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In Economics, labor force is all the nonmilitary people who are officially employed or unemployed.

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Normally, the labor force of a country (or other geographic entity) consists of everyone of working age (typically above a certain age (around 14 to 16) and below retirement (around 65) who are participating workers, that is people actively employed or seeking employment.

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People not counted include students, retired people, stay-at-home parents, people in prisons or similar institutions, people employed in jobs or professions with unreported income, as well as discouraged workers who cannot find work.

daily or monthly wage that employers may legally pay to employees or workers. .` Low Wages is the lowest hourly.

unreasonable work schedule. inadequate leave benefits.` Poor Working Conditions-Inadequate physical facilities and occupational safety measures.unjust compensation.limited. exposure to hazardous chemicals.if not absence of opportunity for personal and professional growth.and unstable employment status .

illegal dismissals.and other problems emanating from poor working conditions.Inhumane practices of employers include failure to implement wages and compensations as prescribed by law.sexual harassments.` Inhumane Treatment. .physical abuses.

Second is the advent of automation that displaced and replaced many workers because employers choose speed and accuracy in production rather than the creative efforts that shall flourish once labor is relieved from the drudgeries of work.` Absence of Job Security.First is the escalating number of unemployed workers who command cheap wages for limited and small number of employment opportunities. .

College degree holders performing functions that used to be reserved for janitors.clerks.messengers.drivers.Thousands of workers take fobs that neither utilize nor enhance their skills and academic training.` Underemployment.even domestic helpers are not an uncommon sight nowadays. .

it has not gone beyond 13%of the 22. with a fluctuating and unstable membership covering only a small percentage of the workforce.` Unor ganized Labor Force. As a result. .The organized sector of the Philippine labor force is still a minority.the trade union movement is still weak. Although the number of unionized workers is rising.6 M actual labor force.

Although the Labor Code defines the legal age brackets for employment.many establishments still prefer employing workers who are neither too young not too old. Finally. Age consideration is another discriminating factor.` Discrimination.the issue of racial discrimination has become a disturbing reality for Filipino overseas workers who are forced to take menial jobs as domestic helpers and laborers even if their educational attainment and experience prove that they are over-qualified for the work they take.Some deprive women of equal opportunities for careeradvancement. .

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102 2.657 37.854 63.7 19.116 34.238 2.3 92.208 38.3 18.Labor Force Statistics Indications Household Population 15 Years Old and Over (000) Labor Force (000) Employed (000) Underemployed (000) Unemployed (000) Labor Force Participation Rate (%) Employment Rate (%) Underemployment Rate (as % of Employed) Unemployment Rate (%) 2009 58.3 .7 7.829 64.992 7.5 92.820 35.7 2010 60.262 6.2 7.

a jobless condition ` Underemployment .` Unemployment.a condition wherein an employed individual¶s work is insufficient to fulfill his needs .

When economic output falls. The lack of employer demand comes from a lack of spending and consumption in the overall economy.the result of businesses not having enough demand for labor to employ all those who are looking for work. When business cycles are at their peak.` CYCLICAL. cyclical unemployment will be low because total economic output is being maximized. the business cycle is low and cyclical unemployment will rise. . as measured by the gross domestic product (GDP).

These changes simultaneously open new positions for trained workers. An example of structural unemployment is the technological revolution.` STRUCTURAL. . Computers may have eliminated jobs.Unemployment resulting from changes in the basic composition of the economy. but they also opened up new positions for those who have the skills to operate the computers.

a first-time job seeker may lack the resources or efficiency for finding the company that has the job that is available and suitable for him or her. As a result this person does not take other work. resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employers or from workers and employers having inconsistent or incomplete information. For example.` FRICTIONAL.always present in the economy. . temporarily holding out for the better-paying job.

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such as willingly quitting a job. no matter what the reason. ` . Involuntary unemployment. on the other hand.` Voluntary unemployment is unemployment caused by the worker choosing to be unemployed. is caused by the worker being unwillingly laid off (fired).

` A wage is a compensation. received by workers in exchange for their labor. usually financial. .

. and many countries have no minimum wage. Each country sets its own minimum wage laws and regulations.` The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market.

.00 per day basic wage increase to all minimum wage workers in the private sector in the region.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES National Capital Region (NCR) a/ Per Wage Order No. NCR-15 b/ Effective 01 July 2010 Grants a P22.

2011) Grants an additional P12. .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) a/ Wage Order No.00 COLA per day. RB-CAR-14 b/ (Effective January 1.

O No.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION I (Ilocos) a/ Per Wage Order No.00 COLA under W.00 or P8. RB 1-14 b/ Effective 20 January 2011 Grants a P5. RB1-13 into the basic pay. . and integration of the existing P10.00 per day wage increase to all private sector workers and employees receiving the minimum wage rates in the region.

. RBIII-14 into the basic pay.00 COLA under W.00 per day to all minimum wage earners/workers and employees in the private sector in the region.O.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION III. 2010 Grants an integration of P10. Central Luzon a/ Per Wage Order No. and a new COLA increase of P14. No. RBIII-15 b/ Effective November 22.

00 per day wage increase to all minimum wage workers and employees in the private sector across the area classification .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-A. IVA-14 b/ Effective 15 January 2011 Grants a P17. CALABARZON a/ Wage Order No.

00 wage increase to all private sector minimum wage workers in the Region. MIMAROPA a/ Per Wage Order No. RB IV-B-05 b/ (Effective: November 11. 2010) Grants a P12.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IV-B. .

BICOL a/ Per Wage Order No.O. 2011 Agriculture .P5. RBV-14 b/ Effective: 01 November 2010 Upon effectivity .00 effective March 1.00/day wage increase and integration of the P7.P8. No. RBV-13 into the basic wage Non-Agriculture .00 COLA under W.00 effective March 1.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION V. 2011 .P6.

Western Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No. . RBVI-18 b/ Effective 12 August 2010 Grants a P15.00 basic wage increase to all minimum wage earners in the private sector in the region.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VI.

` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VII. Central Visayas Per Wage Order No. ` . 2010 Grants a P18. ROVII-15 a/ Effective September 1.00 basic wage increase per day to all minimum wage workers in the region.

RB VIII-15 b/ Effective 16 June 2008 Provides a P10.00 COLA per day in addition to the existing P8.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION VIII. No.00 COLA under W. RB VIII-14. Eastern Visayas a/ Per Wage Order No.O. .

. No.O. and the integration of P15.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION IX. Zamboanga Peninsula a/ Per Wage Order No. RIX-I6 b/ Effective 09 September 2010 Grants P15. RIX-15 into the basic wage.00 per day wage increase.00 COLA under W.

Effective October 1. RX-15 b/ Upon effectivity: P12.O.00 COLA under W.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION X. 2010: P13. Northern Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.00 wage increase per day . RX14 shall be integrated into the basic pay .

O. Davao Region a/ Per Wage Order No. RTWPB-XI-16 b/ Effective 01 September 2010 Grants a P21.00 per day wage increase in addition to the existing COLA under W. . RB XI-15 to all private sector minimum wage earners in the region.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XI. No.

00/day upon effectivity and additional P5.` ` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XII Central Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No.Integration of COLAs under W.00) into the basic pay . RB XII-16 b/ Effective: 31 October 2010 . RBXII13 (P11.New COLA of P10. RBXII-14(P5.00).00) and RBXII-15 (P5.O. Nos.00 COLA per day effective 01 April 2011 .

The P10. .O No.00) COLA under W.00 per day wage increase.00 from the Twenty Three Pesos (P23.` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES REGION XIII Caraga a/ Per Wage Order No. 2. RXIII-09 shall be integrated into the basic daily minimum wage. A P10. RXIII-10 b/ Effective 25 August 2010 1.

00 wage increase in the basic wage .` ` DAILY MINIMUM WAGE RATES Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao a/ Per Wage Order No. ARMM-12 b/ Effective 20 August 2010 Provides P12.

Salary is paid. In most years. in a bi-weekly paycheck to an exempt or professional employee. . most frequently. an employee¶s salary is paid in 26 even paychecks over the course of the year.` Salary is a fixed amount of money or compensation paid to an employee by an employer in return for work performed.