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# 2

## 1. (a) Factorise x – 3x – 10.

2
(b) Solve the equation x – 3x – 10 = 0.

## 2. The diagram represents the graph of the function

f : x  (x – p) (x – q).
y

– 1
2 x
2

## (a) Write down the values of p and q.

(b) The function has a minimum value at the point C. Find the x-coordinate of C.

## 3. The graph represents the function

f: x  p cos x, p ∈ .
y
3

π x
2

– 3

Find: (a) the value of p; (b) the area of the shaded region.

## 4. Two functions f and g are defined as follows:

f(x) = cos x, 0 = ≤ x ≤ 2π ;

g(x) = 2x + 1, x∈ .

## Solve the equation (g o f) (x) = 0.

2x + 1
5. The function f is given by F(x) = x − 3 , x ∈ , x ≠ 3.

## (a) (i) Show that y = 2 is an asymptote of the graph of y = f(x).

1
(ii) Find the vertical asymptote of the graph.

(iii) Write down the coordinates of the point P at which the asymptotes intersect.

(b) Find the points of intersection of the graph and the axes.

(c) Hence sketch the graph of y = f(x), showing the asymptotes by dotted lines.

−7
2
(d) Show that f′ (x) = ( x − 3) and hence find the equation of the tangent at
the point S where x = 4.

(e) The tangent at the point T on the graph is parallel to the tangent at S.

## f) Show that P is the midpoint of [ST].

6. The diagram shows the parabola y = (7 – x)(l + x). The points A and C are the x-intercepts and the point B is
the maximum point.
y
Find the coordinates of A, B and C.

B
7. Three of the following diagrams I, II, III, IV represent the graphs of

## (a) y = 3 + cos 2x (b) y = 3 cos(x + 2) (c) y = 2 cos x + 3.

Identify which diagram represents which graph.

A 0 C x
I y I I y

4 2

1
2
x
–π – 1π – 1–π π 3–π
2 – 1 2 2
x
–π – 1π – 1–π π 3–π
– 2
2 2 2

y y
I I I I V
3
5
2
4
1
3
x
2
–π – 1π – 1–π π 3–π
2 2 2
1

x
–π – 1π – 1–π π 3–π
– 3 2 2 2
1n ( x − 2)
8. The function f is given by f(x) = . Find the domain of the function.

9. A population of bacteria is growing at the rate of 2.3 % per minute. How long will it take for the size of the

x –1
10. Let f(x) = √x, and g(x) = 2 . Solve the equation (f o g)(x) = 0.25.

11. Two functions f, g are defined as follows: f : x → 3x + 5 and g : x → 2(1 – x). Find
–1
(a) f (2); (b) (g o f)(–4).
2
12. The quadratic equation 4x + 4kx + 9 = 0, k > 0 has exactly one solution for x. Find the value of k.

B
y
A

## 13. The diagram shows three graphs.

3
x
A is part of the graph of y = x B is part of the graph of y = 2 . C is the reflection of graph B in line A.

Write down: (a) the equation of C in the form y =f(x); (b) the coordinates of the point where
C cuts the x-axis.
2
14. The diagrams show how the graph of y = x is transformed to the graph of y = f(x) in three steps.

## For each diagram give the equation of the curve.

y y

( a )
1

0 x 0 x
y =2 x 1

( b ) ( c )7
y

0 1 x 0 1 x

 3x + π 
15. f(x) = 4 sin  2  . For what values of k will the equation f(x) = k have no solutions?

2
16. The diagram shows the graph of the function y = ax + bx + c.
y

## Complete the table belowpositive

Expression to show whether each expression is positive,
negative zero negative or zero.
a
c
2
b – 4ac
b

17. Initially a tank contains 10 000 litres of liquid. At the time t = 0 minutes a tap is opened, and liquid then
flows out of the tank. The volume of liquid, V litres, which remains in the tank after t minutes is given by
t
V = 10 000 (0.933 ).

## (a) Find the value of V after 5 minutes.

(b) Find how long, to the nearest second, it takes for half of the initial amount of liquid to flow out of the
tank.

(c) The tank is regarded as effectively empty when 95% of the liquid has flowed out.
Show that it takes almost three-quarters of an hour for this to happen.

## (d) (i) Find the value of 10 000 – V when t = 0.001 minutes.

(ii) Hence or otherwise, estimate the initial flow rate of the liquid.
Give your answer in litres per minute, correct to two significant figures.
2 2
18. (a) Express f(x) = x – 6x + 14 in the form f(x) = (x – h) + k, where h and k are to be determined.
2
(b) Hence, or otherwise, write down the coordinates of the vertex of the parabola with equation y – x – 6x
+ 14.

19. A group of ten leopards is introduced into a game park. After t years the number of leopards, N, is modelled
0.4t
by N = 10 e .

## (a) How many leopards are there after 2 years?

(b) How long will it take for the number of leopards to reach 100? Give your answers to an appropriate
degree of accuracy.

f : x  x + 1, x ≥ – 1
20. Consider the function
–1
(a) Determine the inverse function f .
–1
(b) What is the domain of f ?

21. The diagram shows the graph of y = f(x), with the x-axis as an asymptote.

5
y

B ( 5 , 4 )

A ( – 5 , – 4 )

(a) On the same axes, draw the graph of y =f(x + 2) – 3, indicating the coordinates of the images of the
points A and B.
(b) Write down the equation of the asymptote to the graph of y = f(x + 2) – 3.

2
22. (a) Sketch, on the given axes, the graphs of y = x and y – sin x for –1 ≤ x ≤ 2.

– 1 – 0 . 5 0 0 . 5 1 1 . 5 2 x
2
(b) Find the positive solution of the equation x = sin x, giving your answer correct to 6 significant
figures.

23. A ball is thrown vertically upwards into the air. The height, h metres, of the ball above the ground after t
2
seconds is given by h = 2 + 20t – 5t , t ≥ 0

(a) Find the initial height above the ground of the ball (that is, its height at the instant when it is released).

(b) Show that the height of the ball after one second is 17 metres.

## (c) At a later time the ball is again at a height of 17 metres.

(i) Write down an equation that t must satisfy when the ball is at a height of 17 metres.

## (ii) Solve the equation algebraically.

dh
(d) (i) Find dt .

(ii) Find the initial velocity of the ball (that is, its velocity at the instant when it is released).

## (iv) Find the maximum height of the ball.

2
24. The diagram shows part of the graph with equation y = x + px + q. The graph cuts the x-axis at –2 and 3.

x
– 3 – 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4
– 2

– 4

– 6

## Find the value of (a) p; (b) q.

25. Each year for the past ﬁve years the population of a certain country has increased at a steady rate of 2.7% per
annum. The present population is 15.2 million.

## (b) What was the population ﬁve years ago?

x
26. (a) On the diagram, sketch the graphs of y = e and y = cos x for –2 ≤ x ≤ 1.
x
(b) The equation e = cos x has a solution between –2 and –1. Find this solution.

7
3
f :xa 3 – 2x , x≤ . –1
27. The function f is deﬁned by 2 Evaluate f (5) .

28. The following diagram shows the graph of y = f (x). It has minimum and maximum points at
1
1,
(0, 0) and ( 2 ).

3 . 5

2 . 5

1 . 5

0 . 5

– 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 x
– 0 . 5

– 1

– 1 . 5

– 2

– 2 . 5

3
y = f ( x – 1) +
(a) On the same diagram, draw the graph of 2.

(b) What are the coordinates of the minimum and maximum points of
3
y = f ( x – 1) +
2?

29. Michele invested 1500 francs at an annual rate of interest of 5.25 percent,
compounded annually.

(a) Find the value of Michele’s investment after 3 years. Give your answer to the nearest franc.

(b) How many complete years will it take for Michele’s initial investment to double in value?

(c) What should the interest rate be if Michele’s initial investment were to double in value in 10 years?

## 30. Note: Radians are used throughout this question.

Let f (x) = sin (1 + sin x). (a) (i) Sketch the graph of y = f (x), for 0 ≤ x ≤ 6.
(ii) Write down the x-coordinates of all minimum and maximum points of f, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 6 . Give

(b) Let S be the region in the ﬁrst quadrant completely enclosed by the graph of f and both coordinate
axes.

## (c) Give reasons why f (x) ≥ 0 for all values of x.

31. In the diagram below, the points O(0 , 0) and A(8 , 6) are ﬁxed. The angle OP̂A
varies as the point P(x , 10) moves along the horizontal line y = 10.

y
P x( , 1 0 )
y= 1 0

A ( 8 , 6 )

O ( 0 , 0 ) x

diagram to scale

AP = x 2 – 16 x + 80.
(a) (i) Show that

## (b) Hence, show that

x 2 – 8 x + 40
cos OP̂A = ,
√ {( x 2 – 16 x + 80) ( x 2 + 100)}

## Let the function f be deﬁned by

x 2 – 8 x + 40
f ( x) = cos OP̂A = , 0 ≤ x ≤ 15.
√ {( x 2 – 16 x + 80) ( x 2 + 100)}

## (e) Consider the equation f (x) = 1.

(i) Explain, in terms of the position of the points O, A, and P, why this equation has a solution.

## (ii) Find the exact solution to the equation.

2 2
32. The diagram shows parts of the graphs of y = x and y = 5 – 3(x – 4) .

9
y

y =2 x
8

6 2
y = 5 – 3 ( x– 4 )

x
– 2 0 2 4 6

2 2
The graph of y = x may be transformed into the graph of y = 5 – 3(x – 4) by these transformations.

## A reflection in the line y = 0 followed by

a vertical stretch with scale factor k followed by
a horizontal translation of p units followed by
a vertical translation of q units.

## Write down the value of(a) k;p; (c) (b)

q.
x
33. The diagram below shows the graph of y = x sin 3 , for 0 ≤ x < m, and 0 ≤ y < n, where x is in radians and
m and n are integers.
y
n

n– 1

0 m – 1 m x

## Find the value of (a) m; (b) n.

3x –1
34. Given that f(x) = 2e , find the inverse function f (x).

3 2
35. The diagram below shows part of the graph of the function f : x  – x + 2 x + 15 x .
y

4 0
Q
3 5
3 0
2 5
2 0
A 1 5
1 0
5 B
– 3 – 2 – 1– 5 1 2 3 4 5 x

– 1 0
– 1 5
P
– 2 0

The graph intercepts the x-axis at A(–3,0), B(5,0) and the origin, O. There is a minimum point at P and a
maximum point at Q.

## (a) The function may also be written in the form f : x  – x( x – a) ( x – b),

where a < b . Write down the value of (i) a; (ii) b.
(b) Find (i) f ′ (x); (ii) the exact values of x at which f '(x) = 0; (iii) the value of the
function at Q.

## (c) (i) Find the equation of the tangent to the graph of f at O.

(ii) This tangent cuts the graph of f at another point. Give the x-coordinate of this point.

## (d) Determine the area of the shaded region.

x
x –1
36. Let f(x) = 2 , and g(x) = x – 2 , (x ≠ 2). Find: (a) (g ° f) (3); (b) g (5).
2
37. The diagram shows part of the graph of y = a (x – h) + k. The graph has its vertex at P, and passes through
the point A with coordinates (1, 0).
y

P
2

A
– 1 0 1 x

## (b) Calculate the value of a.

11
1 1
(a) Show that ∫
– kx
e dx
= k (1 – e ).
–kx –k
38. Consider functions of the form y = e 0

## (b) Let k = 0.5

–0.5x
(i) Sketch the graph of y = e , for –1 ≤ x ≤ 3, indicating the coordinates of the
y-intercept.

(ii) Shade the region enclosed by this graph, the x-axis, y-axis and the line x = 1.

## (iii) Find the area of this region.

dy
–kx
(c) (i) Find dx in terms of k, where y = e .

–kx
The point P(1, 0.8) lies on the graph of the function y = e .

## (iii) Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at P.

2
39. Consider the function f(x) = 2x – 8x + 5.

2
(a) Express f(x) in the form a (x – p) + q, where a, p, q ∈ .

## (b) Find the minimum value of f(x).

x
40. Solve the equation e = 5 – 2x, giving your answer correct to four significant figures.

6– x
41. Consider the functions f : x  4 (x – 1) and g : x  2 .
–1
(a) Find g .
–1
(b) Solve the equation (f ° g ) (x) = 4.

42. \$1000 is invested at 15% per annum interest, compounded monthly. Calculate the minimum number of
months required for the value of the investment to exceed \$3000.

43. The sketch shows part of the graph of y = f(x) which passes through the points A(–1, 3), B(0, 2), C(l, 0), D(2,
1) and E(3, 5).
8

6
E
5

4
A
3
B
2
D
1
C
– 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

– 1

– 2

## (a) Calculate g(0), g(1), g(2) and g(3).

(b) On the same axes, sketch the graph of the function g(x).
x
44. The diagram below shows a sketch of the graph of the function y = sin(e ) where –1 ≤ x ≤ 2, and x is in
radians. The graph cuts the y-axis at A, and the x-axis at C and D. It has a maximum point at B.
y
B
A

– 1 0 1 C D 2 x

## (a) Find the coordinates of A.

(b) The coordinates of C may be written as (ln k, 0). Find the exact value of k.

dy
(c) (i) Write down the y-coordinate of B. (ii) Find dx . (iii) Hence, show that at B, x =

13
π
ln 2 .

(d) (i) Write down the integral which represents the shaded area. (ii) Evaluate this
integral.

(e) (i) Copy the above diagram into your answer booklet. (There is no need to copy the
3
shading.) On your diagram, sketch the graph of y = x .

(ii) The two graphs intersect at the point P. Find the x-coordinate of P.
4 3 2
45. Let g(x) = x – 2x + x – 2. (a) Solve g(x) = 0.

2x3
+1
Let f(x) = g ( x) . A part of the graph of f(x) is shown below.

A 0 B x

(b) The graph has vertical asymptotes with equations x = a and x = b where a < b. Write down the values
of (i) a; (ii) b.

(c) The graph has a horizontal asymptote with equation y = l. Explain why the value of f(x) approaches 1
as x becomes very large.

(d) The graph intersects the x-axis at the points A and B. Write down the exact value of the x-coordinate
at (i) A; (ii) B.

(e) The curve intersects the y-axis at C. Use the graph to explain why the values of f′ (x) and f′ ′ (x) are
zero at C.

x
46. Let f(x) = e
–x,
and g(x) = 1 + x , x ≠ –1. Find: (a)
–1
f (x) (b) (g ° f)(x).

## 47. A family of functions is given by

2
f(x) = x + 3x + k, where k ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}.

One of these functions is chosen at random. Calculate the probability that the curve of this function crosses
the x-axis.

## 48. Consider the following relations between two variables x and y.

A. y = sin x

B. y is directly proportional to x

C. y = 1 + tan x

x
E. y=2

## F. distance y as a function of time x, velocity decreasing

Each sketch below could represent exactly two of the above relations on a certain interval.

(i) ( i i ) ( i i i )
y y y

x x x

Complete the table below, by writing the letter for the two relations that each sketch could represent.

## sketch relation letters

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
2
49. The diagram shows part of the graph of the curve y = a (x – h) + k, where a, h, k ∈ .

2 0

1 5

1 0

0 x
1 2 3 4 5 6 .

(a) The vertex is at the point (3, 1). Write down the value of h and of k.

## b) The point P(5, 9) is on the graph. Show that a = 2.

2
(c) Hence show that the equation of the curve can be written as y = 2x – 12x + 19.

15
dy
(d) (i) Find dx .

## (iii) Find the equation of this tangent.

2
50. The equation kx + 3x +1 = 0 has exactly one solution. Find the value of k.

q
.
51. (a) The diagram shows part of the graph of the function f(x) = x – p The curve passes through the
point A (3, 10). The line (CD) is an asymptote.
y
C
1 5

1 0 A

– 1 5 – 1 0 – 5 0 5 1 0 1 5x

– 5

– 1 0

– 1 5
D

## Find the value of (i) p; (ii) q.

(b) The graph of f(x) is transformed as shown in the following diagram. The point A is transformed to A′
(3, –10).

17
y
C
1 5

1 0

– 1 5 – 1 0 – 5 0 5 1 0 1 5x

– 5

– 1 0
A

– 1 5
D

## Give a full geometric description of the transformation.

–0.2t
52. The mass m kg of a radio-active substance at time t hours is given by m = 4e .

## (a) Write down the initial mass.

(b) The mass is reduced to 1.5 kg. How long does this take?

2
53. The function f is given by f(x) = x – 6x + 13, for x ≥ 3.

2
(a) Write f(x) in the form (x – a) + b.

–1
(b) Find the inverse function f .

–1
c) State the domain of f .

54. Let f(x) = 2x + 1. (a) On the grid below draw the graph of f(x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.

(b) Let g(x) = f(x +3) –2. On the grid below draw the graph of g(x) for –3 ≤ x ≤ –1.
y
6

– 6 – 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

– 1

– 2

– 3

– 4

– 5

– 6

1 3 7
55. Let A and B be events such that P(A) = 2 , P(B) = 4 and P(A ∪ B) = 8 .

## (b) Calculate P(A B).

(c) Are the events A and B independent? Give a reason for your answer.

## (a) Sketch the curve of y = f(x) on the grid below.

19
y
2

1 . 5

0 . 5

0
0 . 5 1 1 . 5 2 2 . 5 3 3 . x5

– 0 . 5

– 1

– 1 . 5

– 2
(b) Find the x-coordinates of the maximum and minimum points of f(x), giving your answers correct to
one decimal place.

2
57. The equation x – 2kx + 1 = 0 has two distinct real roots. Find the set of all possible values of k.

58. There were 1420 doctors working in a city on 1 January 1994. After n years the number of doctors, D,
working in the city is given by D = 1420 + 100n.

(a) (i) How many doctors were there working in the city at the start of 2004?

(ii) In what year were there first more than 2000 doctors working in the city?
At the beginning of 1994 the city had a population of 1.2 million. After n years, the population, P, of the city
n
is given by P = 1 200 000 (1.025) .

## (b) (i) Find the population P at the beginning of 2004.

(ii) Calculate the percentage growth in population between 1 January 1994 and 1 January 2004.

(iii) In what year will the population first become greater than 2 million?

(c) (i) What was the average number of people per doctor at the beginning of 1994?

(ii) After how many complete years will the number of people per doctor first fall below 600?

2 –1
59. Let f(x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = 3x – 4. Find: (a) f (x); (b) (g ° f )(–2);

(c) (f ° g)(x).

60. Let f(x) = 2 + cos (2x) – 2sin (0.5x) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3, where x is in radians.

(a) On the grid below, sketch the curve of y = f(x), indicating clearly the point P on the curve where the
derivative is zero.
y
4
3
2
1
0
0 . 5 1 1 . 5 2 2 . 5 3 x
– 1
– 2
– 3
– 4

## (b) Write down the solutions of f(x) = 0.

0.05t
61. The population p of bacteria at time t is given by p = 100e . Calculate: (a) the value of p when t = 0;
(b) the rate of increase of the population when t = 10.

62. Part of the graph of the periodic function f is shown below. The domain of f is 0 ≤ x ≤ 15 and the period is
3.

f( x )
4

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0

## (a) Find: (i) f(2); (ii) f′ (6.5); (iii) f′ (14).

(b) How many solutions are there to the equation f(x) = 1 over the given domain?

2
63. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) = –(x – h) + k. The diagram below shows part of the graph of f(x). The
maximum point on the curve is P(3, 2).

21
y
4
P ( 3 , 2 )
2

x
– 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
– 2

– 4

– 6

– 8

– 1 0

– 1 2

## (a) Write down the value of: (i) h; (ii) k.

2
(b) Show that f(x) can be written as f(x) = –x + 6x – 7.

## (c) Find f′ (x).

The point Q lies on the curve and has coordinates (4, 1). A straight line L, through Q, is perpendicular to the
tangent at Q.

## (ii) Find the equation of L.

(iii) The line L intersects the curve again at R. Find the x-coordinate of R.

## (a) (i) Find f′ (x).

(ii) Find the values for x for which f′ (x) = 0, giving your answers in terms of π .

π
The function g(x) is defined as g(x) = f(2x) – 1, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 .

(b) (i) The graph of f may be transformed to the graph of g by a stretch 1in the x-direction
with scale factor followed by another transformation. Describe fully this other transformation.

## (ii) Find the solution to the equation g(x) = f(x)

65. Let h(x) = (x – 2)sin(x – 1) for –5 ≤ x ≤ 5. The curve of h(x) is shown below. There is a minimum point at R
and a maximum point at S. The curve intersects the x-axis at the points (a, 0) (1, 0) (2, 0) and (b, 0).
y
4

1
S
(a , 0 ) (b , 0 )
– 5 – 4 – 3 – 2 – 1 1 2 3 4 5 x
R
– 1

– 2

– 3

– 4

– 5

– 6

– 7
(a) Find the exact value of (i) a; (ii) b.

The regions between the curve and the x-axis are shaded for a ≤ x ≤ 2 as shown.

(b) (i) Write down an expression which represents the total area of the shaded regions.

## (c) (i) The y-coordinate of R is –0.240. Find the y-coordinate of S.

(ii) Hence or otherwise, find the range of values of k for which the equation (x – 2)sin(x – 1) = k has
four distinct solutions.

## (a) Find an expression for (f ° g) (x).

–l –l
(b) Show that f (18) + g (18) = 22.
3
f ( x) = ,
9 – x2
67. The function f is defined by for –3 < x < 3.

## (c) Write down the range of the function f.

2
68. The quadratic function f is defined by f(x) = 3x – 12x + 11.

2
(a) Write f in the form f(x) = 3(x – h) – k.

(b) The graph of f is translated 3 units in the positive x-direction and 5 units in the positive y-direction.
2
Find the function g for the translated graph, giving your answer in the form g(x) = 3(x – p) + q.
2x
69. The diagram below shows the graphs of f(x) = 1 + e , g(x) = 10x + 2, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5.
y
f

1 6 g
23

1 2
(a) (i) Write down an expression for the vertical distance p between the graphs of f and g.

(ii) Given that p has a maximum value for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5, find the value of x at which this occurs.

## The graph of y = f(x) only is shown in the diagram below. When x = a, y = 5.

y

1 6

1 2

8
5
4

x
0 . a5 1 1 . 5

–1
(b) (i) Find f (x).

## (ii) Hence show that a = ln 2.

(c) The region shaded in the diagram is rotated through 360° about the x-axis. Write down an expression
for the volume obtained.
70. Consider the line L with equation y + 2x = 3. The line L1 is parallel to L and passes through the point (6, –4).

## (b) Find the equation of L1 in the form y = + mx + b.

(c) Find the x-coordinate of the point where line L1 crosses the x-axis.

(x–11)
71. The function f is given by f(x) = e –8.

–1
(a) Find f (x).

–l
(b) Write down the domain of f (x).

## 72. The graph of y = f(x) is shown in the diagram.

y
2

– 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
– 1

– 2
(a) On each of the following diagrams draw the required graph,

(i) y = 2f(x);
y
2

– 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
– 1

– 2

## (ii) y = f(x – 3).

y
2

– 2 – 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
– 1

– 2

25
(b) The point A (3, –1) is on the graph of f. The point A′ is the corresponding point on the graph of y = –
f(x) + 1. Find the coordinates of A′ .

73. The equation of a curve may be written in the form y = a(x – p)(x – q). The curve intersects the x-axis at A(–
2, 0) and B(4, 0). The curve of y = f(x) is shown in the diagram below.

y
4

A B
– 4 – 2 0 2 4 6 x

– 2

– 4

– 6

## (a) (i) Write down the value of p and of q.

(ii) Given that the point (6, 8) is on the curve, find the value of a.

2
(iii) Write the equation of the curve in the form y = ax + bx + c.

dy
(b) (i) Find dx .

(ii) A tangent is drawn to the curve at a point P. The gradient of this tangent is 7.
Find the coordinates of P.

(c) The line L passes through B(4, 0), and is perpendicular to the tangent to the curve at point B.

## (i) Find the equation of L.

(ii) Find the x-coordinate of the point where L intersects the curve again.