe:
II
m m

II ml

1~ mpo

m

110 rtf. 13:1 fib mi •• IU9I! k,/m " ai :IY \11 .... H_ and 70'.' 111·n .,

O.II14llllom/ll'

30 " 192 !TIl

"_

m

:19 16 X IU • 1M _111'11 HI X Ill' ki/lm I2
X

II m U.1i25Ip''''''

2

un ... I.llo,,1

m 11615 in 1:1:107 mml

IS If 146 m l ZU

/2

1B II

n8
30 II 192 ml

6 l;Z112UI 4 611101 ' 762 N 15(1151 112)lb

'1/01 ' 2346 N 45111 SI ' SIS 10

IN
L

m

wind I•..di",. Il>/fl IN/ml p"'~led ~",Ih.

porl"l&>dic1.l .... W .. ;1>11 di.fKlioD. film' ,how" in Fill· lU I only ill the
10 II (305m)
S4!Qmenl Oh:>f'9 R A·
CJIU$.

®

.lldu,,1 1e",lh. €I ( ... ,

IUllidilll im applied

to the F-G lIe,mum'

K

(j

10 II OS ml

l

1511

IF ') II

10

IZ3m11535m1Ulm)
5e\lmenl

on the supports can be determined by Ulinlll method aimilar I.. method. This sYBum CIIiI be broken into two Hllmenu •• " shollm lFil. t'i.12. load, .h"""n III thei,. pointa 01' IIIctioll. . For lIe!lml!ni A·£. the equilibrium tequlIihollll mllY be used 10 ~etermme the "" the relllrlllBllu Tmllilllll IUmml!llWllilf moments lIill<>I.Il pornt A, .... lIel e
-blI,llIlrICU11!

t,
(north)

vl@wed

f H, \f!t-wed 'tom obove

)(
@

R'thOIf'lt

10(01100

CG ot

W"IOO

load 109

f~
I) ..

iii. III

iE:U1mpie ...1 .. 1II1l '","11"'1£ (',"leul.lion

:.IIlE - 12:1011 lUI

.. Will> ThO!:l"tlDllOllid "11 the fI!lllrmi,,1 E ..... 115
t

III E i. the sum of the

'''Bld (rom ea"h .i.I", or

:.Ill I ~ :111. II>

51!! I iIIH ~ UI:I N

u

IIM4M .. I12'J

2:104451

M1!422.M

I i 5('

I) ..

1\1941:1111

10:170:1.111

2:1461691 t 41;('

-:W7:lN

.. Mil t W1J

11);17 - 2:146 + ;I .. 0

:!W9N ~"lImO!:nl £·H:
.. :~~U 22!112M In 51151
B

u

II .. :II~I f' It. Itln NI , .. :II~I~ :II! I 2:1\1 t!l~NI IHI> I

t: ..

II

Relief valves are used in piping systems to an outlet on UW!>e OCCIlIsiol1.8 when preasure builds up beyond that desired for safe operation. When the peesaure ill reached. the valve opens, sufficient Huid to escspe [rom the piping system to lower the pressure. This perrnits II controlled or ftuid l1li a means of pressure vessel ruptures. When II relief valve discharges. the fluid initiates I} force, which ill transferred the piping system. This force must be resisted Hupporl!i if the ill not capebleof resisting the load m.,.. r" .. , magnitude or the force is usually provided the valve manufacturer. If this value ill not it may be calculated fur those cues where the valve vents to the atmosphere. If the fluid through ft cloeed system to a vessel, transient Ilow conditions may whir-h mlilke the valve [oree dithcult I..calculate. FOf iii relief valve 10 the atruospherr-. the ANSI Itll.I

recommenns
ClIl'llIU::U

that the discharge force as shown in

5.13 be-cal-

as follows: '" DLF
m

(MY + PA) 32.2 MY
+ 1X
PA

(uses)
(81)

vary between 1.1 and 2.0, depending on the tion and the time of the valve. If the rearrameo. the DLF may be calculated of vibration of the valve installation:
T .. 0.1846

of the valve installa-

(5.12)

DLF (

(uses)
(SI)

load factor Y fluid nit velocity (see below), '" static gauge pressure at '" discharge flow area, in2

see below) (kg/s)

T

114.59

'" mass flow rate from valve X 1.1l,Ibm/s

where W == mass of safety valve H "" distance
from run

Ibm (kg) to center of outlet of pipe, in (mrn) temperature, psi

n/8
(see below),

E ==

material
(N/m~)

modulus

I == moment of inertia of inlet pipe, in"

(USCS)

(SI)

(J/kg), and a and

Ned find the ratio of the valve t; to the T calculated above. For the ratio a DLF can be found from data codes or structural dynamics texts. A shown in 5.14 for instructional purposes Once the relief valve discharge force has been the load can be distributed to supports segment its as a beam.
Probllllm 5.4 Given a relief valve discharge force of 1500 Ib (6675 N) (as specifiad by the valve manufacturer, including DLF) lind the configuration shown in Fig. 5.15, the run pipe at the tee is subjected to the force as well as (due to the 2-h

Btu/Ibm Wet, <90':" quality

b (dimensionless) 4.33 4.33
M, V, P A taken Of trus loco lion

:S'".lmu~'~, >90% quality

291 823

1,910,183

where

terms are as before

pressure,

psi

load factor (DLF) is used to account for the increased load the sudden application of the force. This factor will

Fig"'l1 !Ii.13 Relief valve disdllHg£ load calculet iou

consists of a review of reports etc., and is used to and other instruments have not been available

~

\
~

-_

\~

r---.
01

of known intensities. An 5.16 which details the expected observations " .. ~ ... , .. r on the modified Mercalli scale. a search for ten documents to estimate the

r-

---r-- r-.
40 60 80 10
1.11

02
Rallo of

04060810
waive operunq time

20

20
I

to per rod of Vibration

force Ib

Hypothetical

dynamic

load ractur.

(6675 NI

at

moment IIrmllll moment of 3000 It -Ib (4072 m NI. The resulting reacrestreints cen be estimated IU
1-

3000 3000 20

-

375111
1125 II>

E revet Ion
(0

1

Occ~.iol'llillIOllldl-leilmic

M ' 1500

I

z1

3000 f I Ib 14072 M NI

in nuclear power plants as well as nonnuclear piping are must be designed to
A

of the earthquake is partially based of previous activity in the area and is through a literature search that notes the intensity date on which a seismic event may have occurred. The literature

with an estimate

101 fill .......5. Hi He lief valve cunfigur auun: (6) load dl.lribll[wll: lI",del luI phy"cul

lineae

first of 1927 codes were have many similarities.

The I!n:1 to issue their

lind Yokohllmll code, while the Santa the United Stllies I" do likewise. at about lhe slime

Code

(lIHC)

the A varies

VIH-

""""'I!'''',n

structure,

ommends the

of !In:e1eral ion of the charecterisucs of the and the nature of the foundation the structure to codes have devised methods Hf these to equivalent static loads. For the UHC recthat iii lateral seismic force, assumed 10 act ues of the structure, be calculated IlS
II ~ lateral seismic force, Ib IN) ,1!.fj,U (ur zone

- ZJ«('W
where

Z
J(

M

seismic zone factor: 0.1 for wile 0, 0.25 for wne 2, lind 1.00 for zone :1 type Iactor. period usually between 0I

m

tUi? IIl1d :10

(' .. 0.05/1"/:1 but not greater

HUIll

T '" fundemental

of atructur«, lb (NI

W '" totlll weight of building,

etc.) have been established Ill! criteria, analytical to which the structure must be designed can be determined. Prior to the of the twentieth century, few formal design criteria were used fur earthquake in areas !If seismic activwere coustructed with sufficient space or of such lightweight material failure {If any structure would cause minimal damage to adjacent structures and minimal injury tu lhe inhabitants. Japanese design of earthquakes resulted in single-story elide was both produced because
1,0

This method may be used to determine seismic 011 commercial in those covered by the UBC after it is veri lied HIIH the rmposea on the use of this formula have been
to.

Nm:I~allr Ii*hlmic delligl'l: Prior 10 1001 in regions of low seismic such as in the north, south, and midwest of the United there was little seismic damage postulated in The deve]. °llment the U.S_ nuclear power with the 01 com pulers, hilS

5.l.3.2

or

the U.S. build

Hf

of nuclear loads.

The puhlicut ion of WCFH 100 "'''''''''m" safetyrelated slnldures Slid systems

wilhshwd

a nuclear licensee ttl with criteria is made in the report which is eubmitted for approval at both the construction permit lind uperlicense stages of regulatory review. criteria established in IOCfo'R100, plant documentation must substantiate the of all seismic category I systems end components to withstand two levels of site-dependent These are called the shutdown earthquake (ORE). The S.~E is sn hased 011 1111 evaluation the re"iollill IIl1d h~'111 characteristics 01 loclil subsurface material. which produces the maximum motion for which certain structures, systems, and components to remain functional. These structures, systems, lind cor 11jlHnents life those defined ill IOCFltlOO II!! necessary to assure (II the of the reactor coolant pressure (21 the shut down the reactor and maintain it ill II safe shutdown I:Ollditillll, or (:I) the

A commitment

The OUE is all to aired the site the operating life of the plant. 10'01' cOl1serva118m, the ORE must usually be equal til lit least oneheff of the SSE. may be nne ollhret' methods: time or static

Time is Lased 011 II record versus time. Uata in the form of disor ecceleration (as shown in 5.11:1)II! the duration of the estimated earthquake record, which may 8. Thill information is plotted for three directions east-west, and or the 1111.'8 of the structure]. 'I'his data is then w;ed to simulate the seismic excitation of the erized ","'., ........
.... u......... "

5.3.3.3

rime IUlltmy IIIMlyail.

accurate, is "a,nn.·~II a new calculation.

..

oscillator removal of the applied acceleration from all C the will vibrate at an frequency of Wn == Hz. This value is called the undamped natural and is used to determine the dynamic response oscillator. (harmonic) motion to the above system coul accelerations (and therefore forces) on the mass than had at the depending on the simultaneous status of the vel~fat the location and time of interest. The acceleration factor can be solved and it is found to be
factor "" "" forcing angular frequency of input motion, rad/s natural angular frequency of oscillator, ratio of dampin~oefficient .. 2VKM to critical rad/s where critical
(5.16)

Ii

4 Iii
!,!

..

d

.~ 3 u

..

a

..

*n e ,

a '2 E

Fr"quency. GENERAL NOTE Applicable pendent 01 pipe diameter .

HI OBE a'ld SSE. inde

to both

of the motion is determined from the ~"~I"''''''''' time The natural of the oscillator is that it will vibrate naturally with no outside stimulus and no dampCritical is that level of at which the system will oscillate. . "''''......". of critical damping to be assumed for systems IS the NRC in Regulatory Guide as shown in Table 5.3. Alternative values (to those given in Table 5.3 for ASME, Sectio~ H~, Division I,Classes 1, 2, and :3 piping) are in Fig. 5.20 for s~IBmlc of The damping values shown in this figure are applicable both OBE and SSE. This alternative is currently published by ASME case N-4U, which was approved on September 17, 1984. the above amplification a maximum response may be calculated (or oscillators of all natural frequen-

SO(ltH'~::

Fill'''!! !i.:ro Damping value for seismic analysis Code case N411 (Courtesy of ASME).

of pipi!!".

the course of an responses need not occur at the same time the ted as the response spectrum. This process is shown in response spectrum is shown in 5.21. ""'1.1""1.:.,11111: the amplification factor, the reason for the shape of the response spectra becomes When the natural frequency of the oscillator is very small relative to the the ""'\.."'.. ,,'" factor approaches zero. This of the response spectrum is known as the flexible range. As the oscillator approaches the forcing frequencies (most structures transmit motions through their first two modes of factor becomes very hence the two response spectra. This is known as the resonant range. lator is much larger than the lion 1.0 and the acceleration the same as the imposed motions. This is known as the range, and the "'''-'-<:;''''''/1<1.''0'' is as the zero-period acceleration As stated the total response of the the sum of the responses of the individual modes of the dependent on the system natural ,,"'V'''''''''Y and restraint affect the system natTherefore these may be to "tune" the system to response and to reduce loads.

Structure

of component

OBE or 4

sse

SSE

Equipment and large-diameter piping systems, pipe diameter than 12 in Small-diameter piping systems, diameter equal to or less in steel structure steel structures Preetseseed concrete structures concrete structures

2
2 4

4 '2 4

7 5 7

Rnonant ronge

P'lriod.

$

Typical response spectrum. Hz

Figl.O'" 5.22 Varilltioll response ~p~.ctrum with vttfyin~
fl:Htos

"'{I"","<C''''''', such as a in the building mass or a build"''''''''''''''. will affect the characteristics location and magnitude of on the of the response spectra. A perfectly symmetric buildsuch as a square or circular would probably have the same horizontal response for the north-south and east-west axes. Conan building has north-south and east-west response The response magnitudes increase with the elevation in the peak acceleration values occur at approximately the These curve characteristics assume there are no in the building design between the various elevations. helps to reduce acceleration values, with a more significant acceleration reduction in the resonant range, as shown in 5.22. it is most important to use an accurate damping value in the calculations. This value is a function of internal structural "friction" and is usually best determined through experimental "'~ ... "...."'. As mentioned previously, NRC Regulatory Guide 1.61 provides "'''''''''''''110 values which may be used for systems when actual values are not known. When response are used for purposes, the frequencies at which accelerations occur must be given tolerances to account for calculation uncertainties. Figure 5.23 shows how response spectra peaks to envelop the The degree of peak

IS

data used to estimate As stated

the the

on the conlidelH:e level of the

f

c:

o

u u <I

., '"
'-

+o

F'llu,,, 5.2J 1I'·SpO.bC peak spn~adillg.

sped

rum ,

frequency,

Hz -- ...

beams. The conditions is

for

Absolute sum method:

+
(5.17a) (5.170)

+I

+

in response from lH1 actual time in the flexible and resonant range of the response spectra. However, in the range the SRSS method is not because there all responses will occur when modes of a system have closely percent of each the forces must he summed This is due to the fact that modes with similar natural receive their maximum excitation from the same time A third summation rule used in some programs is known as Naval Research (NRL) rule. This rule that the max. imum modal response be added to the SHSS of the modal responses. rule such as SHSS or NHL is based on trial and error, so users of these methods should realize that there could be in which these rules do not represent an accurate response, kant or rigid-range modes are present. Studies have been conducted the time history method to modal the SRSS summation method. The SHSS results were shown those of the time analysis in a few cases, therefore further of the use of the SRSS rule may be Modal than time history must be done on a computer. Where a computer is not such a level of accuracy is not necessary, loads on be by static analysis. One form of static earthquake was described earlier discussion of the Uniform Huilding- Code. The formula for quake \ there a static based zone, the natural frequency of the structure, and the type.
1II1'I1II1),5j$.

natural
= natural = mode of interest

frequency

of nth mode, rad/s

frequency of nth mode, Hz

'" modulus of elasticity,
= moment
=<

of inertia of pipe, in' in (mml

mass per length of pipe, Ibm/in

'" span between supports,

estimate would lead to error on the low side of the ~ctual frequen~ would a lower bound for purposes. If this causes a pro . more exact methods should be used. h the natural frequencies for all modes have been t. e the earthquake can be calculated. For syst~ms With the modal response would be written as a
(5.18)

Han

force vector for mode n (of forces at each node point), lb (N) mass matrix for node point), Ibm (kg) system (of lumped masses at each of 1.0

of mode n normalized (dimensionless)
= mass participation

to maximum displacement

5.:lJ.5 Static

factor for mode Yl (this is measu:e of e xcit ability of mode and decreases as mode number increases), dimensionless to picked from response spectrum, of mode n, H/Si (m/s')
currespnnding

= acceleration

may

the forces for each indio forces on the system are f OUiI d .h mode Since the mass participation factor decreases Wit . the contribution of modes may usually be neglected. for combining loads are the square root of the sum of the absolute sum methods, as shown:

(C,

I 'J)

may also be analyzed by static trum is available. This may he done when the i ururament.at quenr-y of the system is to the of the on the response spectra or, better yet, in the rigid runge. The acceleration to this on the response spectra may

of the total

The

of this acceleration on the

and

A sample system is shown in Fig. 5.24. The system uses 8·in (200· schedule 40 not insulated, filled with water, weight"" 5U.24 Ib/ft (7:l:l restraints are spliced typically at 18·ft (5.5·ml intervals. The acceleration response spectrum to the building and elevawhich this system is located is shown in 5.25. fundamental frequency of the system estimated by modeling the spans between restraints as simply beams. The lowest frequency, therefore the frequency of interest, is where the span is the longest '-""',1'1',"" restraints. In ,"'ig. 5.24, all the restraints life equally spaced. This will occur in reality, so the longest unrestrained span in the direction of intermust

"" C
E Oi -.;
<I
u

"

3.0

u

2.0

10

determined

used.

Frequency,

Hz

in Eqs. (5.1711) and (5.170),

Response spectrum.

~ natural
>lim

frequency of ronde
;z:

of mode 1

=

!4~

Hz

number modulus

uf elasticity
01

~ 27.7 =

x

Ill" 1'8; (l9t

X 10' kN/m'i

z

moment

inert; .. of pipe lengtb

n.f>
$

in' (J.02 X 10' mrn") 12)(386.411

. Often a tr ade-otf may be achieved by tuning the uat urul frequency of the IIlIl system, For example, the design loads for the system decrease as the Iundamental frequency of the system moves Irum the resonant to the rigid runge. This would require more restramts. but the total rest r a in! and pipe louds would be reduced, possibly leading to a material savings. The minimum pipe span between resrnunts to achieve II response in the rigid range could he calculated hy

~ m~ •• of pipe per unu 0.01Ot! Ibm/in length of span (0.075
D

(50.24 lu/U)/I(

kg/mm)

~\
\

216 in (5486 mm)

5.25, the corresponding acceleration for !I frequency of 14.5 Hz is 2g. would cause iii seismic loading in both the Jt lind 1 directions of 2 X 50.24 ~ Ib/h (2 X 0.075 X 1000 X 9.8 .. 1470 N/ml. Once the uniform seismic load is the restraint loads may be calculated method similar to the one for other types of uniform loads, such or wind loads.

where F,. ; frequency designating start of rigid range, Hz. For FI~. 5.25 the ri.gid range begins at about :.w Hz, With !111 acceleration 0.7511. This would designate a maximum span of 11).:1 fl (4.67 m ). Therefore. by decreasing the seisrnrc span from 18 to IS.:'! It (5A!:! tu 4.1>7rn l, the seismic lateral load would be decreased from 100.5 to (0 75)(f)O,24) '" :lI:i Ih/It (551 N/m). When no response spectrum is available to indicate the It h nM~ 0 ue iaid range, yet the ZPA 18 known, a fundamental frequency of :1:1 Hz is as rigid.
I' • .

5.:U

Vibrlltion

Problem

5.5,

such as compressors, pumps, turbine motors etc., cre~te ~ . source of mechanical vibration. The rotation creates ' har~omc sinusoidal unbalance, force which can excite the system. Unless IS very l'u."I .. I!.. all elastic foundation designed for vibration be transmitted through the is in the neighborhood of the natural system, additional resonant vibrations will be failure.

the so in inches per foot between an ambient and various has been worked out materials, Values for some 01' these materials are thermal

In

loads on supports is the system, This of the axial runs are absorbed

cantilevers. For a an induces the following moment and force at each end:

dis-

","

....

'm .....

loads

M "" 6E1J.

that as more restraints are added to a system, the pipe restrained for and occasional loads. when operating, increases in temperature and which is too well restrained will not be able to expand, forces will at the points of lockup, causing large stresses in the ideal restraint condition for thermal considerations is a total lack restraint. Since this is not feasible, other loads, some forces due will on restraints even in the most optimally supIn this section we show how these loads can be calculated. we show how to determine thermal movements for selection and of clearances in restraints.

where E ""
modulus moment

force,

III (N)

(JPvP''''l<"n moment,

inJb

(rnm

N)
temperature, psi (N/mm'J

of
of inertia displacement,

at installed of pipe,

in' (mm")

ill (rnm) to direction of growth, in (film)

L

of leg perpendicular

The amount of thermal absorbed (~) is to the ratio of the stiffness of the to the sum of the stiffnesses of all absorbing the thermal The moments and ."',,,,,,,,,,.,,, must be resisted the restraint system, whether it a force of two restraints.
Problem !i.6 The system in Fig. 5.26 is made of carbon steel und operates :!f,O°F (177°e). It uses 12-in CWO-mm) standard schedule line with = 279 (1.16 X 10" mm ') and E = 27.7 X 10'; psi u.st X lU" Nzm"). From Table 5.4, the thermal expansion is found to be O.02:!6 in/I! (lH8:1 rum/rn l. The system is restrained two anchors [at points A and G) and two vertical restraints (at points n E'). The first step ill tinding the thermal loads is to cakulat e he pipe eKIHl!lS;OflS and determine the legs which will resist them. The resist i ng legs are 1111 those perpendicular to the growth, except in those cases where the pipe is restr ained at intermediate points. The summary of pipe movements and resisting legs is shown ill Table 5.5. The stiffness of each pipe segment vr oss-sectional and mat.er ial propt'rties is calculated !IS of all t h« pi

is of concern primarily direction}, Thermal expansion can be

to the pipe length axis by the following

(;).22)

thermal expansion

in direcuon
11111'1'1'111.

in dir ecti .. n of temperature.
·.'I"CI

in t mrn] °t'llmm/lmm

coetticient of II'INm.1 UIIIIIM",n. in/lm

°nl

'21,;1/ 1. ' in this pr ol il ern

Ihe
IHe

he

M
t--

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00
(J)

...... NNC'-4
1"'>"1.-4

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r-o.q.r0.-1 __
...... _.-4 ......

.-t.f)Olf)

0000

-~t-~ao ~ "" r00008

00000

§~§~~ 00000

~~~8~ ...... ...... N ~~~~~ 00000

N

~~~~M

~~~~~

000

~~~~~

<!: <!:02

_~r-SSM

..............

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C")

"V

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1-

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c~~~~

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'""'" 1""'1....-4 ...... _

~~~<i;~
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...-1 ......

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00006

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OOt.1')NQ)1.l')

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the fehlliv\!! stiifne83 (If eIIrh leg i. given hy in.'. Therefore. the proportion ,,{ tM w~1 diapllllcemenlllllOlorbed by .. ny 1It;l/en lell n ia defined u

x
y

y 1

.. h""M

d..

w
W

<li."lac.",.nl

a"""'!Mod by ~ ~1lI!

". i..(mml opKidi..d <lis"l.c.menl. It (ml

Hl0226)( 15) w W U226 )( 101 w W0226 )( 601 u W0226 )( :10) -

014 0.68 1:16 U68

in in in in

{II 6 mill'

07 :1 m rn]
(:14 5 rrrm] (!7 :I

II I', ('

F.

M.

!' HC,

L; '''''ilh L, • '''''ill>
t:t. r - loul

,,( 1"11 ". fl (llill o( ....d. other ~ <lia"I ...,.. ..... OI I<> he ..IIIIor!Mod, jill 10 ' ....

From Eq. 15.23), for segment ill known, the sheer 1II'8Y, the forces and

A R,

Once the di.plll~ml!nl sbeorbed by the pi1M' Iorcee 1100 momelltli can be found by mubmtilutiorl. mOllulntlilln lM r"l •• inu in Fia· 6.26 un be found:

thi.

-

1212

II> 15661 I'll

m,,·
"

6127 7 )(
£1$1

from Eq. 15.241,
M'"'_~I''' _ M.A,. - 228,987 I :J6DI~ll 61277". W"1I27!H :11;0'

_

i5't:iOlt:~li--m I'll

m II> 125,899

Therefore
wll.202inl1tlmml

Ihe approximate

thermal

l.... ds on the anchor 1111
m

I'",n'

A ar e

f', - 6<llh I:II.JO NI

M., - 228.967

II> (2~,H99

III

I'll

r, Similarly.
.l"I'~

Il72 III 15liii1 I'll the load.
IJ

M, -

~!j9,0!16 on II> 1:Il.h97

m NI
1111

can he (.. und 011 the venin.1 r eat rarnts ~1J478in(l2Imml )(

pomts

!J ""d

1'"

" _ 12121.7

J.",

~

Htiljjn(171mml 121277

I".' ...

x
- 4f1<i7 II> 121U:!1 NI

3011 (915 m)

The mum""," ,,( "<li,,ts [) sud t' are ''',,,(ed r",I"'lIIh. The 101,,1 fu, ...!" call he [ound I~y:

F,,, _

:1210

:1II4,IiH5

~47,421

moment,

accurate results to rotate ttl some In must cases (I; is

"

have been developed for the purpose of with accurate load calculatioM for III wide range of config.. nUll''',. Table 5.6 presents a seri~ of cham by the I'IT Grilland reprinted here with their permisaion. The full series available ill ITT Grinnell'lI ond Suftithe to break either by the
..... n
"" •• 1' .,

Overshe':.'i.ed
CQW1t."<t!OH

Through 8upporlil. eacessive thermal support locauons which direct the stresses call be con5_27 are used to are designed to
Illfe of
."

or

overstressed or overloaded

by escessive moments end Iorces 011 the nozguides at loceuons C and F and II limit stop or rigid restraint !lit location R. as shown in 5.27b. the thermal expansion can directed into the eapaneion Thus the un the terminal conneetions can be reduced RI!l'fUIIU~lllnl.I\I.

['''.ot IOn
Ib I I" dlred
therml.ll! t herma]

~", .. Ih, ~ai I.K.p ",,!tWlIl dlfuled movement

o.tMmiNl8lon thermal

o.
&

ThemMII MoII.fMftl~

movements

may be estimated

lit intermediate

points in a
Puint A; Point C: P"inl f': P"illl K: P"inl Pllml AI: Othe,

linear variatioll between IIf known displaceFor if the movement uf Ii puiol located [) fa 0.5 m] hum (tllwllrd Rl in Io'ig. 5.26 were desired. it could he computed by the the displecements at point H determined in ProbII.! I in €2.1i uun]

o ill

2 ill (5().I! mm] up, cold 10 hoi

~ in !iOU; mm] down, wid I" hoi
lJ

I in (~5.4 mm) 111'. cold 10 hoi in

!lin

~ Il.um in II.'7

mm I

"" o.o:n

in 10.69 mm)

sources "r vertical movement are the risen H· D d J.J '-' , fr T hi s: A L . tm. which e'p'lru:l . om III e o,~ we see that the expanslOll is "" (Ul70? infh 10 005 mi. IW Ihe fiU, UPl1ll81OIlB lire computed U follows: . 9 mml
1Ullilili

in the y direction for use ill the method for deter-

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C-I

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00

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51

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t:

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9
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.

The Ii rat point II given 8). propor

of interest is the locut iun of t he sprinl( hanger H .. 4 on pipe segment A -8_ The movement of the endpoints has quantity (as was point A I or computed from therrnul The thermal movement III illtermediate point s tiunal 10 their distance from the endpoints:
H, ~ L06

+

~(2

UJ6)

~

I\) m (:102 "'''')

~" ~
0

'"

!

.;:

:>

'c;"

Ii:

K

,_

~ E

The vertical muvement at H, call be determined in the same manner above, once the movement at point Eo: is known The displflccmenl be cakulllted, since the life k nown at eudpuints placement at Eo: is found by

us described 10-' dis-

..

Displacements may now be found at any point between points displacements at these points are known 12_12 in 15:1-1>mrn) down and (64J:l mill) down, respectively]. Therefore the IIi II, is 2_ !\12_55 - 2_i 2) == 2,2 ill (55,9 mm) down, Tutul displacement to be absorbed by the horizon!al legs be! ween points K and M is the difference between the nuzzle niove ment at K and expansion or riser I-J, or ! - (J_707 == 0_27:1 in (6_9 mrn). The t ot al horil<mlal 1"lIglh he tweerj and M is 94 It 128_7 m]. Therefore, the displaceuieut ill point J is IIPIHOl(imately - <l1(O,27:l) = 0_983 in (25_0 mill) up, the al point is U!lH:! _ 0_707 == 0,276 in 17_0 mill) up, the displacement at point M is zero, and the displacement at any intermediate point may be estim!lted by linear interpolation.

The support may locale restraints of zero displacement, and direct thermal culated locations, The permissible location is ment to be by the the able stress of the The formula for the minimum to the first restraint is

(uses)
(SI)

where

L

distance

to first

rigid

restraint,

fa (m)
in (mill)

OU"'Q"'Q'"

to he

s

outer diameter

of
(N/Ill')

allowable stress of

5.7 (ill to the first stresses of 10,000 psi (68,948 kN/ml). the restraints have been be calculated as

restraint

for

loads and movemeuu,

M
.()

§
d

i

...

.-

o .- .. .- ..-

.,.,

"-'

§
N

a

a

W

W

co o

c-

x

.....
M

'"

o

!
'I

I

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.()

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I
!

I

c-e

." ai ,., ,.,
()

.- .

...

(J,'

co:i

o

,-

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I J
J
J
J

" s
u

" t o

..
o 00 o

'"

I

-0

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.,.;

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cc-

c

Load Combination supporte must be designed to withstand any combination of loading 11"'"''''''''"''''' to occur simultaneously. Normal operating loads are 'i .... !' ' ' ... ,,1lI or deadweight <' thermal. These loads may he cornwith eccesioual toeda, u required !.he desil€n criteria or the specertain cl.mditiu'ns, 01 ma~riala may be increased fur Illads. An esample is t..h«! oIl1el'Vice level instituted ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Section III «or more information 4). A specification for desi,n I04IJd combinations is u
Deadweight Ue!!dweight

Ilu'uim'lld

Pipe

+ thermal 6.1 Introduction
For ellery function of pipe support, several choices of hurdware types and sizes may be used depending on the constraints Hf the design lind the magnitude of the loads. support hardware refers to the structural elements such as Iatruts, springs, damps, etc.] and structural steel. In this tel' we discuss the various types of hardware ing vendors lind their use in ~~•.,~ ..~, items such as "'''fn.IIMY." ded IIIndwelded these items in III Th~ criteria governing hardware selection lire support magmtude of the expected load, and space Iimitations. the 1'01. lowinl must 111110 be in mind: I. The temperature used for selection of lJ straps, and other steel in direct contact with the is that (If the lluid c~ntenu of the. The strength of these items may he upecled 10 de. dme as the design temperature increases. . ~'he effects of pipe temperature must also he considered in sl<:mg gaps lind designing fur friction forces. 2. at high lemperature or to COlldelisal iOIl "II the uuter surface will usually he 'insulated. The support IIlllSI be to accommodate the insulation . . Figure 6.2 illustrates insulation, which would COlier Ihe pipe aUachment 88 well as the pipe. For hostile euvironrnents such !IS ill nuclear conteinment areas, the insulation must he resistant to humidity, and radiation. Addilillllully, it should he !lilt!

Norm!!1 + relief valve discharge Nurmllli t earthquake IOH~1 t relief valve diaduHI(e Normal 1 wllter hammer N"rmllli t earthquake (SSE) Normlll i e.llrlhqullke (SS ..:, relief valve discharge pipe rupture

loads may be added either algebrllically to arrive at realistic values for added ronservatiam, 1.0 the criteria

this fllr we have dealt with manual methods used to estimate support loads. However, most piping work today ill done with the UIIilltance or computer pipe stress Illllllysia programs. A large number of programs are available today. vafyil1l with respect 1.0 capabilities and requrrements which reflect their intended industrial applications. However, the differences are moatly esternel, since all the prolife similar. The pipe atreea programs are actually struchuel progrlllms, where the solution ia determined by either a stilrness til' a mahil!. The pipil1l system ill modeled u an irregular space and tAl the varillus desired loading cases. The supports Iliads !III part of the indeterminate analysis; these elm he printed each case III' combined (rum I.WIIIII:' more load cases as desired. information 1111 computerized pipe stress programs, all well as a annotated output, can be found in 9.

reinstalled

to allow

of

and

should be determined selection of the hardware.

system. be periodically with the The follow-up inspection schedule is dependent on criticalness of the system, the service record of the hardware type, and of the service environment. Hardware types requiring less ~Fn'~,.n'h'~ wherever types are listed below. A discussion the hardware selection and process for load-

,'
1';11'''Il10i.2 1 Typi,al insulat;o"

.....
fo, I>iuilw.b e(C' ourt vs-;

uj

()II'01.',--(

'f!rtllflJ.:

Fltlf'rJ.:/Os

2. :1. Snubbers (

and anchors and

struts,

support

welded

4. Sway braces

6.2.1

The

TRAPEZE ANGLE

CONCRETE ATTACHMENT P1ate I!. Beam ATTACHMENT

Roo &

STANDARD RISER CLAMP INSUI ATION SHiElD

,n_=,
CONCRETE ATTACHMENT P1ata II. lug CONCRETE ATTACHMENT P1alfl. lug I!.
Cl4!vlS«I

'",

Ii

'"

II

"

II

v

Ii

~f]
,
rl

rrI
Attachments ;.,;-

NONSTANDARD RISER CLAMP

u

""

II

"' II

a

"

II

'" II

TRAPEZE

WELDED STEEL BRACKET

It

HALf CLAMP

!I, II

CANTILEVER ANGLE

ROLLER CHAIR

J
ADJUSTABLE

BAND HANGER

AD.JUSTABLE SWIVEL RING
:J

BEAM

CLEVIS HANGER

~.
.....
I'

PIF'€

STANCHION

\
I

NONSTANDARD SINGLE BOL T PIPE CLAMP

., >\""

CLEVIS HANGER Long Tanganl

PIPE ROLL AND PlATE

PIPE STANCHION SLIDE PLATE

I.

ii

Ii.

I

NONS TANDARD DOUBLE BOL T , PIPE CLAMP

fiG 170-172 UBOL TS

PIPE ROLL AND STAND PIPE WELDING lUG ADJUSTABLE PIPE ROLL AND STANO

FIG 190 PIPE GUIDE SOCKET CLAMP C CLAMPS
I

I

i

I

TRAPEZE CHANNEl ASSEMBlY

DOUBLE BOLT SOCKET CLAMP

I

I

typically

used in weight

,ul'puriS

((,,,,,rei'"

ul ('urtler 6( l.u d a

TABU: 6,1

"-36)

from the steel. A number of hardware items, 6.:l, are available for the rod to either structure on one side or the on the other. Examples of 6.4. by manas shown in process by providing a support. Whenever hardware is of steel may be eliminated, savtime. Aside from load the designer must some additional considerations in mind when designing a rod hanger an excessive condition (see Fig. 6.5a). .. ,,'111,,'1"'" additional pipe system or

~~------------

Nominal rod diameter, ill

Hool an-a

Hod il'mperattlf{'

:..::

thread, ill' IH~;8
11126 II.~U2

1;;;0";.'

I( ..d

I~"'p"r"ture

7;,o°F

1)10
1.1111 ,KIO I,I;W

O.:III:!
lUI!!

~,7W
:1,770

1

V.bM!) 1.:.'\);1

ii,IMMI 11,(;:111 111,:170 I,IXXI

IA

l.7~4 :1.:IIXI
:L02:1 :1.71\J Vii!' :1 fd;:11 _________

,\700
:'>0,7110
:.'7,:!IKI

II-UtiO
~4,2IiO :.'!J,IiMP :17,OfiH ,L~,l!IiS

thermal movement the vertical axis movement both lifts the

must

not

;1:1/,11(1

I,:)HO
,~() _ _ ,[)_tS~

:1\
:I! :Ij

li.no
7lJIH
!):! 14

WAllO 71,:.'i-M) K!,H!!<I
~},\,,IOO

ItU;OK
12.IIMI ---'--~-.n.7IXI -~-~-'-"'-~-'---~--------'-'. I:)~!K)
17~1)(1

1II:1,IHXI :!;I,IHKI I :lM,INNI

:.

the support may have fUll). Where this is not pusshould he used,

I.' I

I ~I

Silla

:1. As a II IlOre

1:2

in ICII mill ,I

il" (I O-Illln! dWIlIt'IN 'Rill j (1<l1lH'II'r I and ulldl'rI

I

rod shot!I(1 :111( i

lSi

diameter

rod should be used for

diameter and

hardware shown in 6.4 has some amount of hanger The rod and bolt assemblies shown in arrangements 2 and while the shown in 1

rod may be attached to the structure some of these are illustrated in 6.4. The attachments

in various shown are

(

)

('".Inc)

lUi

(0)

Twobolt

pipe clamp; fbI threebolt

pipe clump. (('"urlesy

uf

used in both commercial and nuclear to of After the type of attachment and its orientathe size of attachment must also be verified CO!1The recommended
Cold to hot tel movement

pipe attachments for supports on or clevis are used with rods as hangers and struts, which are Preengineered are available for both commercial

from thicker insulation. of pipe support data sheets (when required) and maintains the tiles for client po'.nP,Qr .. ,<>

the load capacdata in their

(b

I

Cold hot-10

Olbe! Iimitatiuns iur rod hang ers movement ill ax ia] direction; fb) cold pipe cold; (21 opull1inll position. hot

stresses at 01' lower When standard hardware ment, a nonstandard

based on a maximum a manufacturer can value to reflect material does not Iultill the support can be used.

Hi1

101

Ib1

lei

Id 1

stress (see When no overhead steel is convenient, it may be more to supthe from with a support. supports accept "1)'111"';'" load through bearing and allow the to slide, in to accommodate horizontal thermal pipe movements. The support consist of any of a variety of saddle types, a trunnion attachment, the resting directly on restraint steel. The type of is chosen based on the thermal pipe movement, the pipe and the distance from the pipe to the support steel. supports are shown in 6.8. When a is used, the support should be designed for friction forces in addition to the calculated design loads. The friction force be calculated as the product of the coefficient of friction (normally 0.3 and 0.7 for steel sliding steel) and the force applied normal to the of movement (in this case the bearing load). For very supports, use of this friction force may lead to the calculation of excessive loads and deflections. A more realistic representation of friction could be achieved in this circumstance imposing a displacement

lei

It)

FiIlU'. Il.~ Types of slidin" supports: (u) insullll'(jll saddle; (b) trunnion; (d, (d), Ie) various types or ruller support.

to th~ thermal movemen.t at the support unto the support smce the support deflectIOn will be limited to the movement of

a slide

6.2.2 As noted rod h angers an d . supports may he used in locations where vertical thermal movements are minimal. .-"m"'''n thermal movements are large, the result of he either the pipe off of the support support) or lhermallockup at the support, with overstres~ in the In these cases, it is necessary to support the sy~t~m With which an force while still pernllttlng the

Figuf.. S.7 (Courtesy
Inc)

of

Two·holt riser clamp. Corner & l.ada Cu.

TYPfE

F04' uM htsadrOQm may Fu<

uW wher.
Ihe SptlnQ !S 10 be lOCate<J on lop of a pa« 01

o

K==

constant

of variable

be'mo<w

nlshed wlft! chu bI.w~lugS

chanfl4li$ and adJustment 04
the S{)'!f'l9 1$ de $1(010" Hom

above 1M Sup porting sle«rl

f
u~ when Ihe spt'lflg IS 10 I>e «aled un d8H)('tililh ree P'P

G

"'\I

,~ I{lSufhcoenl ()i an IOlerterenC$ tl!t1Slsdmtdty abo .... lhe p.p 'n<)

I
variable-spring hangers.

l

Jr-

J

TYPE
c

B

(Cuurtesy

o] Corner & Lado Cu, Inc)

f.lO()

S<l( A NOO&"A;I ~l h~~O l[M...IH 01 A t1 ItftA.O 5.{( TA.&,.( IMlOW

compresthe resisting force, applications is to provide Ii spring setting which load subsequent to the growth of the pipe to Simultaneously, it is desired that the dif'nonoperating "cold load" and the operating "hot to prevent significant system imbalance, or cold load, of a variable spring may be calcu.,,,,,,,'..,11"" formula:
hot load + Ktl installation setting lb (N) cold load load at support. determined from weight-halancload ing calculation plus weight of support hardware carried
by lb (N)
(6,1)

.
~illdur (~.10 St andard .. .a" II., Inc) spring types A '111<1 B

'"
---~--~

typical

duue naions.

('(lurle," ,";

(f

,--_ nc-r {i(: ur

nUIClIIl.m

with the direction of the thermal which is father a of and restraint it is desirable to limit the variability of the force between the hot and cold conditions. The variability is cal-

(6.2)

..." .... ,"" in U.S. industry on critical piping this thermal movement are dictated the piping the variability of the spring can be controlled only rate. Most manufacturers preengineered with three different spring rates per load recommended for toO.5-in 02.7-mm) movement], midrange 10.5 in 02.7 mm) and long range 11 in (25.4 mm) to 2 in (50.8 mm) J thermal movement, with spring rate ratios of 4: 2: 1, respectively. Variable are selected by a manufacturer's selection chart to that shown in Table 6.2. The for selecting a variableis as described on Table 6.2.

use of carefully tension rods. moves from the compressed and the resulting moment arm creates a which is . moment and Opposite to the an d moment arm. As the moves from the low to the and the

load

IS

thermal movements are too over 2 in (50.8 rnrn] J to the use of a variable spring, the engineer may elect 1.0 use a conConstant springs are also used when pipe stress conare critical or at locations near equipment at which very low nozzle loads must be These supports provide a virtually uniform ''''''''''P'''''''' force throughout the travel range of the pipe. One method of this constant load is through the use of a pulley and weight or system; however, these of supports have disadadditional weight support and general lack of supports, as shown in Fig. 6.11, have most of and few of the drawbacks of the counterweight systems. of the principles of mechanical advantage, this ",,,on,nv, provides a nearly flat load response throughout its travel range, with variability deviation or load variation typically of the 5 of the constant-support hanger assures perfectly the entire deflection of the load. This counlo..d and moments about the main pivot is
-."'~u~,'-'constant

PO$lllOn

md,ea!Or K rod

and Hlivel stop

LOad 1I0l<e

sprinll
PIVOI

pivot $prin!} Sproog
II(0SIon

, load

lOad
adjustmerl! boll

roo

...

C""SI~IlISprlfl!:

SUppor!.

( ourt ...1' '

('

"I !"iT t;rlllfldl

'u'l'

I

J

u

tillZf Il

I.

Calcul.14I

above (for down movement] the IJflldud tt4" would

i. nut lve<'ihed,

I£'MKi peactice

4 Calcul.t. the wid ch""h tlt.t b"tt. hOi and wid "-"'d. 1.11within th. "0""'5 5 If this ctmdition ia not met, move to an adjacent aile and rtl!'W'lurli:. U load, movement, valli$lhilit)', 04' available ftV4Iceprooibfts the Im4l Hf $I vllfl$ule .upport .hould "" ce,.... d<t"o<!

'''''''.nd

""S'

10
11111

70

00

116

!.In
1.lfm 1.I!ltJ

117 -

_
1."-,1'"

71

"1:1
I ,HUH

I;.' 1.Il" 1.1',
I diU

(tift

1,01t1
I,U40

110 71
1M

141

IMI

I.HCt

HI

1.1111

'Hi

',1.111

1.1W

4.:t~~1 ~.M,ll

H,Il"

"'H< ..

;,'71

"',""

2'.,.11'«'

",7:...

".,,~,
I'

T,,,,,8_I,,,,,C
I

Iv"" 0
&lf~HrH

I yi'<' [

restraints life used when it is necesaary 1.0 resist and occasionel Ioeds ala single location or where thermal movements small to UIl4! of a rigid restraint it is more economica] to lise i!I restraint than one which permits movement. such or Ii snubber uaembly. restraints may be provided either preengineered hardstruts) or frames built up of atructural steel. back -to-back channels, or tubes are used structural steel sectiulls ill sections are sometimes used, the nature of their CWllS section added cedures. The decision of whether In usc III strut or 10 restrain the II steel Irame is dictated by considerations such as space ('(HInumber of directions ill which the restrained. lead time fur hardware load-rated since it eliminales
f
'flf

ofll\lanl ltprin« IIlpphl

ft

\ HI 11'-,

(;'U11H,1I

Jl )

I"

,N M

,c-r
00 00

.en

00

."

-e-

co

'" ""

,_ ,[-

00 N

<D

cry 00

N 00

00

'"

00

[-

00

r-

M M

r-

,,en

,C'i
<:'1

<D

,_

,-

N

.ei
00

M

o
<D

0>

:::

<:)

....

:;

c:n

...

assembly shown in 6.13 is sired (or load capac!§tillneM criteria, if necessary. the strut assembly is hued on the applied load. If the stmt does not meet required criteria, II strut size should be selected. The dirnenshown in 6.13 are used to calculate the strut The ail.!!illlil:lM!1l' mU!lt ensure that adequate speee is Iftveilable when a strut ill used. i!! made up of two end .. with for welded to intermediate of varyilll In mo1It one paddle is threaded to some field 'I'he failure mode which limthe iltrut is normelly bucldilll of the For this reason, the vendor's lead is usually ... lid only up to iii certain specified a the distance (L in 6.13). At lengths, """""'-".1 the shut will decreaee all the slenderness ratio lncreases, sccoent (or the reduction in buckling load capeeity. Strut at are normally available from the manufacturer. ill based on II tolerance ollsel from the line of action force, normally stated all :I: 6" from the installation refer Therefore, in certain situations, such all when tension if! the conload, when the length of the strut if! below the for the loed or when it ill known that there will well
all

"..""""", or
or

or

1'/20

[c I

(0 )

be no strut strut (for the

III

of the review of its component

IIrI-

rlllnge relative to the pipe
6.15. Where
DelfPl!ncliclulair

two struts loads on IIl11tie equilibrium, lUI
Illes, lUes.

Imd

PH ,. F~ - 0.9167f'

it ill ~t
H ... ti...... other ",.,

1.0 use an included

tiuln struts, when it ill used in with strucr~trillinl One of the most common types of

A,'U-I>oll Ii· l""ll 100Il001U -bo" C· 5"...:" ...", $I"'" O' 8o'@pl,,'@ E• F.

80.",,1<1'" "",no.

I>olls

I"l'e 1"11" €Io' 0&1(,1)

'@o',,,m,

(m)

I

I l
ltd
AI'R.I ..........
"j

ri~id .Irul and ,1",... ",,,1 'I,,~i

~
r

--

-i

1

(6.3)

are the applied and allowable (provided venrespectively, and SappiiOO and Sollowoble are (provided by shear (laterel) forces on cases where the lateral load exceeds the capacity of the the may choose to use a pipe strap, as shown in 6.17. The pipe also in the of a U; however, it is made of bar stock which, is welded to the support steel, provides greater resistance to latWhen support is desired in one direction only, a one-directional may be used very effectively. common of providing restraint to II is direct contact with the support steel. This may be done by sup-

()
(Q)

(b) steel for support: (ul ver t ical ,,",1,,,,,,1; Ihi ,"<'flICHI

Figur .. IUIi lise of structural lateral r estr aint.

"""-.~==+- ( 1.6

1/16 In
rnrn }

(o )

-...l~IbI

1/16,,, 116 Inm I

bidirectional l.ada Cu. inc)
(u)

p'pe

straps.

(1)1llf1ldlr.d",nal

pipe

porting the the force to the steel of support the use of structural steel. Lateral loads may be resisted by boxing in the transmitting the load attachments or The support steel, when it is in contact with the pipe, must be sized not 1.0 adequately resist the but also to provide sufficient linear contact with the pipe to local pipe wall stress criteria. must be sized with both the load and the local stress in mind. When are designed, it is often necessary to consider due to friction between the and the steel moves Axial-direction restraint of the pipe cannot he with only support steel. The load must usually be transmitted to the steel through shear welded to the pipe. These similar in function to those found with loaded damps, must be sized both and local wall stress considerations. The stress for design may usually be determined stresses caused the design conditions from the total ""n"",I,IQ stress of the material. Welded attachments often facilitate the support of freedom with a support, and certain functions axial or torsional supports) are nearly welded attachments to the pipe. However, drawbacks ill that (I) local stresses may he induced in the

due to the (2) the welds become part of the pressure ments may nut be installed For these reasons, welded
(b)

{such as 011 backtit he avoided where

The most common types of welded attachments are and trunnions. lugs are welded to the of which is to transmit the load to the restraint These are useful in resisting lateral loads. Shear loads to the support steel shear and are axial restraints. Trunnions are sections welded to the run support may be attached. of supports welded attachments are shown ill 6.19 and 6.20. When all of freedom (three translation and three of

No weld (Iyp,coi)

(c)

=====--=====

-- ====-'-'1

No ""eld (I yp,col)

Id I
Headll!! h.ll!~: (a) sill"l!! lUi!: (0) pair of lugs; Ie) four lu~"; willlliUuchifll1 steel.
(d)

heur ing

are at Ii location, the resulting support is called an anchor. An anchor Ii filed reference uf constant position and rotation through which effects from the un sides cannot he transmitted. This makes the anchor II convenient terminal point for stress analysis problems. The 621 can be built only with structural O[)[)()I!oo to hardware.

premature confined to known to lock which could be

Reser von

[:.
Rear twackel onlv If IV aii'v

n~~

J 101

/J'/
E )'(tens.on PC

restraints are usually necessary when the is to survive horizontal loads, such as or high winds, Of other dynamic such as fluid hammer. However, when the pipe has 81 high operating temperature, it is that at some 10('8tim18 II rigid restraint may not installed without thermal and the accompanying elevated stresa rallge levels in the pipe. In these cases, snubbers may be used a way similar to the use of springs when thermal movement prevents use of a Snubbers (R(! 6.22 and 6.2.1) resemble struts, except that contain III mechanism which movement in the presence of or loeds, but which locks up rapidly applied Therefore the snubber will resist dynamic loads while permitting the m~turallllnd !llower thermal uf the pipe. Note that II snubber willlnill ad U III support because of this design (ealure: when both lind vertical dynamic restraint are required at Ii of l!lr~e verthermal movement, the engineer must provide both III spring IIlId a snubber. The support will carry the weight load while the snubber restrain the dynamic loads, with both supports permitting the thermal movements. Two types Ilf snubbers are commonly available: and mer-han The snubber is made up or III "iRa,," IImls d ..uble c'hamhN reservoir hlled with I!I viS('l,us Ihud 'I'he MIr .. h .. III f ( .. nl'1O t he Iluid

Rod end lock"",

C!h!Sf.)11I

Piston

fOO eve

fbi f'll"' ••
t;rfllfldl

n

('urll)

II"J'8"1,,

",,,"II~' (Ill" IWIII"'I. (hi •

l ' Inln~rHpll ((

I

'uurff·

-, '

{II

is that , to the damping nut ure of the fnrce will not develop until III IIU tlicieu I however, should lod with the illilllli acceleration. This will a greater II shock loading when slluhhers IHe used mechanieal snubbers are used.

sideratron the

t han

when

Because of these problems, the nucleer power indusl ry ill the past few years, become concerned about the use of siluhllefS (h"lh mechanical lind fm restraining pivinK systems. One IHi'!! of concern ill the COIIgequeI1Ce III lin inoperable snubber Ihe of structural to in the event of loadw. To assure that !ali 8nubbersioclIl.ed on systerna required (or the safe operlilion of the nuclear power are intensive and IUlldional have lind will continue to be, required the NHC.
CommiUee in part the Task on on Industry Practice issued 11draft of the pvnc Technicill paper which stllks
willlHlil

(,Iullliialively, reh"hilily II" ,elaled t .. ""uhll4;'u is SHnple. Ii system any of these devices is more reliable Hum a system with them

il must be recognized that some 81lubherSlire needed sO !lIIH pil'lIi!; "yslems 10('1;11'<1 contiued spaces can he desiglled in lie Ile.i"'e t'n""j;h I.. I>hsorh thermal expension Ioads I1l1d, at the same lime, be rilPd en"""h to withstand the dynamic loads imposed 011 them.

'0

inspection

plants.
increase radiation

or economic output.

oJ)! imizillg snubbers Slid restraint» on holh oper under COIl~lflIdioll is II result of the particularly due to which life forced in-service inspection e!lj)(16ure with little increase in
011

11>1

M~d" ... in,1
lndustrie». I,~('

'"OJ''!'''''

(ul

"h ..I"If'.ph; 11>1"·h,,mml..·

ttour!

r:,..

"I All,

11 ,/ ..

are other cnnsideratjons 10 bear in mind when sn~hare used, When two hydraulic snubbers are used in l.all-de~ (see" Ig. it CllIllout be guarenteed thai buill snubbers Will Iliek simultanetherefore each snubber must be sized 10 take the full applied load, prevent failure 10 of ttl!' second !lnuhll4;'f A sec owl n'l!

[b ]

tc
(t
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ftQUf.8.241
J'(llf"r."f11!

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1~llh'_'UIJl'flrt

:->Hul,flt,U'
('!lfIJ J

,'outit::llfUIIIIII'"

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