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CMOS Transmission Gates:

 A Transmission Gate (TG) is a complementary CMOS switch.

PMOS and NMOS are in parallel and are


controlled by complementary signals

- Both transistors are ON or OFF simultaneously.


- The NMOS switch passes a good zero but a poor 1.
- The PMOS switch passes a good one but a poor 0.

VDD

- Combining them we get a good 0 and a good 1 passed in both directions


-
- 0 0
1 1
- Circuit Symbols for TGs:
C’

- TGs are efficient in implementing some functions such as multiplexers, XORs, XNORs,
latches, and Flip-Flops.

• 2 I./P XOR using TGs:


F = A.B’ + A’.B , we need this: if A=1  F = B’ (pass B' to F)
if A=0  F = B (pass B to F)
using TGs: A’

B’

A
F=A+B
8 Ts (2 inverters for A and B and two TGs)
Versus 12 Ts for regular CMOS
B
A'
• 2 I/P XNOR
F = A.B + A’B’ if A=1  pass B to F
A if A=0  pass B’ to F

B’

A’

• General Logic using TGs: AOI 22:

F = (AB + CD)’ if A=1 F = (B+CD)’


B’ Then if C=1  F= (B+D)’ … and so on….

0
C’
B
B A’
D’ C 24 Ts versus 8 T for regular
C CMOS  TGs are very
B’ A inefficient for regular
B' A functions
C’

C’ A’
D’

C
C

1
C’

• 2-1 mux using TGs S’


F = S’.D0 + S.D1
D1
S Y
0 D0 D0 S
S
1 D1 Y Y
D1
D0
S S’
• 4-1 Mux in TGs:

Y = S1’.S0’.D0 + S1’.S0.D1 + S1.S0’.D2 + S1.S0.D3

S0 S1 D0
D0 D1
Y
D2
S0’ S1’ D3
S0’ S1
S0 S1
D1
S1 S0 Y
S0 S'1
S0 S'1 Y 0 0 D0
0 1 D1
1 0 D2
D2 1 1 D3
S0’ S
S'0 S'11
20 Ts

D3
S0 S1

• Another way is to use 3 of 2-1 Muxs:


S0
D0
D0
SS0'’ D1
0 S1
Y
S0
D1
D2
S0 SS1'’ S1
S0 1
D3
D2 S0
S1
SS0'’
0

We can use the same concept to


make 3,4 or more I/Ps XORs
D3
S0
• 4 I/P XOR:

A'

A
A

B'
A' F=A+B+C+D
C'
D

C
C
D'

C'
F = A.B’.C’.D’ + A’.B.C’.D’ + A’.B’.C.D’ + A.B.C.D’ + A.B.C.D’ + A.B.C’.D + A.B’.C.D

In regular CMOS: 4 inverters + 64T = 72 T

Warning: TGs can not be connected in series for more than 3 levels 

If you need more than that, use CMOS inverters in between as buffers: