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Languages of Indonesia

Languages of Indonesia

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Languages of Indonesia

Republic of Indonesia, Republik Indonesia. 248,496,420. National or official language: Indonesian. Literacy rate: 78%±85%. Also includes Arabic, languages of India and Europe. Information mainly from R. Blust 1983±1984; D. Tryon 1995; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 1,000,000. Deaf population: 2,000,000 or more (1993). Deaf institutions: 94. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia is 726. Of those, 719 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 5 have no known speakers.
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Indonesia (Java and Bali) Indonesia (Kalimantan) Indonesia (Maluku) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) Indonesia (Papua) Indonesia (Sulawesi) Indonesia (Sumatra)

Languages of Indonesia (Java and Bali)
Indonesia (Java and Bali). 120,000,000 in Java (2003), 3,573,000 in Bali (2000 census). Immigrant languages: Dutch, Western Cham. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Java and Bali) is 21. Of those, 20 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers. Badui [bac] 20,000 (2000 census). West Java, Mount Kendeng, Kabupaten Rangkasbitung, Pandeglang, Sukabumi. Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Sundanese More information. [ban] 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Island of Bali, north Nusa Penida, west Lombok Islands, and east Java, South Sulawesi. Alternate names: Balinese. Dialects: Lowland Bali (Klungkung, Karangasem, Buleleng, Gianyar, Tabanan, Jembrana, Badung), Highland Bali (³Bali Aga´ ), Nusa Penida. Reportedly two distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but those who can use it are diminishing. There are speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa More information. [bqy] 41 (2007 SIL). Bali Island, Kabupaten District, Bengkala village. Classification: Deaf sign language Nearly extinct. More information.


Benkala Sign Language


[bew] 2,700,000 (Johnstone 1993). Jakarta, Java. Alternate names: Batavi, Batawi, Betawi Malay, Jakarta Malay, Melayu Jakarte. Dialects: A Malay-based creole quite distinct from both standard Indonesian [ind] and from other Malay-based pidgins and creoles. It evolved by the mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits. Also influences from Peranakan Indonesian [pea] and Bali [bcp]. Often not intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (Allen 1989). Classification: Austronesian, MalayoPolynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade More information. [hak] 640,000 in Indonesia (1982). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese More information. [cmn] 460,000 in Indonesia (1982). Scattered throughout Indonesia. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese More information. [cdo] 20,000 in Indonesia (1982). Alternate names: Min Dong. Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese More information. [nan] 700,000 in Indonesia (1982). Pontianak (West Borneo) and elsewhere. Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Fujian (Hokkien), Chaochow (Tiu Chiu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese More information. [yue] 180,000 in Indonesia (1982). Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese More information. [ind] 22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 23,187,680. Widespread in Indonesia. Also in Netherlands, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, United States. Alternate names: Bahasa Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay More information. [inl] Ethnic population: 2,000,000 deaf people (1993). Classification: Deaf sign language More information. [pea] 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East and central Java. Alternate names: Baba Indonesian, Chinese Indonesian, Peranakan. Dialects: Based on Indonesian [ind] and Javanese [jav], with Mandarin

Chinese, Hakka

Chinese, Mandarin

Chinese, Min Dong

Chinese, Min Nan

Chinese, Yue


Indonesian Sign Language Indonesian, Peranakan

elements in contrast to Baba Malay [mbf], which has Hokkien (Chinese, Min Nan [nan]) elements. Classification: Creole, Malay based More information. Javanese [jav] 84,300,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Population total all countries: 84,608,470. Central Java, east third of west Java, southwest half of east Java. Resettlements in Papua, Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Also in Malaysia (Sabah), Netherlands, Singapore, United States. Alternate names: Djawa, Jawa. Dialects: Jawa Halus, Cirebon (Tjirebon, Cheribon), Tegal, Indramayu, Solo, Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banten, Cirebon, Tegal, Solo, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but the number of people that can use that variety is mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers and diminishing. The Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia have changed sufficiently to be only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia are reported to not be able to use High Javanese (Koentjaraninggrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese More information. [jvd] Extinct. Central Java. Alternate names: ³Krontjong´. Dialects: Derived from Dutch lexicon and Javanese grammar. Classification: Creole, Dutch based More information. [kkv] 110,000 (2000 census). East Madura area. Dialects: Barely intelligible with East Madura. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, Madurese More information. [mad] 13,600,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 86,000 Bawean. Population total all countries: 13,600,900. North coastal area of east Java, Sapudi Islands, Madura Island. Also in Singapore. Alternate names: Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese. Dialects: Bawean (Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, MalayoSumbawan, Madurese More information.




Sundanese More information. Dutch based More information. Dialects: May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav]. 4 provinces. Javanese More information. North and East. A. Of those. Bromo. Osing Petjo Sunda Tengger Languages of Indonesia (Kalimantan) Indonesia (Kalimantan).558 (2000 census). Muller-Schwaner µPunan¶ Aoheng . Betawi [bew]. Malayo-Sumbawan. Cirebon. North Borneo. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. central. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke]. Alternate names: Banyuwangi.000 (2000 census). Uhlenbeck 1958. north central near Sarawak border.000 (2000 census). 11. East Kalimantan Province. Malayo-Sumbawan. Greater Barito. Malayo-Polynesian. western third of the island. Alternate names: Penihing. Pringan. Ampanang [apg] 30.630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Blust 1974. Dialects: Related to East Javanese. Classification: Austronesian. all are living languages. Classification: Austronesian. Barito-Mahakam More information. Javanese More information. [pey] Java.331.000.Malay. Classification: Creole. Barito. Malayo-Polynesian. East Java. Trade More information. Immigrant languages: TringgusSembaan Bidayuh. Bali. [pni] 2. Kayan-Kenyah. Malayic. Lamper area. Javanese [jav]. Java. Malayo-Polynesian. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Kalimantan) is 74.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian. Sundanese. Tengger-Semeru massif and slopes of Mt. [tes] 80.000 (2000 census). [osi] 300. Djakarta (Batavia). Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Influences from Dutch [nld]. [sun] 34. Jambu. Information mainly from R. Alternate names: Priangan. Malayo-Polynesian. East Java. North Sarawakan. 67% with Hovongan [hov]. Balinese [mhp] 25. Cense and E. Malay. upper reaches of Kapuas. Kayanic. east and northeast coast. Malayo-Polynesian. and Mahakam rivers. Classification: Austronesian. Petjoh. Alternate names: Tenggerese.000 (2000 census). Dialects: Bogor (Krawang). Alternate names: Pecok. southeast of Tunjung. East Kalimantan Province.

Lexical similarity: 75% with Ngaju [nij]. Population total all countries: 3. Kapuas and Barito rivers.500. and Long Hubung subdistricts. [bjn] 3. Bakati¶ More information. Unidirectional intelligibility from Sara to Rara-Bakati¶. Bahau [bhv] 19. Long Bagun. Sambas and Selvas areas. Malayo-Polynesian. and southeast of Busang. Alternate names: Bandjarese. Bakati¶ More information. Kayan-Kenyah.300. Bekati. 66% with Tamuan (Malayic Dayak).000 (2007 SIL). North Sarawakan.000 (2003). Lara¶. Malayo-Polynesian.000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Kayanic. North and East. Long Pahangai. Rara Bakati¶. Banjarese. Dialects: Some dialect differences.000 (1986 UBS). Also in Malaysia (Sabah). 45% with Banjar [bjn]. Malayic. Alternate names: Bakambai. Dialects: Bakumpai. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Sara.More information. Northwest near Sarawak border. Bekati¶ Kendayan. Dialects: Kuala. Lexical similarity: 73% with Indonesian [ind]. Classification: Austronesian. 35% with Ngaju [nij]. MalayoSumbawan. Malayo-Polynesian. West. Banjar Malay. East Kalimantan Province. Oloh Mengkatip). Bekatiq.000. Alternate names: Bakati Nyam.502. South More information. upper Lundu and Sambas rivers. [sre] 4. Dialects: Bina¶e. 45% with Bakumpai [bkr]. Central Kalimantan as far as Sampit. Bakatiq. Hulu. and north in Pejampi and 2 other villages. Malay Bakati¶ Bakati¶. Kutai and Pasir. Labuhan. BaraJida. [lra] 12. Long Apari. Land Dayak. Mengkatip (Mangkatip. [bei] 4. Bakati Riok. East Kalimantan. near Sanggau-Ledo northeast of Ledo. increasing. Kutai Barat Regency. Alternate names: Luru. Sara Bakumpai Banjar . northeast of Kuala Kapuas. Land Dayak. Kayan Proper More information. Greater Barito. north. Land Dayak. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Riok. Classification: Austronesian. Bakati¶ More information. Classification: Austronesian. coastal regions of Pulau Laut.000 in Indonesia (2007). Bekati¶ Nyam-Pelayo. Around Banjarmasin south and east. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Central Kalimantan Province. Bengkayang area east of Gunung Pendering. Northeast. Classification: Austronesian. North Borneo. [bkr] 100. West Kalimantan Province. West Kalimantan Province.

Dialects: May be a dialect of Tidong [tid] or Segai [sge]. Iwan River. and Kutai regencies. Balantian. North Sarawakan. Dialects: Jembayan. Kayanic. Bukar Sadong. Alternate names: Njadu. Also in Malaysia (Sarawak). Northwest Kalimantan. Sangkulirang. 3 areas. Malayo-Polynesian. northeast near Sarawak border. Beketan. Classification: Austronesian.480 in Indonesia (2000). Land Dayak. Balantiang. Sanggau and Sintang regencies. Central More information. Dayic. West Kalimantan Province. Dialects: Punan Ukit. MalayoPolynesian. Alternate names: Bakatan.000 (2007 SIL). Bulungan. Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayuh. Classification: Austronesian. [bth] 8. Dialects: Pandu. West Kalimantan Province. Bakitan. Eastern More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Balantiang. Bideyu. Alternate names: Bulungan. Muller-Schwaner ¶Punan¶ More information. Kayan-Kenyah. Sadong. [blj] 30. Bidayuh. [byd] 54. Binatang. Pakatan. Core. Classification uncertain. Tanjungselor area. East Kalimantan Province. Punan Busang.More information. Basap [bdb] 15. Bukar. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Rejang-Sajau More information. Classification: Austronesian. Mainly in Sarawak. Land Dayak. Tebakang.000 (Pusat Bahasa 2002). Alternate names: Buka. [sdo] West Kalimantan Province. Manketa. Bidayuh. Karangan. North Borneo. MalayoPolynesian. Landak and Bengkayang regencies. Benyadu¶ Bidayuh. Berau. Alternate names: Biatah. [bvk] 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Pueh. Landu. Biatah Bidayuh. Classification: Austronesian. Serian. East Kalimantan Province. Lundu. Kapuas River. southeast of Mendalam. Murutic. Bukar Sadung Bidayah. Land Dayak More information.000 (2007). Siburan. scattered in Bulungan. Classification: Austronesian. BukarSadong Bolongan Bukat Bukitan . Nyadu (Balantian. Malayo-Polynesian. Population total all countries: 860. [bkn] 570 in Indonesia (2000). Malayo-Polynesian. North Borneo. on Sarawak border. lower Kayan River. Njadu). East Kalimantan Province. North Sarawakan. North Borneo. Malayo-Polynesian. Bidayah). Nyadu. Sarawak border. Tidong More information. Mangkettan. Sabutan. Dialects: Bukar Sadong. North Borneo. Dumaring. northwest near Sarawak border. Sarawak border.

South Kalimantan Province.000 (1991 NTM). Matoh. Sesayap subdistrict. Malagasy [plt]. Central-South. Tabalong River northeast of Bongkang. 52% with Tawoyan [twy]. West Kalimantan Province near Sarawak and East Kalimantan Province borders.000 (2003). Dialects: Dusun Pepas. Central Kalimantan Province. Paku [pku]. south of Muarateweh. East. North Borneo. upper Kapuas River: Embaloh. Dusun Witu [duw]. Lauh. North Sarawakan. Kalis Dayak). 2. North Barito Regency. Semukung Uheng. Palin. Alternate names: Deah. Kapuas Hulu Regency. Bugis. Dusun Witu. west of Muarainu. Maloh. Dialects: Hovongan. Dusun Malang. Kajang More information. Classification: Austronesian. Memaloh. Most similar to Ma¶anyan [mhy]. Classification: Austronesian. Mandai. South Sulawesi. South More information. Palin. [dun] 20. South Barito Regency. Malagasy [plt]. West Kalimantan Province. Sekatakbunyi area. Rejang-Sajau More information. East. Nyabau. Alternate names: Malo. Sangau. Central More information. Dusun Malang [duq]. Alternate names: Punan Bungan.000 (1991 NTM). Sanggau. East. Dialects: Kalis (Kalis Maloh. Greater Barito. Central Kalimantan Province. Greater Barito. Bulungan Regency. northeast of Muarateweh. Malayo-Polynesian.Melanau-Kajang. [hov] 1. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Lawangan [lbx]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ma¶anyan. East Kalimantan Province. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. [emb] 10. South More information. Kalis may be a separate language. Greater Barito. Pari. Classification: Austronesian. Central-South. north of Sajau Basap [sjb] language. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Tamanic More information. Leboyan. Mbaloh. 73% with Paku [pku]. Classification: Austronesian. Pendang and Buntokecil regions. North Borneo. [duw] 5.000 Bayan. Malayo-Polynesian. and Kalis tributaries. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke]. Central-South. south of Sarawak border. Dialects: Bayan. far northeast corner. Paku. Malayo-Polynesian. Dejah.500 (2003). Lexical similarity: 90% between the 2 dialects. [duq] 4. 67% with Aoheng [pni]. Dusun Deyah Dusun Malang Dusun Witu Embaloh Hovongan .350 (2007 SIL). Burusu [bqr] 4. Kapuas Hulu Regency. Penyavung. Alternate names: Berusuh. Most similar to Ma¶anyan [mhy]. MalayoPolynesian. Bulusu.

West Kalimantan Province.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southern More information. West Kalimantan Province. Pompang.000 (2007 SIL). Kayan River Kayan. Dialects: Uma Leken. Kajan. [xay] 1. North and East. Kayan Proper More information. [xkd] 1. Kayanic. Oga. Maung. West Kutai and Malinau regencies. Mendalam River. North Sarawakan. Kayanic. Classification: Austronesian. Jangkang Kayan Mahakam Kayan. Kayan River Kajan. Kayanic. Belayan. Alternate names: Kajang.500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). [bfg] 3. Sebaru¶. Busang Kayan. North Borneo. North Borneo. [whu] 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). North Sarawakan. North Borneo. Kayan River. Long Bleh. Classification: Austronesian. 2 areas. Sekapat. Kayanic. Alternate names: Busang. Kayan Proper More information. Classification: Austronesian. Belayan rivers. Sigarau. Kayan-Kenyah. Kajang. Ibanic More information. East Kalimantan Province. Kayan-Kenyah. North Borneo. Dialects: Jangkang proper. Kayan Proper More information. Kayan-Kenyah. Iban [iba] 15. Malayo-Polynesian. Sarawak border. Bugau. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Muller-Schwaner µPunan¶ More information. Alternate names: Sea Dayak. Banjur. North Sarawakan. upper Mahakam. Malayo-Polynesian. Demam. northeast of Putus Sibau. Kayan-Kenyah. Dialects: Batang Lupar. Dialects: Mahakam Busang. Alternate names: Mendalam Kajan. Kayan Proper More information. north of Muara Wahau.Kayan-Kenyah. Mendalam Kayan. Wahau .000 in Kalimantan (Benjamin and Chou 2003). North Sarawakan. East Kalimantan Province. North Sarawakan. Malayo-Sumbawan. Classification: Austronesian. Ketungau (Air Tabun. East Kalimantan Province. Kantu¶. Malayo-Polynesian. Kayaniyut Kayan. Malayic. East Kalimantan Province. Classification: Austronesian. North Borneo. West Kalimantan Province. Land Dayak. Kayanic. Central Sanggau Regency.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sesat). Uma Laran. Malayo-Polynesian. south of Balai Sebut. Alternate names: Wahau Kajan. Seklau.300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). [djo] 37. Malayo-Polynesian. [xkn] 2. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. 2 areas.

Batu Majang. Nangasayan. Muara Kembayan Kendayan Keninjal Kenyah. Kaninjal Dayak. Damea.000. decreasing. and Telen river areas. Classification: Austronesian. [knx] 280. Selako. Dialects: Ambawang. Classification: Austronesian. Lepo¶ Bem. North and East. Wahau . Kelabit [kzi] 640 in Indonesia (2000). Malayo-Polynesian. [xem] 11. Kendayan More information. Long Belua villages. Apo Duat. North Borneo. Malayo-Polynesian. Madi and Papan jungle area.700. northwest of Longkemuat. Alternate names: Kalabit. Kembayan. Kayanic. North and East. Uma¶ Jalan. decreasing. Pimping. Kayan Proper More information. Upper Baram. Kelabitic More information. Also in Malaysia (Sarawak). Badeng. Alternate names: Usun Apau Kenyah.000 in Indonesia (2007). Lepo¶ Ndang. Upper Balui. Malayo-Polynesian. Bakung. MalayoSumbawan. Sambas regency. Nangapinoh. Belayan. northeast of Bengkayang. Sayan and Melawi rivers. Population total all countries: 290. Tring.000 (2007 SIL). Malayic. West Kalimantan Province. Kenyah More information. East Kalimantan Province. Dialects: Lon Bangag. West Kalimantan Province. [knl] 32. on Sarawak border. Uma¶ Tukung. Gelalak areas. Malinau Regency. Kayan-Kenyah. Lepo¶ Tepu¶. Ledo area. Lepo¶ Maut. Malayo-Polynesian. Malinau. Dialects: Lepo¶ Tau. Pa¶ Mada. Kendayan More information. Mahakam. Long Napir. Classification: Austronesian. Kaninjal. near Sarawak border.000 (2007 SIL).000 in Indonesia (2007). Highland Kenyah. Salako. Southern More information. Population total all countries: 32. North Borneo. North Sarawakan. remote mountains. Classification: Austronesian. Lepo¶ Ke. Land Dayak. Kayan. Classification: Austronesian. Kendayan. Malayic.000 (2007). Alternate names: Dayak Kaninjal.Kayan-Kenyah. Long Setulang. upper Mahakam River. North Sarawakan. Kendayan Dayak. Bareo (Bario). Kerabit. Dayic. Balaikarangan. Malayo-Polynesian. Landak River area. East Kalimantan Province. Also in Malaysia (Sarawak). Alternate names: Karambai. Buluk Sen. Batu Kajang. Lepo¶ Kuda. [whk] 8. Nangaella. Alternate names: Baicit. Uma¶ Dian. Ahe. Mainstream Kenyah. East Kalimantan Province. MalayoSumbawan. Bahau. Long Uli. Dialects: Kubing. Kendayan-Ambawang. [xkl] 12. West Kalimantan Province. Mainly in Sarawak.

[kkx] 8. Kayanic. central and north Seruyan River area. Pasir. Wurm). North Borneo. 53% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Lawa. [lgi] 4 (2000 S. Uheng (KerehoUheng). Uma¶ Bekuai. North Sarawakan. Banuwang. More information. Interior from Brunei Bay to Padas River headwaters. Lun Dayoh. and into East Kalimantan. Papadi. near Sarawak border. 10 villages. Lun Bawang (Long Bawan. 50%±69% with Ngaju [nij]. North Sarawakan. Kayan-Kenyah. North More information. to Baram headwaters. Kelabitic Nearly extinct. Alternate names: Wahau Kenya. Tawoyan [twy] may be inherently intelligible. Alternate names: Bahasa Seruyan. Bawu (Bawo). Alternate names: Southern Murut. MalayoPolynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Tabang Lama villages. Classification: Austronesian. Lun Dayah. Uma¶ Ujok. Lebu¶ Kulit. Lexical similarity: 69% with Hovongan [hov].000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Kayanic Kenyah More information. [lbx] 100. Benua. between Sa¶ban and Lundayeh. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Luwangan. Lolang. Malaysia (Sarawak). Population total all countries: 47.500. Kayan-Kenyah. At least 17 dialects. Greater Barito. Njumit. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Tuwang.000 (2003). Dialects: Lun Daye. West. Muller-Schwaner µPunan¶ More information. Lundayeh. [lnd] 23. Lun Daye.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Mantararen. Northeast Barito. Kotawaringin Timur Regency. Indonesian mountains where Sesayap River tributaries arise. Kenyah. Sarawak Murut). Central Kalimantan Province. Taboyan. North Borneo. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tawoyan. Northeast.Pedohon. Karau (Beloh). Dayic. although sometimes called Southern Murut. far east Kapuas Hulu Regency. Purung. Kereho River. Purai. East. Kampung Baru. Kali. Kereho [xke] 500 (2003). North Sarawakan. East central Kalimantan. Greater Barito. 69% with Aoheng [pni]. Not Murutic. Also in Brunei. Malayo-Polynesian. Bakoi (Lampung). Classification: Austronesian. Lundaya Putuk. Dialects: Busang (Kereho-Busang). North Borneo. Kohin Lawangan Lengilu Lun Bawang . Alternate names: Keriau Punan. Lebu¶ Kulit. Dialects: Uma Timai. West Kalimantan Province. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60%± 65% with Ot Danum [otd]. Bantian (Bentian). Seruyan. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Ajuh. Classification: Austronesian. Seputan. Karau River area. Lun Daya. North More information.

North and East. Classification: Austronesian. Banjar [bjn]. northwest of Limbungan. Malayic. Malayo-Sumbawan. Malayo-Polynesian. 50. Berau Malay. Dialects: A variant of Banjar Malay [bjn]. East Kalimantan Province. Kota Bangun Kutai [mqg]) are not inherently intelligible. Malay More information.000 (2003). Ancalong Kutai. 75% with Dusun Witu [duv]. North Borneo. Kelabitic More information. Mangkalihat north to Muarabadak and Samarinda south.Malayo-Polynesian. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun (Malay. Alternate names: Ma¶anjan. Many dialects. Merau Malay.000 in Ancalong. Dialects: Samihim (Buluh Kuning). 60. Tanjungreder and Muaramalinau north to Sepinang south. Bukat. and Brunei [xkd]. Dusun Hilir.000 in Northern Kutai. [bve] 11. Malayic. Related to Malagasy languages in Madagascar. Alternate names: Bukit. Malayic. Malayic. Malay More information.000 (2007 SIL). Malayo-Sumbawan. Dusun Tengah. Malay. and Patangkep Tutui subdistricts. North and East. Gunung Bintang Awai. from Sepinang and Tg. North and East. South Tamianglayang area. South More information. Lexical similarity: 77% with Paku [pku]. [bvu] 59. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Classification: Austronesian. North and East. Greater Barito. Meratus. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay [bve]. Northern Kutai. [mqg] 80. Karau Kuala.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Dayic. central Mahakam River basin. Alternate names: Berau. Central-South. Mahakam River basin. East. Awang. North Sarawakan. Barito Selatan Regency. Dusun Balangan. MalayoPolynesian. Maanyak Dayak. Tenggarong. Malayo-Polynesian. MalayoPolynesian. Ma¶anyan [mhy] 150. East Kalimantan Province.200 (2007 SIL).000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). east central coastal area. southeast. 100. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Tenggarong Kutai. Bukit Malay. central coastal area. Dusun Utara. but may be intelligible with one of its dialects (Northern Kutai). East Kalimantan Province.000 in Tenggarong. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Tenggarong Kutai . [vkt] 210. Sihong (Siong). East Kalimantan Province. Dusun Selatan. Kota Bangun Kutai Malay. Central Kalimantan. Alternate names: Kutai. Malay More information. Sampanahan River. Dialects: Not intelligible with Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt]. Classification: Austronesian. Patai River drainage area. Malay More information.

Malayic Dayak

[xdy] 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana¶, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk. Large portions of eastern West Kalimantan and western Central Kalimantan provinces. Banana¶ and Tapitn are western, between Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya; Kayung and Delang are southern, between Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja; Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk are eastern, southeast of Kapuas River from Sintang to Putus Sibau. Alternate names: Bamayo, Bumayoh. Dialects: Tapitn, Banana¶, Kayung (Kayong), Delang, Semitau, Suhaid, MentebahSuruk, Arut (Sukarame), Lamandau (Landau Kantu), Sukamara (Kerta Mulya), Riam (Nibung Terjung), Belantikan (Sungkup), Tamuan, Tomun, Pangin, Sekakai, Silat. Listed dialects form a chain and may constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Kendayan [knx] and Keninjal [knl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay More information. [mxd] 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, Segah, Kelinjau, and Belayan rivers. 5 areas. Dialects: Kelingan (Long Wai, Long We), Long Glat, Long Bento¶, Benehes, Nahes, Liah Bing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang More information. [mtd] 40,000 (2007 Tjia). West Kalimantan Province, Belitang Hilir, Belitang, and Belitang Hulu Sekadau subdistricts, along Ayak and Belitang rivers, about 320 kms. upstream from Pontianak. Dialects: Mualang Ili¶, Mualang Ulu. Similar to Iban [iba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic More information. [nij] 890,000 (2003). Kalimantan, Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers, south. Alternate names: Biadju, Dayak Ngaju, Ngadju, Ngaja, Ngaju Dayak, Southwest Barito. Dialects: Ba¶amang (BaraBare, Sampit), Katingan Ngaju, Katingan Ngawa, Kahayan, Kahayan Kapuas, Mantangai (Oloh Mangtangai), Pulopetak. Related to Bakumpai [bkr]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bakumpai, 62% with Kohin [kkx], 50% with Ot Danum [otd], 35% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South More information. [kqv] 3,390 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 4,970. East Kalimantan Province along Sabah border, east of Lumbis, north of Lundayeh; also in Sarawak. Also in Malaysia (Sarawak).





Alternate names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod of Sabah, 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv], 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut More information. Ot Danum [otd] 78,800 (2007 SIL). Upper reaches of south Borneo River, large area south of Schwaner Range. Ulu Ai¶ on Mandai River with 7 villages. Alternate names: Dohoi, Malahoi, Uud Danum, Uut Danum. Dialects: Ot Balawan, Ot Banu¶u, Ot Murung 1 (Murung 1, Punan Ratah), Ot Olang, Ot Tuhup, Sarawai (Melawi), Dohoi, Ulu Ai¶ (Da¶an), Sebaung, Kadorih, Kuhin. Lexical similarity: 70% with Siang [sya], 65% with Kohin [kkx], 60% with Katingan dialect of Ngaju [nij], 50% with Ngaju (main dialect) [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North More information. [pku] 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Central Kalimantan Province, East Barito Regency, south of Ampah. Alternate names: Bakau. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Ma¶anyan [mhy], 73% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South More information. [pud] 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, west and north of Mt. Menyapa. Alternate names: Aput. Dialects: Allegedly unintelligible to other Penan languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner µPunan¶ More information. [puf] 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, Mahakam River, east of Ujohhilang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner µPunan¶ More information. [puc] 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, east of Longkemuat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau More information. [puj] 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung rivers, coastal. 8 locations. Dialects: Not a Kenyah language (Soriente 2003). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan,


Punan Aput

Punan Merah

Punan Merap

Punan Tubu

Punan Tubu More information. Putoh [put] 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, east of Lundayeh and Sa¶ban, Mentarang River, Longberang, Mensalong, Bangalan areas. Alternate names: Putuk. Dialects: Pa Kembaloh, Abai. May be the same as Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic More information. [rir] 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas Hulu Regency, Tayan Hulu subdistrict. Dialects: Ribun, Bekidoh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern More information. [snv] 850 in Indonesia (2000). East Kalimantan Province, Nunukan Regency, Sarawak border, south of Lundayeh. Alternate names: Saban, Merau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic More information. [sjb] 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, Berau and Bulungan regencies, northeast of Muaramalinau. Alternate names: Sajau, Sujau. Dialects: Punan Sajau, Punan Basap, Punan Batu 2. Related to Basap [bdb]. Classification: Austronesian, MalayoPolynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau More information. [scg] 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West Kalimantan Province, Sanggau Regency, Kapuas River. Dialects: Dosan, Mayau, Sanggau. Very heterogenous dialects, probably more than 1 language in this group²not all Sanggau isolects mutually intelligible. Koman and Semerawai could be part of this group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak More information. [sbx] 37,000 (2007 SIL). West Kalimantan Province, Kapuas area from Nanga Silat to Selimbau, on Belimbing, Lebang, Belitang, Seauk, Tempunak, Selimbau, Silat rivers. Dialects: Quite similar to Desa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Ibanic More information. [sge] 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). East Kalimantan Province, Berau regency, Kelai River and around Longlaai. Alternate names:



Sajau Basap




Murutic. Kualan and Semandang rivers. Tagul. West Kalimantan Province. Maligan (Mauligan. North More information. Komi. Gerai. North Borneo Murut. Kayanic. Tinggalan. Modang More information. North Sarawakan. Dialects: Siang. Sabah Murut). Classification: Austronesian. Bihak.000. East Kalimantan Province. North Sarawakan. Population total all countries: 1. Alternate names: Kualan-Semandang. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Sumambu.180 in Indonesia (2000). Pegalan Valley. Land Dayak.000 in Indonesia.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sumambu (Semembu. Murung Raya Regency. Bole Murut). Ketapang Regency. North Borneo. Alternate names: Ot Siang. east of Dohoi. Greater Barito. Loembis). Lagunan Murut). West Kalimantan Province. Dialects: Kelai. Alternate names: Semambu. Sembakong. Segah. Ga¶ay by the Kenyah and Kayan. East Kalimantan Province. Related to Dohoi. Nunukan Regency. Murut More information. Semembu. Nunukan Regency. Mendalam and Sibau Semandang Sembakung Murut Siang Tagal Murut Taman . East Kalimantan Province. Malayo-Polynesian. [tmn] 30.240. Kapuas River. Malayo-Polynesian. Southern More information. Sembakung River mouth into Sabah. Malayo-Polynesian. North Borneo.000 (2007 SIL). North Sarawakan. Dayic. Tingalun. Murutic. Murutic. North Borneo. Dayic. [sya] 60. Classification: Austronesian. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Rundum (Arundum).180. [sbr] 3. Tolokoson (Telekoson). Murut More information. Selungai Murut [slg] 640 in Indonesia (2000). Population total all countries: 5. Pensiangan Murut (Pentjangan. Classification: Austronesian. Tinggalum. Alternate names: Sembakoeng. Sumambu-Tagal. Tomani (Tumaniq). Tawan. Alternate names: Murut. MalayoPolynesian. [mvv] 2. Dayic. Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut). Simbakong. Tidong More information. Sumambuq. Alumbis (Lumbis. Murung 2. Kapuas Hulu regency. Central Kalimantan Province. Tagal (Tagol. Dialects: Semandang. Classification: Austronesian. North Sarawakan. North Borneo. Kayan-Kenyah. Meligan.Called Segayi by the Berau. MalayoPolynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. West. Nunukan Regency east of Lumbis on upper reaches of Sembakung River. Taggal. Alumbis River. Bol Murut. upriver from Putussibau. Sumambuq). [sdm] 20. Beginci. Classification: Austronesian.

East Kalimantan Province. Tedong. Tabojan Tongka. Sembakung and Sibuka rivers. Alternate names: Tabojan. Tiran. Bisayan. North More information. Tamanic More information. Tabuyan. MalayoPolynesian.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Tausug [tsg] 12. coast and islands around Tarakan and interior. Tiroon. Bugis. Dialects: Tunjung (Tunjung Tengah). between Adas. North Borneo. Alternate names: Western Kenyah. Taboyan. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Melak. Sulu.000 in Indonesia (1981 Wurm). Tunjung Linggang. North Borneo. also Long Pejalin (Uma¶ Alim). Saralir. Greater Central Philippine. Dialects: Nonukan (Nunukan). Sibuku. Pahu. Murutic.000. Kenyah. [xky] 1. South. Sedalir (Salalir. Tidong More information. Kutai Regency. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Tunjung Dayak. Malayo-Polynesian. North Sarawakan.tributaries. [tjg] 50. South Sulawesi.500 in Indonesia (Soriente 2003. Malinau regency. and east around the lake. 52% with Dusun Deyah. Dialects: Uma¶ Alim. Uma¶ Lasan. Classification: Austronesian. Tunjung Londong. Tidung. East. Tewoyan. Tawoyan Tidong Tunjung Uma¶ Lasan . Population total all countries: 47. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Lawangan [lbx]. Tidoeng. East Central around Palori. Bulungan Regency. Classification: Austronesian. Malinau River. East Kalimantan Province. [tid] 27. Uma¶ Baka. Northeast Kalimantan coastal settlements. Classification: Austronesian. Upper Pujungan More information. Dempar. Malayo-Polynesian. Moro Joloano. East Kalimantan Province. 2005).000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL).000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sadalir. Kayan-Kenyah. Suluk. Malayo-Polynesian. Tidung. Taw Sug. Taman Dayak. Greater Barito. Philippine. south Muntaiwan area. Butuan-Tausug More information. [twy] 20. Malayo-Polynesian. Tausog. Classification: Austronesian. Dayic. Tirones. Tarakan (Terakan). primarily Long Pujungan and Long Jelet Mesahan villages. Alternate names: Camucones. Selalir). Classification: Austronesian. Greater Barito. Alternate names: Joloano Sulu. Zedong. Barito-Mahakam More information. immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. Taosug. Tawoyan Dayak. Sesayap (Sesajap). Alternate names: Dayak Taman. North Sarawakan. Sooloo. Penchangan. Central Philippine.

Nunusaku. Hatuhaha.Uma¶ Lung [ulu] 3. Whinnom 1956. D. Travis 1986. Upper Pujungan More information. Classification: Austronesian. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Collins 1983. D. Central MalayoPolynesian. Nunusaku. Alternate names: Amahei. 59% with Kamarian [kzx].454 (2000 census). 1990. Long Setulang. 59%-69% with Saparua [spr]. 22 villages. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Rutah. and Hulung [huk].200 (2000). Central Maluku. Dialects: Kairatu. Three Rivers. Long Belua villages. 45% with North Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu. Grimes 1983.549. 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali. More information. Rambatu dialect reportedly prestigious. Luhu [lcq]. Classification: Austronesian. B. North Borneo. K. and B. Malinau regency mostly. Malayo-Polynesian. East. Seram Straits. P. Information mainly from R. Piru Bay. Bolton 1989. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. Sapalewa. C. Seram Barat District. Northwest Seram. Ulat Inai More information. Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli). Alternate names: Patasiwa Alfoeren. Elpaputi Nearly extinct. Alternate names: Oma Longh. North Sarawakan. Kairatu. Central Maluku. Kayan-Kenyah. 50% with Alune [alp]. 5 villages. North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo). Dialects: Makariki. Polman 1981. Long Uli. Taylor 1991. C. East Kalimantan Province. southwest Seram. west Seram. probably 2 languages. M. [amq] 50 (1987 SIL). Lexical similarity: 77%±91% among dialects. East. Soahuku. 2000. 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] and South Wemale [tlw]. Grimes 1995. Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). 58% with Kaibobo. Kenyah. Language subgroup with Iha [ihp] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Central-Eastern. Seram. Grimes 1994. Languages of Indonesia (Maluku) Indonesia (Maluku). Uliase. 52% with Piru [ppr]. 2. 4 villages near Masohi. 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau]. K. Pimping. Dialects: Marginally intelligible with Uma Lasan [xky]. Of those. Malayo-Polynesian. 128 are living languages and 4 have no known speakers. Seram. Taber 1993. Classification: Austronesian. 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka¶ela. Central Maluku. CentralEastern. Also related to Elpaputih [elp] and Nusa Laut [nul]. Taniwel districts. Amalumute. 49% with Naka¶ela [nae]. South Alune (Rambatu-ManussaRumberu). Amahai . Batu Kajang. East. J. Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects Makariki and Rutah villages. Alune [alp] 17. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Maluku) is 132.000 (2006). E. Related to Naka¶ela [nae] and Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs].

Ambelau [amv] 5. Central Maluku. 72%±73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu]. Wetar More information. Classification: Austronesian. Elat. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Babar. Babar. Asilulu. Dialects: Asilulu. Ureng. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. [vbb] 4. CentralEastern. Nakarhamto. Henalima). South Maluku. Asilulu More information. Ureng. Southeast Banda . 71%±73% with Luhu [lcq] on Seram. Central-Eastern. [bcd] 1. 69% with Ili¶uun [ilu]. 78%±82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik]. North Babar. Lurang. North central Wetar coast. Ambelau More information. Different from other languages of south Maluku. opposite Ambelau. southwest Maluku. Timor. Negeri Lima (Lima. Alternate names: Ilputih. 57% with Talur [ilw]. Central Maluku. Banda-Geser More information. 79% with Perai [wet]. Central-Eastern. Tutunohan. Central MalayoPolynesian. Ilputih village. Classification: Austronesian. Extra-Ramelaic.000 (1987 SIL). possibly another village. Welemur. south coast. Classification: Austronesian. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects. Seram. east of Timor. west and northeast side of Kei Besar Island. Classification: Austronesian. Yatoke villages. Aputai Asilulu Babar. Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku.460 (2007 SIL). Central Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Ilputih. Ambelau Island off southeast coast of Buru Island. Alternate names: Amblau. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Eli. 67%±72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo]. Dialects: Not intelligible with Buru [mhs]. [asl] 8. Classification: Austronesian. South Maluku. West. northeast Babar Island. [apx] 150 (Hinton 1990). 8 villages. south central Wetar coast.700 (1989 SIL). Ilwiara.000 (2007 SIL). MalayoPolynesian. 74% with Tugun [tzn]. Central-Eastern. Hoamoal Peninsula. southeast Babar Island. Lexical similarity: 88% between Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect.760 (1987 SIL). Central-Eastern. Northwest Ambon Island. North More information. some in West Seram. [bnd] 3. Ethnic population: 5. Malayo-Polynesian.700. Opotai. Central-Eastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Kei Islands. South. South Maluku. Wae Tawa village. Malayo-Polynesian. Negeri Lima villages. Malayo-Polynesian. North. East. Masela-South Babar More information. East. Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages. Piru Bay. Lurang village. Nunusaku. Dialects: Reported dialect variation. Buru coast.

54% to 66% with Liana-Seti [ste]. 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian. Balakeo. Watulai. Central-Eastern. 46%±50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu]. Isal. Balakeo. Nunusaku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central MalayoPolynesian. Dialects: Related to Larike-Wakasihu [alo].500 (Loski 1989). Alternate names: Gah. CentralEastern. Lesa villages. Central Maluku. off the east coast of Wokam Island. ManuselaSeti More information. southeast Seram. Apara. Benggoi. Malayo-Polynesian. East.500 (1989 SIL). Alternate names: Bengoi. Alternate names: Buano. Central Malayo-Polynesian.300 (1995 SIL). Central Maluku. South Maluku. mainly North Buano village. Central-Eastern. 81% with Mariri [mqi]. Hoamoal. East. [bvt] 3. Aru More information. Piru Bay. [bay] 3. Benggoi. Dialects: Barakai. Malayo-Polynesian. and Tunsai village in Liana area. Longgar.Barakai [baj] 4. Alternate names: Ahtiago. Banda-Geser. Alternate names: Gwataley.840 (1995 SIL). Mesiang. Central MalayoPolynesian. Coastal east Seram Island between Kian Darat and Keleser. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Kobi-Benggoi. [bty] 4. Hatumeten. Barakai Island. Classification: Austronesian. Geser-Gorom More information. Lexical similarity: 70% among µdialects¶. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay]. Ntau. Werinama. and inland. [bzn] 3. Werinama and Bula districts. Malayo-Polynesian. Watubela [wah]. East. from Atiahu village to Kota Baru. Central Maluku. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Workai. 7 villages in Aru on small islands. Seram. north coast. Gomo-Gomo Island northeast of Barakai. Seram. Dialects: Lesa. Central-Eastern. and Mesiang. Uhei-Kaclakin. Classification: Austronesian. east Seram. Similar to Karey [kyd]. Classification: Austronesian. Boano Island west of Seram. East More information. slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq]. Werinama District. southeast Aru Islands. Central Maluku. Bati Batuley Benggoi Boano Bobot . Central Maluku. Atiahu. Uhei-Kahlakim. Bemun. 32%±46% with Manusela [wha]. Classification: Austronesian.240 (1982). Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd]. South Maluku. Central-Eastern. West. Dialects: Related to Geser-Gorom [ges]. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Related to Kompane [kvp] to the north and Lola [lcd] to the south. Uhei Kachlakan. Central Maluku. [bgy] 350 (1989 SIL). Aru More information.

258 Rana. Wae Sama (Waesama). north of eastern tip of Timor Island. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Buru More information. Dialects: Not intelligible with West Damar [drn]. Alternate names: Boeroe.622 Wae Sama. Dialects: No dialect variation. South Maluku. 6. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete. Lewa. [mhs] 33. East Damar More information. [dij] 820 (2007 SIL). 500 Fogi. Fogi (Li Emteban. east coast. Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3. Buli [bzq] 2.600 Masarete.520 (2000). 42% with Yalahatan [jal]. Central-Eastern. 48% with Tepa (Luang). 27%±33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn]. 70 villages. Alternate names: South Damar. Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500. Extra-Ramelaic. Timor. Babar. Central Malayo-Polynesian. and central Buru Island. Southeast More information. 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete.000 to 5. North Maluku. 3 villages. Classification: Austronesian. Wae Geren.000 in Indonesia (1989 SIL). MalayoPolynesian.Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt]. and 2. East.000 in Ambon. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. 9. Jawanli). Malayo-Polynesian. but no remaining speakers. South Halmahera. Wayamli (Wajamli. 71% with Nakarahamto. Wae Kabo). Sinairusi. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Masarete (South Buru).800 (1990 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. [dmr] 2. Central-Eastern. 14. Dai Island. southeast. Tomahu). Buru Dai Damar. Classification: Austronesian.000 users). south. Buruese. east side of Damar Island. Ambon. Jakarta. Classification: Austronesian. CentralEastern. 88% between Masarete and Rana. Bobot More information. Seram. Malayo-Polynesian. MalayoPolynesian. 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete. Classification: Austronesian. 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete. Hertuti villages. Central Maluku. North More information. Central Maluku. Dialects: Buli. East. Also in Netherlands. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. and east of Roma Island. 6 villages. central Halmahera. Sinairusi Kecil hamlet. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. 80% between Wae Sama and Rana. East . 49% with Masela-South Babar. Central Buru (Rana.

800 in Straits Dobel. Related to Lola [lcd]. 1. South Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Straits Dobel. 25. 30 villages. West [drn] 800 (1987 SIL). Aru Islands.270 (2007 SIL). At least 3 dialects. Central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Hatuhaha.000 outside the area. Babar. Southeast Maluku. Lexical similarity: 78%±86% with Koba [kpd].000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Sorong. north Tanimbar Islands of the Fordata. entire east coast of Kobror Island. the Molu-Maru group. More information. Dawelor Island.500 plus 1. Dialects: Not intelligible with East Damar [dmr]. East. Welora. [emw] 250 (2007 SIL). increasing. Dialects: Most similar to Nusa Laut [nul]. Ambon. Kobro¶or.400 in Southeast Dobel. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Watuwei and Nurnyaman. Central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Kobroor. Alternate names: Doibel.Damar. North More information. Central-Eastern. Lorang [lrn]. Uliase. 2 villages. Aru More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Hayapura. Tual. [frd] 50. Emplawas village. Jakarta. Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. southwest Babar Island. Southwest Babar Nearly extinct. Alternate names: Davelor. West Damar More information. Seram. Southeast Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Seram Straits. 2. 6. Dialects: Minor dialect differences. Wiratan. Dialects: Northern Dobel. Piru Bay. Sersifar Tannin. Classification: Austronesian.700 in Northern Dobel. Alternate names: Elpaputi. Central-Eastern. Central-Eastern. north side of Damar Island. Alternate names: North Damar. South Maluku. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (Marshall 2000). Also Saumlaki. South. Amahai [amq]. 1 village in southeast Wokam Island.000 (2000 SIL). Vai Fordata. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Vai Tnebar. [ddw] 1. Classification: Austronesian. East. South Maluku. West Seram. [kvo] 8. Elpaputi More information. Dawera-Daweloor Dobel Elpaputih Emplawas Fordata . Southeast Dobel. 2 villages in central Kobror Island. Babar. Dawera Island. Alternate names: Larat. Nunusaku. 1. Central-Eastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. [elp] 420 (2000). 4 villages eastern half of Barakai Strait (Kobror and Koba Islands). 18 villages. north of the eastern tip of Timor Island. Malayo-Polynesian. a few villages on the northwest part of Yamdena. Letmasa and Ilmarang northeast of Babar Island. Malayo-Polynesian. and on Seira off the west coast of Yamdena.000 in the language area and 25. Also Dobo and Ambon. Larat.

West New Guinea. Central-Eastern. Lexical similarity: 73%±93% among dialects. Kei-Fordata More information. Gunage and Moari islands near Kayoa. Dialects: Similar to East Makian [mky]. Dialects: Goram Laut. Halmahera Island. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Gorom Islands. Geser-Gorom More information.650 (2000). Sopi.900 (1982 D. Bacan. Alternate names: Gani. Southeast Maluku. a few coastal villages south of the Ibu area. Sahu More information.500 (1989 SIL). Banda-Geser. Central-Eastern. Sera is most divergent dialect. Galela-Loloda More information. 24. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei]. [gak] 1. Sera (Seira). north Halmahera. Gorong. Central Malayo-Polynesian. East end of Seram. Central-Eastern. East Makian-Gane More information. North Maluku. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn]. South Halmahera. Kelimuri. Malayo-Polynesian. and Gag islands between southern Halmahera and Waigeo Island (Papua). Classification: Austronesian. Teljeur). North Maluku. North Maluku. [gei] 2. 41. Central Maluku. and 4. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Morotai. Loloda 85% with Galela.000 Kadai. Malayo-Polynesian. Giman. Goran. KeiTanimbar.000 Kadina. Malayo-Polynesian. Obi. 65% intelligibility with Loloda [loa]. Kadina. Goram. Central-Eastern. Raja Ampat More information. East. Gebe. Fordata-Larat II. North Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. [gzn] 2. [ges] 36. Geser. Kayoa.000 (1990 SIL). Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: Austronesian. Morotai Island except southeast quadrant. scattered along the southwest coast of Halmahera. Dialects: Umera. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Fordata-Larat I. Alternate names: Gebi. Gamkonora Gane Gebe Geser-Gorom . Gorom. north of Tobelo to northern tip of Halmahera. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli]. 4 villages.Vaidida.000 Morotai. Seram. Molo (MoloMaru). Seran. Galela [gbi] 79. Yoi¶umiyal. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. North Halmahera.000 Sopi.500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Galela Bay. Malayo-Polynesian. a dialect of East Makian [mky]. south southern peninsula. Mina Mina Gorong. Classification: West Papuan. Classification: West Papuan. North Halmahera. Alternate names: Gesa. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. 51%±61% with Watubela [wah]. Dialects: Kadai. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. Seran Laut. 10.

Dialects: Hulung [huk] may be related.200 (1989 SIL). Seram. Seram. [hti] 10 (1987 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. Nunusaku. East. Central Maluku. Central Maluku. Malayo-Polynesian. east Seram. Northwest Buru Island. Central Maluku. Hitu. ManuselaSeti More information. Ambon Island. Central-Eastern. northwest of Manusela. Central Maluku. Central Maluku. East. Dialects: Hulaliu. and Haruku Hitu Horuru Hoti Huaulu Hukumina . Rohomoni. Kailolo. Mamala. East Seram Nearly extinct. Central Halmahera. Three Rivers. Hila. Morela. 67%±71% with Saparua [spr]. North Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Piru Bay. East. [htu] 16. Seram. Each village uses a separate dialect. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Alakamat. Central Maluku. Ambon More information. Morela. Malayo-Polynesian. Piru Bay More information. Dialects: Wakal. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64%±72% with Manusela [wha] dialects. [huw] Extinct. Unclassified More information. Central-Eastern. [hrk] 18. Malayo-Polynesian. Horuru may be alternate name for another language. but comprehension is limited. Palumata.000 (1987 SIL). Central-Eastern. Morotai Island. Central MalayoPolynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. More information. Central Maluku. Pelauw. Seram. East. Pilowo and Waringin villages. Dialects: Reportedly a mixed language. Nunusaku. Lexical similarity: 67%±82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik]. Northwest Seram More information. Seram. east Seram. East. Mamala. [hrr] 4. with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Seram. Classification: Austronesian. Haruku Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian.240 (2000). Central Maluku. Hitu. Malayo-Polynesian. Hila. East.Gorap [goq] 1. Bobane and Igo villages. Lease Islands. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Hitu Peninsula. 74%±82% with Tulehu [tlu]. Lexical similarity: 81%±92% among dialects. Classification: Austronesian. Seram Straits. Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku. Amalumute. Wakal. Nunusaku. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind].000 (1992 SIL). [hud] 300 (1987 SIL). 74%±76% with Tulehu [tlu]. Central-Eastern. Hukumina. 10 villages. Bahasa Asli. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian.

Alternate names: Bambaa. Classification: Austronesian. Sauweli hamlet. interior mountains. west Seram. Taliabu Island. Gamlamo and Gamici villages. Southwest Maluku. Seram. Karbubu. [imr] 560 (2007 SIL). Classification: West Papuan. Klishatu. Ibu Ili¶uun Imroing Kadai Kaibobo . More information. Karbubu. Esulit. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with LisabataNuniali [lcs]. Babar. Alternate names: Erai. Sula. Iliun. [ilu] 1. Ibu River mouth. Classification: Austronesian. Nabar. Telemar. 69% with Aputai [apx]. Hulung village. Imroing village. Esulit villages on the west end of Wetar. Hahutan. Wetar Island coast. Piru Bay.Tomahu districts.400 (1990 SIL). Limera. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. southwest tip of Wetar. Lexical similarity 73% with Tugun [tzn]. Hulung Nearly extinct. 59% with North Wemale [weo]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. More information. 67% with Perai [wet]. Lexical similarity: 93%±97% among dialects. North. Nunusaku. Eray. Northwest Seram. southwest Babar Island. Ilmaumau. Erai (Eray). Wetar More information. Classification: Austronesian. Sula Islands. Ustutun. Malayo-Polynesian. Central MalayoPolynesian. Nabar. Alternate names: Imroin. Hulung [huk] 10 (1991 SIL). Amalumute. west Seram. 51% with Talur [ilw]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Ethnic population: 50 to 200 (1984). Taliabo More information. Klishatu. South Maluku. Timor. Southwest Babar More information. Classification: Austronesian. Hukumina More information. Central-Eastern. Three Rivers. [kzb] 500 (Collins 1983). and Istutun village on Lirang Island. Central-Eastern. Sahu Nearly extinct. Dialects: Telemar. Central Maluku. Hahutau. Dialects: May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj]. East. 63% with Alune [alp]. MalayoPolynesian. north Halmahera Island. 66% with Naka¶ela [nae] and South Wemale [tlw]. Extra-Ramelaic. [ibu] 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Central-Eastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. North Maluku. Ilmaumau. Central Maluku. [kzd] 350 (2000). Central Maluku. All also use the Ili¶uun dialect. Malayo-Polynesian. South. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv]. Ilmaumau. North Halmahera. North Maluku. Possibly Mangole Island mountains.

Lumaete (Lumaiti. Kayeli Nearly extinct. east end of Piru Bay. Kur Islands. Central-Eastern. 58%±62% with Luhu [lcq]. More information. Seram Straits. Lumara). Leliali (Liliali). Hatusua. Southeast Maluku. Kao Karey Kayeli Kei . but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch. Kamarian [kzx] 10 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku. East More information. Kamarian. 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs]. Alternate names: Kamariang. Central MalayoPolynesian. Central Maluku. Alternate names: Caeli. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Related to Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs]. 61% with Naka¶ela [nae].000 in the village (1987 SIL). Central-Eastern. Kaibobo. Not used for 3 decades (1989 SIL). 59% with Amahai [amq]. Ethnic population: 800 (1995). 75% with Kamarian [kzx]. [kei] 85. Central-Eastern. Kamarian village on south coast. Malayo-Polynesian. south Namlea Bay. Piru Bay. Classification: West Papuan. interior North Halmahera. Alternate names: Ka¶u.500 monolinguals. 4. Karey Valley. 62%±65% with Saparua [spr]. Kau. East. Alternate names: Kaibubu. Tihulale villages. where Kei is a lingua franca. More information.000 (2000 SIL). North Maluku. East. 62% with Piru [ppr]. North Halmahera. Lexical similarity: 82%± 88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect. Kei Kecil. [kax] 400 (2000). Kei Besar. Sahu More information. Nunusaku. East. south Aru Islands. Central MalayoPolynesian. Aru More information. Dialects: Kaibobo. Piru. Uliase. Classification: Austronesian. South Maluku. Naka¶ela [nae]. and Hulung [huk]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay]. Gaeli. Nunusaku. surrounding islands. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Seram. Kamarian Nearly extinct. Central-Eastern. Piru Bay. Cajeli. 67% with Saparua [spr]. Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku. [kzl] 3 (1995). Malayo-Polynesian. Seruawan. Mumaite. north Buru Island. Kao River mouth area. Central Maluku. Central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb]. Nunusaku. Hatusua. except Banda Eli and Banda Elat villages on Kei Besar. Kajeli. East. Seram. Seruawan. Waisamu. [kyd] 950 (1995 SIL). Dialects: Kayeli. west Seram. Kao town area. Malayo-Polynesian. east coast of Tarangan Island. Ethnic population: 6. Krei. Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu].Kairatu District. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Kerei. Seram. Central Malayo-Polynesian.

3 villages. Classification: Austronesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. South Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. [kvv] 7. LuangKisar. Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar). South Maluku. Veveu Evav. 70% with Ujir [udj]. south of Kola and north of Wokam islands. Dialects: Similar to Kola [kvv]. east coast of Kongan Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Amau. Dialects: Southeast Koba. Central-Eastern. Aru Islands. mouth of Barakai Strait. South Maluku. Aru More information. Aru More information. Malayo-Polynesian. north Aru Islands. which has sometimes been called a dialect. Kongampani. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Tayando. Classification: Austronesian. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata. Kompane village.About 207 villages on about 10 islands. Alternate names: Meher. Alternate names: Kai. Aru More information. Yotowawa. [kpd] 600 (Hughes 2000).000 (1995 SIL). Good intelligibility of Kola. Lexical similarity: 78%±86% with Dobel. Ambon City. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane. northeast Aru. Kur Island and nearby islands. Alternate names: Komfana. Dialects: Different from Kei [kei]. Classification: Austronesian. Extra-Ramelaic. Naumatan. adjacent islands. Ta¶am. Kei Besar is more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Malayo-Polynesian. linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Warilau. MalayoPolynesian. widespread on Kola Island coast. Kei-Tanimbar. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village.180 (2000). South Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Boundaries of Koba Kola Kompane Kur . Dialects: Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible to Kompane [kvp]. west Kei Kecil District. Alternate names: Kulaha. Marlasi. Hila and Likagraha (Solath) villages. Southeast Maluku. [kvp] 330 (1995 SIL). Central-Eastern. MalayoPolynesian. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil. southeast of Kobror Island. Dialects: Kei Kecil. Saumlaki. Kisar More information. Wetar Island. Kisar [kje] 20. Dili. 22 villages. but not vice versa. Southeast Maluku. CentralEastern. East. Kei Besar. Central-Eastern.700 (1995 SIL). Baun and Fukarel islands bordering Dobel. Kei-Fordata More information. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Timor. [kuv] 3. and Kupang. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Kisar Island northeast of Timor Island. Hi¶ai. 19 villages. MalayoPolynesian. Roma Island. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Not related to Oirata [oia].

nearby smaller villages. [lti] 7. Laba [lau] 2. East. Allang. Ambon More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. [ltu] 2. Ambon Island. 70% intelligibility. East More information. Saparua More information. Piru Bay. Malayo-Polynesian. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela. Elpaputih Bay.intelligibility with dialects to the north and the central dialect. MalayoPolynesian. southwest Hitu Peninsula. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. East. [alo] 12. East. Wakasihu. South Loloda. Leti Island. 78% with Loloda. Dialects: Related to Seram languages. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang. Laha Larike-Wakasihu Latu Leti . Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%±84% with Saparua [spr] dialects. Seram Straits. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang. Dialects: Allang. Latu village. [lhh] 3. Larike. Piru Bay. Classification: Austronesian. Seram. Lai villages. North Maluku. southwest Seram Island. Lexical similarity: 64%±66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar). Larike. Nunusaku.130 (1982 SIL). Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku.000 (1991 SIL). Extra-Ramelaic. 67% to 72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl]. 4 villages. 38% with Geser [ges].600 (1987 SIL).500 (1995 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. East. Nunusaku. East. Classification: Austronesian. Uliase. Galela-Loloda More information. Central-Eastern. Hoamoal. 41% with Watubela [wah]. Dialects: Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Laha village. Central-Eastern. Lexical similarity: 47%±50% with Kei. Seram Straits. Wakasihu. Alternate names: Central Ambon. south central coast of Ambon Island. North Halmahera. but distinct from Manusela [wha]. Dialects: Phonology like Galela [gbi]. Hatuhaha. Piru Bay. 68%±71% with Asilulu [asl]. Central Maluku. Teor-Kur More information. CentralEastern.890 (1987 SIL). East. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. Nunusaku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. 71%±83% with Teor. Tapi. 75% with Loloda [loa]. 92% between Larike and Wakasihu. and Wakasihu dialects. Classification: Austronesian. Seram. Seram. West. and Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Timor. Alternate names: Kedi. Classification: West Papuan. Central-Eastern. and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. interior south end of Loloda District.

Intelligibility with Laba [lau] very limited. Central Maluku. 8 villages. MalayoPolynesian. [lcd] 830 (1995 SIL). Central Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Buru. 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lisabata-Timur. Northwest Seram More information. Buru Island. Classification: Austronesian. 54%±66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy]. north central coastal strips. ManuselaSeti More information. 69%± 78% between Kobi and Seti. Wayapo. Central Maluku. Three Rivers. North Loloda. north. Liana. Central Maluku. Nunusaku. Aru More information. 72% with Naka¶ela [nae]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Luang More information. Teula. Malayo-Polynesian. lower Wae Geren and Vae Apo valleys. Central Maluku. Nuniali. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%. and Jambuair villages. Kawa. Malayo-Polynesian. Uhei Kahlakim. Central Maluku. 67% with Hulung [huk]. East.Luang-Kisar. spread across the north coast. Some in Ambon. [lcs] 1. northeast. 48%±58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu]. Alternate names: Loda. Linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]. Central-Eastern. 5 villages. Aru Islands. [lcl] 11. Central Maluku. Nuniali. West and North Seram. east Teluti Bay to the north coast. Dialects: ³Seti´ . Alternate names: Lisabata. Dialects: Lola. Uhei Kaclakin. Central Malayo-Polynesian.000 Bakun. Uhei Kachlakan. and northwest. and Tehoru. Central-Eastern.830 (1982). Licella). Central-Eastern. 3 islands east of Kobroor and Baun islands. Southeast Maluku. Amalumute. North Buru. Sukaraja. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Bakun. districts of Seram. Lisabata-Nuniali Lisela Lola Loloda . 42%± 61% between Kobi and Manusela [wha]. 2. Noniali. Kobi. 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim. 85% intelligibility with Galela [gbi]. Wahakaim. Warabal. Liana-Seti [ste] 3. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Buru More information. Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda. Malayo-Polynesian. Liet Enjorot. North Maluku. Seram. Tagalisa. Li Enyorot. Alternate names: Liambata-Kobi. Seram. Werinama. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lisela (Licela. Lola. Warabal. similar to Koba [kpd]. CentralEastern. East. Lianan.000 (1989 SIL).900 (1989 SIL).000 (1991 SIL). [loa] 15. northwest coast of Halmahera. Lexical similarity: 66%±74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects. Bula.

Southeast More information. Dialects: Similar to Koba [kpd] and. Luhu village. Galela-Loloda More information. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Kayoa (Kajoa). south Mori Island.000 (1995 SIL). Loun Nearly extinct. East . Moa. South Halmahera. South Maluku.500 (1983 J. Nunusaku. North Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. 200 monolinguals. Kayoa islands. Some similarities with Manombai [woo].000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Bitjoli. 71%±73% with Asilulu [asl]. east of Timor. to a lesser extent. West More information. Lorang village. 2. off of west Seram. Koba Island. Southeast Maluku. Northwest Seram. but intelligibility is lower than might be expected. Halmahera. [lcq] 6. Alternate names: Letri Lgona. east Makian Island. Bacan and Obi islands. 18. Collins). Aru More information. [lox] 20. Dialects: Luhu. Nunusaku. Central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian.620 (2000). Central-Eastern. [lex] 18. Alternate names: Makian Dalam. Hoamoal Peninsula. East. [mqa] 6. Seram. Related to Manipa [mqp]. Amalumute. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Lakor. CentralEastern. Transmigration project near Kao.000. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.000 or more in East Makian. Central-Eastern. west coast of south Halmahera. Piru Bay. Malayo-Polynesian. Wasilei area. Wetan. north coast of southeast peninsula. Moa. northwest Babar Islands. Three Rivers. Makian Timur. Sermata.Classification: West Papuan. [mky] 20. Malayo-Polynesian. East. Boano and Kelang islands. north-central Seram. Lakor. East. Dialects: Luang. Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Malayo-Polynesian. West Seram Island. Central-Eastern. Timor. Classification: Austronesian. Literi Lagona. Batu Merah. Central Malayo-Polynesian. West. More information. North Halmahera. Kelang. Lgona. Luang More information. North Maluku. Dialects: East Makian. Lexical similarity: 77% with Piru [ppr]. Classification: Austronesian. Central MalayoPolynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Luang-Kisar. Wetan (Wetang). Luang. Alternate names: Bicoli. Malayo-Polynesian. Loun Luang Luhu Maba Makian. Similar to Gane [gzn]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Ingli. Extra-Ramelaic. Central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian. Hoamoal. Seram. Aru center. Lorang [lrn] 320 (1995 SIL). Dobel [kvl]. Central Maluku.

Labuha neighborhood (Christian). Dialects: Language isolate within north Halmahera. Classification: Austronesian. Marginal intelligibility with Indonesian [ind]. South Halmahera-West New Guinea.000 monolinguals. Malayo-Polynesian. Collins). [max] 700. North Halmahera. United States. Alternate names: Makian Barat. Sula. Trade. Alternate names: Bacan. Ambon. MalayoPolynesian. and half of Waya and Lele villages. Ambonese Malay. west coast of south Halmahera areas. More similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs]. Lexical similarity: 81% with Standard Malay [zsm]. Alternate names: Ambonese. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. East Indonesian More information. Malayo-Sumbawan. Difficult intelligibility with Ternate Malay [max]. [abs] 200. Central Maluku. Malayic. [btj] 2. Halmahera.000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayu Ambon. 5. Alternate names: Ternate Malay. Classification: Austronesian. Trade. Bacanese Malay. Malay.500 (1991 SIL). North and East. Classification: Austronesian. Mandioli Island. former Labuha palace area. Population total all countries: 245. Malay More information.690 (2000). South Halmahera. Banda Malay. and some other families with parents of different ethnic origins. East Indonesian More information. Saparua Islands. East Indonesian More information. North and East. Malay.Central-Eastern. Formerly classified as Austronesian.000 on Kayoa Islands. some Kayoa Islands. Dialects: Dobo Malay.000 on Makian Island. West Makian More information. speakers switch to Indonesian.000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Banda Islands. North and East.020. Over 1. 7. Classification: West Papuan. and Obi islands. Malayo-Sumbawan. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Classification: Austronesian. Also in Netherlands. North Maluku. Malayic. 1 village. Makian Luar. Nusa Laut. Trade. 100. Makian. Malayo-Sumbawan. West [mqs] 12. Collins). Batjan.000 in Labuha (1987 J. and south Maluku. [bpq] 3.000 (2001 SIL). Dialects: Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. west Makian Island. North Moluccan . Malayic. East Makian-Gane More information. Malay. North and East. Bacan Island west of southern Halmahera. Ambong. along the coastal areas of Seram. Haruku. Malayic. North Maluku. Malay. North Maluku.

Alternate names: Mairiri. west end of Barakai Strait. Sula Islands. Classification: Austronesian. Aru More information. Benjina.Mangole [mqc] 7. [mqi] 390 (1995 SIL). 66%±86% with Maneoratu. 45% with Saleman [sau]. Hatuolu. Manipa Manombai Manusela Mariri Masela. Marsela Island. Malayo-Polynesian. CentralEastern. 60%±62% with Hitu [htu]. south Seram along Teluti Bay. Seram. south coast of Mangole Island. [mxz] 511 (1980 N. Kobamar village. Mariri Island. de Jonge). north tip of Sulabesi. May no longer be spoken on Wamar Island. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay]. Manipa Island west of Seram. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Central Marsela. Southeast Maluku. east Aru east of Kobroor Island. Sula More information. 58%±61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik]. Classification: Austronesian. South Maluku. Gardakau. Malayo-Polynesian. Marsela-South Babar. Dialects: Kanikeh. [mqp] 1. Aru More information. Central Maluku. from Wokam village south.480 (1995 J. 30 villages. 21 villages. Central Maluku. East More information. west coast of Wokam Island. Central-Eastern. 42%±61% with Liana Seti [ste].280 (2000). Central . East. Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern.500 (Collins and Voorhoeve 1983). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu [lcq]. Hughes). [woo] 7. Lexical similarity: 66%±74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties. 67%±80% with South Manusela. Aru Islands. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Wahinama. Maikor Island. Manombai Strait (Sungai) area as far as Wakua. Wamar. 64%±86% with Maneo. Alternate names: Manobai. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Wokam. Maneo.000 (1989 SIL). Central Malayo-Polynesian. 55%±60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo]. 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Alternate names: Mangoli. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. [wha] 7. Sula Mangoli. Classification: Austronesian. east coast of Wokam Island. Malayo-Polynesian. South Maluku. Alternate names: Soow Huhelia. 60%±61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. 67%±75% with Hatuolo. Central Malayo-Polynesian. South Manusela. Central Maluku. 64%± 72% with Huaulu [hud]. Kobror Island. 1 village. 64% with Piru [ppr]. Manusela-Seti More information. 4 villages. North Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. 3 villages. Central Maluku. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Wahai. Mansuela mountains. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn]. north Seram.

Kao River headwaters. Masela-South Babar More information. Central-Eastern. [nae] 5 (1985 SIL). South Maluku. Central Maluku. Central-Eastern. East [vme] 520 (1980 N. Ulat Inai Nearly extinct. Classification: Austronesian.000 (1989 SIL). Minimal differences between north and south Modole. Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku. [vms] Extinct. Central Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs]. West Masiwang Modole Moksela Naka¶ela Nila . Northwest Seram. Marsela Island. [mqo] 2. Central Malayo-Polynesian. (Originally Nila Island in Masela. Classification: Austronesian. Seram Island. Alternate names: Madole. South Modole. Babar. Classification: Austronesian. [nil] 1. south central Seram Island transmigration area. [mss] 850 (2007 SIL). Marsela Island. Waru Bay area. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Maksela. Dialects: North Modole. Central MalayoPolynesian. near Kayeli. northwest Seram. Alternate names: West Marsela. GalelaLoloda More information. Alternate names: East Marsela. 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Atamanu. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Amalumute. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. 63% with Alune [alp]. Babar. North Maluku. 5 villages. Central-Eastern. [bnf] 1. Kairatu village. Central-Eastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. 39% with Sepa [spb] and Teluti [tlt]. Masiwang More information. Central Maluku.Classification: Austronesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. 43% with Salas [sgu].800 (1989 SIL). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty]. Masela-South Babar More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Masela. East.000 (1983 SIL). decreasing. Classification: West Papuan. East. More information. 66% with Hulung [huk]. Malayo-Polynesian. 6 villages. Buru More information. South. Three Rivers. Bula District. Nunusaku. Malayo-Polynesian. Masela-South Babar More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Opselan. South. Seram. Central-Eastern. South. de Jonge). Central Maluku. interior north Halmahera Island. Central Maluku. Babar. South Maluku. possibly east Buru Island. North Halmahera. Central MalayoPolynesian. 3 villages. Central Maluku. Seram. Alternate names: Bonfia.

Not closely related to languages in East Timor. central Seram Island north coast. Nuaulu. [pgu] 3. Seram. Hulung [huk]. [nxl] 1. Pagu. Timor. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. east and west Oirata. Central-Eastern. East. south coast and interior. North Maluku. Seram Island. SawaiNuaulu More information. Alternate names: Fatakai.220 (1987 SIL). South Nusa Laut Oirata Pagu Palumata . Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Nuaulu. Titawai village. Malayo- Nuaulu. Pagoe. East. Teun-Nila-Serua. Nuaulu. [oia] 1. Nunusaku. Dialects: Similar to Serua [srw]. Hatuhaha. Dialects: Isam. 65% with Amahai [amq]. West. Lease Islands. 50% with South Wemale. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu. Galela-Loloda More information. South Maluku. Seram. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Central Maluku. East. Alternate names: Maaro. East Timor. Patakai. Central Maluku. Central Maluku. 6 villages. Toliwiku (Toliliko). Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku. Central-Eastern.310 (2000). Nila-Serua More information. Uliase. 2 villages. [nul] 10. Seram Straits. 2 villages. Alternate names: Nusalaut. Ethnic population: 2. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Pago. 48% with Saleman [sau]. Sawai-Nuaulu More information.226 (1989 SIL). Amahai District. East. Classification: Austronesian. Central Maluku. Palamata. Classification: Austronesian. 64% with Saleman. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Not related to other languages on Oirata or to central Maluku languages. East. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. interior North Halmahera south of Modole [mqo] to the mouth of Kao River. Alternate names: Balamata. northwest Buru Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. Central Maluku. North Halmahera. Classification: West Papuan. and Naka¶ela [nae]. More information. Central Maluku. Patakai. [pmc] Extinct. Nusa Laut Island. MalayoPolynesian. Fataluku-Oirata More information.south central Maluku). North [nni] 500 (1990 SIL).500 (1995 SIL). ExtraRamelaic. southeast Kisar Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr]. Seram. Piru Bay. Alternate names: Fatakai. Elpaputi Nearly extinct. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Ambon City. MalayoPolynesian.

Seram. Central MalayoPolynesian. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Similar to Waioli [wli]. Central-Eastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. narrow tip of southeast peninsula and west along the coast. Jerusu village. Sahu More information. Central Maluku. Malayo-Polynesian.500 in Tala¶i. Wetar More information. Northwest Seram Nearly extinct. south central Seram Island. Elpaputih Bay west shore. North Halmahera. West Seram. [rmm] 1. Central Maluku. [plh] 50 (1982). Classification: Austronesian. 76% with Tugun [tzn]. Timor. Central-Eastern. Gamkonora [gak]. 51% with Talur [ilw]. Southeast More information. Kisar More information.600 (2000). Central Maluku. Luang-Kisar. 79% with Aputai [apx]. Timor. Malayo-Polynesian. southwestern north Halmahera Island. North Maluku. Central-Eastern. Sahu¶u. East. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Patani [ptn] 10. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects. Kecamatan Amahai. Paulohi Perai Piru Roma Sahu . South Maluku. East. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu [lcq]. [ppr] 10 (1985 SIL). 2 villages.500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). west Seram Island. Seram. Extra-Ramelaic. Central Maluku.700 (1991 SIL). Roma Island north of Timor Island. Solehua Nearly extinct. 67% with Ili¶uun [ilu]. Central MalayoPolynesian. Classification: West Papuan. Classification: Austronesian. Uhak. Southwest Maluku. [saj] 7. Classification: Austronesian. Sau. 4. Amalumute. Alternate names: Sa¶u. More information. Three Rivers. Piru Bay. Alternate names: Romang. Buru More information. north of Timor. Halmahera. Seram Straits. East. [wet] 280 (Hinton 2000). Central Malayo-Polynesian. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. 9 villages. 3. North Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Uhak and Moning villages. East. Dialects: Pa¶disua (Palisua). Tala¶i.000 in Pa¶disua. Extra-Ramelaic. Nunusaku. More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Moning. Alternate names: Tutunohan. Central-Eastern. Nunusaku. 1 village. Wetar Island northeast coast. North.Polynesian. South Halmahera. Central-Eastern.

Few monolinguals. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Maluku. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Dialects: Seit (Seith). Classification: Austronesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. West. East. Iha. 4. Iha-Seram.800 (1989 SIL). 54%±62% with Luhu [lcq]. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Central Maluku. Seram Island. Central Maluku. Seleman. Central Maluku. Waru Bay. North Maluku. 82%±84% with Latu [ltu]. Sawai. 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl]. Seit (Seith) and Kaitetu villages. also Kairatu village. Malayo-Polynesian. Lexical similarity: 86%±89% among dialects. Pasanea. Ambon Island north coast. East. Central-Eastern. Kobe. Sawai. Seram. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Wahai. Salas Gunung village. Central MalayoPolynesian.519 in Iha.200 (1989 SIL). north central Seram. Piru Bay. Siri-Sori. Piru Bay. Classification: Austronesian. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Weda. CentralEastern.000 (2000 SIL). 35%±46% with Manusela [wha]. Seram Straits. Southeast More information. MalayoPolynesian. Besi. Malayo-Polynesian. Asilulu Saleman Saparua Sawai Seit-Kaitetu . Malayo-Polynesian. Kaitetu. Iha. Malayo-Polynesian. 67% with Kamarian [kzk]. Lease Islands. Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. 46%±50% with Benggoi [bgy]. Dialects: Weda. Were. Tomalehu villages. Central Maluku. WedaSawai. Saparua Island. 62%±66% with Tulehu [tlu]. Hatuhaha. 65% with Kaibobo [kzb]. Sawai. Liambata. Classification: Austronesian. Sawai-Nuaulu More information. Alternate names: Hila-Kaitetu. Kulur. Classification: Austronesian. South Halmahera. Iha-Saparua. [spr] 10. [hik] 10. [sau] 4. 54% with Naka¶ela [nae]. Lexical similarity: 78%±82% with Asilulu [asl]. Uliase. [szw] 12. Central-Eastern. increasing. Seram. Alternate names: Hatue. 49% with Piru [ppr]. Nunusaku. 67%±74% with Tulehu [tlu]. Dialects: Kulur. Kulur. East. Central Maluku. 69% with Amahai [amq].Salas [sgu] 50 (1989 SIL). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Messa-Dote. Nunusaku. Salas Gunung. Saparua More information. Gane Timur and Weda districts. 68%±71% with Haruku [hrk].200 (1987 SIL). Central Maluku. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Classification: Austronesian. Seram. East. Siri-Sori villages. Seram. Central Maluku. 13 villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48%±58% with Liana-Seti [ste]. 5 villages (Saleman. Halmahera. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Lenkaitahe. Latu. Seram Island. More information. Hualoy. south and southeast peninsula coasts. ManuselaSeti Nearly extinct. East. Each village is a dialect. Faya-Mafa. Wahai).

MalayoPolynesian. Falahu. East More information. Tanimbar. decreasing. Southeast Maluku. Alternate names: Salaru. half Latdalam village. Teun-Nila-Serua. Central Maluku. Not closely related to other nearby languages. Similar to Mangole [mqc]. Central-Eastern. Central-Eastern. transmigration area. Central Maluku. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws]. Central Maluku. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Similar to Nila [nil].000 (1990 SIL).More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Selaru [slu] 8. Central Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. [srw] 2. South. northeast Marsela Island. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Fagudu. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Southeast Maluku. Malayo-Polynesian. [spb] 2. Classification: Austronesian. Southern More information. Southern More information. 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. south central Seram Island.600 (1989 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. 2. Masela-South Babar More information. Central-Eastern. de Jonge). Dialects: Seluwasan. Classification: Austronesian. East. [sws] 2. South Maluku. Batu Putih. Alternate names: Selvasa. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Alternate names: Sanana. East. Sulabesi Island. Nila-Serua More information. 739 in Makatian. Slight dialect differences.840 (1980 Government report). Central-Eastern. Wermatang. Dialects: Kandar. Central MalayoPolynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Saumlake and Ambon. Classification: Austronesian. and Marantutul. and northeast coast of Buru Island. Selwasa. Lingada village. Makatian dialect quite different from others. Alternate names: Tamilouw. [szn] 20. Nunusaku. Nus-Wotar Island off Yamdena west coast. southwest coast. North Maluku. Extra-Ramelaic. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69%±78% with Teluti [tlt]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian.000 (2001 SIL). Yamdena Island. Seram. scattered on east and west ends and north coast of Mangole Island. [sve] 330 (1980 N. South Muluku. Selaru Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. decreasing.100 in Seluwasan. Sula Islands. Makatian. South Maluku. Sula More information. Seluwasan Sepa Serili Serua Sula . Sepa village. Babar. 6 of 7 villages. Seram Island.000 (1983 SIL). Yamdena Island. Piru Bay. Facei (Facé). 4 villages. Timor.

Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo]. 86% with Galoli [gal] in East Timor. Southwest Babar More information. Lexical similarity: 94%-98% between dialects. 57% with Aputai [apx]. and Oba districts. Classification: West Papuan. [txn] 6. Malayo-Polynesian. South Maluku. Dialects: Adu. Timor. [tlv] 4. Classification: Austronesian. Mangei (Mange¶e. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: East Trangan. Wetar More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Masbuar-Tela. Sula Islands. South Maluku. Taliabo More information. Jailolo. Dialects 90% or more lexically similar. south Aru Islands. [ilw] 680 (1990 SIL). and villages in Maikor Strait (Sungai Maikor). Alternate names: Tobaru.780 (1987 Maluku Dalam Angka). Central Malayo-Polynesian. North Maluku. North Maluku. South.Tabaru [tby] 15. Malayo-Polynesian.480 (Maluku Dalam Angka). Taliabu Island. Tela. CentralEastern. Southwest Maluku. Alternate names: Tarangan Barat. Nyeku. Ilwaki. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Babar. southwest Babar Island. Galela-Loloda More information. Dialects: Ilputih. Tarangan Timur. Taliabu Talur Tarangan. Hiay. Malayo-Polynesian. Aru More information. [tvm] 1. south central Wetar Island north of East Timor. [tre] 3. South Maluku. Tela¶a.050 (2007 SIL). Ibu. Ilwaki (Iliwaki). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn]. Dialects: Padang (Samada). North. 500 to 1. Central-Eastern. Tarangan Island west coast. Soboyo. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible. south Aru Islands. Central Malayo-Polynesian.000 (1991 SIL).520 (2000). North Halmahera. 2 sharply distinct dialect groups. Mananga. Hiay. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Southwestern Tarangan. Tarangan Island east coast.500 in Mangei. Classification: Austronesian. northwest Mangole. with minor variation within them. Sula. Malayo-Polynesian. Extra-Ramelaic. 13 villages. Alternate names: Galoleng. Malayo-Polynesian. East Tarangan. Central-Eastern. Mang. West Trangan. Classification: Austronesian. Sobojo). Mange. Ilmedu. 51% with Perai [wet] and Ili¶uun [ilu]. Ilwaki villages. Aru More information. Lir Talo. 52% with Tugun [tzn]. West Tela-Masbuar . Ilputih. Iliwaki. Central MalayoPolynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Northern dialect is the main one. Masbuar villages. North Central Tarangan. Alternate names: Taliabo. Central Maluku. Classification: Austronesian.

west of Halmahera Island. Bacan. Central MalayoPolynesian. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Maitara. Classification: West Papuan. Alternate names: Ternatenyo. [tvo] 26. Dialects: Similar to Tidore [tvo]. Teor-Kur More information. Piru Bay. North Halmahera. north half of Morotai. Obi Islands. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Extra-Ramelaic More information. 4 villages. Dialects: Gaur Kristen. Portuguese based More information. Mare. Maba and Wasile districts. [tlb] 27. Classification: Creole. Halmahera Tengah. Classification: Austronesian. Tobelo (Heleworuru). Malayo-Polynesian.100 (1986 SIL). Dialects: Spanish relexification. Tidore. Weda. Dialects: Dodinga. Teluti Bay. Obi. 71%±83% with Kur. Raja Ampat islands. Boëng. Seram. Ambon. Kayoa. Classification: Austronesian.Teluti [tlt] 17.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 41% with Watubela [wah]. Sorong. [tve] 1. north half of Moti Islands. Lexical similarity: 79% between Gaur Kristen and Ut. Central-Eastern. 69%±78% with Sepa [spb]. Timor. Lexical similarity: 74%±89% among dialects. Halmahera west coast areas. decreasing. Bacan. Tobelo. Dialects: West Teluti (Haya. East. coastal communities on western north Halmahera. Ternate-Tidore More information. [tft] 42. Gane.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Laha Serani. Central-Eastern. Tihoru. North Maluku. coastal areas of Kao Bay and inland. Classification: West Papuan. Taluti. Tehoru. still spoken in the Philippines. Central Maluku. Ternate Island. Alternate names: Silen. North Halmahera.700 (2000). 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian. Ternate. and Jailolo districts. south central Seram Island transmigration area. Wolu. Central Maluku. 50% with Atamanu. [tev] 1. [tmg] Extinct. Nunusaku.200 (1990 SIL). north Halmahera Island. Malayo-Polynesian. CentralEastern. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects. Tehua).000 (1989 SIL). Ternate-Tidore More information. North Maluku. Alternate names: Tio¶or. South Maluku. North Maluku. North Halmahera. Teor and Ut islands. south Seram Island. Central Maluku. Galela-Loloda Teor Ternate Ternateño Te¶un Tidore Tobelo . Dialects: Similar to Ternate [tft]. Ut. Classification: West Papuan. Patani. Wolu. Tehoru. Kao. East More information. Papua. North Maluku.

[wli] 3. East. 74% with Aputai [apx]. South Maluku. 76% with Perai [wet]. Masapun. Tomliapat. Tial. Lexical similarity: 92%±97% among dialects. East. 73% with Ili¶uun [ilu]. Liang. Alternate names: Northeast Ambon. Lexical similarity: 84%± 90% among dialects. [tlu] 18. North Maluku. Central Maluku. Dialects: Teluk Lili. A few on Lili. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Tanjung Lili.800 (1987 SIL). and Marasibno. Kusuri. north Halmahera. Seram Straits. Ilpokil.More information. Nunusaku. Galela-Loloda More information. northwest Aru Islands. Timor. Piru Bay. 4 villages. Alternate names: Udjir. Sahu Tugutil Tulehu Ujir Waioli . Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo variety. Ilpokil. Masapua. Seram. Southwest Maluku. North. Dialects: Mahuan. Taboulamo area in Kecamatan Kao. Tutunohan. Malayo-Polynesian. Samang on Wokam Island west peninsula tip. Central Malayo-Polynesian. southeast end of Wetar Island. Classification: Austronesian. Waisango. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru. Classification: Austronesian. Arwala. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. CentralEastern. Mahuan.200 (1990 SIL). Hughes). Kahailin. Bebseli. Classification: West Papuan. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak]. Alternate names: Mahuan. Classification: West Papuan. 74% to 82% with Hitu [htu]. Arwala villages. Each dialect is in a separate village. northeast coast. villages of Miaf.590 (2000). [tuj] 2. Classification: Austronesian. north of Timor. 1% monolinguals. Tugun [tzn] 1. Central Maluku. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Tomliapat. Aru More information.000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Wayoli. Akelamo and Mabulan rivers in Kecamatan Maba. and Afu rivers. inland in Kecamatan Tobelo. Ambon More information. Dodaga and Tutuling rivers. Kahailin Ilway. [udj] 980 (1995 J. 52% with Talur [ilw]. North Halmahera. between Sahu [saj] and Ibu [ibu] languages. North Maluku. Ambon Island. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Wetar More information. CentralEastern. Tengah-Tengah. 72%±76% with Haruku [hrk]. Ilway. north Halmahera Island. Dialects: Tulehu. Ujir on Ujir Island. the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Kecamatan Wasilei. North Halmahera. inland around Kusuri. Extra-Ramelaic. and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island. Alternate names: Wajoli. Central-Eastern.

Banda-Geser. Malayo-Polynesian. 59% with Hulung [huk]. Lexical similarity: 80% between the Horale and Kasieh dialects of Wemale. Alternate names: Honitetu. Three Rivers. 72% with North Wemale. 72% with South Wemale [tlw]. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Atamanu. Sulmelang. East.000 to 40. Central Maluku. Alternate names: Esiriun. Nunusaku. Lexical similarity: between east and central dialects is 80%. east of Taniwel. Uwenpantai [weo]. [jmd] 25. North [weo]. Kairatu. Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Tala. Dialects: Dialect chain between Horale [weo]. Watubela [wah] 4. Uwenpantai. west Seram. Three Rivers. Haruru villages. 66% with Hulung [huk]. Dialects: Tamher Timur. Wemale More information. Central Maluku. east coast of Yamdena. Taniwel District along north coast. Jahalatane. Watubela Islands. Lexical similarity: 50%± 52% with Sepa [spb]. 24 villages. [tlw] 3. Geser-Gorom More information. Dialects: Horale. Central Maluku. Seram. Nunusaku. Wesi.930 (1982). Kasiui. Central-Eastern. Nunusaku. 47% with Yalahatan [jal]. Central Maluku. 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv]. west Seram. Kasieh [weo]. Central-Eastern. approximately 850 in each village. Malayo-Polynesian. 15 villages. Adaut village. Yalahatan. 34% with Masiwang [bnf]. Kasieh. Malayo-Polynesian. North Wemale. Southeast Maluku. Three Rivers More information. Snabi Watubela. East. 37% with Bobot [bty]. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Seram. Classification: Austronesian. East.000 (1990 SIL). East central Maluku. Central MalayoPolynesian. East. Kesui. Classification: Austronesian.730 (1987 SIL). Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects. and Amahai District westernmost coast. southwest Yamdena. 49%±50% with Teluti [tlt]. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. and between Uwenpantai dialect of Wemale. Wemale More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Ethnic population: 35. Jahalatan. and Honitetu dialect. South Yalahatan Yamdena . Classification: Austronesian. and westernmost East Seram District. Awaiya. Latdalam village. [weo] 4. Classification: Austronesian.700 (2004 SIL). north of Kur Island. Central-Eastern. 35 villages. north tip of Selaru. Wemale. [jal] 1. Central Maluku.More information. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Seram.000 (1991 SIL). 51%±61% with Geser-Gorom [ges]. mainly interior. Alternate names: Oemale. North and the Honitetu dialect. Matabello. Central Maluku.000 (1991 SIL). Kasui. Central Malayo-Polynesian.

Malayo-Polynesian. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. and M. Central-Eastern.000 (Grimes. north Ternate Island. Lesser Sundas. Alternate names: Alorese. Grimes. pockets along north Pantar. Classification: Trans-New Guinea.800 (2000). Malayo-Polynesian. Alor More information. Waiwerang. Watmuri). Abui [abz] 16. Dialects: Oriented toward Lembata and Adonara [adr]. Namatalaki. Ethnic population: 16. Southeast Maluku. adjacent islands. Kei-Tanimbar. Of those. Jacob 1997). South Yamdena (Saumlaki.000 in West Nusa Tenggara (1993). May be more than 1 language. East Adonara. Barue. but with considerable morphological and phonological differences. On the basis of linguistic differences and social identity. Lexical similarity: 90% between the north and south dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Amdassa). Kobola. Classification: Austronesian. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Adonara Island. Alakaman may be a dialect of Kamang [woi] (Woisika). Dialects: West Adonara.Alternate names: Jamden.961. [adr] 17. East Solor. 7. Central Malayo-Polynesian. T. Alor-Pantar.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981).269. Alor More information. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) is 76. Therik. Lesser Sundas. [aol] 25. Alternate names: Nusa Tadon. Dialects: Atimelang. Jamdena. 3. Dialect chain from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes. Yamdena More information.370. east Solor Island. Information mainly from C. all are living languages. Classification: Austronesian. Therik. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Aimoli. 47% with Fordata [frd]. Central MalayoPolynesian.540 (2000 census).000 in East Nusa Tenggara (1993). West. B. Alor-Pantar. between Flores and Lembata.000 (2000). Central-Eastern. Jacob 1997. Flores-Lembata More information. Much dialect diversity. Dialects: North Yamdena (Batjas. Alternate names: Alor. Central and west Alor. [adn] 31. Alternate names: ³Barawahing´ . but Alor is not inherently intelligible with those languages. it is considered a separate language from Kabola [klz]. Grimes. Languages of Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara). Vaiverang. West and south of Bird¶s Head.000. 3. Timor. Grimes. Adang Adonara Alor . Malayo-Polynesian. Alor. Northwest (Bird¶s Head) Alor Island. Alakaman. Sagu. West. The southern dialect is more prestigious.

Alor-Pantar. domains of Bilba. There are speech differences when speaking to a king. Dialects: Bilba. and discourse.000. Alternate names: Bimanese. Limarahing. Rote. vocabulary. Malayo-Polynesian. Grimes. Central MalayoPolynesian. Jacob 1997). Most similar to Uab Meto [aoz]. Ro¶is Tais Nonof dialect has intonation like Ro¶is dialect. [mvd]. Rote Timur. Sangar (Sanggar). Sumba Island.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). West More information. [bpz] 7. Eastern Rote. Alternate names: Anakalang. Ethnic population: 7. east of Wanukaka. east of the isthmus. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. vocabulary like Kotos dialect. ExtraRamelaic.000. Dialects: Kolo. Mbojo. Alternate names: Belubaa. Ro¶is Hero surrounded by Helong [heg]. Ro¶is Hero (Kopa). Grimes). Roti. Lamboya [lmy].Central-Eastern. Timor. Dialects: Similar to Wejewa [wew]. Therik. southwest coast. Bima-Sumba More information. east Sumbawa Island. intelligibility problems. Bima-Sumba More information. East Pantar. or commoner. West of Ringgou. Lelenuk. Extra-Ramelaic. Classification: TransNew Guinea. Ethnic population: 14. Central Malayo-Polynesian.000 (2002 UKAW). Southwest tip. Dialects: Apuri. West More information. Toloweri. Ro¶is is west.000. West. Malayo-Polynesian. Diu. Wanukaka [wnk]. Alternate names: Belagar. [beu] 11. Amarasi [aaz] 50. Flores-Lembata More information. south Ternate islands. Ro¶is Tais Nonof is south. Tarang. Lesser Sundas. Central-Eastern. but with differences in phonology. Bima. structural differences. The Retta variety on south Pura is thought to be a separate language by speakers of Alor [aol].000 (1989). Mamboru. nobility. Central-Eastern. with semantic shifts. Classification: Austronesian. Sunda Islands. Timor.000 (2001 C. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Timor Island. Pura. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Diu. Dialects: Kotos. Rotinese. Timor. Ro¶is Tais Nonof. 24 townships. Communities on Semau Island and Timor mainland near Kupang. Alternate names: Timor Amarasi. Ro¶is. [bhp] 500. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Kotos is central and east. Rote Island east.000 (Grimes. north Pura. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Ethnic population: 60. Bakalang.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 11. Classification: Austronesian. [akg] 14. Classification: Austronesian. MalayoPolynesian. Bilbaa. Pantar Anakalangu Bilba Bima Blagar . and Lelenuk. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian.

290 (2000). Dela and Oe Nale domains. Alternate names: Rote. some occurrences of µngg¶ in Eastern Dengka dialect become µnd¶ in Western Dengka. Island of Ndao. 78. a few kilometers south. [nfa] 5.000 (1997 A. Classification: Austronesian. Migration in 1947 from Mo¶eng. West Timor-Alor-Pantar.000 in Indonesia (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Dengka and Dela-Oenale [row] are more divergent from other languages on Rote. [row] 7. Ranoh). west of Sikka. Malayo-Polynesian.000. Dialects: Ende (Endeh. Rotinese. 9. Central interior Timor Island. Oe Nale. Ndaundau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. south coast. Central MalayoPolynesian. [dnk] 20. Still on their traditional land. Ethnic population: 50. Nga¶o (Ngao. Classification: Austronesian. Timor. Ethnic population: 7. Roti. scattered on Rote. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Lelain. Classification: Austronesian. and Timor. Lesser Sundas.000 (2002 UKAW). Difficult phonology. Ende-Lio More information. Central-Eastern. Some vocabulary of Western Dengka is like Dhao [nfa]. Malayo-Polynesian. Li¶o [ljl] may be a dialect of Ende.000. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Related to Sabu [hvn]. A dialect subgroup. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. West Ende). Dela-Oenale seems between Dengka [dnk] and Dhao [nfa]. Timor. West More information.000 Nga¶o. West. across from Kalabahi City. Bunak More information. Oenale (Oe Nale). Alternate names: Endeh. Kalabahi Bay.000. Alternate names: Buna¶. but now in an Dela-Oenale Dengka Dhao Ende Hamap . Bunake. Djau). Alternate names: Delha. Bima-Sumba More information. Extra-Ramelaic. Alternate names: Dao.More information. Ndaonese. Bima-Sumba.000 (2002 UKAW). Western Rote. Rote Island northwest. [end] 87. Malayo-Polynesian. Extra-Ramelaic. west of Lole (Ba¶a). Moru town area. Western Rote. east of Dela-Oenale [row]. south central Flores. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Dela (Delha). Rote. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Rotinese.000 Ende. West More information.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Dengka dialect has marked intonation. Bunak [bfn] 50. Dengka and Lelain domains. [hmu] 1. Rote Barat. Roti. Bunaq. Ethnic population: 20. Dialects: Western Dengka. Ja¶o. Rote Island west coast. Central-Eastern. Ndao. Eastern Dengka. 2 villages. Rote Barat.

Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Funai (Land Helong).000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Dialects: Lembur (Limbur. Woisika village. Alor Island. South Ile Ape on the mainland. Helong [heg] 14. Northwest (Bird¶s Head) Alor Island. West. north of Aluben. Flores-Lembata More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Nusa Tadon. Ethnic population: 1. Classification: Austronesian. Timor. [ila] North Lembata (Lomblen Island). including Ile Ape volcanic peninsula and nearby mainland Lembata. West. Timor. [kpu] 1. [klz] 3. Alor-Pantar. east central. Dialects: Helong Pulau (Semau. May be more than 1 language. Sibo. Lesser Sundas. between Abui and Tanglapui. North Ile Ape on the peninsula.000. Island Helong). Woisika. Johnston). Semau. Malayo-Polynesian. Alor-Pantar.000 to 20. 2 groups which have minor dialect differences: Helong Darat on Timor mainland and Helong Pulau on Semau Island. Dialect names and locations in Wurm and Hattori (1981) are disputed by native speakers. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Tiayai. Central-Eastern. Watang. Alor More information.000 (Grimes. Central MalayoPolynesian. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. best considered a separate language from Adang [adn]. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Alor More information. Ethnic population: 15. between Abui [abz] and Kelong [kyo] languages. Central Malayo-Polynesian. but µKabola¶ is associated with the Bird¶s Head area of Alor. Alternate names: Helon. Alor More information. Tang¶ala. Therik. Fanating. Kamang. Otvai. South Ile Ape. Southwest Alor Island. Meibuil.000. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alor-Pantar. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. West tip of Timor Island near port of Tenau. Dialects: Pintumbang.900 (1995 N. Extra-Ramelaic. [woi] 16. Structural and lexical differences with Kabola. 4 villages. Dialects: North Ile Ape. Classification: Austronesian. Jacob 1997). Helong Darat (Bolok). Kupang area. Pailelang. extending across the island to Amarasi region. West. Kupang. Kamana-Kamang. Based on linguistic differences and social identity.interethnic community with the Kui [kvd]. most villages on Semau Island. Dialects: Said to be intelligible with the Adang-Aimoli dialect of Kabola [klz]. Grimes. Kebun Kopi. Central-Eastern. Ile Ape Kabola Kafoa Kamang . Ruilak. Alternate names: Waisika. Alternate names: Aikoli. Kamang dialect is spoken there and in 2 other villages.500 (2000). West More information. Kawel).

Waijelo). Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Central-Eastern. Ngada is west. Alternate names: East Sumba. Baird). Central-Eastern.000 (2000). Kambera [xbr] 235. Ende [end]. Riung [riu]. Malayo-Polynesian. Alor More information. mostly east side. Ende-Lio More information. Jacob 1997).000 (1997 N. Central Malayo-Polynesian. south of Flores. Lesser Sundas. Classification: Austronesian. Kabupaten Ngada. Classification: Austronesian. Bima-Sumba More information. Lewa dialect and Uma Taru Nggai have difficulty understanding those from Mangili in many speech domains. and Ende east. Kanatang. Ramelaic. Timor. North central Timor Island. Alternate names: Dang. Halerman. Lewa. Johnston). Dialects: Probur. southwest Alor Island. Classification: Austronesian. East Sumbanese. South central Flores. Ethnic population: 40. MalayoPolynesian. Therik. villages on a ring road at the base of a volcano. south and southeast of Ebu Lobo volcano. Dialects: Nogo (Nogo-Nogo). Alor-Pantar. Humba.Probably more than 1 language.000 (Grimes. south of Nage. Classification: Austronesian. West and East Timor border area. [kem] 50. Lio [ljl]. West. Kemak. Oost-Sumbaas. Alternate names: Kalong. Lesser Sundas. Sumbanese. Alternate names: Ema. Kedangese. [kyo] 6. Palu¶e [ple]. Hilu Humba. West More information. Kecamatans Mauponggo and Nangaroro. Central-Eastern. West Timor-Alor-Pantar.000. Timor. Dialects: Kambera. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Distinct from but most similar to Nage [nxe].000 (2001 L. east of Ngad¶a. northeast Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Rindi.000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). The Nage forms north border. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Panggar. Central-Eastern. Similar to Ngad¶a [nxg]. Uma Ratu Nggai (Umbu Ratu Nggai). Bima-Sumba. Alternate names: Nage-Keo. Malayo-Polynesian. [xxk] 40. Sumba. Mangili-Waijelo (Wai Jilu. Kédang. Kelong. Dialect network. Ethnic population: 50. Flores-Lembata More information. Kdang. Waidjelu. West. Lesser Sundas. Malayo-Polynesian. Kedang Kelon Kemak Ke¶o . Melolo. Gendok. Alor More information. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Alor-Pantar. Southern Sumba. Central MalayoPolynesian. [ksx] 30. Grimes.000. Kambera dialect is widely understood. east half of Sumba Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian.

Dialects: West Lamaholot (Muhang. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Flores. Dialects: May be inherently intelligible with surrounding languages. Komodo Island and west coast of Flores. West Sumba. West. Alternate names: Solor. West Solor. [kvh] 700 (2000). [tpg] 5. Lantoka. Arumaka. [slp] 150. Structurally similar to Sawila [swt]. Solorese. Alor-Pantar. east of the Sika [ski]. Classification: Austronesian. Lamaholot (Taka. 1 area. Probably as many as 10 languages. Tanglapui More information. Alternate names: Kola. east tip of Flores. Malayo-Polynesian.000 ( Grimes. Kodi Bangedo.240 (2000). Nggaro (Nggaura). Jacob 1997). Pukaunu). Ritaebang). Keraf (1978) reports 18 distinct languages. also in Moru in Kalabahi Bay. but intelligibility is marginal. between Kamang and Sawila. Alternate names: Lerabain. Batulolong. Dialects: Kodi Bokol. Kiramang (Kramang). and surrounding islands. Dialects: Considered a separate language from Manggarai [mqy] (1982 J. Therik. Grimes. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Koilela. between Manggarai and Rembong. East quarter of Alor Island. Lesser Sundas. CentralEastern. Bima-Sumba More information. and on west Solor. Lamtoka. Kui on south coast in Lerabaing and Buraga. West Timor-Alor-Pantar.Kepo¶ [kuk] 10. interspersed with Hamap [hmu]. Batulolong in Sibera and Kapebang. CentralEastern. Jacob 1997). and Kiralela villagers also speak Kula. Bima-Sumba More information. May be most similar to Wejewa [wew]. Ethnic population: 5. Kula. West TimorAlor-Pantar. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Tanglapui. Takala. Lewolaga.000 (1987 UBS). Kodi Komodo Kui Kula Lamaholot . Most in higher elevations.000 ( Grimes. [kvd] 4. Tanjung Bunda. Larantuka. Sumang. northwest Alor. but north coast Maukuru. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Kudi. between Manggarai and Wae Rana. scattered enclaves. Central MalayoPolynesian. Therik. Adonara Lembata (except the Kedang area) and in enclaves on Pantar north coast. [kod] 40. West. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Kui (Lerabaing. Larena. Kula Watena. Classification: Austronesian. Alor More information. Peisaka. Buraga). Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Ile Mandiri. Watena. Dialects: Iramang. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Lesser Sundas. Kulatela. Classification: Austronesian.600 (2000). Alor Island. Wide variation among dialects. Bima-Sumba More information. Grimes. Alternate names: Kepoq.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Verheijen).

Malayo-Polynesian. Therik. Mbukambero (Bukambero). Jacob 1997). Flores-Lembata More information. Grimes. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Grimes. Classification: Austronesian.Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Lemma. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central-Eastern. Nggaura. [lmq] Central Lembata (Lomblen) Island. between Ile Ape and Lewo Eleng. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Biangwala.000 ( Grimes. [lev] 10. Classification: Austronesian. Central MalayoPolynesian. Timor. Alternate names: Laora. Central Malayo-Polynesian. between Lamalera and Lamatuka. Dialects: Laura. [lur] 10. Anakalangu [akg]. Both mountain and coastal villages around the base of a volcano. Ethnic population: 10. Classification: Austronesian. Mingar. [lmy] 25. Bima-Sumba More information. Central-Eastern. Alor-Pantar. Flores-Lembata More information. Lamalera [lmr] South coastal Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Lesser Sundas. Similar to Wejewa [wew]. Central-Eastern. Timor. Alternate names: Labalekan. Central-Eastern. between Kodi and Mamboru. Tubal (Tube. CentralEastern. Wanukaka [wnk].000. South Lembata. Several villages. BimaSumba More information. Mamboru [mvd]. southwest and west Pantar. Central Malayo-Polynesian. About 4 villages. Flores-Lembata More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Lamma¶. west of Levuka. Timor. Classification: TransNew Guinea.000. Villages near the north coast are the result of recent government-induced migrations. Northwest Sumba. Alternate names: Kawela. West.000 ( Grimes. Dialects: Lewo Eleng [lwe] is probably most closely related. West . Classification: Austronesian. Malayo- Lamatuka Lamboya Lamma Laura Lembata. Dialects: Kalondama. MalayoPolynesian. Mauta). Timor. Not intelligible with Kodi [kod]. Mulan. Classification: Austronesian. southwest of Waikabubak. [lmj] West end of Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Alternate names: Lamatoka. Sumba Island. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Mauta. [lmf] South Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Therik. Lebatukan. Jacob 1997). Pantar More information. Flores-Lembata More information. southwest coast. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Lamboya.

Baä. Roti. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Air Mata.Polynesian. Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Ende [end]. Lole and Ba¶a domains. Ende-Lio More information. South Lole. Timor. Timor. Alternate names: Ba¶a. Kalikasa. North Lole covers north and central regions of Lole domain. 2 dialects. [ljl] 130. Malayo-Sumbawan. Alternate names: Lembata. North and East. Classification: Austronesian.000 (2000). Paga and Dondo areas. Rote Island west central. central Flores. Jacob). North Lole µna-hina¶ becomes South Lole µni-hina¶. Several villages. Central-Eastern. North coast villages are the result of recent government-induced migrations. Trade. Flores-Lembata More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Tanah Kunu. east of Sika. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Lio. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Kupang area. Central-Eastern. Central-Eastern. Levuka [lvu] West central Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Malay. Rote. Lewuka. [mkn] 200. south of Lamaholot. Eastern Flores. Dialects: North Lole.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Flores-Lembata More information.000 (2002 UKAW). East Indonesian More information. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Rotinese. Timor. west of Sikka. Timor. Extra-Ramelaic. Central Malayo-Polynesian. [llg] 20. Malayo-Polynesian. MalayoPolynesian. Lionese. Ethnic population: 20. Malayo-Polynesian. [lwt] 289. Painara. West Timor.000 (1997 M. West More information. between Ile Ape and Lamalera. Dialects: Levuka. Dialects: Lamatuka [slp] probably most closely related. Rote Tengah. Central Rote. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Basa Kupang. Flores-Lembata More information.000. Flores-Lembata More information. Ba¶a. Alternate names: Southwest Lamaholot. Loleh. MalayoPolynesian. Malayic. Kupang. Lesser Sundas. Classification: Austronesian. [lwe] East central Lembata (Lomblen) Island. Timor. Alternate names: Aku. Lewo Eleng Lewotobi Li¶o Lole Malay. Lewokukun. Palu¶e [ple] may be a dialect. between Lamatuka and Kedang. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. BimaSumba. Central-Eastern. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. MalayoPolynesian. Kupang .

Malayo-Sumbawan. Malayo-Polynesian. Alor-Pantar. NageKeo. Tanjung Betuah. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Central Manggarai (Ruteng). Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Nga¶da. Ngadha. Kabupaten Ngada. [nea] 5. Malayo-Polynesian. Trade More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Bima-Sumba More information.Malay. Alternate names: Nagé.000 (1995). Eastern . Tanjung Baru. South central Flores. South Ngada. Kaur Regency. CentralEastern. Lamboya [lmy]. East Nusa Tenggara Province. Alternate names: Nagi. [nsy] 6. Anakalangu [akg]. Dialects: Related to Wejewa [wew]. Bengkulu Province.000 (Forth 1993). Dialect diversity. Central-Eastern. east end of Flores island.000 (2008). Malayic. Ngada. Melayu Larantuka. Malayo-Polynesian. Unclassified More information. CentralEastern. Classification: Austronesian. Wanukaka [wnk]. northeast of Ngad¶a. Nédebang. North central Pantar. Malayo-Polynesian. [mvd] 16. [nec] 1. Bajawa. Bima-Sumba. Alternate names: Balungada.000 (1994). Alternate names: Memboro. Ende-Lio More information. WestCentral Manggarai. BimaSumba More information. North and East. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Bahasa Nagi. Ende Malay. [mqy] 500. Mamboru Manggarai Nage Nasal Nedebang Ngad¶a Ngad¶a.380 (2000). Alternate names: Badjava. Dialects: Central Ngada. Dialects: Most similar to Kupang Malay [mkn]. Central Flores. Northwest Sumba Island.000 (1989).000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). west third of Flores Island. [nxe] 50. Nad¶a. Eastern Manggarai. between Manggarai and Ende and Li¶o. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Central Malayo-Polynesian. South central Flores. Around 43 subdialects. [nxg] 60. Larantuka [lrt] 20. Wure village. Dialects: Western Manggarai. Lesser Sundas. Classification: Austronesian. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. Bima-Sumba More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Bajava. Ebu Lobo volcano north and west slopes. south and southwest of Kabir. Pantar More information. Rokka. Memboro coastal area. Adonara Island. MalayoPolynesian.000 (2007). Classification: Austronesian. Malay. Konga village. Bajawa. Similar to Riung [riu]. Gedung Menung. Larantuka City. West.

Romance.000 ( Grimes. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Ringgou. Pantar More information. Classification: Austronesian. Gallo-Iberian. CentralEastern. [rgu] 10. Grimes. CentralEastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. [reb] 2. Wangka. West Iberian. between Eastern Manggarai and Riung. Alternate names: Lu¶a. north of central Flores. Manggarai. Western. Nangahure village. North central Flores Island. Roti. northwest of Maumere. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Landu. Palue. [riu] 14. North central Flores. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Central Malayo-Polynesian. West. Bima-Sumba More information. Alternate names: Razong. Central Malayo-Polynesian. ExtraRamelaic. Classification: Indo-European. Dialects: Not intelligible with languages on north Pura. Bima-Sumba More information. Ibero-Romance. Dialects: Rembong. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. MalayoPolynesian. Namu. Portuguese-Galician More information. Rikou. Sikka area.Kecamatan Golewa between Ngad¶a and Nage. Malayo-Polynesian. Ngad¶a. Palu¶e [ple] 10. Palu Island. Rotinese. Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Ende-Lio. Central MalayoPolynesian.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). north coast of Flores mainland. [por] Flores Island.000 (2002 UKAW). Sanga Deto administrative villages. Paluqe. Wae Rana. Timor. Therik. Rote. Central-Eastern. Oe Pao (Oepao). Alternate names: Southeast Ngada. Classification: Austronesian. marginal intelligibility with Li¶o [ljl]. Ethnic population: 10. Malayo-Polynesian. Landu and Oepao areas. Rote Island east tip. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Eastern Rote. Jacob 1997). and Rembong areas. Italic. Central Flores. Rote Timur.120 (2000). Portuguese Rajong Rembong Retta Ringgou Riung . [ret] South Pura Island Kalabahi Bay mouth. Sara Sedu. Desa Rowa.000. Central MalayoPolynesian. Taka Tunga. [rjg] 4. south Ternate Island. West More information. Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Ringgou. 2 enclaves. Italo-Western. Central-Eastern. Alor-Pantar. Bima-Sumba More information. Kecamatan Boawae. Bima-Sumba More information.240 (2000).

Dialects: Sawila. Grimes. Sileba. Dialects: Seba (Heba). Sawu. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. Mesara (Mehara). Central West Sasak).000 (Grimes. Related to Dhao [nfa]. Some µdialects¶ have difficult mutual intelligibility. Dialects: Kuto-Kute (North Sasak).120 (2000). Central-Eastern. Tana Ai. Classification: Austronesian.000 (1997). eastern Flores Island. Therik. Savunese. but marginal intelligibility. Lombok Island. [swt] 3. [sas] 2. North and East.000 outside of Sabu (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Complex dialect network. Hawu. between Manggarai and Ngad¶a. Timu (Dimu). Classification: Austronesian. Sara Sikka. Dialects: Similar to Manggarai [mqy]. 15. Bima-Sumba More information. Kecamatan Riung. Sabu Sasak Sawila Sika . Alternate names: Havunese. Sikkanese. Mriak-Mriku (Central South Sasak). between Li¶o and Lamaholot. Dialects: Sara Krowe (Central Sikka).000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995).100. Classification: Austronesian. Ngeno-Ngene (Central East Sasak. Jacob 1997). Timor. Maumere. Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa. West. MalayoPolynesian. Central-Eastern.000 (1989). Rongga [ror] 2. Classification: Austronesian. Raijua (Raidjua). [hvn] 110. Sikka. between Kula and Wersing. BimaSumba More information. Central MalayoPolynesian. Meno-Mene (Central Sasak). Alternate names: Krowe. Sawunese.Lesser Sundas. distinct historical ethnic identities. Wide linguistic and cultural variation. BimaSumba More information. Sasak-Sumbawa More information. and south of Wae Rana. Lona. Kabupaten Kupang. Ende. Tanglapui More information. [ski] 175. Ngeto-Ngete (Northeast Sasak). East Alor Island. MalayoPolynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Sawu and Raijua Islands. Alternate names: Far Eastern Manggarai.000 to 25. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Savu. Marginal intelligibility but structurally similar to Kula [tpg]. Lesser Sundas. Kangaé). West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Sumba (especially Waingapu and Melolo). Alternate names: Lombok. Sikka Natar (South Coast Sikka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Related to Sumbawa [smw] and Bali [ban]. South central Flores. Flores Island. Kabupaten Ngada. Liae. Central Malayo-Polynesian. south of Flores and west of Timor. Gamkonora [gak]. Similar to Waioli [wli]. Salimana. Lalamana. Alternate names: Tanglapui.

Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Talae. east of Atoni. West. Bokai. Korbafo and Bokai may need to be separated for sociolinguistic reasons. west of Bunak (in Batagude). variation in social structure. Tetun Therik). Also in East Timor. Southern Tetun (Lia Fehan. Tetun Los). Alternate names: Central Rote. and Jakarta. Ethnic population: 30. Southern Termanu). Central-Eastern. Therik. Jacob 1997). 1 on Pantar. Sasak-Sumbawa More information. 2 villages northern side. south coast. West More information. Natarbora. Timor. Dialects: Similar to Ngad¶a [nxg]. Tettum. Tetun Belu.Malayo-Polynesian. Extra-Ramelaic.000 (1994). Alor-Pantar. Tetum. Tetun Loos. Classification: Austronesian. Timor. West Timor. South Tetun). North Belu. Malayo-Polynesian. Termanu. Classification: Austronesian. Pantar More information. Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Soibada. Grimes. Tetun Terik. Population total all countries: 450. North and East.000. Dialects: Whether this is a dialect of Blagar [beu] or a separate language is disputed. Timor. West end of Sumbawa Island. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Hill Tetun. Central Timor corridor north. Rote. Wide variation in morphology and syntax among major dialects. Central Rote Island. Central Sumbawa Tereweng Termanu Tetun . west of the isthmus. Pa¶da Kona (Keka-Talae. So¶a [ssq] 10. Kupang. Rotinese. South Belu. Tasi Feto. Malayo-Polynesian.000 in Indonesia (2004). Tetung. Central-Eastern. Pa¶da. Lakluta. [twu] 30. Korbafo (Korbaffo). Alternate names: Semawa. Extra-Ramelaic. Belu Utara. Dialects: Pa¶da (Termanu). Bima-Sumba More information. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Alternate names: Belo. between Ngad¶a and Riung. Bokai domains. Fehan. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Sumbawan. Belu Selatan.000 (2002 UKAW). Central Malayo-Polynesian. Tereweng Island off southeast Pantar Island. Central Flores. central Kabupaten Ngada. Plain Tetun. Tetu. Teto. to south coasts. Seems more similar to Lole [llg] than to other varieties on Rote. Tasi Mane. Keka.000 (1989). Rote Tengah. Roti. Belu. Viqueque and Soibada areas. Batibo area. Flores-Lembata More information. [smw] 300. Sumbawarese.000. [tet] 400. Northern Tetun (Lia Foho. Ethnic population: 800 (Grimes. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. CentralEastern. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Soa. Korbafo. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. [twg] 800 (1997). Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa.

Classification: Austronesian. Rote Barat. Dialects: Deing. Dialects: Amfoan-Fatule¶u-Amabi (Amfoan. Similar to. Lebang. [wew] 65. Ti. ExtraRamelaic. Grimes. Malayo-Polynesian. Amanuban-Amanatun (Amanuban.240 (2000). Rua. Sumba Island. West Sumbanese. Waidjewa. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Western Rote.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Therik. Thie. Insanao). Rotinese. Wajewa. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Bima-Sumba More information. Extra-Ramelaic. Alor-Pantar. Biboki-Insana (Biboki. [txq] 20. Much dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian. Timoreesch. ³Rawan´ . Classification: Austronesian. and Anakalangu [akg] speakers.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lamboya [lmy]. Amabi). Central Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Weyewa. between Manggarai and Ngad¶a. Alternate names: Rote. Timorese.000 (2002 UKAW). Madar. Rote Island southwest. Alternate names: Wanokaka. Meto. Western Timor Island. Ethnological and linguistic differences in nearly every valley. Grimes. Central-Eastern. West Sumba Island interior. Classification: Austronesian. [wnk] 10. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Mamboru [mud]. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. west of Lole. Similar to Amarasi [aaz]. southwest coast. Fatule¶u.More information.000 ( Grimes. ³Dawan´ . Tii domain. Central-Eastern. Tewa [twe] 5. east of Dela-Oenale. West More information. east of Lamboya. Timor. Dialects: Tii Uab Meto Wae Rana Wanukaka Wejewa . South central Flores. Jacob 1997). Miomafo). [wrx] 4. Intelligibility with varieties in east Sumba and Kambera uncertain. Wewewa. [aoz] 586. Ethnic population: 20. Timor. Bima-Sumba More information. Amanatun). Alternate names: Atoni.000. Uab Pah Meto. Lesser Sundas. third singular verb prefix µna-fa¶da¶ varies with µi-fa¶da¶. ³Timor Dawan´ . Central Malayo-Polynesian. Timor. Timoreezen. Central-Eastern. and Jacob 1997). West More information.000 ( Grimes. Alternate names: Waerana. but unintelligible to Wejewa [wew]. Malayo-Polynesian. KusaManlea (Kusa. Alternate names: Veveva. Timol. Uab Atoni Pah Meto. Pantar More information. Orang Gunung. Dialects: Wanukaka. Roti. Central Pantar. MalayoPolynesian. MolloMiomafo (Mollo. Central-Eastern. south of Dengka. Amfuang. Wewjewa. West. Manlea). Therik. Amanubang. Dialects: Minor variation.

934 (2000 census). and Donohue 2002). Grimes. Ayamaru. Awyu-Dumut.000 (1987 SIL). Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Sorong Regency. Tana Righu. West. Classification: Language isolate More information. Ok-Awyu. Lakes Plain area. Manif. Pantai Barat subdistricts. Subu. Alor Island. Alternate names: Kolana. Alternate names: Djair. Malayo-Polynesian. 274 are living languages and 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers. North coast and interior of central Bird¶s Head. Moraid subdistricts. Karon. Lauli (Loli). Classification: Austronesian. West Timor-Alor-Pantar. Abun Je. south coast area. Langkuru (Pureman. Awyu More information. Pietoko and Pureman. Dyair. [ahh] 3. Sausapor. About 20 villages. Classification: Language isolate More information. Sarmi Regency. Bima-Sumba More information. to headwaters in Foya Mountains. Abinomn [bsa] 300 (Clouse. Of those. Mademang). Therik. Abun Ji (Madik). 2. Digul River west of Mandobo language.Weyewa.220. C. 2 enclaves on north central north coast. Central-Eastern. Merauke Regency. SIL 1975±2003. Dialects: Abun Tat (Karon Pantai). Donohue 1998±1999. Alternate names: A Nden. [air] 1. north and south of Tamberau ranges. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Kolana More information.000 (1998 SIL). ³Baso´ . Ma. Wersing [kvw] 3. Yimbun. Voorhoeve 1975. [kgr] 3. north coast area on lower Apauwer River. Foja. Isirania. Foya. Baso River mouth east of Dabra at Idenburg River. Warsina. Similar to Kamang [woi]. Kolana-Wersin. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Motobiak.000 (1995 SIL). Alternate names: Adora. Mamberamo Hilir. Wersin. Maneta. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Papua) is 276.700 ( Grimes. Abun Aghu Airoran . Aeroran. Jayapura Regency. Information mainly from M. southeast coast. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Roesler 1972. Jair subdistrict. Alternate names: Avinomen. Languages of Indonesia (Papua) Indonesia (Papua). Dialects: Kolana. Dialects: Similar to Warembori [wsa]. other villages. Kolana east coast area. Jacob 1997). C.

Jayapura Regency. Anasi Ansus Anus Arandai . Marau [mvr]. West New Guinea. [auq] 320 (2005 SIL). Dialects: Kemberano (Tomu). MalayoPolynesian. Kairawi. Yapen Barat subdistrict. Yapen Waropen Regency. Ansus. West New Guinea. Alternate names: Koroernoes. North coast. Aibondeni and Yenusi villages. Sumuri. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Yapen. Cenderawasih Bay. Sebyar (Timoforo) River area. Cenderawasih Bay. Yaban. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Closely related to Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian. lower west bank Mamberamo River. West Coast More information. east and west of Wariaga River. Wabo [wbb]. Central-Western More information. Coastal area and island off north coast east of Biri River. Central-Western More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Pom [pmo].000 (1993 R. Koru. South Bird¶s Head. Malayo-Polynesian. Yapen. Mamberamo Hilir subdistrict. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Ambai (Wadapi-Laut). Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Munggui [mth]. [jbj] 1. [and] 4. south of Serui Island. Manawi. Lexical similarity: 71% between the Kemberano and Dombano dialects.600 (1987 SIL). Dombano (Arandai). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau Papuma [ppm]. Dialects: Randawaya. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. Oceanic. Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur subdistricts. North New Guinea. Jayapura Regency. along the south coast of Serui Island. Sarmi More information. Doriot). Eastern More information. Related to Kais [kzm]. SarmiJayapura Bay. Alternate names: Bapu. Papuma [ppm]. On Ambai Island in Cenderawasih Bay. Woi [wbw]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu]. Manokwari Regency. Classification: Austronesian. Jaban. Greater Kwerba. Yapen Waropen Regency. Central-Eastern.Iriemkena.100 (2000). 77% with Wandamen [wao]. South Bird¶s Head Proper. Kurudu [kjr]. Ambai [amk] 10. Alternate names: Dombano. Central-Eastern. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Bintuni subdistrict. Bonggo subdistrict. Dialects: Similar to Podena [pdn]. Central-Eastern. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Miosnum Island and Serui Island south coast. Kwerba.000 (1987 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. [bpo] 2. Alternate names: Ambai-Menawi. South Bird¶s Head. Sebyar. 10 villages. Western Oceanic. 71% with Wandamen [wad].

Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Simai (Simay).000 (1991 SIL). Wurm).Arguni [agf] 150 (2000 S. Merauke Regency. Pantai Kasuari and Edera subdistricts. Manowee. Sawa-Erma. Mega villages. Alternate names: Kaugat. Agats and Atsy subdistricts. Wurm). Raja Ampat More information. Asmat More information.000 (1991 SIL). Central Malayo-Polynesian. Asmat Regency. Asmat More information. Ajam (Ayam). Asmat-Kamoro. North Asmat most distinct dialect. [cns] 7. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island. Kayagar As Asmat. North Bomberai More information. Casuarina coast from Ewta River north to Kuti River south. Sawa-Erma subdistrict. north coast. Related to Sempan [xse] north of the rivers. south of Yaqay [jaq] language. Also Mappi Regency coast. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Keenok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Argoeni.000 (1987 SIL). Misman.000 (1991 SIL). Near Paterle Cocq River headwaters west to Unir River east to the foothills. Similar to Kamoro [kgq] and Citak [txt]. Mappi Regency. Pantai Kasuari subdistrict. Sapan (Safan). inland toward the foothills and inland. Central-Eastern. Central Asmat. Classification: Austronesian. South coast from Owap River northwest to Farec River southwest. North Asmat.200 in Matia and 3. Yaosakor Atohwaim . Nambai and Edera subdistricts. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Asmat More information. [nks] 1. and inland. Alternate names: Yaosakor. Asmat Regency. Alternate names: Kaweinag. Yas. Asmat More information. 5. Alternate names: Jas.400 in Sapan. Maklaumkarta. Asmat-Kamoro. [asz] 230 (2000 S. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Mappi Regency. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Asbakin (main center). [asy] 2. Agats. between Sawi [saw] and Kayagar [kyt]. South coast along Sirac River. [aqm] 1. West New Guinea. and Pantai Kasuari subdistricts. Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Matia. Asmat-Kamoro. Casuarina Coast Asmat. South coast on Cook and Kronkel rivers. Atsy. Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula on an island in the Maccluer Gulf. West Bird¶s Head. [asc] 9. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Asmat-Kamoro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea.000 (Roesler 1972).

Ok-Awyu. South Awyu [aws]. Napan subdistrict. Pisa. Wurm). 100% monolingual. Nyao. Sjiagha. Classification: Lakes Plain. Southeast near coast. Awju. Sohn). Alternate names: Jenimu. Syiagha. Awji. Siagha. Yapen Waropen Regency. just south of Jayapura. West. Awyu-Dumut. 1 village. Alternate names: Awje. Miaro Awyu. Central Highlands. Alternate names: Miaro. [awy] 3. northeast near Papua New Guinea border. Yenimu. Ok-Awyu. Ethnic population: 350 (2000 SIL).More information. Classification: Bayono-Awbono More information. Arso subdistrict. east of Kampong River. Ok-Awyu. southwest of Boma. South coast area. Awyu-Dumut. East side of Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Dialects: Not related to Ok.500 (2002 SIL). mountains southeast of Cenderawasih Bay. [awh] 100 (1999 SIL). [awr] 70 (2000 S. Classification: Border. Paniai Regency. Asue Awyu. Dialects: Similar to Edera Awyu [awy]. north of lower Digul River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl]. Distinct from Central Awyu [awu]. Oser. Awera More information. South coast east of Bipim.870 (2002 SIL). Nohon. Wurm). Taikat More information. Dialects: Related to Ekari [ekg]. Avio. Citak Mitak. Modera River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Obaa. or highland languages like Dani or Mek. Njao. Momuna [mqf]. Awyu More information. Central Awyu. Awyu More information. Wissel Lakes More information. Jair Awyu [awv]. Awye. Auyu. Awyu-Dumut. Alternate names: Ajau. Jayapura Regency. Edera . Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Auwje. inland from Pirimapun. Alternate names: Kvolyab. Dialects: 4 dialects. Mandobo and Bimikia subdistricts. Auye [auu] 350 (1995 SIL). [psa] 6. Asmat. AwyuDumut. south of Kopkaka [opk] and northwest of Korowai [khe]. Awyu Awbono Awera Awyi Awyu. Mappi and Boven Digul Regencies. [auw] 350 (2000 S. Waropen Bawah subdistrict. [awu] 7. Wapoga River mouth. Siriwo River.500 (2002 M. west of Tanamerah. northwest of Yaqay [jaq]. southwest of Wildeman River. Awya.

Solom. Alternate names: Patimuni. Awyu More information. Vakiadi. West Bomberai. Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas subdistricts. Neao. Kasonoweja north of Kustera. West Bomberai Proper More information. Nuclear More information. northeast. south of Aghu [ahh]. Jair [awv] 2. north of lower Digul River. Kaimana. 61% with Tefaro [tfo]. Awyu-Dumut. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Lake Holmes area near mid-Mamberamo River. Dyair.500 (1995 SIL). Danau Bira area. 1. Yenimu. Ok-Awyu. North Awyu. Awyu More information. West. West Bomberai Peninsula east of the Iha [ihp] language. west of Mandobo Bawah [bwp]. Fakfak and Kokas subdistricts. Bauri. Noiadi. east of Central Awyu [awu]. Alternate names: Jenimu. Aumenefa.500 (1991 SIL). north of Kauwera [xau]. Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict. Jair. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. Syiagha. along Barapasi River and tributaries. Kustera. Alternate names: Awyu. Ok-Awyu. Oser. South coast west side of Digul River.350 monolinguals. [yir] 1.500 (1987 SIL). South Bagusa Baham Barapasi Bauzi . Marikai. south of Kombai [tyn]. Dialects: Similar to Iha. Bauzi Awyu. Waropen Atas subdistrict. OkAwyu. East Cenderawasih Bay just east of the Waropen language [wrp]. Fakfak Regency. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Sjiagha. Awyu. Neao. Alternate names: Baropasi.300 (2002 SIL). Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Jayapura Regency.340 (2002 SIL). South coast area. Yair. [bvz] 1. Danau Bira. 71% with Sauri [srt]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Kwerba [kwe]. Itaba villages. Alternate names: Kapeso. Lake Rombebai. Lexical similarity: 67% with Kofei [kpi]. Suaseso. Awyu-Dumut. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Baudi. 64% with Woria [wor]. Jayapura and Yapen Waropen regencies. Siagha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Awyu-Dumut. Baudji. Kwerba. [brp] 2. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Southeast near coast. Baudzi.100 (1987 SIL). Dialects: Sipisi. Greater Kwerba. Yapen Waropen Regency. Dialects: Gesda Dae. [bqb] 300 (1987 SIL). [aws] 9. Awyu More information. East of Mamberamo. Djair. [bdw] 1.More information.

Rumberpon. or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Wurm). Dangken. Kondirjan. Momuna. Beneraf and part of Nenke villages. Orya-Tor. Monoarfu. numerous small islands east and west of Bird¶s Head. Sarmi Regency. Biak and Numfor Islands north. Tor Atas subdistrict. Warsa. Beu. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Wari. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Mofu. Classification: Austronesian. [bhw] 30. Korido. Bora Bora. North coast area along mid and upper Tor River. Fakfak Regency. Vogelkop. Tor More information. Bosnik. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45% with Keijar [kdy]. Malayo-Polynesian. Tor More information. Kamer. Wurm). including Mapia Island. Bo¶o. Noefoorsch. South of Awbono [awh] on Steenboom River. Mandusir. inland from Sarmi. Alternate names: Tena. Mafoorsch. Somanente. Padoa. Sewan. AwyuDumut. OryaTor. Waf. Sorendidori. Orya-Tor. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Dwar. Mefoor. [bfe] 600 (2005 SIL). northwest coast. West New Guinea. Classification: TorKwerba. Upper Tor. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Central-Eastern. Fairi. Dialects: Not related to language families like Ok. Korim. Mios Num. Wadibu. [bed] 180 (2000 S. Doronta. Malayo-Polynesian. Jenures. Bomberai More information. Nufoor. Mapia. Central-Eastern.200 (1994 SIL). Berrik. Sor. Bayono [byl] 100 (1999 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Ariom.000 (2000 S. Sewan Teteris. Mafoor. Sarmi Regency. [bnv] 200 (2005 SIL). Sorido. Myfoorsch. Tor More information. Wardo. Opif. Penasifu. Sampori (Mokmer). Biak Numfor Kabupaten. Tenwer. Sarmi Regency. Samberi. Kokas subdistrict. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Bonerif. Alternate names: Berick. [bkl] 1. North coast area east of Sarmi. Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: BayonoAwbono More information. Togonfo. Alternate names: Boneraf. Biakic Bedoanas Beneraf Berik Betaf Biak . 13% with Orya [ury]. North coast area east of Tor River mouth. Bomberai Peninsula. Classification: TorKwerba. Noefoor. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono. Safrontani and Taminambor villages. West New Guinea. Sundei. Alternate names: Biak-Numfor. South Halmahera-West New Guinea.More information. Asmat.

South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Obokuitai [afz]. Borumesso. Sarmi Regency. 61% with Eritai [ert]. Raja Ampat More information. [bpg] 790 (2006 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. 1 village and isolated temporary houses along nearby rivers. Kamrau Bay southwest. 1 village. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. North New Guinea. Western Oceanic. [bzu] 250 (1998 M. Central-Eastern. Alternate names: Armopa. Taronta. Biri. Biritai Bonggo Burate Burmeso Burumakok Buruwai . Bonggo subdistrict. Biri village. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Lakes Plain. Bongo. southeast of Sumo and Dekai. Fakfak Regency. Alternate names: Boromeso. 69% with Kaiy [tcq]. Kuna. Yapen Waropen Regency. [bti] 100 (2000 S. Dialects: Less than 5% lexical similarity with other languages. West New Guinea. lowlands area south of main ranges.000 (2000). Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River. Biga [bhc] 300 (Remijsen 2001). Ok. Western Nearly extinct. 75% with Tunggare [trt]. south of Sumtanon. East More information. Taurap. Manau. Monau. Biga village. Bogu. mid-Mamberamo River between Trimuris and Sikari northeast of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). Tarawasi. Malayo-Polynesian. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Sarmi Regency. Yarona. Donohue). near Kaisau River. [bqq] 250 (1988 SIL). Armopa villages. Ok-Awyu. south Bomberai Peninsula. east of Siradala. south of Langda and Bomela. Esania. village of Burumakok. Malayo-Polynesian. Cenderawasih Bay. Waropen Bawah subdistrict. Wurm). Sarmi More information. Burmeso More information. Misool Island. [aip] 40 (1994 Kroneman). Burumeso. Jayawijaya Regency. [asi] 1. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Central-Eastern. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Tariku. Kurima subdistrict. Alternate names: Aliki. Northeast coast. Monao. 60% with Kwerisa [kkb]. Ati. More information. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Demisa [dei]. Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict.More information. near Wapoga River mouth. Kaimana subdistrict. Oceanic. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian.

[tml] 290 (1993 R. Amongme. north coast east of Sarmi. Tairi. Similar to Asmat. Dabe village. Dialects: Damal. Baliem Grand Valley. South and north coast. Doriot).000 (2000 S. Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan subdistricts. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kamberau [irx]. Wurm). Ilaga and Beoga subdistricts. north and south Carstens Mountains. Asmat-Kamoro. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima. Tamnim. Central-Western More information. Amung Kal. OryaTor. not Asmat. Sarmi Regency. Stringer). Sebakoor. Hia. Komasma. Amuy.Marobia. and Gaka villages. Kamanap. Damal More information. Central-Eastern. Madidwana. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and]. 63% with Serui-Laut [seu]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Lower Grand Valley . north of Awyu. Citak Citak. Asienara. Pantai Timur subdistrict.000 (1985 M. Alternate names: Asmat Darat. Doriot). west of upper Digul River. Tiau.000 (1996 SIL). Vakam. Central highlands. Wolani [wod]. Kaonda villages. Busami [bsm] 700 (1993 R. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Cicak. Enggipiloe. Malayo-Polynesian. Zinak. Amung. Tamnim. southeast of Kemandoga River source. Mappi Regency. Paniai Regency. but speakers want to be called Citak. Alternate names: Asianara. Asmat-Kamoro. Hamung. Sabakor More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Tor More information. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. south coast area. throughout Puncak Jaya. Uhunduni. Dialects: May be linguistically more similar to Asmat. Senggo. Alternate names: Asmat Darat. Citak-Mitak subdistrict. [uhn] 14. Asmat More information. Karufa. Yapen. Tamnim Dabe Damal Dani. Classification: TransNew Guinea. [dni] 20. Classification: Austronesian. central highlands west of Western Dani. Enggipilu. Esaun. Wowi villages. [txt] 8. Amungme. Cenderawasih Bay. Tjitjak. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Dialects: 3 dialects. Oehoendoeni. [dbe] 440 (2005 SIL). and north. Mappi and Asmat Regencies. east of Asmat. Asmat More information. Asmat-Kamoro. Kaunak. Serui Island. Alternate names: Amung. Epem. West New Guinea. Bubis. Dialects: Senggo. Related to Ekari [ekg]. Classification: TransNew Guinea. near Senggo. Guriasa. Pirabanak. 19 villages. and upper gorge. Tjitak. Yapen Waropen Regency. Masiaroti. Sabakor. east of Ekari. Moni [mnz].

Western Dao Dem Demisa Dera . Dani Proper More information. Laany. Mid Grand Valley [dnt] 50. Wissel Lakes More information.000 (1996). 64% with Kofei [kpi]. Western highlands along upper Rouffaer River north of Damal. Dani. near Waris. Dani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Dem More information. Desawa and Muyere coastal villages. Dani. West central highlands.000 (1990 UBS). east of Cenderawasih Bay along Dao River. 65% with Tunggare [trt]. 13 villages. Alternate names: Desawa. 64% with Woria [wor]. Dani Proper More information. Central highlands. Bauzi More information. Alternate names: Maniwo. Alternate names: Dani Barat. Dani. West. Alternate names: Lem.Kurima). Northeast Papua. Western Dani of Bokondini.000 (1987 SIL). Dani. Dani Proper More information. Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid. and upper gorge.690. Classification: Senagi More information. west of Baliem Grand Valley. West. northeast of Western Dani. Dani Proper More information. south of Jayapura. Lower Bele. Lower Kimbin (Kibin). Wurm). [daz] 250 (1991 SIL). Ilaga Western Dani. [dei] 400 (2000 S. Baliem Valley. Botawa village inland along Wonoi River. Paniai Regency. Alternate names: Dra. Oeringoep. [dem] 1. [dna] 20.000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). West. Ndem. Also in Papua New Guinea. Central highlands. Upper Bele. Tulem. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Auye [auu]. West. Upper Grand Valley Dani. Upper Pyramid. Kamberataro. Baliem Grand Valley. 60% with Sauri [srt]. Central Grand Valley Dani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Timorini. ³X-Ray´. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Dani.000 (1993 census). 60% with Wano [wno]. [kbv] 1. Alternate names: Baliem Valley Dani. Napan subdistrict. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. West. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Burate [bti]. Other dialects not as distinct as those listed. [dnw] 180. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz]. Mangguar. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Lani. east from upper Kemandoga Valley. Waropen Bawah subdistrict. Population total all countries: 1.

western along Fedide and Wedi rivers. Biakic Nearly extinct. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. on a small island in Raja Ampat Islands. Dusner town area. Sailen. Wurm). Cenderawasih Bay. [diy] 100 (1999 SIL). Paniai. Doriot).Diebroud [tbp] 140 (2000 S. Classification: Lakes Plain. Classification: Austronesian. Lakes Plain area south of Idenburg River east of Taiyeve. Dou. Duvre. Doufou. East More information. Bok. Wandamen Bay area. Taria. Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers juncture area. Dialects: Eastern Duvle. Classification: Lakes Plain. Urundi. [dsn] 6 (1978 SIL). Alternate names: Dosobou. west and south of Taiyeve. Classification: Lakes Plain. Diuwe More information. Esaro. South Bird¶s Head. Ethnic population: 335 (1993 R. Ururi. Duve. Dialects: Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo. Western Duvle. Lakes Plain area south of Van Daalen River and north of Mulia. Wiri. Eastern dialect along Dagai River. Asmat-Kamoro. Elopi. More information. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Tor More information. Duvle More information. Ethnic population: 60. Inanwatan Nearly extinct. [dbf] 1. Alternate names: Maremgi. North coast near the Bonggo [bpg]. Marengge. Tariku. Alternate names: Duriankari. east of Catalina River. Toli-Dou village. Iau. Sarmi Regency. [mrx] 55 (2006 SIL). Yau. West New Guinea. Taori-So. Turu. Central-Eastern. Tariku. Few dialect differences.000 (1995 SIL). Central Dineor Diuwe Doutai Duriankere Dusner Duvle Edopi . Alternate names: Duvde. In the strait between Salawati Island and the west end of Bird¶s Head. East More information. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. west coast of Cenderawasih Bay. Orya-Tor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Duvele. Tolitai. Tariku. Wurm). Alternate names: Taori. Lakes Plain area. [duv] 930 (2000). More information. 1 village. Wurm). [tds] 70 (2000 S. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Taworta-Aero. Classification: Lakes Plain. Alternate names: Taworta. [dbn] 30 (2000 S. Foi. Maremgi village. Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Southwest of Sumo. Dabra. Alternate names: Dusnir.

Central-Eastern. Kapauku. Mee. ³Morwap´ . Haya. Bomberai More information. Mek. Sarmi Regency. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg]. Arso. 50% with Sikaritai [tty]. Alternate names: Ekagi. Sawa. Kustera. Baburiwa. Tapiro. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Wurm). Eri. West New Guinea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Language isolate More information. Editode Edai. Paniai. Eastern More information. Alternate names: Djanggu. [erw] 200 (2000 S. north of Baham [bdw]. Barua. Eastern More information. Doutai [tds]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg]. Eastern highlands area. West Ekari Elseng Emem Eritai Erokwanas Fayu . around Kustera airstrip: Erai (east).000 (1985 Doble). east of Nalca [nlc]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Obokuitai [afz]. Alternate names: Sehudate. and Haya (south) villages. Kiamerop. Most similar to Wolani [wol]. Eipomek [eip] 3. [mrf] 300 (1991 SIL). Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata. MalayoPolynesian. West of juncture of Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers. Classification: Lakes Plain. West central highlands. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Erai.000 (1987 SIL). T-Valley. Janggu. Mapiya-Kegata. [enr] 2. Classification: Lakes Plain.More information. Alternate names: Eipo. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Jayapura and Keerom Regencies. Wurm). Imimkal. [ert] 530 (2000). Babiruwa. Kemtuk Gresi. Yabi (Jabi). Abepura. Tabu. Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is similar but not the same. Classification: Pauwasi. Lakes Plain area in low mountains just south of Danau Bira (Lake Holmes). [ekg] 100. Biritai [bqq]. Border area south of Jayapura. Me Mana. Mee Mana. south of Jayapura. Babruwa. Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu subdistricts. Northwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula. Tariku. [fau] 350 (2000 S. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Emumu. Also related to Kaiy [tcq]. West. Tariku. Dialects: Simori. northeast of Kaure [khp]. Babrua. West of Mamberamo River. Wissel Lakes More information.000 (2005 SIL). Eipo River. west of Kirikiri [kiy]. Alternate names: Aliki. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. East More information. Senggi subdistricts.

southeast of Genyem. Distinct from Yawa [yva]. [ihp] 5. Dialects: Similar to Anus [auq]. Turu dialect on Van Daalen River. Dialects: Similar to Diebroud [tbp]. Manokwari Regency. Borai. Poi dialect on Rouffaer River. Yansu. coastal area and island off north coast of Biri River area. West Bomberai.000 (1982 WT). Moi. Puncak Jaya Regency. East Bird¶s Head. East Lakes Plain area just north of lower Idenburg River. Classification: Language isolate More information. Dialects: Moi (Moire). Turu. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Similar to Baham. Ethnic population: 600 or more. Ururi. Taiyai villages. 500 monolinguals.000 (1993 TEAM). Hawa. Iaw. Alternate names: Geresi. Similar to Edopi [dbf]. Alternate names: Foi. Uran. Mansim. Turu. Dialects: Similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni]. Ransiki and Oransbari subdistricts. West. Tinam. Classification: Austronesian. Tinam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea.500 (1987 SIL). Lakes Plain area between Rouffaer and upper Van Daalen rivers. Foa and Mudiay villages. Dani Proper More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea.500 (1987 SIL). Oceanic. Classification: Nimboran More information. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Alternate names: Podena. Atam. [tmu] 600 (2000 SIL). Classification: Lakes Plain. Alternate names: Adihup. Alternate names: Kapaur. Bonggo subdistrict. Sarmi Regency. Fedan [pdn] 280 (2005 SIL). Klaysu villages. Fandanus. Hattam. Tabangkwari. increasing. West of Lake Sentani. [flh] 230 (1975 SIL). Classification: Lakes Plain. Tariku. Alternate names: Soba. Yau. Gresik. Klesi. south and southwest of Manokwari. Urundi. SarmiJayapura Bay.More information. Glesi. Central-Eastern. [grs] 2. Miriei. Adihup. Dialects: Foi. Central More information. Uran. Barere. Ibub. West Bomberai Proper Foau Gresi Hatam Hupla Iau Iha . Sarmi More information. Faui. northeast of Manikion. Central highlands area east of Baliem gorge. The varieties listed as dialects above may be separate languages. Iau. [had] 16. Fawi. Warmare. Western Oceanic. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Dani. West. Alternate names: Doa. [hap] 3. Miriei. North New Guinea. Bring. East More information. Sunna.

along upper Biri River. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn]. Martewar. Ok Iwur.800 (2000 S. east to Ok Denom. Alternate names: Arguni Bay. [jbr] 200 (2007). [srl] 1. Tor More information. Arsania. Kasira. Saberi. Ittik-Tor. Classification: Pidgin. Ok-Awyu. North coast east of Tor River. Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. [uka] 600 (1986 SIL). Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. far west end around Fak Fak and north. Irahutu.000 (1987 SIL). Dialects very similar. Biridua village.000 (1987 SIL). Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. Orya-Tor. OryaTor. [irh] 4. Iresim More information. Merdei and Inanwatan subdistricts. Alternate names: Iwoer. Classification: Austronesian. Ittik-Tor. Greater Kwerba. Classification: Trans-New Irarutu Iresim Isirawa Itik Iwur Jofotek-Bromnya Kaburi . South Cenderawasih Bay. north coast. Alternate names: Betef. Siaratesa. Nisero. Bonggo subdistrict. west of Nabire and around Yamur Lake. Manokwari Regency. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Tor More information. Pantai Timur subdistrict. [iwo] 1.More information. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. East Bomberai Peninsula southwest from Arguni Bay north to Bintuni Bay. 44 villages. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Amsira. Sarmi Regency. Alternate names: Okwasar. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Srum village. Irutu. Wurm). Webro. Sarmi Regency. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. east of Kemberano [bzp] and Arandai [jbj]. Mararena. Papua Province. [ire] 70 (2000 S. Iha Based Pidgin [ihb] Bomberai Peninsula. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Perkami. Iwur River valley border area. increasing. Ok. Central-Eastern. Cenderawasih Bay. Kamenawari. South Halmahera More information. Wurm). Yerisiam. Waim villages. Alternate names: Beduba. Dialects: Ittik. Saweri. West New Guinea. Jayapura. Eastern Isirawa. [itx] 80 (2000 S. Malayo-Polynesian. Sarmi area and west. Wari. Dialects: Western Isirawa. Ethnic population: 200. Borto. Ittik. Malayo-Polynesian. Isirawa More information. north of Kokoda and Fakfak. Kaitero. Wurm). Similar to Kwerba [kwe]. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Nuerawar. south Bird¶s Head. Lowland More information. Arabais. Iha based More information.

Lexical similarity: 60% with Buruwai. [kgq] 8. south of Madik [kgr] language. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Biritai [bqq]. north and west of Smärky Kanum Kaiy Kalabra Kamberau Kamoro Kanum.290 (2000). Mukamuga.000 (1987 SIL). Neferipi. Coa villages. Tariku. Alternate names: Kai. [tcq] 220 (2000 S. [kcd] 150 (1996 M. [irx] 1. [kzz] 3. Kais [kzm] 700 (1993 R. South coast.570 (1993 R. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Morehead-Upper Maro. Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages. Kamrau. 4 other dialects. South Bird¶s Head area inland along Kais River. Western More information. Similar to Yei [jei]. West Bird¶s Head More information. Nefarpi. southeast of Marind [mrz]. Kenume. South coast border area. Kampung Baru. Waho. 8 villages. Umar. South Bird¶s Head Proper. Inari. Kamkbrau. Alternate names: Kamora. Nanesa. Classification: West Papuan. Kaokonau. Bahomia. Lakahia. Wurm). Alternate names: Iria. Kaiy and Kokou villages. Dialects: Most similar to Tehit [kps]. Wamesa. Kamrau Bay area. Taori-Kaiy. Bädi Kanum. Nagramadu. Sabakor More information. Doriot). Nafarpi. Doriot). east of Moi [msf]. Ngkâlmpw . Has also been classified as Australian. Atori. Taori-Kei. Lexical similarity: 60% with Tehit. West Bird¶s Head. South Bird¶s Head Proper. Asmat-Kamoro. Kamoro More information. Alternate names: Aiso. Pama-Nyungan.Guinea. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Etna Bay to Mukamuga River. north and west of Smärky Kanum [kxq]. Umari. Yamur. Tomer and Onggaya villages. Tonda Nearly extinct. South coast border area. Donohue). Wamoma. Dialects: Tarya. Alternate names: Enkelembu. [khd] 10 (1996 M. Donohue). Southeast Bomberai Peninsula. Dialects: Similar to Buruwai [asi]. East More information. Mimika. Knwne. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. east of Merauke. Mintamani. Lakes Plain area around Kaiy airstrip on lower Rouffaer River. Alternate names: Beraur. South Bird¶s Head. More information. Todi. Asmat-Kamoro. southeast of Marind [mrz]. Koi. South Bird¶s Head. with difficult mutual intelligibility. east of Merauke. Western More information. Ubia-Seramuku. Tanggaromi. Classification: Lakes Plain.

Papua Province. Knwne. Alternate names: Enkelembu. Classification: Maybrat Kanum. Morehead-Upper Maro. Pef. Similar to Yei [jei]. Morehead-Upper Maro. Dialects: Similar to Mai Brat [ayz]. Tomer. south of Yei [jei]. with difficult mutual intelligibility. Alternate names: Kaptiauw. east of Merauke. Kapore More information. Pama-Nyungan. West. with difficult mutual intelligibility. Tonda More information. bordering Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Maiyach. Mari. Asses. southeast of Marind [mrz] and the other Kanum language areas. Kenume. off southwest coast of Bomberai Peninsula. southeast from Fak Fak. West Bomberai. Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages. Tonda More information. Onggaya villages. [kgv] 240 (1983 SIL). east of Merauke. Upper Idenburg River. and Kondo villages. Rawa Biru. with difficult mutual intelligibility. Kenume. [krz] 100 (1996 M. Similar to Yei [jei]. [kgw] 5. Alternate names: Enkelembu. Western Oceanic. Donohue). north bank. southeast of Marind [mrz]. Sarmi Regency. Pama-Nyungan. Kenume. Tonda More information. Yanggandur. Siakwa villages. Karas More information. Kaptiau village. Karas Island. [khp] 200 (2006 SIL). South coast border area. Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages. [kbi] 230 (2006 SIL). Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Antalisa and Mas. Has also been classified as Australian. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Similar to Yei [jei]. Bonggo subdistrict. Knwne. Tomer. North New Guinea. Sarmi More information. Donohue). Meon. Has also been classified as Australian. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Kamikaru and Magri hamlets. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Dialects: Kanum varieties are separate languages. Sunopi. Morehead-Upper Maro. Malayo-Polynesian. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Tomerau. Central Bird¶s Head north of Brat. Classification: Kaure. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Kapitiauw. Sota Kapauri Kaptiau Karas Karon Dori . Oceanic. Pagai village. Sota village. PamaNyungan. Dialects: Most similar to Tarpia [tpf]. Knwne. Has also been classified as Australian. Smärky [kxq] 80 (1996 M. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Enkelembu.000 (1987 SIL). South coast border area. Yanggandur.[kxq]. Kanum. Alternate names: Kapori. Central-Eastern.

Classification: Austronesian. south of Awyu Asue [psa] languages. Kaowerawedj. Raja Ampat Islands. Jayapura harbor. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Alternate names: Kabera. Alternate names: Kajagar. Alternate names: Keder. Kaygi. Kaygir. Harna. west end off west coast of Bird¶s Head. Classification: Austronesian. related to Atohwaim. Masta. Salio. Malayo-Polynesian. Kawera. [khh] 25 (2002 SIL). northwest Bomberai Peninsula. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Lereh. Wes.500 (1987 SIL). Kwerba. Kaure [bpp] 450 (1995 SIL). Wurm). Kayubatu and Kayupulau villages. Classification: Unclassified Nearly extinct. decreasing. Alternate names: Kaureh. More information. Aurina villages. North New Guinea. South Bird¶s Head coast. East of mid-Mamberamo. Oceanic. Menyefun villages. Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti]. More information. North coast east of Tor River mouth. Jayapura Bay Nearly extinct. Southwest of Lake Sentani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Selepele. Greater Kwerba. Kayagar More information. Cenderawasih Bay. Koassa. [kyt] 10. Kauwerawetj. east of Komundan River. Dialects: Related to Maya [slz]. Dialects: Most similar to Tamagario [tcg]. Waigeo Island. Orya-Tor. Classification: Kaure. Alternate names: Kauwera Kawe Kayagar Kayupulau Kehu Keijar Kemberano . Ethnic population: 573 (1978 SIL). several villages. Classification: TorKwerba. South coast east of Atohwaim [aqm]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45% with Berik [bkl]. Kauwerawec. Nawa River. Wapoga River between Auye [auu] and Dao [nfa] in the foothills. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Wiyagar. [kdy] 370 (2005 SIL). south of Arandai [jbj]. West New Guinea. Matbat [xmt].000 (1993 WT). [kgb] 600 (Remijsen 2001). south from Kalitami across Bintuni Bay. [xau] 400 (1987 SIL). north and south of Kasonaweja. Maden [xmx]. Tor More information. [bzp] 1. Western Oceanic. Central-Eastern. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Tor-Kwerba.More information. Nuclear More information. Bianci. Kaure Proper More information. Raja Ampat More information. Central-Eastern. [kzu] 50 (2000 S. Alternate names: Kajupulau. Tekutameso.

Arandai, Barau, Kalitami, Wariagar. Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Arandai [jbj], 60% with Kokoda [xod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird¶s Head, South Bird¶s Head Proper, Eastern More information. Kembra [xkw] 20 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 50. Jayawijaya Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, east of Sogber River. Classification: Unclassified Nearly extinct. More information. [kmt] 2,500 (1987 SIL). West of Lake Sentani, Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, Aimbe, Sabron Yaru villages. East of Gresi [grs]. Alternate names: Kamtuk, Kemtuk. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Gresi. Classification: Nimboran More information. [xte] 9,970 (2000). Near Papua New Guinea border, east highland slopes scattered, east of Eipomek [eip] and west of Ngalum [szb]. Alternate names: Kupel, Oktengban. Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg]. Classification: TransNew Guinea, Mek, Western More information. [ktt] 900 (2003 SIL). 99% monolinguals. Northeast of Wambon [wms]. Alternate names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum. Dialects: Related to Wambon, Mandobo. Lexical similarity: 49% with Wambon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut More information. [kig] 3,000 (1987 SIL). West of southeast Papua, Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island, east of Marauke, Ngolar II. Alternate names: Kimaghama, Kaladdarsch, Teri-Kalwasch, Kimaama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom More information. [sbt] 500 (2004 SIL). Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Batom subdistrict, border area where Sepik River enters Papua. Alternate names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong. Classification: Sepik, Biksi More information. [kiy] 250 (1982 SIL). Most monolingual. Tariku (Rouffaer) and Kliki (Fou) rivers juncture west, Dofu Wahuka, Paniai villages. Alternate names: Kirira. Dialects: Kirikiri, Faia. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West







More information. Kofei [kpi] 100 (2000 S. Wurm). East side of Geelvink Bay, recently moved to Sauri-Sirami village. Possibly seminomads in the interior. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Sauri [srt], 63% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. [xod] 3,700 (1991 SIL). Bird¶s Head, south coast on Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan. Alternate names: Kasuweri, Komudago, Nebes, Oderago, Samalek, Tarof. Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof dialects are most similar. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemberano [bzp]; Kasuweri dialect 86% with Tarof dialect; Negri Besar 82% with Tarof. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird¶s Head, South Bird¶s Head Proper, Central More information. [tyn] 4,000 (1991 SIL). South coast area east of Senggo, Boma area. Alternate names: Komboy. Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Most similar to Wanggom [wng]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, OkAwyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut More information. [kzv] 300 (2000 SIL). East of Korowai [khe], north of Tsaukambo [kvz] and Wanggom [wng]. Dialects: Similar to Tsaukambo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum More information. [knd] 500 (1988 SIL). Southwest Bird¶s Head, Teminabuan subdistrict, lower Waromge River south of Teminabuan, Konda village. Alternate names: Ogit, Yabin, Yabin-Konda. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Yahadian [ner]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird¶s Head, Konda-Yahadian More information. [kdw] 1,200 (2001 SIL). Frederik Hendrik Island south coast. Alternate names: Konorau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum More information. [opk] 400 (2002 SIL). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Alternate names: Kopka. Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Similar to Kwer [kwr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western







More information. Korowai [khe] 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). 3,000 monolinguals. South coast area, north of Boma, northeast of Senggo, southeast of Siradela, southwest of Awimbon. Alternate names: Kolufaup. Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, AwyuDumut, Korowai More information. [kpq] 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. East highlands on upper reaches of Erok River, southwest of Nalca, east of Yali of Ninia. Alternate names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun. Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Related to Nalca [nlc]. Lexical similarity 60% with Nipsan [nps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern More information. [kiq] 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Hulu Atas, west of Nawa and Idenburg rivers juncture. Alternate names: Kosadle. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper More information. [kwh] 600 (2000 SIL). Bomberai Peninsula; southwest coast, Kaimana; Kamrau Bay on several islands, Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala, Kayumerah villages. Alternate names: Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote. Dialects: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, Waikala. Central MalayoPolynesian (1991 R. Blust). Classification: Austronesian, MalayoPolynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai More information. [nbn] 500 (1982 SIL). Southwest Bomberai Peninsula, Nabi (Kuri) River area west from Wandamen Bay. 16 villages. Alternate names: Modan, Nabi. Dialects: Similar to Irarutu [irh]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Unclassified More information. [kjr] 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot). Kurudu Island between east tip of Serui Island and mainland of Papua east, Kaipuri, Poiwai villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East






Sarmi Regency. Papua Province. Western More information.More information. Nobuk. Raja Ampat Islands. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Wamariri. northeast. Marinafalen. Aurime. Upper Tor River area.500 (1996 SIL). Armati. [kkb] 32 (2000 S. Wawiai villages. Ansudu village. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Arare. Wurm). Lempintol. Edifalen. Kwer [kwr] 100 (1998 M. West New Guinea. Waigeo Island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast. Alternate names: Ansudu. Kaiy village. East Nearly extinct. [kwe] 2. Alternate names: Napok. Tekutameso. Classification: Austronesian. Nopukw. Nogukwabai. Kwerba Kwerba Mamberamo Kwerisa Kwesten Kwinsu Legenyem . Tatsewalem. Sasawa. Nopuk. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Segar Tor. Alternate names: Airmati. Tariku. [kwt] 2. Serikenam. More information.000 (1987 SIL). south of Kasonaweja. in mountains above Kwerba. Nuclear More information. Doriot). Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq]. Omte villages. Tatsewalem around Apiaweti villages. Lower Tor River. Classification: Lakes Plain. Central-Eastern. Koassa. Greater Kwerba. Mataweja. Kwerba. Alternate names: Laganyan. Lower Rouffaer River. Lowlands area south of the main ranges. Ok. villages. [kuc] 500 (2007). Dialects: Serikenam. Jayawijaya Regency. Nuclear More information. Orya-Tor. Munukania. south of Langda and Bomela. southeast of Sumo and Dekai. OryaTor. headwaters of Apauwer River inland from Sarmi east to Berik language. Alternate names: Taogwe. Lexical similarity: 64% with Bagusa [bqb]. Naibedj. Mafenter. [xwr] 300 (1993 R. Wurm). East of Mamberamo River. Kwerba. Dialects: Similar to Kopkaka [opk]. Kurima subdistrict. Beo. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Kwer village. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Tor More information. north coast area east of Sarmi. Holmhaven. Donohue). Nogukwabai. Greater Kwerba. OkAwyu. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Berik [bkl]. [lcc] 250 (2000 S. Ethnic population: 130. Malayo-Polynesian. Tor More information. Eastern MalayoPolynesian.

Sapran. southwest coast of neck. Raja Ampat More information. Okbibab subdistrict. Central Bird¶s Head around Ayamaru Lakes. west of Marind [mrz] and east of Yelmek [jel] languages. [pmy] 500. Jayawijaya Regency. Liki Maden Mai Brat Mairasi Maklew Malay. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Classification: Austronesian. Sarmi Regency. More information. Islands off north coast of Sarmi. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Alternate names: Faranyao. Atinjo. Maite. on Sogber River. Malayo-Polynesian. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Bomberai Peninsula. Central-Eastern. Classification: Maybrat More information. About 40 villages. Ayamaru. Abun [kgr]. east and north of the Ketengban. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Brat. [mgf] 120. its most similar neighbors. Yelmek-Maklew More information. Lexical similarity: 69% with Semimi. Dialects: Similar to both Ambonese Malay [abs] and Manado Malay [xmm]. Alternate names: Palamul. Dialects: Maisawiet. Classification: Unclassified More information. Sarmi subdistrict. Western Oceanic. Maibrat.000 (1987 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. east side of Marianne strait.Cenderawasih Bay. Maybrat. Sarmi Nearly extinct. decreasing. [lio] 11 (2005 SIL). Dialects: Similar to Yelmek. Kaniran. Classification: Mairasi More information. increasing. [xmx] 600 (Remijsen 2001). North New Guinea. east and northeast from Kaimana. Dialects: Kawait. Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Triton Bay. Dialects: Similar to Sobei [sob]. [zrs] 3. Ethnic population: 320. Saparan. South coast area. SarmiJayapura Bay. Oceanic.300 (1996 SIL). Mpur [akc]. Mey Brat. Dialects: Possible genetic similarities with Murkim [rmh]. Classification: Austronesian. Cenderawasih Bay. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. [ayz] 20. Maimaka. Similar to Semimi [etz]. Papua. Lexical similarity: 10% with Tehit [kps]. Classification: Austronesian. Wasior. Central-Eastern. Maisefa. Maiyah. Alternate names: Makleu. west Salawati Island. Majbrat. Raja Ampat More information.000. Alternate names: Ajamaru. Maite. Raja Ampat Islands. Lepki [lpe] 530 (1991 SIL). West New Guinea. Alternate names: Moar. 61% with Mer [mnu]. Papuan .

Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Mantion. Yeti. Alternate names: Jeti. South of Jayapura. Central-Eastern.700 (1987 SIL). Nub. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Central-Eastern. Classification: Border. Sougb. [mvr] 1. Ok-Awyu. Dumut More information. Trade. Butiptiri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. West New Guinea. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Cenderawasih Bay. Micronesian Proper. Getentiri. Yeti. Central-Western More information. north coast area. Ansus [and]. Dumut More information. East Indonesian More information. south of Manokwari. [mnx] 12. East Bird¶s Head. Dialects: Warabori (Natabui. Classification: Austronesian. Subur. Malayo-Polynesian. Wembi. north of Manokwari. Orya-Tor. Mandobbo. Kaisah villages. Sogh. 5 villages. northeast border area. Malayo-Polynesian. Mapia Islands. ³Kaeti´ . Awyu-Dumut. Upper Tor River tributary of upper Bu River. Mandobo Atas Mandobo Bawah Manem Manikion Mapia Marau . About 50 villages. [jet] 400 in Indonesia (1978 SIL). Warembori). Papuma [ppm]. Alternate names: Dumut. about 290 kms. Malay. east of Meyah. Mantion More information. Nub. More information. [mpy] 1. Central-Eastern Oceanic. Wambon. Mander [mqr] 20 (1991 SIL). Ponapeic-Trukic. Wembi. Alternate names: Mapian. More information. Lexical similarity: 82% with Pom [pmo]. Mandobbo.000 (2002 SIL).Malayo-Polynesian. North and East. Kambon. Malayic. Malayo-Sumbawan. Munggui [mth]. [bwp] 2. Kiba villages. Trukic Nearly extinct. Yapen. East Bird¶s Head. Awyu-Dumut. Fly River border area east of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah. ³Kaeti´ . Remote Oceanic. Dialects: 4 dialects. Skofro. Micronesian. [aax] 1. Alternate names: Dumut. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Tor Nearly extinct. Kambon. Oceanic. Kwem. Anggai. Serui Island south coast. Classification: Austronesian. OkAwyu. Fly River border area east of Digul River between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah.000 (2002 SIL). Aiwat.000 (1987 SIL). Waris More information.

Mawes Dai. Merauke Regency. Segaf Islands. Misool Island. Banlol. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Sohn). More information. Mawes Wres. Mawes Mukti villages. Island off north coast east of Tor River mouth. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. [xmt] 1. Sanayu village. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Alternate names: Masep. Dialects: Ma¶ya. Southeast Marind. [mgk] 850 (2006 SIL). Sarmi Nearly extinct. Alternate names: Gawir. Wotaf. Ethnic population: 85. Maro River. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Marind. Mawes More information. Cenderawasih Bay. [bpv] 2. Marind. Northwest Marind.000 (Remijsen 2001). Marind. central Waigeo Island and central Salawati Island. Alternate names: Bian. [slz] 4. but speakers report intelligibility. More information. Tugeri. Dialects: Gawir. Halifoersch. Greater Kwerba. Batanta Island. Sarmi Regency. Bian Masimasi Massep Matbat Mawes Ma¶ya . Wurm). Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects. Western Oceanic. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. northeast coast east of Sarmi. Central-Eastern. Central-Eastern. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. West New Guinea. Potafa. Raja Ampat More information. Muting subdistrict. Bonggo subdistrict. Southeast Marind. Upper Bian River area.900 (2002 M. Nuclear Marind More information.250 (Remijsen 2001). Alternate names: Me. North New Guinea. Tugeri. Samate. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Salawati. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Boven-Mbian. Nuclear Marind More information. Raja Ampat More information. West New Guinea. Raja Ampat Islands. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Marind [mrz]. Cenderawasih Bay. Raja Ampat Islands. Oceanic.Marind [mrz] 7. Alternate names: Sailolof. [mvs] 25 (2000 S. Sarmi Regency. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Central-Eastern. [ism] 10 (2005 SIL). Holifoersch. near Apauwer River.000 (1987 SIL). Classification: Language isolate Nearly extinct. and north and west. Merauke south coast area. North coast east of Mamberamo River mouth and west of Sarmi.

Waibrong. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Moi. Biakic More information. west Bird¶s Head around Sorong. [mnu] 85 (2000). MalayoPolynesian. Classification: West Papuan. west of Manokwari. Sarmi More information. Menggei. East Bird¶s Head. 9 villages. Sarmi Regency. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Semimi [etz]. scattered. [mxn] 4. [wkd] 550 (2005 SIL). west of Senggi. west Cenderawasih Bay. West Bird¶s Head More information. north of Hattam [had]. South of Jayapura. Meax More information. Maribu. Mooi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Kwangsu-Bonggrang. Meoswar Island. Oceanic. Dialects: Most similar to Manikion [mnx]. Central Bird¶s Head. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. 61% with Mairasi [zrs]. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Mungge.600 (1993 R. Alternate names: DemenggongWaibron-Bano. Kwansu-Bonggrang. Alternate names: Mekwei. Western Oceanic.800 (2000). Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Wurm). [mvx] 250 (1993 R. Mejach. Kendate.Mekwei [msf] 1. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Arfak. coastal area and Wakde Island off the north coast just east of Tor River. Molof and Meoswar Mer Meyah Mlap Mo Moi Molof . Classification: Nimboran More information. Sabron Dosay villages. Meax. Salawati Island. north coast. Menggwei. Doriot). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Central-Eastern. Munggai. [kja] 300 (2000 S. East Bird¶s Head. West New Guinea. Classification: Austronesian. Waipu. Doriot). Meah. Muri. Alternate names: Kuangsu-Bonggrang. Mosana. Classification: Nimboran More information. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Mooi. Mejah. Kwansu. Meyach. Mansibaber. West of Lake Sentani. Cenderawasih Bay. Central-Eastern. Classification: Austronesian. just north of Gresi [grs]. Alternate names: Wakde. Alternate names: Miere. Classification: Mairasi More information.200 (1987 SIL). North New Guinea. Alternate names: War. [mej] 14. Dialects: Mosemah. Wosimi and Uremo river headwaters. Munkei. [msl] 200 (1978 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. West of Lake Sentani.

Alternate names: Somage. [mok] 50 (1998 M. Wissel Lakes More information. Donohue). east of Marind. Classification: Somahai More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Mombum More information. Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak). Dialects: Most similar to Koneraw [kdw]. east of Merauke. Classification: Momina Momuna Moni Mor Mor Moraid Morori . Lowlands just south of main ranges. Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony. Mor Islands. Doriot). Donohue). Classification: West Papuan. Jonggunu. Classification: Unclassified More information. Central highlands.000 monolinguals.000 (1991 SIL). Classification: Somahai More information.000 (1988 SIL). west of Kanum. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. northeast Lake Paniai area. Migani. Alternate names: Kemelom. Alternate names: Djonggunu. Sumohai. West New Guinea. Northwest Bomberai Peninsula. west of Kanum. Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. [mmb] 200 (1998 M. Alternate names: Mor2. Lowlands just south of main ranges southeast of Una [mtg]. South coast border area 20 kms. Classification: Austronesian. [mhz] 700 (1987 SIL). [moq] 25 (2000 S. West Bird¶s Head More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Komolom. Bintuni Bay coast. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Austronesian Mor. South coast border area 20 km east of Merauke. Moaraeri. Moraori. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Wurm). [msg] 1. Donohue).Waley villages. Alternate names: Marori. Mombum [mso] 250 (1993 R. Samboka village. Mor More information. West. Wurm). More information.000 (2000 S. 2. east Cenderawasih Bay near Nabire. Poule. Mor Nearly extinct. Kemelomsch. Cenderawasih Bay. though the last Menge speaker died in 1997. Central-Eastern. [mnz] 20. Somahai. [mqf] 2. Morari. east of Marind. from south of Silimo east to south of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Island next to southeast coast of Fredrik Hendrik Island. Alternate names: Ampas.

Lowland More information. Indonesia. Dekwambre. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. North. South coast. South coast border area. Sabena. Alternate names: Natabui. Yonggom. Yongom. North coast of Serui Island. Asei Puramati villages. Digul. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Toemoetoe (Are). Windesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Mot and Milki villages. Moejoe. Munggui. Classification: Language isolate More information. Ajiw. Moskona [mtj] 8. Kebar. North Muyu. Ok. south of Meyah. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Meyah [mej]. KatiNinanti. Alternate names: Digoel. just north of Fly River border between Papua. [mth] 800 (1982 SIL). Central-Eastern. Yongkom. Ok. west of Manikion. Cenderawasih Bay. Metomka. Lowland More information.000 (2002 SIL). and Papua New Guinea. Yonggom. West New Guinea. East Bird¶s Head. Moejoe. Meningo. Niinati. More information. north of South Muyu [kts] and east of Wambon [wms]. Meax More information. Jayapura area. southeast end of Yotafa Bay. Ok-Awyu. Ok Bari. North Kati.000 (2002 SIL). Sentani Proper Mpur Munggui Murkim Muyu. Classification: Unclassified More information. Meyah. Southeast Bird¶s Head. Moraori Nearly extinct. Doriot).Trans-New Guinea. Batom subdistrict. North coast of Bird¶s Head. Kati Metomka. Yapen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Yongkom. [rmh] 290 (2004 SIL). Yongom. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Kataut. Alternate names: Amberbaken. Pegunungan Bintang Regency. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm].000 (1996 SIL). [akc] 7. [kti] 8.630 (1975 SIL). Dialects: Sirir.000 (1993 R. and Kebar Valley. Also related to Manikion [mnx]. Central-Western More information. Ok-Awyu. Murui. [nxx] 1. Alternate names: Meninggo. Dialects: Kanggewot. South Nafri . Nafri village. Ekware. Ninatie. [kts] 4. Sentani. South. South Kati. west of Manokwari. southeast of Yetfa [yet]. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe]. Dialects: Metomka.

Eastern More information. Northeast of Korupun and southeast of Nipsan.000 (1985 M. Apmisibil. Riantana [ran]. Na¶i. valleys of Ok Sibil. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali Nalca Namla Narau Ndom Nduga Ngalum Nggem . Kaure Proper More information. [nqm] 1. Population total all countries: 18. Wurm). Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island. south of high ranges.100 (2000). Classification: Unclassified Nearly extinct. north slopes. Dialects: Most similar to Kimaghima [kig]. [naa] 30 (2005 SIL). middle Haflifoeri River. Ndauwa. Kolopom More information. Classification: Kaure. Nakai [nkj] 700 (1999 M. two of these may constitute a separate language called Nagi. North of Wamena. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg]. Tiom. Hmonono. Jayawijaya. Dialects: Similar to Walak [wlw]. south of Western Dani. Dawa. central highlands. Keerom Regency. Namla village. perhaps Ok Bon.000. east highlands area. and southwest toward Iwur. Owen). main range border area north of Muyu [kts] (Yongkom) and Iwur [iwo].200 (2002 SIL). Dialects: Ngalum. Ngalik More information. Naltje. [szb] 10. Naltya. [nlc] 11. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. [ndx] 10. Nagai.000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL).More information. Dialects: Probably 3 dialects. Kecamatan Kaureh. Kimjal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Ok. More information. Ok Tsop. OkAwyu.400 (2005). [nbq] 4. Jayapura area. Kimyal. [nxu] 85 (2000 S. Dialects: Sinak Nduga. Scattered. Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil northeast. Alternate names: Hmanggona. Senggi Subistrict. Hitadipa Nduga. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 59% with Kosarek Yale [kkl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Sibil. Mek. Also in Papua New Guinea. Mountain More information. Ndugwa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Pesechem. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Pesegem. Donohue). OkAwyu. Pesecham. West. Alternate names: Dauwa. East of upper Digul River. Alternate names: Na¶ai. Northeast of Nakai. Dani. north of Asmat. Ok. Sibil. Ngalum More information.

Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Biritai [bqq]. About 26 villages. Obogwi village. Patipi. Alternate names: Nambrong. Ok. [onx] Onin Peninsula. Ninggirum. Orgwo. Oceanic. Classification: Pidgin. Ormu Besar. [njs] 500 (1987 SIL). Lowland More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Lakes Plain. Ormu Kecil villages. Lexical similarity: 78% with Eritai [ert]. Jayapura Bay Ninggerum Nipsan Nisa Obokuitai Onin Onin Based Pidgin Ormu . Wurm). Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Nimboran More information.000 (1987 SIL). Alternate names: Aliki. Border area and in Papua New Guinea between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers.000 in Indonesia. Kerema. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Ati.500 (1993 R. North Papua. Central Malayo-Polynesian. Wurm). Nimboran [nir] 2. Onin based More information. North and northwest Bomberai Peninsula. Kativa. Eastern More information. Tariku.(Pass Valley) [yac]. Alternate names: Bonefa. Jayawijaya. Obogwitai. Classification: Austronesian. 62% with Walak. Western Oceanic. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl]. Ethnic population: 3. Classification: Austronesian. Kurima. Sepa. Yale-Nipsan. 69% with Biritai. Wurm). north of Cyclops Mountains. Ninggeroem. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Malayo-Polynesian. West. North coast area just west of Jayapura. North New Guinea. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. just west of Hmanggona. Alternate names: Onim. Ninggrum. Sikaritai [tty]. Dani. Ok-Awyu. due west of Lake Sentani. Alternate names: Kasiwa. Sepa. and 50% with Western Dani [dnw].500 (1987 SIL). [oni] 500 (2000 S. Danau Nisa area. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. Dialects: Nikuda. Muyu. East More information. East side of Geelvink Bay inland. Alternate names: Southern Jale. [nps] 2. Malayo-Polynesian. 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Central-Eastern. Ogar. Mek. Central-Eastern. Dani Proper More information. Doriot). North Bomberai More information. [orz] 500 (2000 S. [nxr] 1. Lakes Plain just north of mid-Rouffaer River. Dialects: Related to Doutai [tds]. [afz] 120 (2000 S.

West New Guinea. inland Matamani River area. Warpu. Eastern Malayo- Papasena Papuma Pom Puragi Rasawa Riantana Roon . Waropen Bawah subdistrict. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty]. Orya-Tor. Unurum-Guay. Classification: Lakes Plain. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Uria. Marau [mvr].100 (1993 R. Rasawa-Saponi More information. [ppm] 600 (1982 SIL). Cenderawasih Bay. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth]. Classification: Austronesian. Southwest Bird¶s Head along Maccluer Gulf.600 (1985 SIL). Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Pom. Slight dialect differences. Malayo-Polynesian. and Wamho (formerly of Orya) villages. Warpok. No monolinguals. 2 villages. [ran] 1.100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). [pru] 700 (1991 SIL). Ansus [and]. Yapen. Alternate names: Oria. lower Idenburg River just east of Rouffaer River juncture. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Alternate names: Mogao. [pmo] 2. Classification: Austronesian. Roon Island west of Cenderawasih Bay. Orya More information. Taja. west Serui Island. Kolopom More information. Classification: Austronesian. CentralWestern More information. Alternate names: Kimaam. 100 in Bonggo subdistrict. South Bird¶s Head. Serewen. Central-Eastern. Tariku. Central-Eastern. South Bird¶s Head Proper. Central-Western More information. Doriot). Dialects: Jobi. [pas] 400 (1982 SIL). Papuma village. south coast.000 (1987 SIL). Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Frederik Hendrik Island. Malayo-Polynesian. 900 in Unurum-Guay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Timur (East Orya). South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Dialects: Barat (West Orya).More information. [rnn] 1. Orya [ury] 1. Serui Island south coast. Lereh subdistrict. Miosnum Island. Lakes Plain area. Central-Eastern. [rac] 200 (1987 SIL). South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Mias Endi villages. 600 in Lereh subdistrict. Witi. Yapsi-Taja. East More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Yapen. Bonggo subdistrict. West New Guinea. Alternate names: Ron. north of Wandamen Peninsula. Classification: Lakes Plain. Western More information.

Pantai Kasuari and Fayit subdistricts. [spi] 4 (2000 S. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information.500 (1993 R. Northwest Bomberai Peninsula coast and one small island. Awyu-Dumut. 60% with Demisa [dei]. Tamaja. Classification: West Papuan. Segum. Samarkena. Puaral villages. [swr] 300 (1991 SIL). Dialects: Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf]. Alternate names: Aejauroh. Comoro villages. [skz] 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Esebor. between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit River area. Seget villages. Wurm). Southwest of Sentani. Classification: West Papuan. Greater Kwerba. Classification: Lakes Plain.200 (1988 SIL). Mubararon. [sao] 250 (2000 S. Cenderawasih Bay. Kwerba. Rasawa-Saponi Nearly extinct. an island south of Yapen Island near Serui. near south coastal lowland. Interior Waropen Bawah subdistrict. 63% with Tefaro [tfo]. Sauri-Sirami village. Sawuy. 76% with Kofei [kpi]. Samarokena [tmj] 400 (1982 SIL). Asmat Regency. West Coast More information. Wurm). Sause More information. North coast inland just east of Apawar River. Doriot). Yapen Selatan subdistrict. West Bird¶s Head More information. near Sirami River. Samarkena. Alternate names: Seka. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Walian. Serui Waropen Regency. More information. West Bird¶s Head southwest of Sorong. [srt] 100 (1987 SIL). [sbg] 1. Tamaya villages. Classification: Tor-Kwerba.Polynesian. Sause-Bokoko. central Serui Island. Sawi More information. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Kamur. Yapen More information. West New Guinea. Yapen. Classification: Saponi Sauri Sause Saweru Sawi Seget Sekar . Central-Western More information. Tamaya. Ures. Karfasia. Botawa village. Dialects: Most similar to Awyu languages. Alternate names: Karfasia. Maseb. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Ok-Awyu. Alternate names: Sarwar Use. Witti-Yadow. Minahai. west of Sarmi. Sailolof. northwest of Lereh. East side of Cenderawasih Bay near Waropen [wrp]. [saw] 3. Lidya. Alternate names: Seuce. Wiagas. Orya-Tor. west and southwest of Moi [mxn]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Barapasi [brp].

North Bomberai More information. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Mamberamo River. east of Kamoro [kgq]. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lower Samenage. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tabla [tnm]. Malayo-Polynesian. 63% with Mer [mnu]. 5 villages. Sko-Mabu. Donohue). Malayo-Polynesian. Haya. Sentani Proper More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Tami River mouth. Tariku. Doriot). [set] 30. Central-Eastern. West New Guinea. Iri villages.000 (1991 SIL). East of Jayapura. Asmat-Kamoro. Wesrau. [seu] 1. Classification: Lakes Plain. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Eritai [ert]. Alternate names: Nararapi. Central Sentani. Sikari. 77% with Ambai [amk]. Araikurioko. Few monolinguals. south part of neck extending west to Triton Bay. Wulik. Tori. Dani. Ngalik More information. [xse] 1. East More information. Dialects: Similar to Kamoro [kgq]. West Sentani. [tty] 800 (1993 R. Alternate names: Arui. Central MalayoPolynesian. Middle south coast. Sko-Yambe.000 (1996 SIL). Cenderawasih Bay. Central-Western More information. Ati. Central highlands south of the range immediately west of Baliem River. [skv] 700 (1999 M. South central Serui Island. Alternate names: Paiyage. Nau Island south of Serui.000 (1987 SIL). north coast border area. Muri. Bomberai Peninsula near Kaniran.200 (1987 SIL). South Ngalik. Sempan Sentani Serui-Laut Sikaritai Silimo Skou . increasing. Usak. Sko-Sai villages. between Kokonao and Agats. west of Asmat languages. Sikari. 50% monolinguals. Central-Eastern. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Classification: Mairasi More information. Dialects: East Sentani. Lake Sentani area. Semimi [etz] 1. Idenburg and Rouffaer River junctions north. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Mairasi [zrs]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and].Austronesian. Kiniage valleys. Alternate names: Aikwakai. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Alternate names: Buyaka. Alternate names: Etna Bay. about 30 villages. Sempan More information. Tori Aikwakai. Amo. West. Scattered in Papua and other parts of Indonesia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Yapen.000 (1987 SIL). [wul] 5. Sentani. Lakes Plain area.

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Mirabo.850 (2000 D. Sko. Skouw. North New Guinea. 13 villages on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah Bay. Dialects: Related to Vanimo [vam]. coastal area and an island off north coast. Alternate names: Demta. Alternate names: Iagu. Muris Besar. Alternate names: Jakari. Wanja. Wurm). Sukou. South Bird¶s Head along Maccluer Gulf. [ymn] 560 (2005 SIL). Oceanic.100 (1987 SIL). Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%. Tepera. northeast border area. Inanwatan More information. South Bird¶s Head. Classification: Border. Sekou. Alternate names: Waina. Classification: Austronesian. Western Oceanic. Waris More information. Margu [mhg]. Central-Eastern. Wanya. Inanwatan. Wutung [wut]. Tryon). Tepera. Liki [lio]. Classification: Austronesian. Sentani. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Sobei [sob] 1. Liki. Muris Kecil. Tanah Merah. Papuan Malay [pmy]. Western Oceanic. [sow] 210 in Indonesia (2002 SIL). Dialects: Most similar to Duriankere [dbn]. Ethnic population: 1. decreasing. Yewena-Yongsu. North coast west of Tanamerah Bay. Vanimo More information. east of Tor River. Central-Eastern. Jayapura. Sowanda Sowari Suabo Sunum Tabla . Skow. Alternate names: Yamna. Suabau. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Yougafsa villages. Waina-Sowanda.000 (2000 S. [szp] 1. North New Guinea. Dialects: Yokari. Dialects: Comprehension of. Classification: East Bird¶s Head-Sentani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Tanahmerah 2. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Sarmi More information. Te Mawo. Sentani.Alternate names: Sekol. Malayo-Polynesian. 15 villages.750 (1990 UBS). Sarmi Regency.300 (2000). Depapre. Sarmi subdistrict. Oceanic. Muris. [tnm] 3. Classification: Sko. Ambora. Alternate names: Biga. Malayo-Polynesian. [dmy] 1. Sarmi More information. Tabi. north coast area east of Sarmi. Sarmi Regency. South of Jayapur. Sentani Proper More information. Tumawo. others have 95%±100% mutual intelligibility. Demta More information. Wina. Lexical similarity: 30% with Sentani [set]. Imasi. Demta.

South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Central-Eastern. Dialects: Tause. Border area south of Jayapura. Affi villages. Tarpia village. Malayo-Polynesian. south and east of Kayagar [kyt] and west of Yaqay [jaq]. Jembatan Web. Wiyagar. Classification: Austronesian. northeast border area. Wurm). Kawemaot village.Taikat [aos] 500 (2000 S. Dialects: Most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bgp]. Alternate names: Buru. Oceanic. Jayapura Regency. Kirikiri [kiy]. Sumerine. north of Towei [ttn]. Kayagar More information. More information. Sufrai. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Ok-Awyu. SarmiJayapura Bay. West More information. east of Emem [enr]. Alternate names: Dubu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Classification: Austronesian. Tariku.500 (1987 SIL). Weirate. Alternate names: Darha. Wurm). Straight south of Jayapura. Wagow. Wohsimi River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Doa. Dialects: Most similar to Kayagar [kyt]. Tajkat. northeast of Fayu [fau]. Deraposi area. Dialects: Most similar to Awyi [auw]. Tamaraw. [tad] 300 (2000 S. Sarmi More information. West New Guinea. West of Nakai [nkj]. Alternate names: Arso. Alternate names: Tarfia. Western Tamagario Tanahmerah Tandia Tangko Tarpia Tause Tebi . Alternate names: Sumeri. [tcm] 500 (1978 SIL). Ok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Deirate. southwest of Danau Bira. Tandia Nearly extinct. Tanah Merah More information. Gondu and Bapai rivers. MalayoPolynesian. [tkx] 100 (2000 SIL). Province of Papua. also related to Atohwaim [aqm]. [tcg] 3. Dubu. [tpf] 630 (2006 SIL). Classification: Border. Eastern MalayoPolynesian. [dmu] 220 (2005 SIL). Classification: Pauwasi. south of Yafi [wfg]. Central-Eastern. North New Guinea. Western Oceanic. West Lakes Plain (Paniai). Tangko More information. Related to Fayu. [tni] 2 (1991 SIL). northwest of Edopi [dbf]. Bird¶s Head neck area just south of Wandamen Peninsula. Cenderawasih Bay. Demta subdistrict. South coast area. Classification: Lakes Plain. North Bomberai Peninsula. Taikat More information.

Teminabuan. Nuclear More information. Tofanma Dua. Oceanic. [tlg] 250 (2005 SIL). half of Sawiat subdistrict. Saifi. Jayapura Regency. Fkar. near Jayapura. Kota Raja. Wanggom [wng]. Yautefa. Alternate names: Demba. Jayapura. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Barapasi [brp]. Jayapura Bay More information. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalabra. Entrop. Dialects: Low intelligibility of Kwerba [kwe]. north of Wanggom. 63% with Sauri [srt]. Imyan. West Bird¶s Head More information. Keerom Regency. Jotafa. Sfa Riere. Enggros. Tobati. 500 monolinguals. most of Teminabuan subdistrict. 70% with Tunggare [trt]. west of Emem [enr]. Tanah Hitam villages. between Kauwera [xau] and Bagusa [bqb]. Mbol Fle. Classification: Unclassified More information. Classification: Tor-Kwerba. Tobwadic. Western More information. North New Guinea. [ttn] 120 (1975 SIL). Senggi subdistrict. Classification: West Papuan. Most similar to Kalabra [kzz]. Hesse). Alternate names: Tofamna. East side of Cenderawasih Bay. Donohue). Dialects: Tehit Jit. Alternate names: Kaibus. Kwerba. south of Dubu [dmu].More information. Tofanma Satu. Tehit Tobati Tofanma Towei Trimuris Tsaukambo . Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict. SarmiJayapura Bay. Western Oceanic. south of Komyandaret. Tehid. Mamberamo River east bank. Also related to Korowai [khe]. Alternate names: Kotogüt. Tahit. South Jayapuraborder area. Border area south of Jayapura. Dialects: Formerly classified as Papuan. Towe Hitam village. Classification: Austronesian. [tip] 300 (1999 SIL). Eastern MalayoPolynesian. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. Tsakwambo. Regency Sorong. Alternate names: Enggros. Classification: Pauwasi. Yotafa. West side of upper Digul River. Dialects: Most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. and most of Namla villages. Tefaro and Demba villages. Tsokwambo. [tti] 350 (1998 M. Kombai [tyn]. Malayo-Polynesian. Greater Kwerba. [kvz] 780 (2000 SIL). Lexical similarity: 70% with Kauwera and 60% with Kwerba. Southwest Bird¶s Head. Sawiat Salmeit. Tefaro [tfo] 100 (1987 SIL). [kps] 10. About 31 villages.000 (2000 R. Alternate names: Towe. Central-Eastern. Jayapura Bay. Humboldt Jotafa.

North Bomberai More information.Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Senggi. 70% with Tefaro [tfo]. west of Mamberamo River. Yapen. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. Pantai Timur subdistrict. Bidabuh. Dialects: Most closely related to Bauzi [bvz]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay More information. Woriasi. Ngalum More information. Doriot). Goliath. Central-Eastern. Papua Province. North central. Alternate names: Nusari. Turunggare. [vto] 630 (2007). Central Malayo-Polynesian.500 (1987 SIL). [snu] 250 (2005 SIL). Una Uruangnirin Usku Viid Vitou Wabo . Waris More information. Malayo-Polynesian. South of Jayapura. [wbb] 1. east Geelvink Bay near Nabire. MalayoPolynesian. Mek. Alternate names: Tarunggare. 46% with Western Serui. Border area south of Jayapura. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bauzi. 6 villages. Orya-Tor. west of Ngalum. Mt. Takar village. [ulf] 110 (2004 SIL). Usku village. Ok. Sumtamon. Oranje-Gebergte. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip]. inland from Waropen [wrp]. west of Namla [naa]. Central-Eastern. Sarmi Regency. north and south coast of east end. Classification: TorKwerba. 69% with Ketengban [xte]. 65% with Demisa [dei]. [mtg] 4. Alternate names: Goliath. Tunggare [trt] 500 (1993 R. east Weip Valley. Ok-Awyu. Alternate names: Takar. East highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela Valley. Karas Island and 2 small islands between Karas Island and mainland of southwest Bomberai Peninsula. Alternate names: Afra. Classification: Unclassified More information. Alternate names: Faur. West New Guinea. south of Molof [msl] areas. Senggi village. 69% with Woria [wor]. Tubiruasa. Classification: Austronesian. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Bomela. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr]. East More information. Eastern More information.000 (1991 SIL). Langda. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Serui Island. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. 75% with Burate [bti]. Tor More information. around Langda. Yay Valley. Classification: Border. Cenderawasih Bay. Classification: Austronesian. [urn] 400 (1983 SIL).


[wgo] 300 (1978 SIL). North central Waigeo Island off western Bird¶s Head, Sorong Regency, Waigeo Selatan subdistrict, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. Alternate names: Ambel, Amber, Amberi, Waigiu. Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, CentralEastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat More information. [wlw] 1,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, Wurigelebut villages. Alternate names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper More information. [wms] 3,000 (1987 SIL). South coast area north of Mandobo [aax], [bwp] area. Dialects: Kenon, Kenyam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut More information. [wad] 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih Bay along Wandamen Bay extending west to east end of Bintuni Bay. Alternate names: Bentoeni, Bentuni, Bintuni, Wamesa, WandamenWindesi, Windesi, Windessi. Dialects: Windesi, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wasior, Ambumi, Dasener, Aibondeni, Steenkool, Waruritinao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western More information. [wng] 1,180 (2002 SIL). Upper Digul River area. East of Kombai [tyn], west of Wambon [wms] areas. Alternate names: Wanggo, Wangom. Dialects: Most similar to Kombai [tyn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut More information. [wno] 7,000 (2001 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000. Central highlands area, upper Rouffaer River basin north of Damal, northwest of Dem, south of Kirikiri, Iau and Duvele, east of Moni, west of Western Dani. Alternate names: Waano. Dialects: East, Central, West. Similar to Western Dani [dnw], Nggem [nbq], Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Western Dani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Wano More information. [wsa] 600 (1998 SIL). North coast, Mamberamo River mouth and west to Poiwai, Warembori, Tamakuri, Bonoi villages. Alternate names: Waremboivoro, Warenbori. Dialects: Bonoi Buroro. Similar to Yoke







[yki]. Lexical similarity: 33% with Yoke and 30% with Austronesian. Classification: Lower Mamberamo More information. Wares [wai] 200 (1993 R. Doriot). North coast area inland from Kwesten language on upper Biri River, south side, Maweswares village. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor More information. [wrs] 1,500 in Indonesia. Northeast Papua, Keerom Regency, Waris subdistrict, south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Walsa. Classification: Border, Waris More information. [wbe] 150 (2000 S. Wurm). Lakes Plain area around Taiyeve. Alternate names: Wari, Weretai. Dialects: Related to Doutai [tds]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East More information. [bgv] 300 (1993 R. Doriot). South coast area bordering Asmat to east and Sawi to west, lower Eilanden River. 3 villages. Alternate names: Bipim, Bipim As-So. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay More information. [wrp] 6,000 (1987 SIL). South coast of Serui Island, East Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: Aropen, Wonti, Worpen. Dialects: Waropen Kai, Napan, Mo¶or. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen More information. [wuy] 300 (Remijsen 2001). Southwest Waigeo Island, Wauyai village. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat More information. [wbw] 1,300 (1987 SIL). Miosnum and west Serui Islands, Wooi and Wainap villages. Alternate names: Wo¶oi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern MalayoPolynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western More information. [wod] 5,000 (1992 UBS). West central highlands, Kemandoga and








Mbiyandogo rivers, north of Ekari [ekg] northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of Moni [mnz]. Alternate names: Woda, Woda-Mo, Wodani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes More information. Woria [wor] 6 (2000 S. Wurm). Interior Waropen Bawah, Botawa village. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 63% with Kofei [kpi], 69% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay Nearly extinct. More information. [ner] 500 (1991 SIL). South Bird¶s Head, along Maccluer Gulf between lower Mintamani and Sekak rivers. Alternate names: Jahadian, Nerigo, Yabin Yahadian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Konda [knd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird¶s Head, Konda-Yahadian More information. [kkl] 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, north of Yali [yli] of Angguruk. Alternate names: In-lom, Kosarek, Wanam, Yale-Kosarek. Dialects: Kosarek, Gilika (Kilika), Tiple. Similar to Nipsan [nps], Nalca [nlc], and the Gilika dialect. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nipsan, 59% with Nalca. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern More information. [yli] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Central highlands area northwest of Nalca, east of Grand Valley Dani. Alternate names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo. Dialects: Related to Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Pass Valley [yac]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik More information. [nlk] 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson). Central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages; Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. Alternate names: Jalè, Jaly, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan. Dialects: Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], Hupla [hap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik More information. [yac] 5,000 (1988 SIL). Central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima. Alternate names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly. Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Related to Yali of Ninia


Yale, Kosarek

Yali, Angguruk

Yali, Ninia

Yali, Pass Valley

Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora). Serui Waropen. [jau] 350 (1978 SIL). Jei. Sarmi Regency. East Yawa. Central Serui Island. Alternate names: Jab. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Alternate names: Goni. Cenderawasih Bay. Marind. Sohur. Dialects: Oba-Miwamon. Dialects: Most similar to Maklew [mgf]. [yrs] 200 (1991 SIL). [jel] 400 (1978 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Yaqai. Central-Eastern. 6 villages. Dialects: Upper Yei. Turu. South coast area. Yali of Angguruk [yli]. Jaqai. [gop] 350 (2000). southeast of Kayagar [kyt] and southwest of Central Awyu [awu]. Yei-Nan. South coast Obaa River area. Jelmik. Sarmi-Jayapura Bay. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Central-Eastern. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Jaur. Dialects are mutually inherently intelligible only with difficulty. Yaqay More information. Classification: Trans-New Guinea. Eastern Malayo-Polynesian. Yapen More information. west of Iresim. Western Oceanic. Mantembu. Bonggo subdistrict. Eastern Malayo- Yarsun Yaur Yawa Yei Yelmek Yeretuar . West Yawa.000 (1987 SIL). Island off north coast east of Biri River. 2 interior villages. Malayo-Polynesian. east of Marind along Maro River. Mora. Jabsch. Central-Eastern. Lower Cenderawasih Bay. Alternate names: Jakai. Yelmek-Maklew More information. Classification: West Papuan. Yaqay [jaq] 10. Yapanani. Lower end of Cenderawasih Bay. Umari.[nlk]. Yey. Jelmek. south of Wandamen [wad]. Yava. Bapai. South Yawa. Oceanic. Yaur More information. West. east side of Marianne Strait between Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) Island and mainland. Classification: South-Central Papuan. Dani. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. MalayoPolynesian.390 (2001 SIL). MalayoPolynesian. Nambiomon-Mabur. Classification: South-Central Papuan. West New Guinea. Timur Barat. South coast border area. North New Guinea. Lower Yei. Serui Selatan.000 (1987 SIL). Yey More information. Morehead-Upper Maro. Alternate names: Je. North Yawa. Sarmi More information. Alternate names: Iau. 18 south coast villages. 8 north coast villages. [yva] 6. Umar. [jei] 2. Ngalik More information. Mapi.

Grimes 1987. Masama. R. Warlef village. Blust 1991. Friberg and T. Pauwi. M.000 (1984 SIL). all are living languages. 14. 66% with Balantak. Population total all countries: 1. J. Yabanda Satu. Cenderawasih Bay. [wfg] 230 (2005 SIL). Recently moved to coast from interior. Jafi. Biksi More information.Polynesian. and B. Eastern. Alternate names: Yafi. Sarmi Regency. 1993. Yoke Zorop Languages of Indonesia (Sulawesi) Indonesia (Sulawesi). Central Sulawesi. Laskowske 1989. east of Warembori east of Mamberamo River. South Halmahera-West New Guinea. Alternate names: Biaksi. N. Imbao¶o. 1983. south of Ji Mountain. Friberg 1987. Eastern More information.200. Saluan-Banggai. Dialects: Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups. H. Yaffi. between Aralle-Tabulahan .444 (2000 census). West New Guinea. Andio [bzb] 1. Mead 1998. Bhurhanuddin 1979. D. Classification: Pauwasi. Anceaux 1978. Jafi Wagarindem. Classification: Austronesian. Celebic. Jauke. speaking the same language. Noorduyn 1991a. B. [atq] 12. Classification: Lower Mamberamo More information. 2003. Classification: Sepik. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr]. [yki] 200 (1998 M. Kaseng 1979. 1999. Himmelmann 2001. Yeretuar More information. Martens 1989. Pegunungan Bintang Regency. Lamala subdistrict. Wagarindem. Taugi and Tangeban villages. Saluan [loe]. van den Berg 1988. Northeast Papua. Information mainly from J. 1989. Dialects: Related to Balantak [blz]. Merrifield and M. S. 6 provinces. Yoki. east peninsula. Warlef. Wargarindem.111. Alternate names: Bitovondo. Yetfa [yet] 1. C. Sebeok 1971. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 33% with Warembori [wsa]. Banggai District. Mantarbori village. Yauke. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb]. T.700 (1991 SIL). Okbibab subdistrict. 1996. Also in Papua New Guinea. Sneddon 1983. Donohue 2004. 62% with Coastal Saluan. Salea 1996. border area east and north of Sobger River.000 in Indonesia (1996). border area south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Andio¶o. Biksi. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Sulawesi) is 114. Western More information. Mambi subdistrict. Inisine. T. West Sulawesi. R. Of those. Donohue). S. T.

South central portion of central Sulawesi. Ako in northern Mamuju District. Bungku Tengah subdistrict. [bsu] 200 (1991 SIL). and Padoe [pdo]. Borneo Coast Bajaw More information. The three are geographically. Mori Bawah [xmz]. Dialects: Bada. Mambi. Malayo-Polynesian. Lore Selatan subdistrict.000 (2007 SIL). and Sinjai districts. 7. Eastern. Togian 1. Bajao. Same¶. Jaya Bakti. [bls] 3.Mandar and Kalumpang. and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981. Pajo. North Sulawesi. Togian 2. Malayo-Polynesian. Tabulahan. Bayo. 5 villages. Orang Laut. Greater Barito. Classification: Austronesian. 75%±80% with Bambam [ptu]. Tobada¶.000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo. Central Sulawesi. Eastern. Pannei [pnc]. Dialects: Aralle. Gaj. Indonesian Balaesang . Classification: Austronesian. Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. 14 villages. South Sulawesi. Wallace. 80% between Bada and Napu [npy]. East Coast More information. Ako. Bajo. Balaesang subdistrict. 68% with Mori Atas [mzq]. Sama. Ampibabo subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Pamona Selatan subdistrict. 40. South Sulawesi. Bungku-Tolaki. 5.000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987). Verhiejen 1986). Balaisang.000 (1991 SIL). Celebic.200 (Himmelmann 2001). Central Sulawesi. 2 mixed villages. Aralle has 84%±89% lexical similarity with other dialects listed. Kayoa and Sula Islands. Selayar. Northern. culturally separate. Bone. Poso. Obi. Alternate names: Badjaw. Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts. Celebic. 8. [bdl] 150. politically. Bada [bhz] 10. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi]. Luaan. SuluBorneo. Southeastern. Lexical similarity: 85% between Bada and Behoa [bep]. Matalaang. Lutayaos. Dialects: Jampea. Sama-Bajaw. Badjo. Wori. some in Lemusa village. Kaili-Pamona. Roti. Malayo-Polynesian.000 in Central Sulawesi. Lutaos. Turije¶ne¶. Pitu Ulunna Salu More information. Bahonsuai village on the east coast.000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982). Classification: Austronesian.000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007). Gorontalo Province. 23 villages or parts of villages.000 to 10. Parigi subdistrict. Manimbayu Peninsula. 4 mixed villages. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Ulumandak [ulm] dialects. 36. Badaic More information. Dialects: Not closely related to any other Bahonsuai Bajau. Alternate names: Bada¶. Poso Pesisir subdistrict. Sulamu. 91% between Behoa and Napu [npy]. Alternate names: Balaesan. Pasangkayu subdistrict. Southern. Kajoa. North Maluku on Bacan. Classification: Austronesian.

Batui villages. Pattae¶. Banggai District. West Sulawesi. Dialects: East Banggai. Classification: Austronesian. Sisipan. 80% or more with other Kaili varieties. Salu Mokanam. Central Sulawesi Province. Mamuju District. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan. Southern More information. Issilita¶.000 (2000). 11 villages around Manado. Balantak [blz] 30. Malayo-Polynesian. [bnq] 11. Tomini. MalayoPolynesian. Tomini-Tolitoli. [ptu] 22. 50 households. or parts of villages. West Banggai. MalayoPolynesian. Complex dialect chain. Maloso and Mapilli rivers watershed. northeast section. Balantak. northern peninsula. Banggai Regency. Tolando. between Lariang and Budong-Budong rivers. Dialects: Related to Andio [bzb]. Celebic. Celebic. Alternate names: Baha. Eastern More information. Eastern. and Lamala subdistricts. Celebic. eastern peninsula. Bambam Banggai Bantik Baras Batui . [bgz] 125.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Luwuk. Saluan-Banggai. a few villages mainly in Desa Baras.000 (2000 SIL). Batui subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. 39% with Bobongko [bgb]. and Ulumanda [ulm]. South Sulawesi. west Polmas District. Southern More information. East central Sulawesi. Bumal. Eastern More information. Alternate names: Pitu-Ulunna-Salu. [brs] 250 (1987 SIL). 3. Lexical similarity: 83%±94% with Bumal. Classification: Austronesian. Matangnga. Philippine. Pannei [pnc].000 (1988 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian.000 are monolingual. into Majene and Mamuju districts. Northern. south Pasangkayu and north Budong-Budong subdistricts. Pitu Ulunna Salu More information. Saluan-Banggai. Mambi subdistrict. Mehalaan. Alternate names: Ende. 85%±80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. Sangiric. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da¶a Kaili [kzf].language. South Sulawesi. Alternate names: Kosian. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio. Malayo-Polynesian. or parts of villages. 64% with Uma [pkk]. Pakkau. Coastal Saluan [loe]. 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili. Kaili-Pamona. Central Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Balantang. Celebic. Eastern. 157 villages. 49 villages. Dialects: Bambam Hulu. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. 51% with Coastal Saluan. Tinangkung. Banggai Islands. Sulawesi. [zbt] 2. off eastern peninsula.900 (2007). Northern. Da¶a [kzf]. Kaili More information.

Alternate names: Bulanga. and Barru districts. Celebic. Batu Daka Island. Central Sulawesi. South Sulawesi.100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa. Saluanic More information. inland parts of Maros. 54% with Bobongko [bgb]. Greater Central Philippine. Tolitoli More information. Atinggola. Alternate names: Bolano. 15. Badaic More information. Montong subdistrict. [bzl] 2. Eastern. politically. Malayo-Polynesian. 46% with Balantak [blz]. North Sulawesi. 5. Malayo-Polynesian. [bld] 18. [bgb] 1. MalayoPolynesian. Diu. Philippine. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Makassar More information. and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy].000 (2004 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian.700 (Himmelmann 2001). [bnu] 25. South Sulawesi. Classification: Austronesian. Celebic. Tumbulawa village on northwest coast. Kaili-Pamona. Classification: Austronesian. on the south coast. Different from Andio [bzb]. around Molibagu. Malayo-Polynesian. Celebic. Kilat Bay north. Alternate names: Besoa. TominiTolitoli. Togian Islands. around Bintauna. north coast around Atinggola. Gorontalic More information. Lembanato village. Saluanic More information. 25%±30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages. Western. Central Sulawesi. and 30% with Gorontalo [gor].000 (2000 SIL). Bulanga-Uki. Lexical similarity: 53% with Coastal Saluan [loe].000 in Bolango. Malayo-Polynesian. northwest corner of the southern tip of the peninsula. south coast of the peninsula.60% with Ando [bzb]. [bne] 12. Classification: Austronesian. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Lore Utara subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Bone. Pangkep. Djidja. Napu Valley.000 (1987 SIL). Dialects: Most similar to Konzo. Eastern. Dialects: Geographically. culturally.500 (2001 SIL). Behoa [bep] 8. Saluan-Banggai. 44% with Andio. 38% with Banggai [bgz]. Saluan-Banggai. North Sulawesi Province. Western. 8 villages. Greater Bentong Bintauna Boano Bobongko Bolango . Alternate names: Dentong. Central Sulawesi. Philippine. Classification: Austronesian.000 in Atinggola. between Kaidipang and Gorontalo. Gorontalo Province. Classification: Austronesian. Celebic. 1. Dialects: Bolango.500 (2004 SIL). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe]. Bolaang Mongondow District. Bolano village. Dialects: Related to Saluan. Southern.

Camba. Seko. Ugi. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx]. Bonerate. [bkz] 21. 88%. along east coast. on Budong-Budong River. Rappang Buginese. Tulambatu. 66% with Taloki [tlk]. with Landawe dialect. Bone or Soppeng dialects are central. Sidrap (Sidenrang. Eastern. and Poleang districts. Luwu. and Koroni [xkq]. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Kalimantan.500 (1987 SIL). Madu. Palattae. Malangke-Ussu). and Karompa islands. Lexical similarity: 79%±81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq]. Alternate names: Tangkou. 72% with Panasuan [psn]. Asera. 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf]. Wundulako. Alternate names: ³Nahina´. Waia. Mamuju District. South Sulawesi. Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa). Torete (To Rete). Barru (Pare-Pare. Mare). Waia. Kalaotoa. Dialects: Bonerate. 61% with Seko Tengah [sko]. 82% with Torete dialect. 74% with Wawonii [wow]. 2. 45 villages or parts of villages. Wara. 650 Waia. Soropia. 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups. 100 Routa. Tanete). Maluku. Landawe. Tulambatu. Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka. Bulukumba). and Sumatra. Celebic. 31% with Kalao [kly]. Southeastern. Wajo. Classification: Austronesian. Panasuan More information. Buginese. Pangkep (Pangkajene). 84% with Waia dialect. Tongkou. Soppeng Riaja. Routa. Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete. Muna-Buton. [bdx] 70 (1988). Alitta). Tompo. 82% with the Budong-Budong Bugis Bungku . Nepo. Rumbia. Boeginezen. Dialects: Bone (Palakka. Malayo-Polynesian.000 Tulambatu. Classification: Austronesian. Karompa.500. Bugis More information. Tongkou village. Kulisusu [vkl]. Gorontalic More information. Polewali in Polmas. [bug] 3. De¶. Sinjai (Enna. Tulambatu in northern Southeast Sulawesi.400 Bungku. 16. 1. Ulumandak [ulm]. Papua. Sawitto (Pinrang). Central Sulawesi. 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Pinrang Utara.Central Philippine. Bungku Utara. Dialects: Bungku. Luwu (Luwu¶. Konawe District. Bungku Tengah. Malayo-Polynesian. Budong-Budong subdistrict. Bugi. Alternate names: Boegineesche. and Landawe dialects. Soppeng (Kessi). Bonerate [bna] 9. 25% with Laiyolo [lji]. Malayo-Polynesian.500 (1995 SIL). South Sulawesi. with difficult access. Dialects: Similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. South Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi. and Bungku Selatan subdistricts. Classification: Austronesian. Dua Boccoe. and Lasolo subdistricts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Bua Ponrang.000 in Indonesia (1991 SIL). 800 Landawe. Tukangbesi-Bonerate More information.500 Torete.

67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]. [cml] 30. Northern. Buton. Bungku-Tolaki. Classification: Austronesian. Southeastern. Momunu. Polewali-Mamasa District. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe]. Takimpo.000 (1989). Southeastern. 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]. Bunobogu. Malayo-Polynesian. Southeastern. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with KambeKambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]). Masiri. [dkk] 1. Gorontalic More information.Routa dialect. Biau. Wali. Celebic. Eastern. Busoa and Laompo villages. 76% with Lantoi [zka]. Bwool. Alternate names: Bual. Batu Atas Island. East Coast More information. 50%±62% with Bugis [bug]. southwest coast of Buton island. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (1986 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. South Sulawesi. 55% with Bugis Bone [bug]. South Buton. Philippine. Wabula. north coast near Gorontalo Province border. Binongko Island. Holimombo.500 (1986 SIL). Majene District. Dialects: Campalagian.300 (2000 SIL). Bokat. Buku. Bugis Sidrap [bug]. Alternate names: Bosoa. Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo). Greater Central Philippine. 71% with Muna [mnb]. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Classification: Austronesian. 61% with Wolio [wlo]. Baolan subdistricts. Central Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Bwo¶ol. Southeast Sulawesi. Dia. Wonomulyo subdistrict. [bup] 2. Butonese. Alternate names: Tallumpanuae. Eastern. Pitu Ulunna Salu Busoa Campalagian Cia-Cia Dakka . Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Kaesabu. West Sulawesi. 70%±79% with Muna dialects. South Sulawesi. West Buton More information. Celebic. [cia] 79. Malayo-Polynesian. Burangasi. Polmas. Munan More information. Southeast Sulawesi. Butung. 69% with Busoa [bup]. Tjampalagian. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Celebic. Alternate names: Boetoneezen. Muna-Buton. Kondowa. Malayo-Polynesian. Paleleh.000 (2005 SIL). Eastern. south Buton Island. 60% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian. 66% with Liabuku [lix]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72%±77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu]. Southern Butung. Tasing. Bugis More information. south coast. West Sulawesi. Eastern. 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug]. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect. Lexical similarity: 50%±58% with Mandar [mdr]. Muna-Buton. Gorontalo-Mongondow. 68 villages. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Batauga subdistrict. Wabula dialect has further subvarieties: Wabula. Buton. Buol [blf] 75.

Malayo-Polynesian. Makassar City. Alternate names: Masenrempulu. South Sulawesi provinces in Dondo Duri Enrekang Gorontalo Kaidipang Kaili. South Sulawesi. Celebic. Gorontalic More information. Galang. and Pinrang districts. Classification: Austronesian. Tomini. Tolitoli Utara. [gor] 900. Classification: Austronesian.300 (Himmelmann 2001). Alternate names: Gorongtalo. Kalosi. Gorontalo-Mongondow. South Sulawesi. Classification: Austronesian. 90. Northern More information. Gunongtello. Malayo-Polynesian. Kaidipan.000 Da¶a and Inde are in south Sulawesi. Dialects: Consider Dondo a separate language from Totoli [txe]. Tilamuta. Guarantala. Classification: Austronesian. Dondo. and Dampal Utara subdistricts on the north coast. [kzf] 35. Gorontalo Province.000. Kodipang.000 (1991 SIL). Tomini-Tolitoli. Massenrempulu. Dampelasa. elsewhere in South Sulawesi. Philippine. Alternate names: Dampal. Malayo-Polynesian. Greater Central Philippine. north peninsula. Da¶a and Inde. Holontalo. Probably separate from Tomini [txm]. Hulontalo. Gorontalo Kota.000 in Enrekang District. 25 villages. Dialects: Enrekang. Celebic.000 to 5.More information. [ptt] 50. Classification: Austronesian. West Gorontalo (Kwandang). Dampelas Sojol and Balaesang subdistricts. both sides of Bolaangitang. South Sulawesi. Northern. north Enrekang District. Central Sulawesi. Baolan. Northern. Dialects: Kaidipang. Gorontalic More information. Ranga. [mvp] 95.700 (2004 SIL). Alternate names: Dio. [dok] 13. Central Sulawesi. Southern More information. Da¶a . 3.000 (1989). Greater Central Philippine. Dialects: Cakke. Alternate names: Endekan. Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa). Gorontalo-Mongondow. Dampelas [dms] 10. Tomini. Malayo-Polynesian. Central Sulawesi. increasing. Malayo-Polynesian. Tolitoli Buol District. Bolaang Itang (Bolang Itang). 8 villages. Enrekang. Endekan Timur.000 (Himmelmann 2001). Sulawesi.000 (1991 SIL). Masenrempulu More information. Limboto (Limbotto). Dian. or parts of villages. Kodipang. North Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Tomini-Tolitoli. South Sulawesi. [kzp] 25. Masenrempulu More information. Philippine. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: East Gorontalo. north coast.

Palolo. near Palu. Edo. Pasangkayu subdistrict. Some intelligibility with Da¶a [kzf]. south of Selayar Island. Pekava. 66% with Cia-Cia. Lexical similarity: 80%±88% between Ledo and the Ado.500 Ija and Taa together. Malayo-Polynesian. Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. 75% with Busoa [bup]. 8. [unz] 20. KailiPamona. Lexical similarity: 96% with Lontoi dialect. Ado (Pakuli). Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties. Central and south Sulawesi. Tawaili-Sindue). 58% with Wolio [wlo]. Barr and Salombe 1979). Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Banava. µBunggu¶ used for Da¶a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Alternate names: Bunggu. Dolo. Northern. Ado. To ri Io. Northern.000 to 10. Celebic. Palu. Toriu). east Kalao Island. Some intelligibility with Ledo dialect of Kaili. Northern. 70% with Liabuku [lix]. Alternate names: Ledo. Muna-Buton. Taa (Palolo). Kaili More information. Kaili. Siompu Island southwest of Baubau. 128. [zka] 2. Tado (Ri Io. Dialects: Da¶a (Pekawa. Central Sulawesi. Classification: Austronesian. Pasangkayu subdistrict. Munic More information. Kaili. but major sociolinguistic differences. Inde. 64% with Muna. and Lindu dialects. Doi. Banawa. Wotu-Wolio. KailiPamona. Mamuju District. [kly] 500 (1988 SIL). Raio (Kori). Celebic. Celebic.200 (2005 SIL). Barr and Salombe 1979). South Sulawesi. Southeastern. and Edo together. Kaili More information. Kaili More information. Ganti. Banawa. 55. Malayo-Polynesian. Palu and Tawaeli subdistricts. Rai (Sindue-Tawaili. Classification: Austronesian. south Sulawesi. Banawa subdistricts. Kambe-Kambero. Dialects: Lole. 7.000 Tara (Barr. Malayo-Polynesian. Unde Kaimbulawa Kalao . Dolago-Sausu). Tado a little less. Pakawa).000 are in south. Kaili-Pamona. Ado next most intelligible. Da¶a.Marawola. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw]. Doi. Doi.000 (Barr. Nuclear Muna-Buton. 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da¶a and Inde dialects.000 ( Barr. Dialects: Lontoi. Edo. Southeast Sulawesi. Munan. 43. Classification: Austronesian. but with major sociolinguistic differences. Celebic. MalayoPolynesian. Kalao More information. Barr and Salombe 1979). Alternate names: Kalaotoa. Doi dialect is intelligible with Ledo. Ija (Sigi). Ta¶a (Sausu. Ledo [lew] 234. Paloesch. 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc]. Sigi-Biromaru. Eastern. Torio.000 Rai and Raio together. Classification: Austronesian. 64%±74% with Muna dialects. Dialects: Ledo (Palu).000 Ledo. Celebic. Tara (Parigi). Edo. Malayo-Polynesian.

Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Kondeha. Wotu-Wolio. 4 villages. and Waru [wru]. 10. Kolaka west coast.000 Tiro.000 (1991 SIL). Makki. Mangkir. 49% with Tukang Besi [khc].000 (1991 SIL). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup.000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Sulawesi. Black Konjo. [ues] 1. Toraja-Sa¶dan More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Celebic. Mablei. Classification: Austronesian. Bira). WolioKamaru More information. 67% with Wolio [wlo]. Alternate names: Galumpang. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. South Sulawesi. West Coast More information. Alternate names: Kondjo. Munan. southeast Buton Island. Coastal . and Bantaeng districts. Eastern. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Munic. Muna-Buton. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]. Northern. Bantaeng (Bonthain). Ma¶ki. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Konjo Pesisir (Ara. Southeastern. Mangki (E¶da). Makassar More information. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect. Bungku-Tolaki. Kadjang). Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. Western. Mekongga. 54% with Cia-Cia [cia].000 Kajang. Lasusua subdistrict. 74% with Toraja-Sa¶dan [sda]. Kalumpang subdistrict. Bone Hau (Ta¶da). Tana Toa (Tana Towa. Kajang. Mangki. Celebic.500 (1991 SIL). Tana Toa dialect is within 10% lexical similarity with other coastal dialects. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]. South Sulawesi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm]. Malayo-Polynesian. 50. [kjc] 125. Kulisusu subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. West Sulawesi. Kamaru Kioko Kodeoha Konjo. Western More information. southeast Mamuju District. Dialects: Kioko. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj]. 51% with Pancana [pnp]. Kambowa. [kgx] 3. South Sulawesi. Tiro. Southeast Sulawesi. 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb]. [vko] 1. Malayo-Polynesian. North Kolaka District. Between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects: average 82%. southeast corner. Small dialects not listed. Bulukumba.Kalumpang [kli] 12. Buton Island. 78% with Tae¶ [rob]. Dialects: Karataun. 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups. southern tip of the peninsula. Southeastern.500 (2005 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. parts of Sinjai. Southeast Sulawesi. 70% with Tolaki [lbw]. 45% with Muna [mnb]. Eastern. Maki. 74% with Muna. 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup].

Classification: Austronesian. Southeast Sulawesi. Lasalimu subdistrict. Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]. Lowa). 66% with Wawonii [wow]. Sinjai. 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group. 550 Barang-Barang. Gowa. Alternate names: Konjo Pegunungan. southern tip of Selayar Island. 65% with Moronene [mqn]. [xks] 3. Bulukumba districts. 77% with Taloki [lbw]. Laiyolo in villages of Lembang Mate¶ne in Desa Laiyolo. Malayo-Polynesian. and a few in Kilotepo¶ and Sangkeha¶. Eastern. Celebic. Bungku-Tolaki. Celebic. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl]. Eastern. Alternate names: Umbewaha. Bungku Tengah subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Southeastern.000 (1991 SIL). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru Koroni Kulisusu Kumbewaha Laiyolo Lasalimu . 65% with Buton. [xkq] 500 (1991 SIL). Loa¶. [lji] 800 (1997 SIL). Malayo-Polynesian. Bungku-Tolaki. Kolinsusu. Buton. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc]. Celebic. 54% with the Mori languages and Tolaki. Classification: Austronesian. 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects. 76% with Kalao [kly]. South Sulawesi. Southeast Buton Island.000 (1995 SIL). East Buton More information. Layolo). Southeast Sulawesi. Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages. [vkl] 22. Wotu-Wolio. Lasalimu subdistrict. East Coast. 39% with Muna [mnb]. Buton District. East Coast. Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa. 250 Laiyolo. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Eastern. Southeast Sulawesi Province. 75% with Koroni [xkq]. central mountain area. Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. Da¶ang. Eastern. Highland [kjk] 150. Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect. Bungku [bkz]. southeast Buton Island. South Sulawesi. Kulisusu More information. South Sulawesi. Kolensusu. MalayoPolynesian.400 (2005 SIL). Barang-Barang dialect may need separate literature. Kulisusu More information. Unsongi village on east coast south of Bungku town. Kalao More information. Barang-Barang village in Desa Lowa. Laiyolo (Lajolo. Eastern. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Kulisusu and Bonegunu subdistricts. northeast corner of Buton Island. Classification: Austronesian. Bone. Muna-Buton. Central Sulawesi.Konjo. Southeastern. Southeastern. Makassar More information. [llm] 1.700 (2000 SIL). Alternate names: Kalisusu. Konyo. Alternate names: Barang-Barang. 53% with Wotu [wtw].

Classification: Lemolang Liabuku Lindu Lolak .[kgx]. inland from the northeast coast. Classification: Austronesian. Tomini. Alternate names: Ampibabo-Lauje. Dialects: Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor]. Alternate names: Baebunta. Munic. Western More information. centered in Sassa and Salassa villages. and Ampibabo subdistricts. Northern More information. Tinombo. Dialects: Ampibabo. 66% with Ponosakan [pns]. along Tomini Bay. part of Liabuku village north of Bau-Bau. Luwu Utara District. 51% with Pancana [pnp].000 (2004 SIL). 38% with Bungku [bkz]. Lolak. Sidoan River area. Limola. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lindu is very similar to Moma [myl]. Eastern. 29% with Toraja-Sa¶dan [sda]. Central Sulawesi. Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. North Sulawesi. Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Southeastern. Lindu subdistrict. Lauje [law] 44. Tinombo. Northern.000 (Himmelmann 2001). Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language. Southeast Sulawesi. Alternate names: Linduan. Langko villages near Lake Lindu. Malayo-Polynesian. East Buton More information. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow. Kaili More information. but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Celebic. Munan. Buton. 63% with Kaidipang [kzp]. Muna-Buton. Celebic. decreasing. Kaili-Pamona. 30% with Rampi [lje]. Lemolang More information. Tomini. Nuclear Muna-Buton. 39% with Buton. MalayoPolynesian. considered by some a Moma dialect. Dampelas Sojol. Malayo-Polynesian. Dondo. 57% with Tukang Besi. Bolaang Mongondow District. south Buton Island. Tomini-Tolitoli. 72% with Muna. 24% with Bugis [bug]. 75% with Kioko [ues]. Laudje. Eastern. Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. [klw] 2. Tado. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Southeastern. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb]. and Motabang villages. and possibly Baebunta. Classification: Austronesian.000 (1995 SIL). South Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. [ley] 2.000 (1990 SIL). 25% with Wotu [wtw]. Bungi subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Tomado. scattered in Sabbang subdistrict. 26% with Muna [mnb]. 64% with Cia-Cia [cia]. 39% with Mori Atas [mzq]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Mongkoinit. Malayo-Polynesian. [llq] 3. 31% with Seko Padang [skx]. 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb]. Central Sulawesi. Anca. [lix] 75 (2004 SIL). Muna-Buton. 72%±76% with other Muna dialects.

Manado Malimpung Mamasa . [mak] 1.000 (1991 SIL). 70% with Enrekang [ptt]. South Sulawesi. Dialects: Northern Mamasa. Alternate names: Masenrempulu. Classification: Austronesian. Philippine. Also similar to Sri Lankan Malay [sci]. Toraja-Sa¶dan More information. Makassar port area.600. Manado port area. Classification: Austronesian. Enrekang and Sidenrang districts. Dialects form a chain.000 (2001). Bantaeng. Macassar. Maros. South Sulawesi. Dialects: Most similar to North Moluccan Malay [max]. Classification: Austronesian. Mangasara. Minahasa District. [xmm] 850. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. North Sulawesi.880. Dialects: Gowa (Goa. Makassarese. Minahasan Malay. Malayo-Sumbawan. North and East. Malay. Makassar. Binuang. MalayoPolynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. South Sulawesi. Makassa. West Sulawesi. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm]. Gowa dialect is prestigious. South Sulawesi. Northern. Masenrempulu More information. Makasar Malay. Tena. South Sulawesi. Macassarese.000 (2000).000 (1995 SIL). South Sulawesi. Trade More information. Tae¶.000 (1990 SIL). [mfp] 1. Malimpung area. Pinrang District.Austronesian. west coast. Malayo-Polynesian. [mqj] 100. South Sulawesi. Makassaarsche. Greater Central Philippine. along Mamasa River. Malayo-Polynesian. Makassar Malay. Maros-Pangkep. southwest corner of the peninsula. Malayo-Polynesian. Masenrempulu More information. Pattae¶ (Southern Mamasa. Lakiung). Alternate names: Goa. Alternate names: Manadonese Malay.000 (1989). Malayo-Polynesian. Patampanua subdistrict. North and East. Gorontalic More information. and Takalar districts. East Indonesian More information. Trade. Northern. Patta¶ Binuang. Malay. Malayic. Mengkasara. Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa¶dan [ska]. Turatea (Jeneponto). Gowa. Taena. [mli] 5. Jeneponto. Malayo-Sumbawan. Maiwa [wmm] 50. Makassar More information. Malayic. Polewali subdistrict. South Sulawesi. most of Pangkep. Polmas District. Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi). Central Mamasa. Classification: Austronesian. Northern.

Dialects: Historically a varietyof Kaili. Pamboang. Eastern. and Budong-Budong subdistricts on the coast. Mamuju dialect is prestigious. Central Sulawesi. Majene and Polewali-Mamasa districts. Central Sulawesi. Mongondowic More information. Sinyonyoi. Petasia. Kalukku. Alternate names: Kulawi. Southeastern. between Tontemboan and Gorontalo. south Sulawesi. [mdr] 200. Classification: Austronesian. Petasia and Lembo subdistricts. Classification: Austronesian. Mamuju District. Mamuju More information. West Sulawesi. MalayoPolynesian. Lower Mori. Padang. North Sulawesi. Mamuju District. Greater Central Philippine. ³Nahina´. Lexical similarity: 73%±86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian. West Mori. 25 villages or parts of villages. Classification: Austronesian. A complex dialect grouping. Philippine. Alternate names: Mamoedjoe. or parts of villages. south Sulawesi. Minahassa. and Ujung Lero near Pare-Pare. and Petasia subdistricts. Dialects: Aikoa. Celebic. Mandar Moma Mongondow Mori Atas Mori Bawah . Malayo-Polynesian. Northern. Soroako. Mamoedjoesch. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Sendana (Cenrana. Mandharsche.000 (1991 SIL). Mori Atas. Northern. Western. and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain. [mzq] 16.100 (2000). a few settlements. Central Sulawesi. Mamuju. Lembo. 75% with Padoe [pdo]. [xmz] 16. Lexical similarity: 73%±86% with Mori Atas [mzq]. Pasi. [mog] 900. Kaili-Pamona. Alternate names: Andian. Alternate names: Bolaang Mongondow.000 in Mamuju dialect. Sumare-Rangas.500 (1985 SIL). Dialects: Lolayan. Nahina.Mamuju [mqx] 60. southeast peninsula neck.000 (1985). Mamudju.000 (1989). Pangkep District islands. southeast peninsula neck. Classification: Austronesian. Balanipa is the prestige dialect. Malunda. 24 villages. South Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Balanipa (NapoTinambung). but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk]. Mamuju [mqx]. primarily Kulawi and Toro town areas. Mandar More information. Udai. Interior More information. 50. South Sulawesi. Dialects: Tambe¶e. Kulawi subdistrict. Dialects: Mamuju. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Malayo-Polynesian. Karonsie. West Sulawesi. [myl] 5. Alternate names: East Mori. Mongondou. Mandar. Dialects: Majene. Bungku-Tolaki. Malayo-Polynesian. Dumoga.100 (2000). Celebic. Kaili More information. Northern. Manjar. there may be more dialects than those listed. Tjendana). Alternate names: Upper Mori.

Kalia-Lia. with Rumbia subdialect in Rumbia subdistrict. Southern. Napu Valley. Burukene. Lexical similarity: 73%±86% with Mori Atas Muna Napu Padoe . Tokotu¶a on Kabaena Island. 65% with Taloki [tlk]. Moronene [mqn] 37. Wita Ea on the mainland portion of Bombana District opposite Kabaena. Katobengke. Eastern. 14. Alternate names: Maronene. and Watubangga subdistrict of Kolaka District. 45% with Kamaru [kgx]. increasing. Lakudo.Classification: Austronesian. Koroni [xkq]. Lakudo. Southeastern.000 (2000 D. 5% are monolingual. Alternate names: Pekurehua. of Gulamas are: Gu. Kapontori. Laompo. [mnb] 300. Southwest More information. Eastern. Poleang). 64% with Bungku [bkz]. Mori Atas subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Subvarieties of Standard Muna are: Tungkuno. Celebic. Malayo-Polynesian. Andersen). Eastern.000 (van den Berg 1989). East Coast More information. Lore Utara subdistrict.000 in Tokotu¶a. Classification: Austronesian. Gu. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna). Dialects: Most similar to Behoa [bep]. Western More information. Munan.000 (1995). Muna-Buton. Malili. Central Maluku. Lawela. 62% with CiaCia [cia]. Kabawo. Andersen). east Luwu Utara District in Nuha. Lexical similarity: 80 % of Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu¶a dialect. Tobea Besar. Bombana District. 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow]. Southeast Sulawesi. Nuclear Muna-Buton. Katobengke. Celebic. Padoé.500 now living in cities. Dialects: 2 dialects.000 in Moronene. Mawasangka. Mangkutana subdistricts. Classification: Austronesian. 1 village. Celebic. Kadatua. Off southwest Sulawesi. Eastern. Poleang Timur. Tiworo (Eastern Muna). Topa.000 (1991 D. Siompu. Dialects: Wita Ea (Rumbia. Includes about 3. Lawa. Lawama. Alternate names: Alalao. Southeastern. Burukene. Mawasangka. 10 villages. Salaa. 600 in Ambon (1985 SIL). Central Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. Tokotu¶a (Kabaena). 2 villages. Muna Island. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp]. Banggai District. Southeastern. and Poleang subdialect in Poleang. Kadatua. Malayo-Polynesian. [npy] 6. and 57% with Tolaki [lbw]. ³Nahina´. Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]. 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq]. Badaic More information. 23. Laompo. Ambon. Wale-Ale. Classification: Austronesian. Kaili-Pamona. Bungku-Tolaki. MalayoPolynesian. Celebic. northwest coast of Buton Island. South Mori. Pamona Utara subdistrict. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. 52% with Wolio [wlo]. Lowu-Lowu. Bungku-Tolaki. 50% with Lasalimu [llm]. Eastern. Central Sulawesi. Katobu. 66% with Kulisusu [vkl]. Munic. [pdo] 6.

Pantjana. Kalende (Lawele). Mamuju District. northeast of Kalumpang [kli]. Southeast Sulawesi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko]. Wonomulyo subdistrict. Interior More information. [pnp] 6. Dialects: Kapontori (³Akido´ ). Ethnic population: 800 or more. Dialect names are also place names. Pitu Ulunna Salu More information. South Sulawesi. ³Bare¶e´ ). Lage. Ulubongko. Barr and Salombe 1979). Tobau (Tobao. Dialects: Pamona. Western More information. north Wotu and Bone-Bone subdistricts. Northern. Southeastern. 63% with Seko Padang [skx]. MalayoPolynesian. except for Tombelala.000 (2005 SIL). Pamona Utara. Kaili-Pamona. Pamona [pmf] 106. Taa (Wana. May be more than 1 language. South Sulawesi. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Bare¶e. Munic. Bungku-Tolaki. Eastern. Celebic.[mzq]. Bungku Utara.000 (1986 SIL). Nuclear Muna-Buton. Malayo-Polynesian. Pamona Selatan. Petasia. Dialects: Tapango. central Buton Island. Polewali-Mamasa District. Related to Tombelele [ttp]. Mangkutana. Malayo-Polynesian. South Sulawesi. Celebic. Parigi. Alternate names: ³Akido´ . Labuandiri. Classification: Austronesian. Southeastern. Pamona More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Celebic. Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Alternate names: To Pamosean. [pnc] 9. Ampanatete. Classification: Austronesian. Topada. Bungku Tengah subdistricts. Western. west of Seko area. 2 villages. Eastern. Ampana Kota. South Sulawesi. Northern. Poso District. Seko. Classification: Austronesian. 57% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 87%±93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties. West Sulawesi. Una-Una. Malayo-Polynesian. 193 villages. Poso Kota. Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. and is considered a separate language. To Panasean. [psn] 800 (2004 SIL). 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Luwu Utara District. Tomoni. Baree. Central and South Sulawesi provinces. Rapangkaka (³Aria´ ). 72% with Tangkou [tkx]. Muna-Buton. Poso. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb].000 (Barr. Poso Pesisir. 75%±80% with dialects of Ulumanda¶ [ulm]. which has 66%±76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects. Tobalo. Panasuan Pancana Pannei . Bambam [ptu]. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)±90% among dialects. Tojo. Panasuan More information. Alternate names: Tapango. Classification: Austronesian. Tokondindi. Topotaa). Bulo. Munan. Laiwonu (³Iba´ ). Mori Atas.

[rth] 30. Balantak. 70% with Tolaki [lbw]. Donggala districts. Dialects: Loinang (Coastal Saluan. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Totikum. and Mangkutana subdistricts. 5. West Coast More information. Leboni is prestige dialect.000 (1989). Dialects: Rampi (Lambu). Lingketeng). Walandano. Sulawesi. Southeastern. Lamala.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). [lje] 8. Batui. 136 villages. ³Madi´. Wiaoe. Mongondowic More information. Luwuk. Sangiric. Southeast Sulawesi.000 (Barr. Rato have moved elsewhere. 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Mondono. Alternate names: Bentenan. ³Noihe´. Eastern. Loinang in mountains.000 (1991 SIL). Baloa¶ Kohumamahon. Classification: Austronesian. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Kaili-Pamona. Philippine. 66% with Lolak [llq]. Celebic. Rato. north peninsula. Alternate names: Wiau. Wotu. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog]. Southern More information. Sabbang Limbong. Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw].700 in Central Sulawesi. Kahumamahon. North Kolaka District. [loe] 74. Alternate names: Ndaoe. 2. Related to Balantak [blz]. Alternate names: Ponasakan.300 in South Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. 75% with Kodeoha [vko]. Classification: Austronesian. Luwuk.000 (1991 SIL). centered in Balaesang subdistrict. Malayo-Polynesian. Southern More information. North Sulawesi. Loindang. [raz] 5. Central Sulawesi. 6 isolated mountain villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects. Ratahan area to southeast coast. with some near Balaesang subdistrict. Poso. Umalasa. Philippine. 15 villages. Masamba subdistrict. Buko. Pasan. Malayo-Polynesian. Sibayu and other villages. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Ha¶uwa. Southern More information. Western. Rampi-Leboni. Kintom. South Sulawesi. Pagimana. northeast section. Tomini-Tolitoli.500 (Quick 2003). Tomini. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Andio Ponosakan Rahambuu Rampi Ratahan Saluan . Celebic. Belang area. Greater Central Philippine. Bunta subdistricts. and Waru [wru]. East central Sulawesi. west coast north of the Kodeoha. Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo. Alternate names: Loinang. about half live scattered north to the Totoli [txe].Pendau [ums] 4. Barr and Salombe 1979). Bungku-Tolaki. Celebic. Leboni. Pakue subdistrict. Central Sulawesi. Luwu Utara District. Ndau. [pns] 3.

Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley. South Tabukang. Alternate names: Seko. MalayoPolynesian. West Sulawesi. Malayo-Polynesian. Western. [sdu] 4. Luwu Utara District. North Sulawesi. Kulu (Lariang). Wono.000 Siau. Celebic. Alternate names: Doda¶. Classification: Austronesian. Limbong subdistrict. Davao. Tawailia. Dialects: Lodang. Classification: Austronesian.000. Classification: Austronesian. [tvw] 600 (Barr. Northern south Sulawesi. Alternate names: Tawaelia. 2. Saluan-Banggai. Alternate Sarudu Sedoa Seko Padang Seko Tengah Selayar . Celebic. Manganitu. Sangihé. Central Tabukang. South Sulawesi. North Tabukang (Tabukang. Dialects: Nunu¶. Also in Philippines. 62% with Andio. Sedoa and parts of Tambarona Pinedapa villages. Philippines). [sly] 90. Kandar. Kaili-Pamona. Mamuju subdistrict. and Poso Pesisir subdistricts. Pohoneang. [skx] 5. Tagulandang (Tahulandang). Malayo-Polynesian. Pewaneang. Lore Utara.000 (1991 SIL). north Maluku. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx]. South Sulawesi. Seko More information. Dialects: Siau. [sko] 2. Eastern. Alternate names: Pewanean. Barr and Salombe 1979).000 (1990 SIL).[bzb]. Topobaria. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Philippine. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Sangi. South Sulawesi. 50. west Limbong subdistrict along Betue River. Great Sangir Island. Kaili-Pamona. Classification: Austronesian. Selayar Island.000 in Indonesia (1995 Indonesian Consul. Kaili More information. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt]. Dialects: Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of the Kaili languages. Sangir [sxn] 200. South Sulawesi. Sangih. south Pasangkayu District. Taruna. Southern More information. Tabukan). Celebic. Seko More information. 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk]. Sangiric. half resettled Central Sulawesi. Sua Tu Padang. Malayo-Polynesian. 53% with Bobongko [bgb]. northeast section. Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk]. Hono¶ (Wono). Tamako.500 (1995 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Population total all countries: 255. Sangirese.300 in the Seko area. Saluanic More information. 51% with Balantak. Northern More information. Palolo Valley. East central Sulawesi.000 (1983 SIL). Seko. 67% with Panasuan [psn]. Northern.

Northeast Luwu. Tomini-Tolitoli. [pee] 350 (Himmelmann 2001). Toraja Timur. [rob] 250. Saleier. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak].000 (Himmelmann 2001). Rongkong Kanandede. Central Sulawesi. Karakelang). Dialects: Bunda. Celebic. Sangangalla¶. South Sulawesi. and scattered pockets. Dialects: Rongkong. Southern More information. and Sindue subdistricts. Sangiric. southeast Limbong and Sabbang subdistricts. South Luwu. Bune. Makassar More information. Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. Northern. 80% with TorajaSa¶dan. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects. Northeast Sulawesi.000 (1981 UBS). or parts of villages. Tomini. over 86% with the northern dialects. Central Sulawesi. Ampibabo subdistrict. South Sulawesi. Sindue subdistrict near Sipeso. To Rongkong. Luwu. Alternate names: East Toraja. Ampibabo. Toala¶. [tlk] 500 (1995 SIL). Siladja. Greater Central Philippine. Beo. Rongkong in Luwu District. Philippine. Bunda. Philippine. Malayo-Polynesian. Also an enclave in Wasuponda. east of Gorontalo town. Salayer. Kasimbar.000 (1992 SIL). [tdj] 12. increasing. Southern More information. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Nuha subdistrict near Soroako town. Southeast Sulawesi. Talaud Islands northeast of Sangihe Islands. [tld] 60.names: Salajar. Taeq. Malayo-Polynesian. Southern More information. Alternate names: Bonda. Palili¶. Dapalan (Riung). Tomini. NenusaMaingas.000 (2004 SIL). Alternate names: Petapa. 21 villages. Toware. South Karakelong (Karakelong. Essang. Gorontalo-Mongondow. Kabupaten Luwu from Larompong District through Sabbang. Classification: Austronesian. South Sulawesi. Arangka¶a. Rongkong. Salebabu). Salayar. Tinombo. Alternate names: Talaut. Dialects: Kaburuang. Tadjio. Toraja-Sa¶dan More information. Tanampedagi village. Malayo-Polynesian. Awit. Malayo-Polynesian. Talodda. Tae¶ Tae¶. Silajara. MalayoPolynesian. Lake Limboto. Ta¶adjio. Suwawa and Pinogu area. Lirang (Salibabu. Classification: Austronesian. Suwawa-Bunda. Gorontalic More information. Suwawa [swu] 21. Tomini-Tolitoli. Classification: Austronesian. Bua. MalayoPolynesian. Sada. North Sulawesi. northwest coast Buton Tae¶ Taje Tajio Talaud Taloki . Alternate names: Adjio.

Lexical similarity: 74% with Toraja-Sa¶dan [sda]. TorajaSa¶dan More information. Maligano village. Classification: Toala¶ Tolaki Tomadino . Northern. Talondo and Pedasi villages. 65% with Moronene [mqn]. ³Norio´ . 81% with Laiwui. Laiwui. Sada. Lexical similarity: 88% between Wiwirano and Asera dialects.000 (1991 SIL). Southeastern. Toraja Timur. 85% with Mekongga. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]. Alternate names: Tololaki. Western. ³Tamboki´ . 75% with Koroni [xkq]. Malayo-Polynesian. Kolaka and North Kolaka districts.000 Konawe. Luwu District from Masamba to south tip of the district. Classification: Austronesian. Bungku-Tolaki. 50. 200 Laiwui. Eastern. South Sulawesi. Central Sulawesi. 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha. South Konawe. Celebic. fewer than 100 Wiwirano. [tlz] 30.000 (1983 SIL). Eastern. 68% with Mori Atas [mzq]. Northern. Konawe (Kendari. 84% with Konawe. West Sulawesi. near west edge Soroako. ³Noie´ ). 230.Island. Dialects: May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Sakita village on east coast. Wakalambe village. Malayo-Polynesian. Celebic. 66% with Wawonii [wow]. Dialects: Wiwirano (³Nohina´ ). Alternate names: East Toraja. To¶olaki. Bungku Tengah subdistrict. Kulisusu More information. Asera (Asera Wanua. 650 Asera. Bingkokak. Ethnic population: 400. ³Konio´ ). Mori Bawah [xmz]. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe. Alternate names: Taluki. Toala. Toala-Palili. TorajaSa¶dan More information. Toware. Talondo¶ [tln] 400 (2004 SIL). Dialects: Toala¶. Malayo-Polynesian. Toala¶ from foothills to the divide. East Coast. ³Tambuoki´ . 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. South Sulawesi. Southeastern. Sangangalla¶. Bungku-Tolaki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu]. Mamuju District. and Padoe [pdo]. Malayo-Polynesian. ³Kioki´ ). Classification: Austronesian. Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]. Bungku [bkz]. 78% with Waru. Eastern. Kalumpang subdistrict. Laki. Tokia. Palili¶. Wakorumba subdistrict. Southeast Sulawesi. Probably at least 4 dialects. possibly south Buton Island. [tdi] 600 (1991 SIL). 1 village. Luwu¶. Mekongga (Kolaka. outskirts of Bungku town. 80% with Laiwui. Konawe. Classification: Austronesian. Palili¶ on a narrow coastal strip overlapping with Bugis Luwu. South Sulawesi. [lbw] 281. Mekongga in Mekongga Mountains. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli].000 Mekongga. Lolaki. West Coast More information. Kapontori subdistrict.

Tinombo subdistricts along Tomini Bay. Central Sulawesi. Tombelala [ttp] 1.000 (1989). Malayo-Polynesian. Tolour. Minahasan. Toulour District.100 (1995 SIL). Belala. Moutong. Tondanou. Tiadje. Philippine. Tondano area and north peninsula. Minahasan. North. Classification: Austronesian. Also in United States. Kalabat Atas. Tountemboan. Classification: Austronesian. Remboken. North. [tnt] 150. Tonsea [txs]. Northeast More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Tompakewa. Pamona More information. Most similar to Tombulu [tom]. Tomini. Northeast Sulawesi. Alternate names: Tombatu. Tomohon. [txm] 30. Northeast More information. Toumbulu. southeast coast. Tanawangko and Tomohon areas. Tombulu¶. Alternate names: Minahasa. Philippine. Malayo-Polynesian. Northern. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Tonsea¶. Minahasa Peninsula northeast coast. Northeast Sulawesi. Central Sulawesi. Philippine. Malayo-Polynesian. ³Baria´. Northeast More information. Minhasa. Tonsea [txs]. Toulour. [tnw] 20. MalayoPolynesian. Airmadidi. Interior More information.000 (1990). Dialects: Maumbi. Bungku-Tolaki. Tombulu Tomini Tondano Tonsawang Tonsea Tontemboan . Tomini-Tolitoli. Southeastern. Northeast tip of Sulawesi. Western. Celebic. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Pakewa. Tombalu. Northeast Sulawesi. Bungku Tengah subdistrict. Tomini. Alternate names: Tolou. Tompaso (Makelai. Eastern. Tialo. 4 villages. Dialects: Taratara.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Tombula. Celebic.000 (Himmelmann 2001). [tom] 60. [tdn] 80. Bela. Most similar to Tondano [tdn]. Sonder to Motoling and Tompasobaru areas. Dialects: Langoan.Austronesian. Kaili-Pamona. Minahasan More information. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66%±76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz]. Classification: Austronesian. [txs] 90.000 in Indonesia (1991 Noorduyn). Dialects: Tondano. Philippine. Celebic. Kauditan.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Minahasan. Kakas (Ka¶kas). Tombatu area. Northern More information. Classification: Austronesian. Likupang. Alternate names: Mbelala. Malayo-Polynesian. 42 villages. North. Alternate names: Mouton.

TominiTolitoli. and may be separate languages. Binongko and Tomea islands off Sutheast Sulawesi. Topoiyo [toy] 2. BudongBudong subdistrict inland along Budong-Budong River. [txe] 25. Malayo-Polynesian. [sda] 500. Seram. Tolitoli Utara. Alternate names: Gage. 100. Buru. Papua. southeast Sulawesi. Northern.Wangi). West Sulawesi. Mappa-Pana). Southeastern. large groups in Luwu District. Wangi. Celebic.000 in Maluku.000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). South Toraja. Sonder (Matanai. Wanci (Wanji.000 (1988 SIL). Classification: Austronesian. Ta¶e. Mamuju District. Makassar City. Philippine. Sulabesi. an average of 35% with other nearby languages. Tana Toraja District. [bhq] 130. Toraja-Sa¶dan More information. off Southeast Sulawesi. Matana¶i-Maore¶). North More information. Toraja-Sa¶dan Totoli Tukang Besi North Tukang Besi South . Kaledupa and Wanci. Rantepao is prestige dialect. Minahasan. Celebic. Tukang Besi Archipelago north islands. Celebic. Rantepao (Kesu¶). Kaili More information. Toraja. Tukangbesi-Bonerate More information. Wakatobi. Galang. Malayo-Polynesian. 48% with Lasalimu [llm]. Classification: Austronesian. Maluku. Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa). Taliabu. Kolaka and Wundulako districts. Tontoli. west coast.000 in Maluku. Also in Singapore. Sumbawa. Alternate names: Buton. Classification: Austronesian. Sulabesi. Muna-Buton. Wanje. Classification: Austronesian. Central Sulawesi. Sadan. Ambon. Tae¶. Toraja Barat (West Toraja. Mongole. Malayo-Polynesian. Bacan. 47% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Classification: Austronesian. Seram. subdistricts. Northern. Sa¶dansche.Makela¶i-Maotow). [khc] 120. Baolan. Malayo-Polynesian. Tukang Besi archipelago south islands.000 (1990 UBS). 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew]. Maluku. Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna). Dondo. or parts of villages. Toradja. Mongole. Buru.000 (1995 SIL).000 (Himmelmann 2001). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da¶a [kzf]. Eastern. 40% with Kamaru [kgx]. Kaili-Pamona. 70%±75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq]. north coast. South Sulawesi. Wantji. Tolitoli. Lexical similarity: 80% between Kaledupa and Wanci. 56% with Ledo [lew]. Tolitoli More information. South Sulawesi. Sadang. 29 villages. Singapore and Baubau City. 60. Malayo-Polynesian. Taliabu. Alternate names: Sa¶dan. and Ambon islands.

79% between Tomea and Bonerate. Malayo-Polynesian. Alternate names: Pipikoro. Lexical similarity: 86% between the Waru and Lalomerui dialects. numerous settlements throughout western Papua. some migrated to Gimpu and Palolo valleys. Southeastern. 5. north of Palu. Eastern. Dialects: Sondoang. Madu. Alternate names: Awo-Sumakuyu. Palu and Pani¶i. Muna-Buton.000 in Polmas and Majene. Bonerate. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Tomea (Tomia). Botteng. Tobaku (Western Uma. south Pasangkayu District. Southern Uma (Aria). Mopute village by Lindu River. Bonerate dialect in Bonerate. Dompa. Celebic. 32 villages. Classification: Austronesian. Pannei [pnc].000 (1986 SIL). Donggala District. Kado. Bungku-Tolaki. Northern. About 6 dialects. Majene. Western.000 (1990 SIL). 49% with Lasalimu [llm]. 18. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect. µbanks of the Koro¶ and Lariang µKoro¶ rivers.and Alor islands. Asera subdistrict. average of 35% with other nearby languages. Mamuju. Eastern. but many would prefer to read their own dialect. Oema. Konawe District. Kalaotoa. Classification: Austronesian. Botteng-Tappalang. [wru] 350 (1991 SIL). Lexical similarity: 70%±75% with Tukang Besi North [khc]. 81% with Bonerate. Pitu Ulunna Salu More information. Pipikoro.000 outside (1990 SIL). Benggaulu (Bingkolu). Tukang-Besi. Malayo-Polynesian. South Sulawesi. Mamuju subdistrict. Ulumandak. 79% with Tolaki [lbw] dialects and Mekongga (dial Tolaki [lbw]). [ppk] 20. Classification: Austronesian. Lalomerui. and Karompa islands in Selayar District. South Sulawesi. Dialects: Binongko. Oeloemanda. Lexical similarity: 75%±80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu]. Ulumanda¶ [ulm] 30. Wakatobi. Tubbi. Alternate names: Mapute. Benggaulu in South Sulawesi. Tolee¶ (Eastern Uma). 500 in Benggaulu. 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. 48% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Southeast Sulawesi. Alternate names: Buton. Classification: Austronesian. Celebic. and Polewali-Mamasa districts. Tappalang. Bana in South Sulawesi. Southern More information.000 in the region. enclave within the Seko Padang [skx] dialect area. Lexical similarity 85% between Binongko and Tomea. Dialects: Winatu (Northern Uma). 15. Ulunda. Ompa). Celebic. Southeastern. Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. Central Sulawesi. Kantewu (Central Uma). Tukangbesi-Bonerate More information. Koro. Bana. KailiPamona. Mopute. Dialects: Waru. 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko]. West Coast Uma Waru . Luwu Utara District. South Kulawi and Pipikoro subdistricts. increasing. West Sulawesi.

Wotu-Wolio. 31% with Rampi [lje]. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. 33% with Bugis [bug].000 (1987 SIL). Alternate names: Wowonii.707 (2000 census). 7 provinces. North. and Koroni [xkq]. Celebic.000 (2000 census). Baruh. Walker 1976. Southeast Sulawesi. Dialects: Wawonii. Population does not include L2 speakers and those in other provinces. Achehnese. Alternate names: Achinese.000 Wawonii. Malayo-Polynesian. Achenese More information. Timu). Eastern. Tunong. D. 25% with Lemolang [ley]. 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]. 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia [cia] and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka].More information. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (2000 census). Southeastern. Sumatra. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo]. Eastern.500. 39% with Tae¶ Luwu [rob]. Celebic. South. Kulisusu [vkl]. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Alternate names: Baubau. 53% with Laiyolo [lji]. Wawonii [wow] 22. Dialects: Banda Aceh. Voerhoeve 1955. Wotu-Wolio More information. [mfb] 340. 66% with Taloki [lbw]. 43. average 43% with South Sulawesi subgroup. Pidie (Pedir. Pase. Wolio Wotu Languages of Indonesia (Sumatra) Indonesia (Sumatra). Luwu Utara District. Malayo-Sumbawan. East Coast More information.000 (1991 SIL). Dialects: Urban (Jakarta). Bangka Island. Daja. Information mainly from P. Chamic. Bungku-Tolaki. Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari. coastal areas. Malayo-Polynesian.500 Menui. Bueng. 14. Classification: Austronesian. Wolio-Kamaru More information. [wtw] 5. Wotu town. Bau-Bau. South Sulawesi. North and East. 36%±43% with Bungku-Tolaki subgroup. Of those.000 in Indonesia (2005 SIL). 41% with Seko Padang [skx]. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). all are living languages. Wotu subdistrict. Lom (Belom. Classification: Austronesian. The number of individual languages listed for Indonesia (Sumatra) is 33. 43% with Kaili-Pamona subgroup. Menui. 37% with Toraja-Sa¶dan [sda]. Celebic.309. Central. Classification: Bangka . Aceh Province (north tip of Sumatra). 7. Mapor). Aceh [ace] 3. [wlo] 65. Malayo-Polynesian. Southeast Sulawesi. southwest Buton Island.

000 (2000 census). Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. [btx] 600. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. but distinct sociolinguistically. Classification: Austronesian. northeast of Tapaktuan and around Kutacane. Muaraklingi area.000. North central. [btd] 1. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (1991 UBS). Alternate names: Batta. Classification: Austronesian. Toba Batak.000 (2000). Northwest SumatraBarrier Islands. Batak. MalayoPolynesian. North Sumatra. North and East. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (2000 census). Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Polynesian. and west of Toba Lake. [liw] 145. North. MalayoPolynesian.000 (2000). Timur. Northern More information. Malay More information. Kluet. Northern. Dialects: Alas. Simalungan More information. Northern More information. Dialects: Similar to Angkola Batak [akb]. Southern More information.Austronesian. Northwest SumatraBarrier Islands.200. Alternate names: Batta.100. Batak. and north. Lubuklinggau area and east of Bengkulu. Alternate names: Karo Batak. Malayo-Polynesian. [bts] 1. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. [btm] 1. Alternate names: Anakola. North. Alternate names: Alas-Kluet Batak. Angkola. Samosir Island and east.000 (1991 UBS). Alternate names: Simelungan. Northern More information. Mandailing Batak. south. east. Pakpak Dairi. Central and north. Classification: Austronesian. [akb] 750. northeast of Lake Toba. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Dairi. Dialects: Similar to Mandailing Batak [btm]. Singkil (Kade-Kade). Malayo-Sumbawan. Malayic.200. west and northwest of Lake Toba. Batak.000 (1991 UBS). Batak. Interior south Sumatra. Dialects: Singkil. Classification: Austronesian. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. south. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. Southern More information. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. [bbc] 2.000 (1991 UBS). Sipirok area. Northern. Batak. Pakpak. Classification: Austronesian. Batak. Batak Angkola Batak Dairi Batak Karo Batak Mandailing Batak Simalungun Batak Toba Col . Southern More information. southwest of Lake Toba around Sidikalang. Batak. Batak Alas-Kluet [btz] 195.

000 (Seidlitz). Sindang. North Sumatra mountain region. Lexical similarity: 72% with Central Malay. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Bengkulu. Malayo-Polynesian. Enggano More information. Classification: Austronesian. Dialects: Lembak Delapan. Alternate names: Aji. North and East. Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. South Bengkulu. Daratan Province. Malayo-Sumbawan. Malayic. Mulak. north of Nasal [nsy] and Lampung Api [ljp] areas. south and west of Besemah [pse]. Desin Dolak. Alternate names: Gajo. MalayoPolynesian.500. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Bintuhan. Dialects: Genetically Malay with approximately 1/3 Lampung vocabulary.000 (2000). Southeast Aceh regencies. Malayic.Alternate names: Cul. Desin Duano. [hji] 17. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands More information. Malay More information. Lubuk Linggau.500 (2000 census). Gayo Lues. Not closely related to other languages. Malayic.000 (2000 census). Not conclusively established as an Austronesian language. rather than an isolate with Austronesian loans. Central Aceh. Population total all Enggano Gayo Haji Kaur Kerinci . Malayic. [kvr] 260. Dialects: Borrowings from Lampung Api. East Aceh. Sindang Kelingi. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Deret. Orang Kuala. Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan Regency. Alternate names: Duano¶. Malayo-Sumbawan. North and East. reportedly difficult to understand for Central Malay [pse] speakers. Malay More information. [vkk] 40. Southwest Sumatra. Serbejadi-Lukup. Southern and Northern Kaur areas. Total ethnic population all countries: 19. Lut. Lues.500. Malayo-Sumbawan. [gay] 300. Alternate names: Engganese. Classification: Austronesian. Aceh Province. Very few monolinguals. Sumatra. Classification: Austronesian. North and East. Orang Laut. [eno] 1. Population total all countries: 15. North and East. Beliti. Malay More information.000 in Indonesia (2006 SIL). Duano [dup] 15. MalayoPolynesian. Classification: Austronesian. southwest of Sumatra and on 4 smaller nearby islands. Classification: Austronesian. Malay More information. Enggano Island. West Riau archipelago and east coast of Riau. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Ka¶ur.000 in Indonesia (2000 census). decreasing. Malayo-Polynesian.

Tungkal. Sungkai. Dialects: Ulu. Downstream Komering. Alternate names: Api. Lampung Pesisir. Lampong. near headwaters of Kanan River. Malayo-Polynesian. 20. Dialects: Upstream Komering. Malay More information. Alternate names: Abung. Daya. Kinchai. Dialects: Krui (Kroe. Riau and south Sumatra. Komering [kge] 470. Kayu Agung.000 (2000 census). Lampung More information. Malay More information. Southern Pesisir. south of Muaradua. Malayo-Polynesian. [ljp] 827. Alternate names: Lonchong. Lampung More information. Also in Bahrain. 74% with Sungkai dialect of Lampung Api (most similar). Supat. Jambi Province. Ulu Lako. Pubian. Related to Lubu [lcf]. East coast on both sides of the mouths of the Kampat and Inderagiri rivers.000 (2000 census). Talang. Akit. [kvb] 10. Kayu Agung Asli. Dialects: Abung. High dialect diversity in a small area. Western Lampung). Dawas. South Sumatra. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp]. Sukadana. Alternate names: Anak Dalam. western mountains. MalayoSumbawan. Malayo-Polynesian. Nomadic Kubu. Mamaq. nearby islands. [lce] 420 (2000). 77% among dialects. Many differences in vocabulary and phonology with Lampung Api [ljp]. Lexical similarity: 72% between the Menggala dialect and the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api. West. eastern swamp region.000 in Jakarta (1992). Orang Hutan. MalayoPolynesian.000 (1989). Sakei. and coasts of Bangka and Belitung islands. Njo. Distinct from Kerinci-Minangkabau dialect of Minangkabau. Kubu Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Loncong . Jambi. Seka. Classification: Austronesian. Orang Rimba. and south Lampung Province.countries: 285. Lampung More information. Malayic. Tulangbawang. Alternate names: Kerinchi. South and east Lampung Province. Classification: Austronesian. Lampung. south Benkulu Province around Krui. and north and west. central. Along Komering River from Lake Ranau to near Palembang.000. Tungkal Ilir. Malayo-Polynesian. Sungaipenuh area. Komering. Melinting. North and East. [abl] 180. Kotajawa. Malayic. Sanggi. North and East. Kru¶i. Classification: Austronesian. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Sumbawan. Classification: Austronesian. Lampong. shading into Jambi Malay [zlm] east and Minangkabau [min] north. Ranau.000 (2000 census). Dialects: Lalang. Bajat. Orang Laut. Ridan. Spread across Jambi. Alternate names: Kumoring.

MalayoSumbawan.000 Deli. Malayo-Polynesian. Dialects: Simalegi. Classification: Austronesian. south of Muaraenim. Bengkulu. central region. Classification: Austronesian. Central Malay. Batin. North and East. Alternate names: Malayu.000 (2000 census).000 Tamiang in Aceh). Malay Malay. Riau mainland. Mentawi.000. Malayo-Sumbawan.000 (2000 census). Classification: Austronesian. Ogan.825. Alternate names: Mentawei. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands More information. Malayo-Sumbawan. South Siberut.000 in Riau. Silabu. East Sumatra. Malayic. Sipura. Sukadana. MalayoPolynesian.000 in Belitung. Taikaku. Malayo-Sumbawan. Malay More information. Sakalagan. Lubu [lcf] 30.000 (2007). Landak. Malay More information. [zlm] 905. Pasemah. Benakat. Malay More information. Malayo-Polynesian. Malayic. Pasemah. Dialects: Downstream Jambi Malay. Lintang. Malay More information. MalayoPolynesian. Enim. Belitung. Enim. Asahan etc. North and East. Jambi Province. Dialects: Related to Kubu [kvb]. Saumanganja. 3. Malay More information. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian.000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bahasa Daerah. east and southeast of Lahat. Sintang. Jambi Mentawai . Upstream Jambi Malay. Primarily coastal regions of central and north Sumatra and western Kalimantan. Classification: Austronesian. Sekadau. Alternate names: Djambi. Besemah. Pontianak. North and East.000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak. Rambang. Malayic. [pse] 2. Classification: Austronesian. Ogan. Southeast Sumatra. Dialects: Tamiang. Dialects: Serawai. and 940. Alternate names: Midden Maleisch. Malayo-Sumbawan. Ketapang. North and East. Bengkulu.965. Serawai. Kikim. North Siberut. Sintang. Semendo.350. Bengkulu.000 in Sumatra (100. Kapuas Hulu. in North Sumatra and 40. Mentawai Islands. Semenda.000. [mwv] 58. coastal Jambi. Lematang Ulu. Bahasa Melayu. Malayic.Sekah. South Sumatra. North and East. Deli. Malayic. Sakai. 2. [jax] 1. Riau islands.000 in Indonesia (2000 census). West coast of Sumatra area. Malayo-Polynesian. Sanggau. Pagai. Akit. Kisam. east down Lematang and Ogan river valleys. Sambas. 1. Sambas and Ketapang). Lintang. central Bukit Barisan highlands west to the Indian ocean along Bengkulu coast.

Dialects: Pegagan. Penghulu. Malayo-Polynesian. North and East. downstream to eastern coastal swamplands. 500. Alternate names: Minang. Batu Sangkar-Pariangan. Malayo-Polynesian. Classification: Austronesian. South Sumatra. Penesak. Rawas. Kapahiang areas. Si Junjung.000 (2000 census). Malayo-Polynesian. Lematang Ilir. Orang Mamak. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra.000 (2000 census). Malayic. Alternate names: Red Jang. Similar to Nias [nia]. Lebong recognized as central dialect. Singkarak. Muara Aman. Padang area. Classification: Austronesian. Malayo-Polynesian. Rawas.530. Classification: Austronesian. Penukal. Malayo-Sumbawan. [mui] 3. South Sumatra Province. Tapah. Bengkulu Province. Coastal Malay. Meranjat. Southern Nias. [skh] 20. Malay More information. Nias and Batu islands. Pasisir. Tanah. Kepahiang (Kebanagung). Pekal [pel] may be intelligible with Minangkabau. Northwest SumatraBarrier Islands. Burai. Classification: Austronesian. Musi Sekayu. Malayo-Sumbawan.930. Musi Nias Pekal Rejang Sikule . Rejang More information.000 (2007). KerinciMinangkabau. Palembang. Classification: Austronesian.000 (2000 census). Musi Rawa Ulu. South Sumatra Province. Off west coast of Sumatra. Ulu. Alternate names: Sichule. Alternate names: Batu. west coast Mukomuko area. Pajokumbuh. Malay More information. [pel] 30. Nias More information. Nias More information. Dialects: Agam. Curup.000 (2000 census). Malayo-Sumbawan. North and East. Malayo-Polynesian.Minangkabau [min] 5. southwest highlands. [nia] 770. North and East. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago. Dialects: Lekon. Dialects: Related to Minangkabau [min] with Rejang influences [rej]. [rej] 350. Alternate names: Sekayu. west central Sumatra. Central Simeulue Island. Malayic. Batu. Classification: Austronesian. Musi River upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains. to near Argamakmur south. South Sumatra. Wali Banuah. Sikhule. North Bengkulu Province. Dialects: Northern Nias. Palembang Lama. Malayic. Dialects: Lebong. Aneuk Jamee (Jamee). Palembang. Malayo-Polynesian. Belide. Musi (Curup).000 in Jakarta.000. Kelingi. Padang. Pancuang Soal (Muko-Muko). west coast. Arga Makmur. north of Ipuh to Tembesi River. Malay More information. Not intelligible with Indonesian [ind].

Simeulue [smr] 30.000. Simulul. Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands More information. Simeuloë. West and east ends of Simeulue Island. . Nias [nia]. Dialects: Related to Sikule [skh]. Simalur. Babi and Banjak islands. Classification: Austronesian. Alternate names: Long Bano. Malayo-Polynesian.

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