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IN A 400KV SUBSTATION ( as Per CBIP Recommendations)
P. GOPALA KRISHNA ADE/400KV/APTRANSCO
CBIP Guidelines on Protection
NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED IN UTILITIES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
VOLTAGE 11 KV LINES 33 KV LINES 66 KV LINES 132 KV LINES
MAIN- 1 PROTECTION
2 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N ) 3 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N ) SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N)
MAIN-2 PROTECTION/ BACKUP PROTECTION
DIRECTIONAL O/L & E/F RELAYS WITH HIGH SET ( 67 + 67N )
NON SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR 220 KV LINES NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N) NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N) DISTANCE SCHEME (21P (21) 400 KV LINES NUMERICAL BUILT DEF RELAY(67N) + 21N) NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME WITHOR LINE + in DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME (87L) 67N DISTANCE SCHEME (21P (21) 765 KV LINES NUMERICAL BUILT DEF RELAY(67N) + 21N) NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME WITHOR LINE + in DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME (87L) 67N
The DEF 67N is in built to detect high resistance fault which distance relay cannot. REACH SETTINGS ZONE-1: 80-85% OF PROTECTED LINE ZONE-2: 120% = 100% OF MAIN LINE + 50% OF SHORTEST LINE AT OTHER END / 6O% OF T/F ZONE-3: 200% = 100% OF MAIN LINE + 100% OF LONGEST LINE AT OTHER END / 100% OF T/F ZONE-4: 100% OF MAIN LINE + (100% OF SHORTEST LINE + 100% OF LONGEST LINE) AT OTHER END. R-REACH: UP TO LOAD POINT ENCROACHMENT TIME SETTINGS ZONE-1: INSTANTENEOUS ZONE-2: 0.3 SEC FOR SHORT LINES & 0.5 SEC FOR LONG LINES for Discrimination ZONE-3: 0.6 SEC ZONE-4: 0.9 SEC
CBIP Guidelines on Protection 400 kV Lines
NEED OF LINE PROTECTION
The line protection relays are required to protect the line and clear all types of faults on it within the shortest possible time with reliability, selectivity and sensitivity. The line protection relays shall be suitable for use with capacitive voltage transformers having passive damping and transient response as per IEC 186
then they should be preferably of different types. They need not necessarily of different make. If Main-I and Main-II are both distance protection schemes. The other protection may be a phase segregated current differential (this may require digital communication). Both should be suitable for single and three phase tripping. directional comparison type or a carrier aided non-switched Distance protection. .CBIP Guidelines on Protection 400kV Lines There should be two independent High Speed Main protection schemes called Main-I and Main-II with at least one of them being carrier aided nonswitched Three/ Four zone distance protection. phase comparison.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection ADDITIONAL PROTECTION ii) Two stage Over Voltage Protection. According BUSBAR Arrangements (One & Half Circuit Breaker System) v) STUB Protection vi) TEED Protection . iv) Sensitive IDMT Directional E/F Relay(67N). iii) Auto-reclose relay suitable for 1-ph / 3-ph (with dead line charging and synchro-check facility).
. In addition to this another non-switched / switched distance scheme or directional over current and earth fault relays should be provided as back up. IDMT type E / F relay shall also be provided additionally. In case of both line protections being Distance Protections.CBIP Guidelines on Protection 220 kV Lines There should be at least one carrier aided nonswitched three zone Distance protection scheme. Auto-reclose relay suitable for 1 ph / 3 ph reclosure shall be provided. Main protection should be suitable for single and three phase tripping.
.CBIP Guidelines on Protection SPECIAL COMMENTS (i) If found necessary. start LBB. (iii)O/V relay for 400 kV lines shall be connected to trip concerned line breaker. if it is a double circuit line. This aspect needs to be looked into on case to case basis. It helps to detect very high resistance fault which distance relay cannot. (ii) For short line application distance relays should have shaped characteristics for ground faults and be used in permissive over reach mode with weak end infeed logic. (iv)The directional earth fault relay recommended along with the distance relay should be seen as a supplement to it and not as a back up. block auto reclosure and send direct trip command. out of step tripping relays shall be provided for islanding the system during disturbances. current reversal should also be available. Further. (v)HVDC Systems connected to AC networks with low short circuit levels can influence AC line protections in its vicinity. at certain locations.
II. However. care is to be taken that it does not reach into next lower voltage level. in case of D/C lines 150% coverage must be provided to take care of.Zone II: to be set to cover minimum 120% of length of principle line section. under reaching due to mutual coupling effect but. Zone-I: to be set to cover 80-85% of protected Line length.CBIP Guidelines on Protection SETTING CRITERIA Reach settings of distance protection I. .
(iv) Resistive reach should be set to give maximum coverage subject to check of possibility against load point encroachment considering minimum expected voltage and maximum load. For 220 kV lines.CBIP Guidelines on Protection (iii) Zone-III: For 400kV lines Zone-III to be set to cover120% of principle section plus adjacent longest section subject to a reach restriction so that it does not reach into next lower voltage level. Zone-III reach may be provided to cover adjacent longest section if there is no provision of LBB or all protection are connected to single DC source at remote end substation. Attention has to be given to any limitations indicated by manufacturer in respect of resistive setting vis-a-vis reactance setting. .
If a long line is followed by a short line.3 second is recommended.III reach of relay being set overlaps.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Time setting of distance protection A Zone-II timing of 0. then a higher setting may be adopted on long line to avoid indiscriminate tripping through Zone-II operation on both lines. Zone-III timer should be set so as to provide discrimination with the operating time of relays provided in subsequent sections with which Zone. .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection O / V Protection Low set voltage may be set at 110% with a typical time delay of 5 seconds. . A time grading of 1 second may be provided between relays of different lines at a station. Longest time delay should be checked with expected operating time of over fluxing relay of the transformer to ensure disconnection of line before tripping of transformer. High set stage may be set at 150% with a time delay of 100 m second.4 PSB Function Associated with Distance Relays Decisions pertaining to allowing which Zone to trip and which to block should be taken based on system studies on case to case basis. 3.
iii) Capable of 1-Ph & 3-Ph tripping iv) Directional Characteristics (Mho or quad or any other suitably shaped) for all zones. vi) Adjustable characteristic angle to match line angle wherever applicable. xi) Week End Infeed Logic(27 WI) feature shall include. Further. vii) Accuracy ≤ 5% for Z2. ii)Seperate Measurement for Ph-Ph & Ph-E faults (Non Switched scheme). viii) Variable residual compensation ix) Power swing blocking feature shall include. Z4 for Set Value of Time Measurement. v) Capable of Operation for close-up 3-ph faults & SOTF. xiii) any other features required by customer . xiii) for Short Line applications it should have suitably shaped characteristics for ground faults and be used in POTT mode with WI Logic. if it is a DC Line.( % or Km or Miles or R+jx ). Z3. current reversal logic should also be available. Z3. vii) Accuracy ≤ 5% for Z1 & ≤ 10% for Z2. Z4 for Set Value of Reach Measurement. xii) Distance To Fault Locator(21 FL).CBIP Guidelines on Protection DISTANCE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) Four Independent Zones (at least 3). x) Fuse Failure Protection & Monitor feature shall include.
v) Shall be capable of 1-Ph & 3-Ph tripping .CBIP Guidelines on Protection PHASE COMPARISION PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) shall be a unit system of protection ii) Shall be Phase Comparison type. . Power Swings. iii) Shall be suitable for operation with one signally channel. vii) Shall have comprehensive alarm and test facilities. CT saturation. Propagation delays.. CT Phase errors. iv) Shall be high sensitivity for all types of faults. vi) Shall have a facility for Direct Transfer Tripping. Capacitance current etc. vi) Shall have facility for Blocking/Permissive trip modes. as is typical of unit protection. viii) any other features required by customer. vii) shall not affected by Heavy Load Transfer.
x) The Relay shall have Communication port for Remote Monitoring. xi) The Direct inter trip signal shall be transmitted as part of telegram. supervision information. viii) Communication telegram shall have error detection and correction feature.CBIP Guidelines on Protection PHASE SEGREGATED LINE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION i)shall be a unit system of protection ii)shall be all Digital Multi Microprocessor based. Synchronization of terminals etc. v) The message Transmitted by the relay to other end shall include information on current. Programming and Control. vi) The Measurement shall be stabilized Phase by Phase for CT Saturation. designated for use with Modern Digital Telecommunication system multiplexer confirming to ITUT(CCITT) Specifications and Fibre Optic Medium . vii) The Communication delay shall be continuously measured and automatically compensated for in the differential Measurement. xii) any other features required by customer. iv) Shall be suitable of 1-Ph & 3-Ph tripping and Auto-reclosing. ix) Suitable Programmable evaluation algorithm will be provided to ensure proper security and dependability of the message. . CT Saturation detection. iii) Each Phase Current shall be separately evaluated at both ends for both Amplitude and Phase.
Start LBB.CBIP Guidelines on Protection OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS The Relay shall have following features. Block A/R and send Direct Trip command. . v) High set stage shall monitor all three Phase to Phase Voltage and shall be associated timer. iv) Low set stage shall monitor any one Phase to Phase Voltage and shall be associated timer. vi) Over Voltage relay for 400KV Lines shall be connected to trip concerned Line Breaker(s). iii) Have Two stages. ii) Have adjustable setting range for voltage & time. i) Have a High drop off to Pick ratio.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
Reports from different parts of the world show that in certain networks in region subject to a high lightening intensity only about 5% of the faults are permanent. therefore provides significant Outage times will be short compared to where station personnel have to re-energize the lines after a fault. In interconnected networks auto-reclosing helps in maintaining system stability . Auto reclosing advantages.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GENERAL The auto-reclosing of power lines has become a generally accepted practice.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection Recommendations for provisions of auto-reclosing Presently 1 phase high speed auto-reclosure (HSAR) at 400kV and 220kV level is widely practised including on lines emanating from Generating Stations and the same is recommended for adoption. If 3-phase auto-reclosure is adopted in future the application of the same on lines emanating from generating stations should be studied and decision taken on case to case basis. .
ADVANTAGES: A. C. Improving Reliability. PERMANENT FAULTS: These are to be located and repaired before the line is re-energized. . Hence the Automatic Reclosure of breaker (after tripping on Fault) will result in the line being successfully re-energized. SEMI-PERMANENT FAULTS: These require a time interval to disappear before a line is charged again. TRANSIENT FAULT: These are cleared by the immediate tripping of Circuit Breakers and do not reoccur when the line is re-energized. B.CBIP Guidelines on Protection FAULTS ARE THREE TYPES 1. Decreasing outage time. About 80-90% of the faults occurring are transient in nature. Improving system stability. 3. 2. D. Reduce fault damage and Maintenance Time.
LOW SPEED OR DELAYED AUTO RECLOSING. MULTI-SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING. B. BASED ON PHASE A. HIGH-SPEED AUTO-RECLOSING. 3.CBIP Guidelines on Protection TYPES OF AUTO-RECLOSING 1. . CHOICES OF EHV SYSTEM: A. B. 2. In other zones the auto reclosure is blocked. THREE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING. BASED ON ATTEMPTS OF RECLOSURE A. B. SINGLE PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING. CHOICE OF ZONE: This should normally kept in Zone-1. 4. DEPENDING ON SPEED: A. It is a Zone-1 fault and SLG fault only auto-reclosure is comes in to picture. SINGLE SHOT AUTO-RECLOSING.
etc. wind conditions. . circuit voltage. Auto. capacitive coupling to adjacent conductors. fault duration.reclosing requires a dead time which exceeds the de-ionising time Time required for the de-ionising of the fault path depends on:.arcing time. Single phase dead time of 1.CBIP Guidelines on Protection SETTING CRITERIA Dead Time DEAD TIME: The time between the Auto-reclosing Scheme being energized and the operation of the contacts which energize the Circuit Breaker closing circuit.0 sec is recommended for both 400kV and 220kV system.
the auto reclosing equipment is blocked and cannot start again until the reclaim time has elapsed. . In other words. After the reclaim time has elapsed. For the breaker to be used for auto-reclosing. If the breaker is closed manually. it is essential that it has the operating mechanism and breaking capacity necessary for it to be able to perform the auto-reclosing sequences required.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Reclaim Time RECLAIM TIME: The Time Following a successful closing operation measured from the instant the Auto-Reclosing relay closing contacts make which must elapse before the Auto-Reclosing relay initiates another reclosing attempt. when two faults incidents occur close together. If reclosing shot has been carried out and the line is energized and a new fault occurs before the reclaim time has elapsed. the auto-reclosing equipment returns to the starting position and a new reclosing sequence can occur. the auto-reclosing equipment is blocked and a signal for definite tripping of the breaker is obtained. The time during which a new start of the auto-reclosing equipment is blocked. it may be said to be the time between 1st and 2nd Auto-Reclosure. The reclaim time must not be set to such a low value that the intended operating cycle of the breaker is exceeded.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection
2.3 Circuit Breaker Requirement
According to IEC Publication 56.2, a breaker must be capable of withstanding the following operating cycle with full rated breaking current: O + 0.3 s + CO + 3 min + CO The recommended operating cycle at 400kV and 220kV is as per the IEC standard. Reclaim time of 25 sec is recommended.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection
AUTO-RECLOSING RELAY REQUIREMENTS i) Having 1-Ph and/or 3-ph reclosing facilities. ii) Have a continuously Variable Single Phase Dead Time. iii) Have a continuously Variable Three Phase Dead Time. iv) Have a continuously Variable Reclaim Time. v) Incorporate a facility of selecting 1-Ph / 3-Ph / 1-Ph & 3-Ph Auto-reclose and Non-auto reclosure modes. vi) Having a facilities for selecting check synchronising (SC) or dead Line charging (DLC) features. vii) Be of high speed single shot type. viii) Suitable relays for SC and DLC should be included in the overall auto-reclose scheme. viii) Should allow sequential reclosing of Breakers in One and Half Breaker or Double Breaker Arrangement.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection
PROTECTIONS which BLOCK A/R RELAY are
i) Zone 2/3/4 of Distance Protection. ii) Carrier fail Conditions. iii) Circuit Breaker problems. iv) Direct Transfer Trip signal Received. v) LBB/BFR relay operates. vi) Line Reactor Protections. vii) Over Voltage Protection. viii) Busbar Protection Operated
CBIP Guidelines on Protection
overheating due to overexcitation. ageing of insulation. To give an early warning and to minimise the damage in case of fault it is necessary to equip it with monitors and protective relays. oil contamination and leakage or reduced cooling. . Faults in a Transformer occur due to insulation breakdown.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GENERAL & NEED OF PROTECTION FOR TRANSFORMER A Power Transformer is a very valuable and vital link in a Power Transmission system Fast protection system for transformer is essential to minimize the damage in case of an internal fault with suitable back-up protection scheme to take care of uncleared system faults.
PRD is provided to safe guard the T/F from High Pressures. External faults on other circuits. B. PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON POWER T/F A. B. (Back-up protection) C. Load tap-changer compartments may have a similar over pressure device. Oil immersed power T/F usually have a gas detector and oil surge Detector (buchholz alarm & trip devices). D. which are excellent for detecting internal faults. Temperature monitors for oil & winding provide good O/L Protection. C. Abnormal service conditions such as overload & over voltage.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Power T/F Protection is usually installed : A. . Internal SCs and E/Fs in the T/F and its connected circuits.
But not a separate tertiary winding. It covers one galvanically interconnected winding (Winding Differential). The most common type of protection is the current restraint type. In case of Auto Transformer. . 3-ph High Impedance Differential relay is used as Main-2 Protection in addition to Percentage Biased Differential Protection is used as Main-1. High impedance differential protection can be used on auto T/F or ICT & Reactors. This is treated as Main-1 Protection for T/F. It requires a three phase set of CTs at the neutral side of winding.CBIP Guidelines on Protection TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION It is widely used as instantaneous protection for short circuit faults with in the differential zone. Some type of DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS require interposing CTs for CT ratio matching and/or phase shift.
. It is Unaffected by Ratio Changes on the T/F due to Tap-changing and is immune to the Effects of Magnetizing In Rush Current. A Differential System can be provided. The Line CTs can be connected in Parallel to A Single Element Relay. This Provides High-speed Sensitive Protection.connected Tertiary Windings are often not Protected. A Circulating Current System is arranged between Equal Ratio CTs in the two Groups of Line Connections and the Neutral End Connections. This Scheme does not respond to any Fault in a Tertiary Winding. If CTs are fitted in Each Phase at the Neutral End of the Windings and a Three-Element Relay is used. In Addition. Unloaded Delta. giving Full Protection against Phase and Earth Faults.CBIP Guidelines on Protection RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION An Alternative to Differential Protection that can be applied to AT/Fs. Thus providing a Scheme Responsive to E/F Only. It does not respond to Inter-turn Faults.
OVER LOAD RELAY FOR ALARM (51).e HV & LV) OVER FLUX RELAYS ARE PROVIDED BECAUSE BOTH SIDES HAVING GRID. . D.CBIP Guidelines on Protection BACK UP PROTECTION A. NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT PROTECTION (Un>). (67P&N. HV & LV) B. C. FOR 400KV/220KV & 765/400KV TRANSFORMERS BOTH SIDES( i. OVER FLUX/ EXCITATION (V/F >) ( INVERSE TIME & DIFENITE TIME). OVER VOLTAGE RELAY (U >). OVER CURRENT & EARTH FAULT PROTECTION. C. B. OTHER TYPES OF RELAYS A. UNDER IMPEDENCE / DISTANCE ( Z<)(21T). AT/F NEUTRAL CURRENT RELAY (51N).
48 A 0566.35 A 220 KV 220 KV 220 KV 0826.20 A 1653.05 A 0754.73 A 1132.56 A 1443.68 A 721.10 A 400 KV 400 KV 400 KV 400 KV 0909.35 A 1082.37 A IN 765KV / 400KV SYSTEM CAPACITY OF TRANSFORMER HV VOLTAGE HV CURRENT IV VOLTAGE IV CURRENT 630 MVA 750 MVA 1000 MVA 1500 MVA 765 KV 765 KV 765 KV 765 KV 0475.14 A .42 A 2165.NORMALLY ADOPTED POWER TRANSFORMERS CAPACITIES BY UTILITIES IN 400KV / 220KV SYSTEM CAPACITY OF TRANSFORMER HV VOLTAGE HV CURRENT IV VOLTAGE IV CURRENT 315 MVA 500 MVA 630 MVA 400 KV 400 KV 400 KV 454.71 A 909.68 A 1312.
5. 750.5 & 16 7. 31.5. OVER LOAD ALARM RELAY + NEUTRAL CURRENT E/F RELAY . 16 & 25 7.5 50 & 80 31.N o CAPACITY IN MVA 7. OLTC OSR OIL TEMP WDNG TEMP HV & LV REF 64 NIL HV REF (64) 3 OVER LOAD + 1 DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT RELAY ( 51P + 67N) 3 DIR OL (HIGHSET) + 1 DIR EL (HIGHSET) 3 OL + 1 DIR EL (51P + 67N) 3 DIR OL (HIGHSET) + 1 DIR EL (HIGHSET) BUCHHOLZ OVER FLUX OLTC OSR PRV/PRD OIL TEMP WDNG TEMP 87 TH / 64 REF 630. 25 & 31. 500 & 630 1000 & 1500 VOLTAGE RATIO IN KV T Y P E MAIN-1 MAIN-2 BACK UP PROTECTION HV LV PROTECTION ADDITIONAL SPECIAL PROTECTION PROTECTION 64REF IS 1-PH HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY 87TH IS 3-PH HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY (PRINCPLE : CIRCULATING CURRENT) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 66 / 11 66 / 33 132 / 11 132 / 33 220 / 33 220 / 66 400 / 132 220 / 132 400 / 220 765 / 400 2 WINDING TRANSFORMER (STAR/STAR) ICT / AUTO TFR 3 OVER LOAD + 1 EARTH FAULT RELAY ( 51 ) 87 TL DIFFERENTIAL RELAY 3 OL + 1 EL (51) ( LOW IMPEDANCE PERCENTAGE BIASED PHASE SEGREGATED DIFFERENTIAL RELAY PRINCIPLE: MERZ PRICE) BUCHHOLZ. 50 31. 16 . 50 & 100 100.5 16 . 200 & 250 100 & 160 315.5 .5 .NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED BY UTILITIES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS & AUTO TRANSFORMERS S.
viii) The scheme shall have facility for ration and phase angle correction either through auxiliary transformer or through in-built Provisions. ii) Have Unrestrained instantaneous high-set which should not operate during in rush.CBIP Guidelines on Protection DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) Triple Pole with Individual Indication.g. iii) Have an adjustable or Multi Bias setting iv) Have second Harmonic or other inrush proof features and should be stable under normal Over Fluxing conditions. . use of timers to block relay operation or using disc operated relays. vi) Have an adjustable operating Current. v) Have one Bias Winding Per Phase for CT input. Magnetizing inrush proof feature shall not be achieved through any intentional time delay e. vii) Have an operating time not grater than 30 msec at 5 times of setting.
ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type. iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type.CBIP Guidelines on Protection REF PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) shall be single Pole. vi) Whenever separate Ph-wise CTs are available on neutral side of T/F. iii) be tuned with system frequency. a 3-pole High Impedance Relay may be provided instead of 1-ph REF. .
ii) Have IDMT characteristic (direction on T/F) iii) Have a Variable setting range of 20-80% of rated current. BACKUP E/F PROTECTION RELAY REQUIREMENTS (HV&LV) i) Shall be 1-pole type. . iv) Have a Characteristic angle. vi) include hand reset indicators. vi) include hand reset indicators per phase. 30/45 deg Lead. iv) Have a Characteristic angle.CBIP Guidelines on Protection BACKUP O/C PROTECTION RELAY REQUIREMENTS (HV&LV) i) Shall be 3-pole type. v) Shall include high unit having low transient over-reach and variable setting range of typically 200-800% of rated current. ii) Have IDMT characteristic (direction on T/F) iii) Have a Variable setting range of 50-200% of rated current. v) Shall include high unit having low transient over-reach and variable setting range of typically 500-2000% of rated current. 45/60 deg Lag.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection OVER LOAD ALARM RELAY REQUIREMENTS i) Shall be 1-pole type. vi) The T/F. V/F relay has been recommended on both sides of ICTs. . OVER FLUX PROTECTION RELAY REQUIREMENTS (HV&LV) i) Shall be Phase to Phase connected. iv) Provide on independent alarm with a definite time delay at value of V/F between 100% to 130% of rated value. iii) Have inverse time characteristics compatible with transformer over fluxing. iv) Shall have a drop off to pickup ratio of 95% better. iii) Shall have a continuously variable current range of 50-200% of rated current and continuously variable timer setting range of 1-10 sec. ii) Operate on the Principle of Measurement of Voltage to Frequency ratio. ii) Shall be of definite time over current type. v) Have high resetting ratio of 98% or better.
ii) The current setting of the Backup O/C relay shall be set above the expected maximum load current so as to allow possible overload an account of loss of one of the parallel T/Fs. iv) Whenever separate Ph-wise Bushing CTs are available on neutral side of T/F. a 3-pole High Impedance Relay may be provided instead of 1-ph REF. This shall be connected to give only alarm and not for tripping. v) Over-fluxing relay shall be provided on the untapped winding of the Transformer . iii) Over Load relay shall be set at 110% of rated current with delay of 5 sec. the differential Protection CTs associated with Main and Tie Breakers should be connected to separate bias windings and these should not be paralleled in order to avoid false operation due to dissimilar CT transient response.CBIP Guidelines on Protection SPECIAL COMMENTS i) In case of Breaker and Half schemes.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
BASED ON REACTOR CONNECTION i) SHUNT REACTOR. ii) THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR (STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR) . BASED ON CONTROL i) 3-PH OIL IMMERSED REACTOR WITH GAPPED IRON CORE.CBIP Guidelines on Protection TYPES OF REACTORS A. BASED ON REACTOR LOCATION i) BUS REACTOR ii) LINE REACTOR iii)THROUGH CB TO THE TERITIARY WNDG OF ICT C. ii) SERIES REACTOR. B.
PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR The purpose of the Protection Relaying is to disconnect the Reactor and limit damage in case of internal short circuits. inter-turn faults and over voltage or over load. Earth faults. . and as it is shunt connected. as over load may be caused by over voltage or harmonics in voltage and current. The reactor forms certain impedance for rated frequency.CBIP Guidelines on Protection NEED OF SHUNT REACTOR Shunt Reactors are used in EHV systems to limit the over voltages due to capacitive VAR Generation (Ferranti effect) in Long transmission Lines.
.CBIP Guidelines on Protection PROTECTION DEVICES MOUNTED ON REACTOR A) Oil immersed Reactor usually have a Gas detector and Oil surge. B) Temperature Monitors for Oil & Winding provide good Over Load Protection. which are excellent for detecting internal faults. C)Pressure Relief Device is provided to safe guard the Reactor from High Pressures. Detector (Buchholz Alarm & Trip devices).
2) Reactor REF Protection. . 3) Reactor Backup Protection ( Impedance type or Def Time O/L&E/F).CBIP Guidelines on Protection RECOMMENDED PROTECTIONS FOR REACTOR 1) Reactor Differential Function. 4) Protections and Monitors built in to Reactor.
. iii) be tuned with system frequency.CBIP Guidelines on Protection DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) Shall be Triple Pole Type. iv) Have an operating time not grater than 30 msec at 5 times of setting. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. v) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. vi) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.
iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. .CBIP Guidelines on Protection REF PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) shall be single Pole. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. iii) be tuned with system frequency. v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.
ii) Shall be connected for 2 O/C and 1 E/F connection and shall be non-directional with reset ratio and low Transient Overreach. Over Current relay with adjustable current and Time. v) Shall have a suitable range for covering 60% of Reactor impedance.CBIP Guidelines on Protection BACKUP PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS i) Shall be Triple pole type.0 sec. iii)Shall grounds a Characteristic angle between 60-80 deg.2 to 2. OR i) Shall be single stage Definite Time 3 Pole. iv) Shall have adjustable definite time delay with setting range of 0. ii) Shall be single step Polarized ‘MHO’ or Impedance Distance relay suitable for Measuring Phase to Ground and Phase to Phase to faults. .
for which buchholz may be the only answer. SETTING CRITERIA The magnitude and nature of the switching-in currents should be considered when determining settings of reactor protections Typical settings of o/c relays are: Current Setting.60% of Reactor Impedance. Time setting . Time setting . The impedance or over current backup protection may not be able to detect inter-turn fault in the reactor. unless the number of turns involved is very high.1 sec Typical settings of impedance relays are: Reach .CBIP Guidelines on Protection SPECIAL COMMENTS Connection of restricted earth fault protection on the neutral side shall be from residually connected Bushing CTs or from the ground side CT.3 x Rated current .1.1 sec .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/ BFR PROTECTION COMMENTS GENERAL In the event of any CB fails to trip on receipt of command from Protection relays. all CBs connected to the Bus section to which the faulty circuit Breaker is connected are required to be tripped with minimum possibly delay through LBB Protection. . This Protection also Provides coverage for faults between CB and CT which are not cleared by other protections.
it is considered a must at 400KV level and also 220KV Switch Yards having multiple feed.CBIP Guidelines on Protection RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LBB/BFR PROTECTION i) In all new 400KV and 220KV Substations as well as Generating Stations Switch Yard. iii)In case of radially fed 220KV Substations. Provision of LBB Protection is desirable but not essential. . ii) For existing Switch Yards. it must be provided for each Circuit Breaker.
iv) Have one common associated timer with adjustable setting. ii) Have 3 Phase Current elements with facility for Phase wise initiation.CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR REQUIREMENTS i) Have Short Operation and Drop off times. REQUIREMENTS OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS Operating Time Breaking Capacity Stuck Breaker Probability Operating Sequence / Duty cycle . iii)Have current setting range such that these can be set minimum 200mA for Line and 50mA for generators (for 1A CT for secondary).
if the command of the first stage is not successful. normally on a different trip coil. When used as two-stage protection. the Bus trip command is given to the adjacent Circuit Breakers if the protected feeder Breaker fails. the first stage can be used to repeat the trip command to the relevant feeder Breaker. (LBB/BFR) can When used as single-stage protection. if the initial trip command from the feeder protection is not successful. (This is More recommended) .CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR OPERATION The Breaker Failure Protection operate single-stage/two-stage. The second stage will result in a Bus trip to the adjacent Breakers.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR FLOW CHART MAIN PROTECTION OPERATED YES TRIP MAIN BREAKER FAULT CLEARED YES RESET BREAKER FAILURE SCHEME NO RETRIP YES INITIATE BFR WAIT FOR FAULT CLEARENCE AND TRIP BACK-UP/ Adjacent BREAKERS .
. direct tripping of breaker(s) on the other side of the transformer should be arranged on operation of LBB protection (iii) For lines employing single phase auto reclosing. (ii) For line breakers. direct tripping of remote end breaker(s) should be arranged on operation of LBB protection. For transformer breakers.CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR SPECIAL COMMENTS (i) The relay is separate for each breaker and is to be connected in the secondary circuit of the CTs associated with that particular breaker. the LBB relays should be started on a single phase basis from the trip relays.
B protections and relay independent.A and Gr. (v)It is considered a good practice to have DC circuits of Gr. (vii) Separation should be maintained between protective relay and CB trip coil DC circuit so that short circuit or blown fuse in the CB circuit will not prevent the protective relay from energizing the LBB scheme. It is good practice to provide redundant trip output and breaker fail input where other forms of redundancy does not exist. . Other wise it shall be Clubbed (in series) with Main-1 or Main-2 protection.CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR SPECIAL COMMENTS (iv) The CT sec core may be separate core. (vi) LBB cannot operate without proper initiation. if available.
contact logic in addition to current detectors. . since failure of CB to clear a bus fault would result in the loss of entire station if BFP relay is not initiated (ix) Tripping logic of the bus bar protection scheme shall be used for LBB protection also.CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR SPECIAL COMMENTS (viii) In addition to other fault sensing relays the LBB relay should be initiated by Bus bar protection. special considerations may have to be given to ensure proper scheme operation by using C. (x) For breaker-fail relaying for low energy faults like buchholz operation.B.
current detector reset time and a margin.2 A is commonly practiced for Lines and Transformers (ii)Timer setting should be set considering breaker interrupting time.CBIP Guidelines on Protection LBB/BFR SETTING CRITERIA (i) Current level detectors should be set as sensitive as the main protections A general setting of 0. Generally a timer setting of 200 ms has been found to be adequate. .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
provision of Bus bar protection is considered must at 400kV level and at 220kV level. Recommendations for providing Bus bar protection at different voltage levels are as follows: (i) Bus bar protection must be provided in all new 400kV and 220kV substations as well as generating station switchyards. (ii) For existing substations. . having more than one bus it is desirable to have bus bar protection but is not a must.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GENERAL Bus bar protection is provided for high speed sensitive clearance of bus bar faults by tripping all the circuit breakers connected to faulty bus. In case of radially fed 220kV substations.
biased or percentage differential relaying. DECENTRLAISED ARCHITECTURE. medium impedance type of Bus bar protection relays. LOW IMPEDENCE BUSBAR PROTECTION: A no of Different Measurement principles are employed in Low Impedance Schemes. The Value of Stabilising Resistor chosen such that the voltage drop across the relay circuit is insufficient to operate the relay for faults outside the protection zone. A trip command is given when operating current is greater than its pickup level and the stabilising factor the ratio of operating current to restraint current. The pickup level is set above the load current. . B. PHASE COMPARISION PROTECTION: The Measuring principle for Phase comparison protection is based on the assumption that the feeder currents are phase coincident during bus bar fault. B.CBIP Guidelines on Protection TYPES OF BUSBAR PROTECTION SCHEMES HIGH IMPEDENCE BUSBAR PROTECTION: The Measuring Circuit comprises a High impedance stabilising Resistor (Metrosil) connected across the circulating current arrangement of all the CT’s in parallel. A. during internal faults. CENTRALISED ARCHITECTURE. A. NUMERICAL BUSBAR PROTECTION: in this two types are available. The duration of phase coincidence of all feeder currents is checked for positive and negative half-cycles. CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION: Which is current comparison with current restraint. The operating current is the Phasor sum of all feeder currents and the restraint current is the arithmetic sum. but low impedance protection during load and external faults. MODERATE/ MEDIUM IMPEDENCE BUSBAR PROTECTION: which is combination of the normal High-Impedance and Stabilised differential scheme.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection SPECIAL COMMENTS i) DC Supply for Bus bar protection shall be independent from feeder. ii) Faults between CB & CT shall be cleared from one side by opening of CB on Bus bar Protection Operation. vii)Where lead runs are excessive. an increase in wire size or use of parallel conductors are meant to reduce lead resistance. iv) 3–ph trip relays shall be provided for each CB which shall also initiate LBB/BFR Protection. v) in case of existing SS where CTs are different ratios. vi) Length of secondary leads should be kept as minimum as possible. . biased type differential protection/ Numerical Bus bar protection is recommended. iii)However clearing of Fault from other side shall be through breaker failure protection.
ii) it shall operate on differential principle and provide independent zones of protection for each bus. iii) it shall provide zone indication. In case of detection of open circuiting of CT secondary. other wise separate check zone is not essential. iv) it shall be stable for through fault conditions up to maximum 40KA fault level..CBIP Guidelines on Protection REQUIREMENTS i) it shall be 3-ph type and operate selectively for each bus bar section. . after a time delay. Check zone. if provided. ix) whenever CT switching is involved the scheme shall include necessary CT switching relays and have provision for CT switching incomplete alarm. the effected zone of protection shall be rendered inoperative and alarm initiated. viii) include adequate number of high speed tripping relays. v) For applications where bus differential protection sensitivity has to be set below load current. vii) it shall be include DC supply supervision. as may be a case with use of concrete structures. x) it shall be include IN/OUT switching facility for each zone. vi) it shall incorporate continuous supervision for CT secondary against any possible open circuits. it is recommended that a separate check zone is provided. shall be of High Impedance type.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection SETTING CRITERIA C.T secondary open circuit even in case of least loaded feeder. the protection should be sensitive enough to take care of such expected low fault current. external resistance is to be set such that voltage developed across relay and resistance combination is below the voltage required for forcing required relay operating current. . In case of voltage operated high impedance type protection. In case where faults currents are expected to be low. Bus bar differential protection should have overall sensitivity above heaviest loaded feeder current unless a separate check zone has been provided.T wire supervision relays should be set with a sensitivity such that they can detect C. In case of current operated relays for stability under through fault condition. the voltage setting should be above expected voltage developed across the relay during maximum through fault current condition.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection DUPLICATION OF BUSBAR PROTECTION It is possible to provide Back-up protection of Bus Bars by duplicating the dedicated protection. For Substations of High strategic importance i. instead of Providing Duplicate Bus bar Protection. They send trip impulses to separate trip coils and use separate isolator position auxiliary contacts. . Cross tripping of both trip coils is also done. Providing of Two Different Manufacturers Numerical Centralised or Distributed Architecture Bus bar Protection. Dedicated Protections invariably employ separate DC circuits and CT cores. 1200KV or 765KV or 400KV Systems. the complete Bus bar protection can be fully duplicated. For substations of 1200KV or 765KV.e.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection Disturbance Recorder Provides better understanding of the behavior of Power network after a disturbance. Disturbance recorder shall be microprocessor based and shall be used to record the graphic form of instantaneous of values voltage and current in all three phases. Gives useful information to improve existing Equipment and in planning or designing new installations. . Disturbance recorders are recommended for all the 400kV lines. open or closed positions of relay contacts and breaker during the system disturbances. open delta voltage and neutral current. It is also recommended that all the disturbance recorders in the station are synchronized with GPS. At 220kV level also they are recommended for all interconnecting lines.
i. Normally in case of Numerical Relay having inbuilt feature. However for short lines of length up to 20kms. Event Logger The Event Logger is used to record the state of switchyard equipment and relays and occurrences of alarms.e operation and resetting of relay contact and switching of primary plant within the substation. The equipment also records events recorded by disturbance recorder.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Fault Locator Distance to fault locator is recommended to be provided as a standard for all 400kV and 220kV lines on both ends. fault locator can be provided at one end only. as also changes in digital inputs. .
If disturbance recorder function or fault locator functions are available as integral part of any of main protection. then separate stand alone units for this function are not required. it should be possible to connect external binary inputs.CBIP Guidelines on Protection SPECIAL COMMENTS Start function to disturbance recorder is to be provided by change in state of one or more of the events connected and / or by any external triggering so that recording of events during a fault or system disturbance can be obtained. Stand alone DR which can cater to more than one bay / circuit can also be used. . In case of DR being part of main protection.
111 # 169 A 13:09:37.176 # 181 N 13:09:37.257 # 199 N 13:09:37.110 # 170 A 13:09:37.702 # 163 N 14:09:48.279 # 185 19 MAR 2004 14:00:00 N 14:09:48.140 # 185 N 13:09:37.907 # 168 N 14:10:00.111 # 161 A 13:09:37.126 # 199 A 13:09:37.148 # 196 N 13:09:37.100 # 181 A 13:09:37.400KV SUBSTATION: MAMIDIPALLY 19 MAR 2004 13:00:00 A 13:09:37.907 # 170 19 MAR 2004 15:00:00 EVENT LOGGER EVENTS INFORMATION 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT START’Y’ 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT START’R’ 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 Y-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND 400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 R-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH OPEN 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND 400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED 400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE PROT TRIP RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-2 RAZFE CARRIER SEND RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START ‘R’ RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 PROT TRIP RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 START ‘Y’ RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 MAIN-1 REL100 CARRIER SEND RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-2 RECEIVED RESET 400KV SRISAILAM-2 CARRIER PROT CH-1 RECEIVED RESET 400KV 400KV 400KV 400KV 400KV 400KV SRISAILAM-2 SRISAILAM-2 SRISAILAM-2 SRISAILAM-2 SRISAILAM-2 SRISAILAM-2 MAIN CB 752 B-PH CLOSE MAIN CB 752 R-PH CLOSE MAIN CB 752 Y-PH CLOSE AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 Y-PH CLOSE AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 R-PH CLOSE AT/F-2 TIE CB 852 B-PH CLOSE .097 # 187 A 13:09:37.111 # 163 A 13:09:37.903 # 169 N 14:10:00.176 # 188 N 13:09:37.096 # 188 A 13:09:37.112 # 168 A 13:09:37.104 # 162 A 13:09:37.110 # 196 A 13:09:37.185 # 182 N 13:09:37.704 # 161 N 14:09:48.147 # 195 N 13:09:37.090 # 195 A 13:09:37.113 # 182 A 13:09:37.175 # 187 N 13:09:37.720 # 162 N 14:10:00.
DISTURBANCE RECORDER R PH VOLTAGE Y PH VOLTAGE B PH VOLTAGE OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE R PH CURRENT Y PH CURRENT B PH CURRENT STAR/NEUTRAL CURRENT MAIN CB R PH OPEN MAIN CB Y PH OPEN MAIN CB B PH OPEN TIE CB R PH OPEN TIE CB Y PH OPEN TIE CB B PH OPEN MAIN/TIE CB LBB OPTD DIRECT TRIP CH-1/2 OPTD BUSBAR PROT OPTD MAIN-1 PROT OPTD MAIN-2 PROT OPTD OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1/2 OPTD STUB PROT-1/2 OPTD MAIN-1 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE MAIN-2 PROT CARRIER RECEIVE DF/DT OPTD EVENT NO NAME OF FEEDER DATE & TIME .
HV MAIN CB R-PH OPEN 2. HV TIE CB Y-PH OPEN 6. WNDG TEMP HV/IV/LV TRIP 28. 7. HV 3. HV 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPTD 24. DF/DT RELAY OPERATED . R-PH VOLTAGE Y-PH VOLTAGE B-PH VOLTAGE OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE R-PH CURRENT Y-PH CURRENT B-PH CURRENT NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT 400 KV TRANSFORMER ANALOG CHANNELS 1. 87HZ / LZ TEED-1/2 OPERATED 17. 87 BUSBAR RELAY OPERATED 10.PREFERRED DISTURBANCE RECORDER 400 KV LINES ANALOG CHANNELS 1. HV 4. LV 14. HV MAIN CB Y-PH OPEN 3. LV 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPTD 25. 21 MAIN1 REL 521 OPERATED 8. HV 12. 64 REF / 87 HZ RLY OPERATED 15. HV TIE CB R-PH OPEN 5. AT/F NEUTRAL CURRENT TRIP DIGITAL CHANNELS 1. HV MAIN CB B-PH OPEN 4. MAIN CB LBB OPERATED 18. TIE CB A/R OPERATED 12. SOTF OPERATED 14. LV 220 CB B-PH OPEN 10 87 LZ DIFF RLY OPERATED 11. 51 STUB-1/2 OPERATED 16. NDR RLY OPERATED 16. 2. LV 8. LV 220 CB LBB OPERATED 23. PSB OPERATED 13. HV 13. HV TIE CB LBB OPERATED 22. 3. HV 10. LV 220 BUSBAR OPERATED 20. HV 67 ABCN OPERATED 12. LV 16. AT/F 21T UZ RELAY OPERATED 26. LV R-PH VOLTAGE Y-PH VOLTAGE B-PH VOLTAGE OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE R-PH VOLTAGE Y-PH VOLTAGE B-PH VOLTAGE OPEN DELTA VOLTAGE R-PH CURRENT Y-PH CURRENT B-PH CURRENT NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT R-PH CURRENT Y-PH CURRENT B-PH CURRENT NEUTRAL/STAR CURRENT DIGITAL CHANNELS 1. BUCHHOLZ MAIN/OLTC TRIP 29. OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP 27. 5. HV 5. HV MAIN CB R-PH OPEN 2. 4. HV MAIN CB Y-PH OPEN 3. HV 2. HV 99T OVER FLUX OPTD 17. LV 15. 8. HV MAIN CB LBB OPERATED 21. LV 9. LV 7. HV TIE CB Y-PH OPEN 6. HV 11. HV 400 BUSBAR OPERATED 19. 6. 27 O/V STG-1/2 OPERATED 15. 51 O/L RLY OPERATED 14. LV 220 CB Y-PH OPEN 9. TIE CB LBB OPERATED 19. HV TIE CB R-PH OPEN 5. DIRECT TRIP CH-1/2 RECEIVED 20. LV 99T OVER FLUX OPTD 18. 86 GR-A/B RELAY OPERATED 22. LV 6. MAIN CB A/R OPERATED 11. 21M1 / 21M2 CARRIER RECEIVE 21. HV TIE CB B-PH OPEN 7. 67N DEF/TEF RLY OPERATED 23. 21 MAIN2 REL 316 OPERATED 9. HV TIE CB B-PH OPEN 7. HV MAIN CB B-PH OPEN 4. PRD 1/ 2 TRIP 30. LV 220 CB R-PH OPEN 8. LV 67 ABCN OPERATED 13.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
. the relays are electrically and physically segregated into two groups. Interconnection between these two groups shall not generally be attempted.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GENERAL Some broad guidelines for Engineering of Protection System are given below and could be refined if felt necessary by the Utility according to its specific needs and practices. Segregation of protections and trip circuits in two groups may be considered by giving DC supplies through separate fuses. Wherever two sets of DC sources are available. while equipment. to obtain redundancy and to be able to take protection out for maintenance. in service.
Isolator / earth switch control 4. the Relays are Electrically and Physically segregated in to Two groups. Control & Tripping/ Closing operations. To obtain Redundancy and to be able to take Protection out for Maintenance. Inter connection of these two groups shall not be generally be attempted. while equipment is in service. Distribution of DC supply shall be done bay wise to feed the following 1. Grouping is done to the extent possible in such a way that each group can independently carryout Protective functions with near equal redundancy.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GR-A & GR-B TRIPPINGS For 400kV stations there shall be two separate Battery Systems available for Protection. Protection 2. Annunciation / indication . CB control 3.
21R. . 87BB2 b) CB Functions Trip coil 1 & 2 shall be fed from separate sources. In the case of One and half (1 & ½) CB arrangement. the Isolator / Earth switch associated with the tie CB can be fed from either source 1 or 2.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GR-A & GR-B TRIPPINGS a) Protection Function: For each group of protection. c) Isolator / Earth switch These associated with any one circuit shall be fed from one of the two DC sources. 67LV. 87T2. Example: Group-1: 21L1. 87BB1 Group-2: 21L2. Closing coil can be from either of these two sources. 87T1. separate DC sources are recommended. 87R. 67HV.
Now days Numerical IEDs / Protective Relays are Having above functions are offered as inbuilt.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GR-A & GR-B TRIPPINGS d) Annunciation & Indication For each bay. e) Monitoring Functions These shall be grouped in 3 groups (i) Disturbance Recorders (ii) Fault Locators (iii) Event Loggers All the three groups shall be fed through separate feeds from either of the two sources. these functions can be fed from either one of the two sources. . Each function shall be fed however through separate feeds. Most of the Utilities are accepting this.
Separate cables are used for DC 1 & DC 2 circuits.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Cabling It is recommended that: (i) (ii) (iii) Separate cables are used for AC & DC circuit. For different cores of CT & CVT separate cables shall be used. .
GROUP-A & GROUP-B TRIPPINGS LINE PROTECTION TRANSFORMER PROTECTION REACTOR PROTECTION GROUP-A MAIN-1 PROTECTION M1 BUILT IN FUNCTIONS TEED-1 PROTECTION OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-1 PROT DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-1 RECEIVED GROUP-B MAIN-2 PROTCTION M2 BUILT IN FUNCTIONS TEED-2 PROTECTION OVER VOLTAGE STAGE-2 PROT LBB/BFR RELAY DIRECT TRIP CHANNEL-2 RECEIVED GROUP-A T/F DIFFERENTIAL RELAY T/F IMP / 21T RELAY T/F HV BACKUP RELAY T/F HV OVERFLUX RELAY OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP PRESURE RELIEF TRIP TERITIARY DELTA WNDG NDR PROT GROUP-B T/F REF / HIGH Z DIFF RELAY T/F NEUTRAL CURRENT / 51 O/C RLY T/F LV BACKUP RELAY OVER LOAD PROT (ALARM ONLY) T/F LV OVERFLUX RELAY BUCHHOLZ TRIP OLTC BUCHHOLZ TRIP WINDING TEMP HIGH TRIP LOW/ HIGH OIL LEVEL TRIP GROUP-A REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY REACTOR BACKUP / 21R RELAY OIL TEMP HIGH TRIP PRESURE RELIEF TRIP GROUP-B REACTOR REF RELAY BUCHHOLZ TRIP WINDING TEMP HIGH TRIP LOW/ HIGH OIL LEVEL TRIP FIRE PROTECTION TRIP .
CBIP Guidelines on Protection .
Transformer. indicating instruments. Bus Coupler. Protection and Measuring equipment such as Energy meters. synchronizers. . Reactor. Bus Sectionalizer Bays and also at the Bus Bar. fault locators. Transfer Bus Coupler. fault recorders. Protective relays. These are installed in different bays such as Line. Given below are some examples of different bus configurations showing suitable location of CTs & VTs.CBIP Guidelines on Protection GENERAL Instrument transformers (CTs and VTs) are used to obtain measured quantities of current and voltage in appropriate form for use in Control.
CBIP Guidelines on Protection CURRENT TRANSFORMER CT Polarity As a practice the P1 terminal of the CT shall be towards the bus and P2 away from the bus. The detection zones of Line Relays and Bus Bar relays start at the CTs. It is advantageous if these two points are close to each other. In the improbable case of a fault between the CT and CB the Bus Bar protection will detect and clear the fault. Double Bus Arrangement The CTs shall be placed near the circuit breakers (CBs) and on the Line side. .
A separate CT is required to be provided in the Transfer bus coupler bay to obtain selective bus tripping for faults on Transfer bus. The protection can be arranged to give complete fault clearing with a short time-delay (LBB time) for faults between CB and CT. . Bus Coupler and Bus Sectionalizer Bays A set of CT is necessary to enable different bus bar protection zones to be formed. In this way the Protective Relay connected to the CT will remain connected to the line or Transformer when it is switched over to the Transfer / Auxiliary Bus.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Double Main and Transfer Bus Arrangement It is advantageous to locate the CTs on the line side of the disconnectors for Line and Transformer bays. Only one set of CTs is recommended.
In this way the Protective Relay connected to the CT will remain connected to the line or Transformer when the CB is Bi-passed and protection Transferred to Bus Coupler. . Bus Coupler and Bus Sectionalizer Bays A set of CT is necessary to enable different Bus bar protection zones to be formed. The protection can be arranged to give complete fault clearing with a short time-delay (LBB time) for faults between CB and CT.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Double Main and Bypass CB Arrangement It is advantageous to locate the CTs on the Line side of the disconnectors for Line and Transformer bays. Only one set of CTs is recommended.
(TEED). This arrangement utilizes 4 CTs. However it is also possible to use a single of CT with the tie CB thus reducing number of CTs to 3 per diameter. This gives better transient response. It is recommended that continued to be adopted. 4 CT arrangement is . At the central CB ( Tie CB) two CT sets are used. The advantages with this arrangement are: Paralleling of two CTs to the main line protection is not required. Separate stub protection can be connected.CBIP Guidelines on Protection One and Half Breaker System The CTs are located close to the CBs. Alternative way of locating the CTs requires 5 CTs.
. To get the line current the secondary current of the two CTs are summated. The two CTs shall be identical.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Double Bus Double Breaker System It is usual to locate the CTs on the line side after the CBs.
They are then to be located at the line side of the line traps and Line Earthing switches.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Voltage Transformers Line CVTs CVTs are used synchronization. CVTs can also be used as coupling capacitors for power line carrier (PLCC) Communication. for metering. . depending on utility practice CVTs in one phase may also be provided in which case protections will have to be connected to bus VTs. For 400kV level it is recommended that each Line Bay is provided with CVTs all the three phases. protection and Located at the line entry they also enable indication of voltage on a line energized from the opposite end. However.
It is preferable to earth the CT secondary neutral in the control / protection cubicle in order to provide maximum security to the operating personnel.CBIP Guidelines on Protection Bus CVTs Three phase VTs / CVTs on the busbars provide input for directional relays and reference voltage for synchronization. VT secondary neutral earthing is done at equipment itself. CT / VT Earthing CT / VT secondary neutrals should be earthed at one point only. These VTs will have to be selected by using voltage selection scheme. .
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