# AE4131 ABAQUS Lecture Part V

Patrick Roberts
gt0398b@prism.gatech.edu x5-2773 Weber 201

Starting ABAQUS CAE
You can start ABAQUS CAE from the start menu or with a command line by typing abaqus cae

TIP: You should start ABAQUS CAE via command line from the directory you want your results files to end up.

Dynamics
 We have seen how we can compute and view the results of static loading on 1D, 2D and 3D models.  We may also be interested in how a model moves as a function of time or dynamic modeling.  Reason: Stresses and displacements can be greater in a dynamic model than a static model.

The Beam Example: Let¶s look at a 3D beam that has dimensions of 1m length. .1 m height. 0. and 0.2 m width.

000. psi (72 GPa) ± Poison¶s ratio: 0.Material Properties  We used standard 2014-T6 aluminum alloy properties which are: ± Density: 174 lbm/ft3 (2800 kg/m3) ± Young¶s modulus : 10.400.33 .

± ABAQUS/Explicit uses the central-difference operator. ± ABAQUS/Standard uses the implicit Hilber-HughesTaylor operator for integration of the equations of motion. implicit and explicit. In an implicit dynamic analysis the integration operator matrix must be inverted and a set of nonlinear equilibrium equations must be solved at each time increment.The Step Module Under the General procedure type there are two basic types of dynamic analysis. . This offers the use of all elements in ABAQUS but can be slower than Explicit.

very general. three-dimensional contact problems with deformable bodies in ABAQUS/Explicit.ABAQUS Explicit ABAQUS/Explicit offers fewer element types than ABAQUS/Standard. displacement method elements (4-node quadrilaterals. and each degree of freedom in the model must have mass or rotary inertia associated with it. . 2. It is possible to solve complicated.) and modified second-order elements are used. However. Therefore. The explicit integration method is more efficient than the implicit integration method for solving extremely discontinuous events or processes. only first-order. the method provided in ABAQUS/Explicit has some important advantages: 1. 3. 4. etc. The analysis cost rises only linearly with problem size. ABAQUS/Explicit is attractive for very large problems. 8node bricks. For example. whereas the cost of solving the nonlinear equations associated with implicit integration rises more rapidly than linearly with problem size. Problems involving stress wave propagation can be far more efficient computationally in ABAQUS/Explicit than in ABAQUS/Standard.

Dynamics For our modeling we will use ABAQUS Standard (implicit). . ± Edit Step Dialog  Basic tab: ± Time period : 5  Incrementation tab: ± ± ± ± Type : fixed. Maximum number of increments : 50000. Increment size: 0.0001. Check: Suppress half-step residual calculation. ± Monitor the displacement of a node in the transverse direction.

.The loading We apply a 5 Newton load to the top two corners of the beam at the free end.

You should monitor the model as it runs. .Running the model The model may take some time to run. If there is a problem it¶s important you see how the problem manifests itself.

Results .

Numerical errors can often appear as ³artificial´ damping (usually negative damping which causes exponential growth) .Results What we see is an initial transient region then the oscillation settles to a steady state with a bias from 0 of about 0. Because there is no damping the energy cannot dissipate so it will oscillate about this point at that amplitude forever.65.

.  Any time two or more parts come in contact the nature of the contact surfaces must be defined.Dynamic modeling with contact analysis  Contact/noncontact analysis is studied extensively in finite element modeling.

We want to model how this non-bonded area effects the dynamic response of the block when there is a periodic pressure load applied on the bottom of the plate. There is a circular area in the center that is not bonded.Example problem In our example we consider a block bonded onto a plate. .

3048 m)  Height = 0.1524 m)  Width = 6 inches (0.0762 m) Plate dimensions:  Length = 12 inches (0.009525 m) .1524 m)  Height = 3 inches (0.Part module Block dimensions:  Length = 6 inches (0.3048 m)  Width = 12 inches (0.375 inch (0.

33 Plate material:  Density = 174.000 psi (72 GPa)  Poisons ratio = 0. lb/ft3 (2800 kg/m3)  Young¶s modulus = 10.400.Property module Block material:  Density = 12 lb/ft3 (192 kg/m3)  Young¶s modulus = 29 x 106 psi (200 GPa)  Poisons ratio = 0.33 .

Assembly module  When you create each instance make sure to auto offset. .  To place the tile correctly use datum points on the center of the bottom of the block and the top of the plate.  Translate the block so it is centered on the top of the plate.

Assembly Module .

Step Module  Create a dynamic step just like in our beam example.  Monitor one corner of the block in the transverse direction. .

03 m. . You can use this to turn on/off views of parts.  Two types of contact for this model: ± Tied (for areas that are perfectly bonded) and ± NoFric (for those areas not bonded).Interaction Module  This is the module you will define the contact surfaces. Go to the Instance tab.  We will create a circular partition on the center of the contact surface of the block and plate with a radius of 0.  Under View you will see an option of Assembly Display Options.

´ ABAQUS/Standard defines ³selfcontact´ in terms of a single surface.Interaction Module  ABAQUS/Standard defines contact between two bodies in terms of two surfaces that may interact. The interaction is then discretized between the point on the master surface and the slave node. these surfaces are called a ³contact pair.  We will use the plate as the Master surface and the block as the slave surface. For each node on the first surface (the ³slave´ surface) ABAQUS/Standard attempts to find the closest point on the second surface (the ³master´ surface) of the contact pair where the master surface's normal passes through the node on the slave surface. (From the ABAQUS documentation) .  The order in which the two surfaces are specified on the *CONTACT PAIR option is critical because of the manner in which surface interactions are discretized.

Go to Constraint and pick Tie from the list.  Outside the circle on both parts we need to define tied contact. pick the master and slave surface. Choose each surface outside the circle. Manager. . Go to Interaction. Surface-to-Surface contact.Interaction Module  Inside the circle on both parts we need to define the NoFriction contact definition. Step is Initial. Create and give it a name.

 We want to have a periodic pressure applied to the bottom of the plate of 10 Hz (62. .Load Module  Fully constrain the four sides of the plate.8 rad/s) and a magnitude of 5.

Defining Periodic loading These are constants that are defined on the data lines of *AMPLITUDE (From the ABAQUS documentation) .

. Create. Add the values as seen in the next slide.Defining Periodic loading Go to Tools. give it a name and choose Periodic. Amplitude.

When you get to Amplitude pick the periodic amplitude you just defined. .Load Module  Define a pressure load on the bottom of the plate with a magnitude of 5.

element type. .Mesh Module When choosing which parts mesh controls. seed and mesh instance hold down the Shift key and choose both parts.

Notice that the nodes in question have been placed in node sets. Kill the job. . 3. 5. Submit the job and watch for Warnings.Job Module 1. 4. We immediately see zero pivot and overconstraint warnings. Go into Results. 2.

When you choose Node Sets you will see a list of sets the system created when it had problems. Pick one and you will see they are near the perimeter of the circle we created.Visualization module ABAQUS helps you locate problems by assigning nodes or elements to sets so you can view them in the Visualization module. . Turn on Node labeling Create a Display group.

ABAQUS doesn¶t know which rule set to apply to these nodes. . The nodes along the perimeter of the circle are connected to elements with two different contact surface definitions.The problem All attributes of a node are defined by the elements that are attached to them. Therefore.

It should look like .035.  Add a circle that has a radius of 0.The Solution  Go back and delete all the tied contact surface definitions.

The Solution  The area inside the inner circle is already defined as NoFriction. The area between the two surfaces are undefined. Define the area outside the outer circle as Tied contact. This way a node has at most one contact surface definition. .  Now rerun the model.

The important item to notice is no more warnings. .The Results This model takes quite some time to run. The results should be compared with theory.

.The Conclusion  Dynamic modeling in ABAQUS is very easy and can provide very meaningful results.  Check results against established theory to confirm what the software is calculating.  Take the time to understand all the dynamic procedures in ABAQUS to choose the best one for your analysis.