Fundamentals Of Nursing : Infection, Asepsis, Basic concept of stress and Illness Correct Answers and Rationales

FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING TEST II CONTENT OUTLINE 1. Illness 2. Infection and Asepsis 3. Basic concept of Stress and Adaptation 1. When the General adaptation syndrome is activated, FLIGHT OR FIGHT response sets in. Sympathetic nervous system releases norepinephrine while the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine. Which of the following is true with regards to that statement? A. Pupils will constrict B. Client will be lethargic C. Lungs will bronchodilate D. Gastric motility will increase * To better understand the concept : The autonomic nervous system is composed of SYMPATHETIC and PARASYMPATHETIC Nervous system. It is called AUTONOMIC Because it is Involuntary and stimuli based. You cannot tell your heart to kindly beat for 60 per minute, Nor, Tell your blood vessels, Please constrict, because you need to wear skirt today and your varicosities are bulging. Sympathetic Nervous system is the FIGHT or FLIGHT mechanism. When people FIGHT or RUN, we tend to stimulate the ANS and dominate over SNS. Just Imagine a person FIGHTING and RUNNING to get the idea on the signs of SNS Domination. Imagine a resting and digesting person to get a picture of PNS Domination. A person RUNNING or FIGHTING Needs to bronchodilate, because the oxygen need is increased due to higher demand of the body. Pupils will DILATE to be able to see the enemy clearly. Client will be fully alert to dodge attacks and leap through obstacles during running. The client's gastric motility will DECREASE Because you cannot afford to urinate or defecate during fighting nor running. 2. Which of the following response is not expected to a person whose GAS is activated and the FIGHT OR FLIGHT response sets in? A. The client will not urinate due to relaxation of the detrusor muscle B. The client will be restless and alert C. Clients BP will increase, there will be vasodilation D. There will be increase glycogenolysis, Pancrease will decrease insulin secretion * If vasodilation will occur, The BP will not increase but decrease. It is true that Blood pressure increases during SNS Stimulation due to the fact that we need more BLOOD to circulate during the FIGHT or FLIGHT Response because the oxygen demand has increased, but this is facilitated by vasoconstriction and not vasodilation. A,B and D are all correct. The liver will increase glycogenolysis or glycogen store utilization due to a heightened demand for energy. Pancrease will decrease insulin secretion because almost every aspect of digestion that is controlled by Parasympathetic nervous system is inhibited when the SNS

dominates. 3. State in which a person’s physical, emotional, intellectual and social development or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with a previous experience. A. Illness B. Disease C. Health D. Wellness * Disease is a PROVEN FACT based on a medical theory, standards, diagnosis and clinical feature while ILLNESS Is a subjective state of not feeling well based on subjective appraisal, previous experience, peer advice etc. 4. This is the first stage of illness wherein, the person starts to believe that something is wrong. Also known as the transition phase from wellness to illness. A. Symptom Experience B. Assumption of sick role C. Medical care contact D. Dependent patient role * A favorite board question are Stages of Illness. When a person starts to believe something is wrong, that person is experiencing signs and symptoms of an illness. The patient will then ASSUME that he is sick. This is called assumption of the sick role where the patient accepts he is Ill and try to give up some activities. Since the client only ASSUMES his illness, he will try to ask someone to validate if what he is experiencing is a disease, This is now called as MEDICAL CARE CONTACT. The client seeks professional advice for validation, reassurance, clarification and explanation of the symptoms he is experiencing. client will then start his dependent patient role of receiving care from the health care providers. The last stage of Illness is the RECOVERY stage where the patient gives up the sick role and assumes the previous normal gunctions. 5. In this stage of illness, the person accepts or rejects a professionals suggestion. The person also becomes passive and may regress to an earlier stage. A. Symptom Experience B. Assumption of sick role C. Medical care contact D. Dependent patient role * In the dependent patient role stage, Client needs professionals for help. They have a choice either to accept or reject the professional's decisions but patients are usually passive and accepting. Regression tends to occur more in this period. 6. In this stage of illness, The person learns to accept the illness. A. Symptom Experience B. Assumption of sick role C. Medical care contact D. Dependent patient role * Acceptance of illness occurs in the Assumption of sick role phase of illness.

Symptom Experience B. He wants his illness to be validated. Modifiable Risks 10. Signs D. He wants someone to explain why is he feeling these signs and symptoms and wants to know the probable outcome of this experience. Dependent patient role * At this stage. Predisposing factor B. Etiology * Immunity is the ABSOLUTE Resistance to a pathogen considering that person has an INTACT IMMUNITY while susceptibility is the DEGREE of resistance. Etiology .7. Degree of resistance means how well would the individual combat the pathogens and repel infection or invasion of these disease causing organisms. 8. An Immune person is someone that can easily repel specific pathogens. Symptoms C. However. One is obliged to seek competent help * The nurse should not judge the patient and not view the patient as the cause or someone responsible for his illness. Remember that even if a person is IMMUNE [ Vaccination ] Immunity can always be impaired in cases of chemotherapy. A sick client is excused from his societal roles. Assumption of sick role C. 9. One is excused from his societal role C. One is obliged to get well as soon as possible D. the person tries to find answers for his illness. Refers to conditions that increases vulnerability of individual or group to illness or accident A. He wants to find out if what he feels are normal or not normal. Susceptibility B. HIV. In this stage. Risk factor D. Burns. his symptoms explained and the outcome reassured or predicted A. One should be held responsible for his condition B. The following are true with regards to aspect of the sick role except A. 11. The patient seeks for validation of his symptom experience. Etiology C. Refers to the degree of resistance the potential host has against a certain pathogen A. A susceptible person is someone who has a very low degree of resistance to combat pathogens. A group of symptoms that sums up or constitute a disease A. Medical care contact D. etc. Virulence D. Immunity C. Oblige to get well as soon as possible and Obliged to seek competent help. Syndrome B.

In Tourette syndrome. A woman undergoing radiation therapy developed redness and burning of the skin around the best. Neoplastic B. This is best classified as what type of disease? A. Traumatic C. Syndrome means COLLECTION of these symptoms that occurs together to characterize a certain disease. 3. For example. Term to describe the reactiviation and recurrence of pronounced symptoms of a disease A. 14.Coli. The classification of CANCER according to its etiology Is best described as 1. Tics with coprolalia. A child frequently exposed to the X-RAY Machine develops redness and partial thickness burns over the chest area. Iatrogenic * Iatrogenic diseases refers to those that resulted from treatment of a certain disease. Cancer is considered as IDIOPATHIC because the cause is UNKNOWN. 12. 13. An acute and sub acute diseases . 6. Acute C. Nosocomial are infections that acquired INSIDE the hospital. 5. Traumatic are brought about by injuries like Motor vehicular accidents. 2 and 3 C. 5 and 2 B. choreas or other movement disorders are characteristics of TOURETTE SYNDROME. Sub acute D. 4. Remission B. Example is UTI Because of catheterization. Emission C.* Symptoms are individual manifestation of a certain disease. patient will manifest TICS. palilalia. echolalia. A type of illness characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation A. Nosocomial Idiopathic Neoplastic Traumatic Congenital Degenrative A. This is commonly caused by E. but this alone is not enough to diagnose the patient as other diseases has the same tic manifestation. Chronic B. 3 and 5 * Aside from being NEOPLASTIC. Exacerbation D. 3 and 4 D. Neoplastic are malignant diseases cause by proliferation of abnormally growing cells. For example. Sub acute 15. Nosocomial D. 2. Sub chronic * A good example is Multiple sclerosis that characterized by periods of remissions and exacerbation and it is a CHRONIC Disease.

Functional B. It is the science of organism as affected by factors in their environment. This is the study of the patterns of health and disease. Functional B. ORGANIC BRAIN SYNDROME are anatomic and physiologic change in the BRAIN that is NON PROGRESSIVE BUT IRREVERSIBLE caused by alteration in structure of the brain and it's supporting structure which manifests different sign and symptoms of neurological. 17. Ecology C. physiologic and psychologic alterations. It deals with diseases in relationship with the environment. A. 19. Mental disorders manifesting symptoms of psychoses without any evident organic or structural damage are termed as INORGANIC PSYCHOSES while alteration in the organ structures that causes symptoms of bizaare pyschotic behavior is termed as ORGANIC PSYCHOSES. which is usually due to abnormal response of the organ to stressors. Inorganic D. Ecology C. Organic * As the word implies. 16. Occupational C.occurs too short to manifest remissions. Its occurrence and distribution in man. Statistics D. Diseases that results from changes in the normal structure. 18. This was asked during the previous boards. for the purpose of control and prevention of disease. A. Organic . Inorganic diseases is synonymous with FUNCTIONAL diseases wherein. Geography * Ecology is the science that deals with the ECOSYSTEM and its effects on living things in the biosphere. Epidemiology B. Inorganic D. A. There is no evident structural. Epidemiology B. Epidimiology is simply the Study of diseases and its occurence and distribution in man for the purpose of controlling and preventing diseases. It deals with the relationship between disease and geographical environment. Statistics D. anatomical or physical change in the structure of the organ or system but function is altered due to other causes. from recognizable anatomical changes in an organ or body tissue is termed as A. Chronic diseases persists longer than 6 months that is why remissions and exacerbation are observable. Geography * Refer to number 17. Therefore. ORGANIC Diseases are those that causes a CHANGE in the structure of the organs and systems. Occupational C. Refers to diseases that produced no anatomic changes but as a result from abnormal response to a stimuli.

Examples are prosthetis fitting for an amputated leg after an accident. good nutrition. Secondary prevention are those that deals with early diagnostics. To best differentiate the two. Iron therapy to treat anemia etc. Tertiary D. Primary B. Here. 21. None of the above * Perhaps one of the easiest concept but asked frequently in the NLE. Self monitoring of glucose among diabetics. Primary refers to preventions that aims in preventing the disease. Antibiotic treatment to cure infection. . Diagnostics etc. will move the client on PRE ILLNESS STATE again. ASPIRING no longer cure the patient or PUT HIM IN THE PRE ILLNESS STATE. knowledge seeking behaviors etc. Even if the person feels healthy. ASA therapy is done in order to prevent coagulation of the blood that can lead to thrombus formation and a another possible stroke. Examples are monthly breast self exam. Chest X-RAY. Examples are healthy lifestyle. LESSEN the person's susceptibility to illness. 20. Its side effect is OTOTOXICITY [ CN VIII ] that leads to TINNITUS or ringing of the ears. In cases of ASPIRING Therapy in cases of stroke. In what level of prevention does the nurse encourage optimal health and increases person’s susceptibility to illness? A. The person feels signs and symptoms and seeks Diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent deblitating complications. None of the above * The nurse never increases the person's susceptibility to illness but rather. None of the above * Secondary prevention is also known as HEALTH MAINTENANCE Prevention. case finding and treatments. Secondary C. 22. Tertiary prevention aims on maintaining optimum level of functioning during or after the impact of a disease that threatens to alter the normal body functioning. Tertiary D. Secondary C. Secondary C. You might wonder why I spelled ASPIRIN as ASPIRING. Physical examinations. TPA Therapy after stroke etc. The confusing part is between the treatment in secondary and treatment in tertiary. However. In what level of prevention according to Leavell and Clark does the nurse support the client in obtaining OPTIMAL HEALTH STATUS after a disease or injury? A. Primary B. A. Tertiary D. A client with ANEMIA that is being treated with ferrous sulfate is considered being in the SECONDARY PREVENTION because ANEMIA once treated. We are required to MAINTAIN our health by monthly check ups. Also known as HEALTH MAINTENANCE prevention. Primary B.* Refer to number 16.

Tertiary D. Newman B. 28. None of the above * PPD or PERSONAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES are worn by the workes in a hazardous environment to protect them from injuries and hazards. Who conceptualized health as integration of parts and subparts of an individual? A. Secondary C. What level of prevention does this belongs? A. Tertiary D.23. Neuman C. Which is the best way to disseminate information to the public? A. An emerging new way to disseminate is through the internet. BCG in community health nursing is what type of prevention? A. The best way to disseminate information to the public is by TELEVISION followed by RADIO. leaflets and brochures. None of the above 26. Community bill boards D. Secondary C. Rogers * The supra and subsystems are theories of Martha Rogers but the parts and . School bulletins C. Tertiary D. 24. A regular pap smear for woman every 3 years after establishing normal pap smear for 3 consecutive years Is advocated. Newspaper B. This is how the DOH establish its IEC Programs other than publising posters. Radio and Television * An actual board question. PPD In occupational health nursing is what type of prevention? A. Primary B. Secondary C. This is considered as a PRIMARY prevention because the nurse prevents occurence of diseases and injuries. None of the above 27. Secondary C. Primary B. None of the above 25. Watson D. Self monitoring of blood glucose for diabetic clients is on what level of prevention? A. Primary B. Tertiary D. Primary B.

Genetics B. Environment D. I just used that to help you remember her theory of health. Genetics B. Surgical Asepsis B. Environment D. Bernard defined health as the ability to maintain internal milieu and Rogers defined Health as Wellness that is influenced by individual's culture.4 D. Lifestyle 32. Cannon D. Health is integration of all parts and subparts of an individual A. Excessive alcohol intake is what type of risk factor? A. mental and social wellbeing and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Age C. Health is the ability to maintain balance 3. 2.3.3 B. The second one is from Walter Cannon's homeostasis theory. 30. The theorist the advocated that health is the ability to maintain dynamic equilibrium is A. 1. Third one is from Claude Bernard's concept of Health as Internal Milieu and the last one is Neuman's Theory. Hans Selye postulated Concepts about Stress and Adaptation. Margarex Newman defined health as an EXPANDING CONSCIOUSNESS. 2.4 * All of the following are correct statement about health.4 C. She stated that HEALTH is a state where in all parts and subparts of an individual are in harmony with the whole system. Lifestyle 33. Health is a state of complete physical. Osteoporosis and degenerative diseases like Osteoarthritis belongs to what type of risk factor? A. 1.3. Medical Asepsis C. 1. 31. Also known as STERILE TECHNIQUE A. 29. Rogers * Walter Cannon advocated health as HOMEOSTASIS or the ability to maintain dynamic equilibrium.3. Selye C. Her name is Margaret not Margarex. The following are concept of health: 1. Health is the ability to maintain internal milieu 4. Age C. Sepsis . Bernard B.subparts are Betty Neuman's. The first one is the definition by WHO.2.2.

A substance usually intended for use on inanimate objects. A. 37. who is without signs of illness but harbors pathogen within his body and can be transferred to another A. Auto claving C. Refers to a person or animal. Autoclaving is a form of Sterilization. Agent D. Disinfectant C. Medical asepsis * Both A and B are capable on killing spores. Carrier B.D. Autoclave * Disinfectants are used on inanimate objects while Antiseptics are intended for use on persons and other living things. Agent C. Illness period D. known or believed to have been exposed to a disease. That is when autoclaving or steam under pressure gets in. The disease has been introduced to the body but no sign and symptom appear because the pathogen is not yet strong enough to cause it . Host B. A. Autoclaving can kill almost ALL type of microoganism including their spores. Convalescent period * In incubation period. Carrier 35. Incubation period B. Disinfection D. Environment D. 34. Prodromal period C. Sterilization B. Both can kill and inhibit growth of microorganism but cannot kill their spores. The third period of infectious processes characterized by development of specific signs and symptoms A. Asepsis * Surgical Asepsis is also known as STERILE TECHNIQUE while Medical Asepsis is synonymous with CLEAN TECHNIQUE. Disinfection is the PROCESS of removing pathogens but not their spores. Contact C. 38. Sterilization B. This is a person or animal. Antiseptic D. also known as your CLEAN TECHNIQUE. Medical Asepsis is a PRACTICE designed to minimize or reduce the transfer of pathogens. This is a process of removing pathogens but not their spores A. Host 36. that destroys pathogens but not the spores.

Etiologic/Infectious agent B. runny nose. 42. we can now assume that the mailman is in the incubation period. Susceptible host Portal of entry Portal of exit Etiologic agent . A child with measles developed fever and general weakness after being exposed to another child with rubella. Illness period D. Koplik's spot heralds the Illness period and cough is the last symptom to disappear. 41. A minute after exposure. fatigue. Illness period is characterized by the appearance of specific signs and symptoms or refer tp as time with the greatest symptom experience. All of this processes take place in 10 days that is why. Incubation period B. 3. This is when the sign and symptoms starts to appear. This is when the appearance of non specific signs and symptoms sets in. 40. Portal of Entry C. In the situation above. Acme is the PEAK of illness intensity while the convalescent period is characterized by the abatement of the disease process or it's gradual disappearance. Convalescent period * Anthrax can have an incubation period of hours to 7 days with an average of 48 hours. 2. It is easily manipulated by the Nurses using the tiers of prevention. Illness period D. Incubation period B. Koplik's Spot and Rashes must appear. the specific signs of Fever. Mode of transmission * Mode of transmission is the weakest link in the chain of infection. A 50 year old mailman carried a mail with anthrax powder in it. therefore. Prodromal period C. Convalescent period * To be able to categorize MEASLES in the Illness period. Only general signs and symptoms appeared and the Specific signs and symptoms is yet to appear. Universal precaution or Isolation techniques. the illness is still in the Prodromal period. Considered as the WEAKEST LINK in the chain of infection that nurses can manipulate to prevent spread of infection and diseases A. Since the question stated exposure. Prodromal period C. he still hasn’t developed any signs and symptoms of anthrax.and may still need to multiply. Which of the following is the exact order of the infection chain? 1. In what stage of infectious process does this child belongs? A. In what stage of infectious process does this man belongs? A. The second period is called prodromal period. Susceptible host D. either by instituting transmission based precautions. 39. 4. Signs and symptoms of measles during the prodromal phase are Fever. Measles is also known as 10 day measles. cough and conjunctivitis.

3. That is why HANDWASHING is the single most . is the main cause of cross contamination in hospital setting. Spread from patient to patient C. What is the mode of transmission of Lyme disease. 45. Direct contact transmission B.4. 5. You correctly answered him that Lyme disease is transmitted via A.1 C.6. A simple way to understand the process is by looking at the lives of a young queen ant that is starting to build her colony.5. Virulence C. 4. Mode of transmission A.2. Vehicle borne transmission C. A pathogen should have a TARGET ORGAN/S. Air borne transmission D. The pathogen should be specific to these organs to cause an infection. It will first proliferate on a RESERVOIR and will need a PORTAL OF EXIT to be able to TRANSMIT irslef using a PORTAL OF ENTRY to a SUSCEPTIBLE HOST. 1. Spread by cross contamination via hands of caregiver D. not infective to humans but deadly to birds.6 B. A 15 year old high school student asked you.5.1 D. Cause by unclean instruments used by doctors and nurses * The hands of the caregiver like nurses.1 * Chain of infection starts with the SOURCE : The etiologic agent itself. specially AIDS Patient. 43. Imagine the QUEEN ANT as a SOURCE or the ETIOLOGIC AGENT.2. Markee. Contact transmission of infectious organism in the hospital is usually cause by A. could be infected with these NON SPECIFIC diseases due to impaired immune system. She first need to build a COLONY. Urinary catheterization B. 44. Vector borne transmission * Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia Burdorferi and is transmitted by a TICK BITE. They need to EXIT [PORTAL OF EXIT] their colony and crawl [MODE OF TRANSMISSION] in search of foods by ENTERING / INVADING [PORTAL OF ENTRY] our HOUSE [SUSCEPTIBLE HOST]. we can easily arrange the chain of infection. Mycobacterium Avium is NON SPECIFIC to human organs and therefore. OR the RESERVOIR where she will start to lay the first eggs to be able to produce her worker ants and soldier ants to be able to defend and sustain the new colony. Pathogenicity B. Reservoir 6.5.2.3.3. An immunocompromised individual.2. The ability of the infectious agent to cause a disease primarily depends on all of the following except A. 6.6.5.3. Non Specificity * To be able to cause a disease. Invasiveness D. By imagining the Ant's life cycle.4.4.

coughs or laugh that is usually projected at a distance of 3 feet. Airborne transmission C. 46. A woman with completed immunization of DPT need not receive TT1 and TT2. Artificial active immunity D. Vehicle transmission D. Fair skinned person also has a higher risk for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Natural active immunity B. Agatha asked you. A.Coli seems to be the major cause of this incident. Immunization * Remember that intact skin and mucus membrane is our first line of defense against infection. Considered as the first line of defense of the body against infection A. 49. It is the spread of microogranisms from patient o patient. 50. Droplet transmission B.important procedure to prevent the occurence of cross contamination and nosocomial infection. Color of the skin could affect person's susceptibility to certain skin diseases. Natural passive immunity C. what type of immunity is TT Injections? You correctly answer her by saying Tetanus toxoid immunization is a/an A. WBC C. Leukocytes D. Vector borne transmission 47. B best fits Cross Contamination. Graciel asked you. Artificial passive immunity * TT1 ti TT2 are considered the primary dose. while TT3 to TT5 are the booster dose. Medication like corticosteroids could supress a person's immune system that will lead to increase susceptibility. 48. She suffered multiple injuries and was injected Tetanus toxoid Immunoglobulin. Graciel has been injected TT5. Skin B. Faith or religious belief do not affect person's susceptibility to illness. her last dosed for tetanus toxoid immunization. All of the following contributes to host susceptibility except A. D refers to Nosocomial infection and UTI is the most common noscomial infection in the hospital caused by urinary catheterization. Agatha. Creed B. It is Artificial because it did not occur in the course of actual illness or infection. Immunization C. Color of the skin * Creed. A dark skinned person has lower risk of skin cancer than a fair skinned person. Transmission occurs when an infected person sneezes. E. it is Active because what has been passed is an actual toxin and not a ready made immunoglobulin. What immunity does TTIg provides? You best . Tetanus toxoid is the actual toxin produce by clostridium tetani but on its WEAK and INACTIVATED form. Current medication being taken D. was hacked and slashed by a psychotic man while she was crossing the railway.

because the body of agatha did not produce it. The rest. Water helps remove transient bacteria by working with soap to create the lather that reduces surface tension. It is passive because her immune system is not stimulated but rather. This is considered as the most important aspect of handwashing A. Medical asepsis do not require hands to be above the waist D. Time B. will just enhance friction. 51. a ready made Immune globulin is given to immediately supress the invasion.answered her by saying TTIg provides A. Artificial active immunity D. Disinfecting C. Time is of essence but friction is the most essential aspect of handwashing. The hands must always be above the waist B. Friction C. 90% Chance it is the correct answer in the local board. The hands are cleaner than the elbow C. This is artificial. Sterilizing D. wherein. The rationale is because in medical asepsis. Agatha was already wounded and has injuries. Natural active immunity B. to limit contamination of the lower arm. Cleaning B. Natural passive immunity C. Soap * The most important aspect of handwashing is FRICTION. Below the elbow. 5 to 10 seconds each hand . What agatha needs now is a ready made anti toxin in the form of ATS or TTIg. Water D. 54. 53. In handwashing by medical asepsis. Hands are dirtier than the lower arms * Hands are held BELOW the elbow in medical asepsis in contrast with surgical asepsis. Or should I say. The hands should always be below the elbow. Below the elbow. 52. 100% because I have yet to see question from 1988 to 2005 board questions that has option HANDWASHING on it but is not the correct answer. Handwashing * When you see the word HANDWASHING as one of the options. The use of soap lowers the surface tension thereby increasing the effectiveness of friction. Above the elbow. Artificial passive immunity * In this scenario. Giving the toxin [TT Vaccine] itself would not help Agatha because it will take time before the immune system produce antitoxin. This is the single most important procedure that prevents cross contamination and infection A. Hands are held …. The suggested time per hand on handwashing using the time method is A. Hands are considered dirtier than the elbow and therefore. Above the elbow. A. nurses are required to keep the hands above the waist.

55. 15 seconds D. is 15 to 30 seconds. The minimum time in washing each hand should never be below A. The recommended time. 10 seconds C. while other. a minimum of 15 minutes is required D. 15 to 30 seconds each hand D. For it to be effective. Which of the following is not true about sterilization. as long as the water reached 100 degree Celsius * Boiling is the most common and least expensive method of sterilization used in home. The number of organism is directly proportional to the length of time required for sterilization * Equipments with LARGE LUMEN are easier to clean than those with small lumen. 5 seconds B. with coagulated protein requires longer time D. Karlita asked you. 2-3 ml C. 1-2 ml B. . cleaning and disinfection? A. It doesn’t matter how long you boil the articles. 1 tsp [ 5ml ] of liquid soap is recommended for handwashing procedure. 30 to 60 seconds each hand * Each hands requires atleast 15 to 30 seconds of handwashing to effectively remove transient microorganisms. 56. B C and D are all correct. How long should she boil her glass baby bottle in water? You correctly answered her by saying A. The minimum time for boiling articles is 5 minutes B. 2-4 ml D. 30 seconds * According to Kozier.B. 5-10 ml * If a liquid soap is to be used. How many ml of liquid soap is recommended for handwashing procedure? A. For boiling to be effective. 57. you should boil articles for atleast 15 minutes. Boil the glass baby bottler and other articles for atleast 10 minutes C. 58. Sterilization is the complete destruction of all viable microorganism including spores C. again. 10 to 15 seconds each hand C. Equipment with small lumen are easier to clean B. Some organism are easily destroyed. The minimum time required for watching each hands is 10 seconds and should not be lower than that.

sterilizing them. ethylene oxide gas and autoclave or steam under pressure. Once soiled. All kinds of microorganism and their spores are destroyed by autoclave machine B. This type of disinfection is best done in sterilizing drugs. A TB patient was discharged in the hospital. Routine disinfection * Terminal disinfection refers to practices to remove pathogens that stayed in the belongings or immediate environemnt of an infected client who has been discharged. like clamps and scissors should be C. Shaking the linen will further spread pathogens that has been harbored by the fabric. Which of the following is not true in implementing medical asepsis A. Boiling the food will alter its consistency and nutrients. A UV Lamp was placed in the room where he stayed for a week. The autoclaved instruments can be used for 1 month considering the bags are still intact D.59. Radiation * Imagine foods and drugs that are being sterilized by a boiling water. Concurrent disinfection C. Metals with locks. 61. Shake the linens to remove dust B. on their hinge. Wash hand before and after patient contact B. fold it inwards clean surface out. 60. during the autoclave . Practice good hygiene * NEVER shake the linens. Terminal disinfection D. Boiling Water B. Regular disinfection D. Gas sterilization C. 62. An example is cleaning the bedside commode of a client with radium implant on her cervix with a bleach disinfectant after each voiding. Concurrent disinfection refers to ongoing efforts implented during the client's stay to remove or limit pathogens in his supplies. The instruments are put into unlocked position. Autoclaving the food is never performed. Ethylene oxide gas used in gas sterlization is TOXIC to humans. Keep soiled linens from touching the clothings C. Autoclaving different kinds of metals at one time is advisable * Only C is correct. Steam under pressure D. belongings. What type of disinfection is this? A. Which of the following is true about autoclaving or steam under pressure? A. They will be inactivated by these methods. immediate environment in order to control the spread of the disease. foods and other things that are required to be sterilized before taken in by the human body A. Radiation using microwave oven or Ionizing radiation penetrates to foods and drugs thus. An example would be Killing airborne TB Bacilli using UV Light.

N95 Mask or particulate masks can filter organism as mall as 1 micromillimeter * only D is correct. Masks should be worn not greater than 4 hours. Mask should cover both nose and mouth. it should be in her cervix. Only the same type of metals should be autoclaved as this will alteration in plating of these metals. broken glass and lancets are considered as injurious wastes. Yellow trashcan with a tag “INJURIOUS WASTES” * Needles. Puncture proof container B. Wear gloves. Using a long forceps. remove it gently and place it on a lead container C. Where should you put a wet adult diaper? A. Miranda Priestly. Call the physician. N95 mask or particulate mask can filter organism as small as 1 micromillimeter. wet diapers and dressings are thrown in yellow trashcans. Autoclaved instruments are to be used within 2 weeks.UNLOCKED in order to minimize stiffening caused by autoclave to the hinges of these metals. Green trashcan B. You are not allowed to touch. was diagnosed with cancer of the cervix. 63. as it will lose effectiveness after 4 hours. scalpels and other sharps are to be disposed in a puncture proof container. Yellow trashcan * Infectious waste like blood and blood products. Masks will not function optimally when wet. Using a long forceps. Reused PET Bottles C. scalpels. Needles. 66. 65. As a nurse. Black trashcan C. it is correct to put them at disposal via a/an A. You noticed that the radioactive internal implant protrudes to her vagina where supposedly. Which of the following is true about masks? A. re insert or remove it * A dislodged radioactive cervical implant in brachytherapy are to be picked by a LONG FORCEP and stored in a LEAD CONTAINER in order to prevent damage on . There are recently discovered microorganism that is invulnarable to extreme heat. An executive of RAMP magazine. Orange trashcan D. Mask functions better if they are wet with alcohol C. NOT ALL microorganism are destroyed by autoclaving. 64. Black trashcan D. What should be your initial action? A. Mask should only cover the nose B. Masks can provide durable protection even when worn for a long time and after each and every patient care D. Push it back towards the cervix then call the physician B. Remove it and place it on a lead container D.

Never pointing a needle towards a body part C. in leech therapy or LEECH PHLEBOTOMY are to be disposed on a BIO HAZARD container.the client's normal tissue. What precaution is used for this patient? A. Droplet precaution . Do not give fresh and uncooked fruits and vegetables to Mr. Calling the physician is the second most appropriate action among the choices. Negative pressure room will prevent air inside the room from escaping. Black trashcan D. 69. They are never re used as this could cause transfer of infection. In specially marked BIO HAZARD Containers B. These leeches are hospital grown and not the usual leeches found in swamps. In a room with negative air pressure and atleast 3 air exchanges an hour D. Where should you put the leeches? A. 68. Alejar. Standard precaution B. with Category II TB? A. touch it with her bare hands. Recapping the needles could cause injury to the nurse and spread of infection. In a room with positive air pressure and atleast 3 air exchanges an hour B. Airborne precaution C. A client has been diagnosed with RUBELLA. Recapping the needle before disposal to prevent injuries B. Leeches are brought back to the culture room. Standard precaution is sufficient for an HIV patient. A client with neutropenia are not given fresh and uncooked fruits and vegetables for even the non infective organisms found in these foods could cause severe infection on an immunocompromised patients. Air exchanges are necessary since the client's room do not allow air to get out of the room. They are directly disposed in a puncture proof container after used. After leech therapy. A nurse should never attempt to put it back nor. 67. Which of the following should the nurse AVOID doing in preventing spread of infection? A. Gatchie. they are not thrown away for they are reusable * Leeches. Yellow trashcan C. In a room with positive air pressure and atleast 6 air exchanges an hour C. Where should you put Mr. In a room with negative air pressure and atleast 6 air exchanges an hour * TB patients should have a private room with negative air pressure and atleast 6 to 12 air exhanges per hour. 70. B C and D are all appropriate. with Neutropenia * Never recap needles. Using only Standard precaution to AIDS Patients D.

Microorganism travels to moist surfaces faster than with dry surfaces B. 71.D. Standard precaution B. and therefore. What precaution is used for this patient? A. and so is colostomy and rectal tubes. Droplet precaution D. Airborne precaution C. considered it sterile D. Contact precaution * Droplet precaution is sufficient on client's with RUBELLA or german measles. continue to insert the NG Tube B. Obtain a new NG Tube for the client C. It is generally caused by GABS or Staph Aureaus. Contact precaution * Measles is highly communicable and more contagious than Rubella. just move around the sterile field to pick it rather than reaching for it * Human skin is impossible to be sterilized. 74. Contact precaution * Impetigo causes blisters or sores in the skin. Ask your senior nurse what to do * The digestive tract is not sterile. Droplet precaution D. Once the skin has been sterilized. When in doubt about the sterility of an object. she accidentally dip the end of the tube in the client’s glass containing distilled drinking water which is definitely not sterile. As a nurse. Standard precaution B. NGT tube need not be sterile. It contains normal flora of microorganism. what should you do? A. Clean technique is sufficient during NGT and colostomy care. The nurse is to insert an NG Tube when suddenly. It requires airborne precaution as it is spread by small particle droplets that remains suspended in air and disperesed by air movements. 73. A client has been diagnosed with MEASLES. What precaution is used for this patient? A. All of the following are principle of SURGICAL ASEPSIS except A. simple errors like this would not cause harm to the patient. A B and D are all correct. Don’t mind the incident. Airborne precaution C. It is spread by skin to skin contact or by scratching the lesions and touching another person's skin. consider it not sterile C. A client has been diagnosed with IMPETIGO. 72. If you can reach the object by overreaching. . Disinfect the NG Tube before reinserting it again D.

he must wash his hands again as these equipments are said to be UNSTERILE. Only 4 gingers are slipped when picking . 78. Grasping the first glove by inserting four fingers. with thumbs up underneath the cuff C. 77. Slipping gloved hand with all fingers when picking up the second glove B. Autoclaved linens and gowns are considered sterile for about 4 months as long as the bagging is intact B. After surgical hand scrub C. The non dominant hand C. Autoclaved linens are considered sterile only within 2 weeks even if the bagging is intact. If a scrubbed person leaves the area of the sterile field. Adjust only the fitting of the gloves after both gloves are on * The nurse should only adjust fitting of the gloves when they are both on the hands. If he wash his hands prior to putting all these equipments. Surgical technique is a sole effort of each nurse C. The rationale is simply because humans tend to use the dominant hand first before the non dominant hand. but the gown need not be changed.75. he must do the process all over again. Which of the following should the nurse do when applying gloves prior to a surgical procedure? A. The dominant hand B. The left hand D. Out of 10 humans that will put on their sterile gloves. As the scrubbed nurse. Putting the gloves into the dominant hand first D. * Sterile conscience. If a scrubbed person leave the sterile field and area. Which of the following is true in SURGICAL ASEPSIS? A. when should you apply the goggles. Sterile conscience. or the moral imperative of a nurse to be honest in practicing sterile technique. the dominant hand. cap and mask prior to washing the hands. is the best method to enhance sterile technique. Its up to the nurse for her own convenience * Gloves are put on the non dominant hands first and then. Surgical technique is a team effort of each nurse. No specific order. Immediately after entering the sterile field B. Before surgical hand scrub D. He/she must do handwashing and gloving again. Before entering the sterile field * The nurse should put his goggles. In putting sterile gloves. Not doing so will break the sterile technique. Which should be gloved first? A. is the best method to enhance sterile technique D. 8 of them will put the gloves on their non dominant hands first. 76. shoe cap and mask prior to the operation? A.

4. The glove of the non dominant hand B. Which gloves should you remove first? A. 3. Order in removing the gloves Is unnecessary * Gloves are worn in the non dominant hand first.4 C.1. Gloves 5.5 * The nurse should use CaMEy Hand and Body Lotion in moisturizing his hand before surgical procedure and after handwashing. Don the gloves first and wear the Gown [BODY]. Gloves are put on the non dominant hands first. which should be the exact sequence? 1. In removing protective devices. The glove of the left hand D.4 B.2. Before a surgical procedure.2 B.3.5. Gown A. Cap 3. Mask 4.1.1.3.1.4 D.3. Ca stands for CAP. Gloves 5.3. Eye wear or goggles 2. 2.5. Gown A.2.up the second gloves.1 D. 2. 1.5 . Mask 4.4. 80.1. 3. and is removed also from the non dominant hand first. 4. [ Yes. Give the sequence on applying the protective items listed below 1. Ey stands for eye goggles.4.2.5. Rationale is simply because in 10 people removing gloves. The first glove is grasp by simply picking it up with the first 2 fingers and a thumb in a pinching motion. 79.2.3. You cannot slip all of your fingers as the cuff is limited and the thumb would not be able to enter the cuff.5 C.4.5.1. I created this mnemonic and I advise you use it because you can never forget Camey hand and body lotion. 8 of them will use the dominant hand first and remove the gloves of the non dominant hand. Cap 3. M stands for MASK. Eye wear or goggles 2. I know it is spelled as CAMAY ]] 81. 5.3. The glove of the dominant hand C. 2. The nurse will do handwashing and then [HAND].

82. 1 inch B. shoe cover.* When the nurse is about to remove his protective devices. In pouring a plain NSS into a receptacle located in a sterile field. If you pour the NSS bottle into a receptacle 10 inches above it. that is too high. 3 inches C. The tip should always be above the handle C. The nurse will remove the GLOVES first followed by the MASK and GOWN then. She removes gloves and hands before leaving the client’s room 4. you can answer it correctly by imagining.3. She discards contaminated suction catheter tip in trashcan found in the clients room A. In situation questions like this. Imagine. She wears mask. She washes her hands before and after removing gloves.2 B. The mouth of the NSS bottle would dip into the receptacle as you fill it. after suctioning the client’s secretion 3. other devices like cap.3 C.2. If you pour the NSS into a receptacle 1 to 3 inch above it. covering the nose and mouth 2. most will spill out because the force will be too much for the buoyant force to handle. 1. The tip of the sterile forceps is considered sterile. how high should the nurse hold the bottle above the receptacle? A. 84. 1. This is to prevent contamination of hair. chances are. 83. 10 inches * Even if you do not know the answer to this question. 1. etc. if the tip is HIGHER than the handle. Chances are. It is used to manipulate the objects in the sterile field using the non sterile hands. Which of the following are appropriate actions by the nurse? 1. The handle should point downward and the tip. 6 inches is the correct answer. 6 inches D. The nurse enters the room of the client on airborne precaution due to tuberculosis. you will eventually lower its tip making the solution in your hand go BACK into the tip thus contaminating the sterile area of the forcep. always upward * A sterile forcep is usually dipped into a disinfectant or germicidal solution. To prevent this. The tip should always be lower than the handle B. the tip should always be lower than the handle. making it contaminated. the solution will go into the handle and into your hands and as you use the forcep.2. IMAGINATION is very important.4 . How should the nurse hold a sterile forceps? A. It is not to low nor too high. The handle and the tip should be at the same level D. as you pour the NSS. neck and face area. It will also be difficult to pour something precisely into a receptacle as the height increases between the receptacle and the bottle.

1.3 C.2 B. When removing gloves. Hemostasis refers to the ARREST of blood flowing abnormally through a damage vessel. A.3. A psychologic fear like nightmare and a real fear or real perceive threat evokes common manifestation like tachycardia. the first to be removed to prevent spread of microorganism as you remove the mask and gown. mask. Gloves and contaminated suction tip are thrown in trashcan found in the clients room. Wash gloved hand first B. Hemostasis refers to the dynamic state of equilibrium * All stressors evoke common adaptive response. mask and shoe cover are worn BEFORE scrubbing. According to this theorist.D. sweating. Remove mask and gown before removing gloves * Gloves are the dirtiest protective item nurses are wearing and therefore. Wear cap. Use glove to glove skin to skin technique D. 1.2. 85. 88. Stress can be both REAL or IMAGINARY. 2.3 D.3 * All soiled equipments use in an infectious client are disposed INSIDE the client's room to prevent contamination outside the client's room. When performing surgical hand scrub. shoe cover after you scrubbed A. which of the following nursing action is required to prevent contamination? 1. Homeostasis is the one that refers to dynamic state of equilibrium according to Walter Cannon. Stress is not always present in diseases and illnesses B. in his modern stress theory. Stress is the non specific response of the body to any demand made upon it. Which of the following is TRUE in the concept of stress? A. Peel off gloves inside out C. 86. Keep hands above the elbow when washing and rinsing 4. All stressors evoke common adaptive response D. clean and with nail polish 2. 2. Stress are only psychological and manifests psychological symptoms C. Keep fingernail short. Hans Selye . 87. The nurse is correct in using Mask the covers both nose and mouth. which of the following is an inappropriate nursing action? A. 1. tachypnea. Hands are washed before and after removing the gloves and before and after you enter the client's room.4 * Cap. ALL diseases and illness causes stress. increase muscle tension etc. Open faucet with knee or foot control 3.

RESISTANCE and EXHAUSTION. Claude Bernard D. you arm. eventually. Walter Cannon C. Example is when you have been wounded in your finger. Results from the prolonged exposure to stress B. No diseases are caused by a single stressors.B. It is essential because it is evoked by the body's normal pattern of response and leads to a favorable adaptive mechanism that are utilized in the future when more stressors are encountered by the body. He conceptualized two types of human response to stress. death. Martha Rogers * Hans Selye is the only theorist who proposed an intriguing theory about stress that has been widely used and accepted by professionals today. example is nightmare. whenever he encounters stresses. always adapts to it C. Man. 91. do not always adapt to stress. An example of favorable stress is when a carpenter meets the demand and stress of everyday work. Stress is essential B. Stress is not always something to be avoided D. back and leg muscles hypertorphies to adapt to the stress of heavy lifting. stress can lead to exhaustion and eventually. 90. Levels or resistance is increased . A. it will produce PAIN to let you know that you should protect that particular damaged area.C and D are all correct. Which of the following is TRUE with regards to the concept of Modern Stress Theory? A. Man can encounter stress even while asleep. The GAS or general adaptation syndrome which is characterized by stages of ALARM. Disease are multifactorial. A single stress can cause a disease D. a stress will lead to adaptations to decrease that particular stress. The Local adaptation syndrome controls stress through a particular body part. Sometimes. Stress does not always lead to distress * Man. Another example is when you are frequently lifting heavy objects. No man can live normally without stress. 89. thus. He also develop larger muscle and more dense bones in the arm. Stress are sometimes favorable and are not always a cause for distress. it will also produce inflammation to limit and control the spread of injury and facilitate healing process. Which of the following is NOT TRUE with regards to the concept of Modern Stress Theory? A. Stress always leads to distress * Stress is ESSENTIAL. Stress is not a nervous energy B. He then develops calluses on the hand to lessen the pressure of the hammer against the tissues of his hand. Which of the following is TRUE in the stage of alarm of general adaptation syndrome? A. Man does not encounter stress if he is asleep C.

the Level of resistance are decreased A. Exhaustion results to a prolonged exposure to stress. Stage of Exhaustion 94. Stage of Resistance C. This is when the adaptive mechanism are mobilized. you vessels constricted and bp increased. Here. Stage of Alarm B. Resistance is when the levels of resistance increases and characterized by being able to adapt. Characterized by adaptation D. Stage of Alarm B. 95. Resistance is absent in the stage of exhaustion. Stage of GAS wherein. Resistance is increased in the stage of resistance. The stage of GAS where the adaptation mechanism begins A. Death can ensue * Death can ensue as early as the stage of alarm. Stage of Resistance C. Stage of Alarm B. 93. Stage of Resistance C. Stage of Exhaustion * Resistance are decreased in the stage of alarm. 92.C. Stage of Homeostasis D. Stage of Homeostasis D. Stage of Homeostasis D. Where in stages of GAS does a person moves back into HOMEOSTASIS? A. Stage of Homeostasis D. Stage of Exhaustion 96. death will ensue unless extra adaptive mechanisms are utilized A. Stage of Resistance C. All but one is a characteristic of adaptive response . Stage of Resistance C. Stage of GAS Characterized by adaptation A. Stage of Exhaustion 97. Stage of Homeostasis D. Stage of Alarm B. Stage of Alarm B. When someone shouts SUNOG!!! your heart will begin to beat faster. Stage of Exhaustion * Adaptation mechanisms begin in the stage of alarm. Stage of GAS that results from prolonged exposure to stress.

Adaptive response requires time for it to act. physical and psychological taxes that needs time for our body to mobilize and utilize. Biologic/Physiologic adaptive mode B. Biologic/Physiologic adaptive mode B. Biologic/Physiologic adaptive mode B. Andy made an error and his senior nurse issued a written warning. Which of the following mode of adaptation is Andy experiencing? A. Andy arrived in his house mad and kicked the door hard to shut it off. Adaptive response is immediately mobilized. What adaptation mode is this? A. Andy is not yet fluent in French. This is an attempt to maintain homeostasis B. doesn’t require time D. He is starting to learn the language of the people. Psychologic adaptive mode C. communication. but he works in Quebec where majority speaks French. There is a totality of response C. Sociocultural adaptive mode D. starts to learn the new technology and electronic devices at the hospital. Sociocultural adaptive mode D. 98. Andy. Psychologic adaptive mode C. Technological adaptive mode . Response varies from person to person * Aside from having limits that leads to exhaustion. 100. What type of adaptation is Andy experiencing? A. dressing. a newly hired nurse. Sociocultural adaptive mode D.A. It requires energy. Technological adaptive mode * Sociocultural adaptive modes include language. Technological adaptive mode 99. Psychologic adaptive mode C. acting and socializing in line with the social and cultural standard of the people around the adapting individual.

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