Singh 1 Sahib Singh 15 January 2011 AP Government, Period 1 Mr. Lipping Congress Reading Guide Chapter 11 1.

The Senate has longer terms and higher requirements because the framers hoped the Senate would act as a check against what they saw as the less predictable House. 2. There are no Congressional term limits in the Constitution because the term limits imposed by the Articles of Confederation had forced several talented members out of office, leaving the Continental Congress less effective and souring the framers on the idea. 3. There are 435 House districts and each district represents about 650,000 people. 4. The House reapportionment occurs every ten years and it is based on a national census of the population. 5. I plan on becoming a politician 6. Senate elections are highly competitive and better financed than House elections. They also tend to turn on national, not local, issues. 7. Less than 10% of congressional districts are considered competitive. 8. The election rate in 2004 was 98.2% 9. The biggest advantage that explains such a high reelection rate is campaign finance. 10. Incumbents are better known than their challengers, they don t have to pay postage for mailings, greater access to media, raise campaign money easily, more campaign experience. 11. They were worried about the tendency for the legislative branch to dominate government. 12. Bicameralism remains the most important organizational feature of the U.S Congress. 13. Bicameralism keeps a check on power, it also moderates possible errors in either chamber. 14. Congress could lay and collect taxes, borrow and coin money, regulate citizenship, build post offices and postal roads, and establish the lower courts of the federal judiciary. 15. Participating in the process of constitutional amendment and impeachment and trying an impeached federal officer. 17. The Speaker has the power to recognize members who rise to speak, rule on questions of parliamentary procedure, and appoint members to temporary committees. 18. The majority leader plans party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line. The minority leader steps into the Speakership when his or her party gains a majority in the House. Whips inform members when important bills will come up for a vote, prepare summaries of the bills, do vote counts for the leadership, exert pressure on members to support the leadership, and try to ensure maximum attendance on the floor for critical votes. 19. There are 20. The rule committee is powerful because it regulates the time of floor debate for each bill and sets limitations on floor amendments. They can prevent a rule, which describes the conditions of debate.

to gather facts relevant to legislation. saying he would have been better off if he won the presidency as the candidate of the Dixiecrat Part in 1948. Democrats choose through the Steering and Policy Committee. to expose corruption. The Senate Majority leader controls the Senates agenda and recommends committee assignments for members of the majority party. because it could mean that many bills that have otherwise made it through the legislative process will die for lack of a floor vote. The conference committee is a special committee of members from each chamber that settles the differences between versions. 22. 28. . Members generally vote with their party. to assess the efficiency of executive agencies. Revenue and budget committees deal with raising the money that appropriating committees spend while setting the broad targets that shape the federal budget. 32. Members are influenced by their ideological beliefs most of the time. do research and are often involved in negotiating and coalition building. They think individual members have become more partisan. The oversight power is the responsibility to question executive branch officials to see whether their agencies are complying with the wishes of the Congress and conducting their programs efficiently. Yet Congress is also a representative assembly. 26. Legislators are often influenced by the advice of their close friends in Congress. 31. it is a lawmaking institution that writes laws and makes policy for the entire nation.Singh 2 21. 29. made up of 535 elected officials who serve as links between their constituents and the national government. 36. Appropriations committees make decisions about how much money government will spend on its programs and operations. Authorizing committees pass the laws that tell government what to do. to build public support. The chairmen is chosen different ways in different parties. Each committee is represented in proportion to its membership in the entire chamber. A legislator rarely votes against the wishes of the people back home. Republicans choose through their Committee on Committees which is composed of one member from each state that has Republican representation in the House. It s referred to as the third house of Congress because members produce an entirely new bill for matters on which there is no clear middle ground. Interest groups use PACs to contribute campaign funds to congressional candidates. Seniority is important because most chairs are selected on the basis of seniority. 23. 24. Staff members draft bills. Congress conducts investigations to determine if legislation is needed. 35. Split personality is: On one hand. and to enhance the image or reputation of its members. It is most potent at the end of a congressional session. Trent Lott made comments at Senator Strom Thurmond s 100th birthday party. 33. 27. in return they are relied heavily on the advice of congressional staffers. when a date has been fixed for adjournment.

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