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Uy-Loi Ly

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Box 352400

University of Washington

Seattle, WA98195

September 29, 1997

i

c ´Copyright 1997, by Uy-Loi Ly. All rights reserved.

No parts of this book may be photocopied or reproduced in any form without the written permission.

Contents

Glossary viii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Lift Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.2 Drag Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.3 Pitching Moment Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Linear Algebra and Matrices 5

2.1 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.2 Matrix Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.3 Linear Ordinary Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 Laplace Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.5 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.6.1 Laplace method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.6.2 Time-domain method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.6.3 Numerical integration method (via MATLAB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3 Principles of Static and Dynamic Stability 23

4 Static Longitudinal Stability 27

4.1 Notations and Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.2 Stick-Fixed Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.3 Stick-Free Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.4 Other Inﬂuences on the Longitudinal Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.4.1 Inﬂuence of Wing Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.4.2 Inﬂuence of the Propulsive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.4.3 Inﬂuence of Fuselage and Nacelles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.4.4 Effect of Airplane Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.4.5 Inﬂuence of Ground Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5 Static Longitudinal Control 45

5.1 Longitudinal Trim Conditions with Elevator Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.1.1 Determination of Elevator Angle for a New Trim Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.1.2 Longitudinal Control Position as a Function of Lift Coefﬁcient . . . . . . . . . . . 48

ii

CONTENTS iii

5.2 Control Stick Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.2.1 Stick Force for a Stabilator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.2.2 Stick Force for a Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5.3 Steady Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

5.3.1 Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

5.3.2 Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5.3.3 Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

5.3.4 Stabilator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

6 Lateral Static Stability and Control 61

6.1 Yawingand Rolling Moment Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

6.1.1 Contributions to the Yawing Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

6.1.2 Contributions to the Rolling Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

6.2 Directional Stability (Weathercock Stability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

6.3 Directional Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

6.4 Roll Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

6.5 Roll Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

7 Review of Rigid Body Dynamics 75

7.1 Force Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

7.2 Moment Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

7.3 Euler’s Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

8 Linearized Equations of Motion 85

8.1 Linearized Linear Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

8.2 Linearized Angular Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

8.3 Linearized Euler’s Angle Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

8.4 Forces and Moments in terms of their Coefﬁcient Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

8.4.1 Lift Force L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

8.4.2 Drag Force D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

8.4.3 Side-Force Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

8.4.4 Thrust Force T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

8.4.5 Pitching Moment M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

8.4.6 YawingMoment N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

8.4.7 Rolling Moment L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

9 Linearized Longitudinal Equations of Motion 97

9.1 Phugoid-Mode Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

9.2 Short-Period Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

10 Linearized Lateral Equations of Motion 109

11 Flight Vehicle Models 117

11.1 Generic F-15 Model Data (Subsonic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

11.2 Generic F-15 Model Data (Supersonic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

List of Figures

1.1 Motion in the Longitudinal Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

3.1 Three Possible Cases of Static Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.2 Three Possible Cases of Dynamic Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.1 Moments about the Center of Gravity of the Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.2 Deﬁnition of Aircraft Variables in Flight Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.3 Forces and Moments Applied to a Wing-Tail Conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.4 Moment Coefﬁcient C

M

cg

versus α . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.5 Calculation of Wing Aerodynamic Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.6 Horizontal Tail Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.7 Forces on a Propeller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.8 Propeller Normal Force Coefﬁcient C

N

pα

=

∂CN

blade

∂α

f (T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4.9 K

f

as a Function of the Position of the Wing c/4 Root Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.1 How to Change Airplane Trim Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.2 Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Tail Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.3 Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Elevator Deﬂection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.4 Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Point from Flight Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.5 Longitudinal Control Stick to Stabilator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

5.6 Stick Force versus VelocityCurve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

6.1 Deﬁnition of the Lateral Directional Motion of an Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

6.2 Effect of Sweepback on Total Lift and Rolling Moment to Sideslip . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.3 Effect of Wing Placement on the Rolling Moment to Sideslip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.4 Airplane with a Positive Sideslip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

7.1 Motion of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

7.2 Euler’s Angle Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

8.1 Deﬁnition of Angle of Attack α and Sideslip β . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

8.2 X and Z-Force Components in terms of L, D and T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

9.1 Longitudinal Aircraft Responses to a 1-deg Elevator Impulsive Input . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

9.2 Short-Period Approximation Model to a 1-deg Elevator Impulse Input . . . . . . . . . . . 107

10.1 Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Aileron Impulse Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

iv

LIST OF FIGURES v

10.2 Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Rudder Impulse Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

List of Tables

2.1 Laplace Transforms of Some Common Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

vi

vii

viii Glossary

Glossary

a Lift curve slope (1/rad)

a Speed of sound (ft/sec)

b Wing span (ft)

c Wing chord (ft)

¨ c Mean aerodynamic chord (ft)

D Drag force (lbs)

F Total force (lbs)

F

x

Force component along the x-axis (lbs)

F

y

Force component along the y-axis (lbs)

F

z

Force component along the z-axis (lbs)

g Gravitational acceleration (ft/sec

2

)

H Hinge moment (ft-lbs)

I Identity matrix

I Inertia matrix (slugs-ft

2

)

I

xx

Moment of inertia about the x-axis (slugs-ft

2

)

I

yy

Moment of inertia about the y-axis (slugs-ft

2

)

I

zz

Moment of inertia about the z-axis (slugs-ft

2

)

L Lift force (lbs)

L Rolling moment (ft-lbs)

m Vehicle mass (slugs)

M Mach number (dimensionless)

M Total moment (ft-lbs)

M

x

Moment about the vehicle x-axis (ft-lbs)

M

y

Moment about the vehicle y-axis (ft-lbs)

M

z

Moment about the vehicle z-axis (ft-lbs)

M Pitching moment (ft-lbs)

N Yawingmoment (ft-lbs)

p Roll rate (rad/sec)

q Pitch rate (rad/sec)

q Dynamic pressure (psi)

r Yawrate (rad/sec)

S Surface area (ft

2

)

t Time (sec)

T Thrust force (lbs)

u Velocitycomponent along the x-axis (ft/sec)

v Velocitycomponent along the y-axis (ft/sec)

V Aircraft velocity vector (ft/sec)

V Velocity(ft/sec)

V

H

Horizontal tail volume (dimensionless)

Glossary ix

w Velocitycomponent along the z-axis (ft/sec)

W Vehicle weight (lbs)

X Force along the x-axis (lbs)

Y Side force or force along the y-axis (lbs)

Z Force along the z-axis (lbs)

Greek Symbols

α Angle of attack (rad)

β Sideslip angle (rad)

δ Surface deﬂection (rad)

Downwash angle (rad)

γ Flight path angle (rad)

λ Taper ratio (dimensionless)

ρ Air density (slugs/ft

3

)

¨ σ Maximum singular value

θ Pitch angle (rad)

Subscripts

cg Center of gravity

ac Aerodynamic center

a Aileron

e Elevator

r Rudder

w Wing

t Tail

Operators

E [∗] Expected value

˙ x Time derivative of the variable x

x

i

i

th

element of the vector x

A

ij

Element of the A matrix in the i

th

row and j

th

column

x Glossary

Chapter 1

Introduction

The objective of this course is to develop fundamental understanding on the subject of stability, control and

ﬂight mechanics. Familiarities with the basic components in aerodynamics of wing and airfoil section are

expected; namely deﬁnition of lift, drag and moment of wing section, and physical parameters that govern

these aerodynamic forces and moments suchas freestreamvelocity, density, Mach number, Reynold number,

shape of the airfoil (camber, thickness, aerodynamic center), wing conﬁguration (wing span, reference area,

mean aerodynamic chord, taper ratio, sweep angle), angle of attack, dynamic pressure, etc· · ·. It is not the

intent of this course to provide all these relevant background materials, although we will deﬁne the relevant

ones as we encounter them in our problem formulation.

Starting from known forces and moments generated on a given wing, fuselage and tail conﬁguration, we

will develop airplane static and dynamic model to study its behavior under different ﬂight regimes. Mass

properties, wing, fuselage and tail conﬁgurations of the airplane are therefore assumed known and given

a-priori. Concepts of static stability and dynamic stability are introduced in this course. General equations

of motion for a rigid-body airplane are derived. Basic motions of the aircraft separated into longitudinal and

lateral modes are discussed in details. Effects of aerodynamic stability derivatives upon the behaviour of the

perturbed equations of motions are studied. Flying qualities of the uncontrolled airplane can subsequently

be assessed. Analysis of the airplane dynamic responses to initial changes in its basic motion variables (e.g.

angle of attack, pitch attitude, roll angle, sideslip, etc· · ·), tocontrol inputs and external gust inputs iscovered

using Laplace transform techniques and time simulation. It is expected that students are familiar somewhat

with the use of the MATLABsoftware for analysis.

There is an extensive number of references that cover the subject of aircraft stability, control and ﬂight

mechanics. Listed below are some that provide good reference materials:

1. John D. Anderson, Jr., Introduction to Flight, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989.

2. Arthur W. Babister, Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Response, First Edition, Pergamon Press, 1980.

3. John H. Blakelock, Automatic Control of Aircraft and Missiles, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., 1991.

4. Bernard Etkin, Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control,, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

1982.

5. Barnes W. McCormick, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, and Flight Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

1979.

1

2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

α

x-body axis

z-body axis

mg

γ

θ

L (lift)

D (drag)

V

T (thrust)

M

y

Figure 1.1: Motion in the Longitudinal Axis

6. Courtland, D. Perkins and Robert E. Hage, Airplane Performance, Stability and Control, John Wiley

& Sons, Inc., 1949.

7. Jan Roskam, Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Controls, Roskam Aviation and Engineering

Corporation, 1979.

8. Edward Seckel, Stability and Control of Airplanes and Helicopters, Academic Press, 1964.

9. David R. Hill and Clever B. Moler, Experiments in Computational Matrix Algebra, Random House,

First Edition, 1988.

As an introduction, let’s ﬁrst examine the development of the following three basic equations corre-

sponding to motion in the vertical plane (i.e., longitudinal set). They correspond to the lift, drag and moment

equations respectively.

1.1 Lift Equation

Let’s consider the point mass system shown in Figure 1.1. Here we idealize the airplane as a lumped system

with mass m andmomentof inertia aboutthe y-axis as I

yy

. Notethat theﬂight pathisalwaystangentialto the

velocity vector V. The aerodynamic forces applied to the center of mass of the vehicle can be decomposed

into the li f t and drag components. The lift force is by deﬁnition perpendicular to the velocity vector V

while the drag force is parallel to the velocity vector V and is pointed in the opposite direction. Gravity force

mg and the engine thrust T constitute the remaining forces exerted on the vehicle. The pitching moment

M

y

about the airplane center of gravity (cg) is mainly due to aerodynamic and propulsion forces and has no

contribution from gravity.

The equation of motion along the z-body axis is given by

m( ˙ w −qu) = F

z

(1.1)

1.2. DRAG EQUATION 3

where u is the component of velocity along the x-body axis of the vehicle, w is the component along the

z-body axis and q is the pitch angular velocity about the y-body axis. From Figure 1.1, we have

F

z

= F

z(aerodynamics )

÷ F

z( propulsion )

÷ F

z(gra vity )

(1.2)

where

F

z(aerodynamics )

÷ F

z( propulsion )

= −Lcos α ÷(T − D)sin α

∼

= −L ÷(T − D)α (for small α)

(1.3)

F

z(gra vity )

= mgcos θ

∼

= W (for small θ)

(1.4)

where W is the weight of the vehicle. Let’s rewrite the velocity component w as w = Vsin α and thus,

˙ w =

˙

Vsin α ÷ V ˙ αcosα

∼

=

˙

Vα ÷ V ˙ α (for small α)

(1.5)

Generally, we notice that the product

˙

Vα is much smaller than V ˙ α. Hence, equation (1.5) is simpliﬁed to

˙ w = V ˙ α (1.6)

Combining equations (1.1), (1.2), (1.3), (1.4) and (1.6), we obtain the following equation in the z-body

direction,

m(V ˙ α −

˙

θV) = −L ÷(T − D)α ÷W (1.7)

since q =

˙

θ and u = Vcos α

∼

= V. Usually, the terms T − D and α are small and hence we can drop the

product (T − D)α in the above equation. Thus,

mV ( ˙ α −

˙

θ) = W − L (1.8)

Note that the ﬂight path angle is deﬁned as γ = θ −α, equation (1.8) can be rewritten as

mV ˙ γ = L − W (1.9)

Thus, change in ﬂight path occurs when L −W ,= 0 and the correspondingﬂight trajectory would be curved.

For a constant ﬂight path angle (i.e. γ = γ

o

=constant), we must have ˙ γ = 0 and L − W = 0.

1.2 Drag Equation

Again we refer to Figure 1.1, the equation of motion in the x-body direction is as follows,

m( ˙ u ÷qw) = F

x

(1.10)

since we are limited to motion in the vertical plane only. The force components in the x-body direction are

only consisted of F

x

= F

x(aerodynamics )

÷F

x(propulsion )

÷ F

x(gravity )

. Each of these components can again

be written in terms of the lift L, drag D, thrust T and gravity W forces according to Figure 1.1. Namely,

F

x(aerodynamics )

÷ F

x( propulsion )

= Lsin α ÷(T − D)cosα

∼

= Lα ÷(T − D) (for small α)

(1.11)

4 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

and

F

x(gra vity )

= −mgsin θ ≈ −Wθ (for small θ) (1.12)

Furthermore, the velocity component u can be rewritten as u = Vcos α. Hence, its time derivative becomes

˙ u =

˙

Vcos α − V ˙ αsin α

=

˙

V − V ˙ αα (for small α)

(1.13)

Substituting equations (1.11), (1.12) and (1.13) into equation (1.10), we obtain the following

m

˙

V ÷mα(V

˙

θ − V ˙ α) = T − D ÷(L − W)α − W(θ −α) (1.14)

or,

m

˙

V ÷ Wγ = T − D ÷α(L − W −mV ˙ γ ) (1.15)

Using equation (1.9), equation (1.15) is simpliﬁed to

m

˙

V ÷ Wγ = T − D (1.16)

Thus from the above equation with excess thrust, i.e. (T −D) > 0, one can have different ﬂight trajectories:

• Positive ﬂight path angle γ > 0 with

˙

V = 0. This results in a steady (nonaccelerated) climb.

• Positive acceleration

˙

V > 0 with γ = 0. This corresponds to an accelerated straight and level ﬂight.

• Positive acceleration

˙

V > 0 and γ > 0. The vehicle speed increases while climbing.

1.3 Pitching Moment Equation

Finally, we derive the pitching moment equation for the vehicle shown in Figure 1.1,

I

yy

θ = M

y(aerodynamics )

÷ M

y( propulsion )

(1.17)

Notice that by deﬁnition, gravity would have no moment contribution to the pitching moment equation when

it is taken about the vehicle center of gravity. Detailed description of the moments produced by aerodynamic

and propulsive forces will be given later when we examine issues related to longitudinal static stability. It

sufﬁces to say that static longitudinal stability is predominantly governed by the behaviour of the pitching

moment as the vehicle is perturbed from its equilibrium state.

Chapter 2

Linear Algebra and Matrices

We deal with 3 classes of numbers: scalars, single numbers without association; vectors, one dimensional

groupings of scalars (one column, several rows, or one row, several columns); and ﬁnally, matrices, which

for us will be 2-dimensional (rows and columns).

A vector can be either a row vector such as

¯ s = [s

1

s

2

· · · s

n

] ,

or a column vector, such as

¯ s =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

s

1

s

2

.

.

.

s

n

.

Column vectors are vastly more common. Implied with every vector is a basis (often a physical basis) to

which each component refers. For instance, the position vector ¯ r given by

¯ r = x ˆ x ÷ y ˆ y ÷ zˆ z

is represented with respect to a cartesian basis [ ˆ x, ˆ y, ˆ z]. Usually the shorthand [x, y, z] is used.

MATLABwill use both row and column vectors. However column vectors are more often used in its

functions. Note that in the example below, the ﬁrst entry in boldface is what the user types, and the second

corresponds to MATLAB’sresponse.

• A = [1. 2. 3. 4.]

A =

1 2 3 4

• A = [1. 2. 3. 4.]’

A =

1

2

3

4

5

6 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

• A = [1;2;3;4]

A =

1

2

3

4

• A = [1

2

3

4]

A=

1

2

3

4

A matrix can be thought of as a row of column vectors, or a column of row vectors,

A =

¸

ˆ a

1

ˆ a

2

· · · ˆ a

m

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¨ a

1

¨ a

2

.

.

.

¨ a

n

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

· · · a

1m

a

21

a

22

· · · a

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n2

· · · a

nm

.

One can think of matrices as having a basis in the form of dyadic products of basis vectors, though that will

be beyond the scope of this course.

Entry of a matrix in MATLAB is fairly straightforward. It follows along the lines of a vector, but

remember that the entries are processed in row fashion:

• A = [1 2 3 4;5 6 7 8;9 10 11 12]

A=

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12

• A = [1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12]

A=

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12

• B = [A [0 1;2 3;4 5]; 6 5 4 3 2 1; 3 4 5 6 7 8; 1 3 5 7 9 11]

B =

1 2 3 4 0 1

5 6 7 8 2 3

2.1. OPERATIONS 7

9 10 11 12 4 5

6 5 4 3 2 1

3 4 5 6 7 8

1 3 5 7 9 11

MATLAB also has facilities for creating simple matrices such as a matrix of zeros or the identity matrix.

For example, the matrix function zeros(n,m) will create a zero matrix of dimension n by m, and eye(n) will

create an identity matrix of dimension n.

2.1 Operations

Addition and multiplication not only need to be deﬁned for within a certain class, but between classes. For

example, multiplication of vectors and matrices by a scalar,

α ∗ ¯ v =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

αs

1

αs

2

.

.

.

αs

n

: α ∗ M =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

αa

11

αa

12

· · · αa

1m

αa

21

αa

22

· · · αa

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

αa

n1

αa

n2

· · · αa

nm

.

In MATLAB, however, you can add a scalar to every element in a vector or matrix without any special

notation.

Adding two vectors occurs on an element by element level. Implied in all of this is that the basis of the

two vectors is the same:

¯ v ÷ ¯ u = [ v

1

v

2

· · · v

n

] ÷[ u

1

u

2

· · · u

n

]

= [ v

1

÷u

1

v

2

÷u

2

· · · v

n

÷u

n

]

Multiplication of two vectors is mostly deﬁned in terms of the dot product. While much mathematical

theory has been expounded on inner product spaces and such, the only item we need know here is the inner

product of two vectors expressed in a Cartesian coordinate frame,

¯ v · ¯ u = [ v

1

v

2

· · · v

n

] ∗

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

1

u

2

.

.

.

u

n

= v

1

u

1

÷v

2

u

2

÷· · · ÷v

n

u

n

Multiplying a vector by a matrix is equivalent to transforming the vector. In components, the product of

a matrix and a vector is given by

A ∗ ¯ v =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

· · · a

1m

a

21

a

22

· · · a

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n2

· · · a

nm

∗

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

v

1

v

2

.

.

.

v

m

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

v

1

÷a

12

v

2

÷· · · ÷a

1m

v

m

a

21

v

1

÷a

22

v

2

÷· · · ÷a

2m

v

m

.

.

.

a

n1

v

1

÷a

n2

v

2

÷· · · ÷a

nm

v

m

**8 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES
**

Of course, the number of columns of A must match the number of rows of ¯ v.

Adding two matrices of the same dimensions would occur on an element by element basis,

A ÷ B =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

· · · a

1m

a

21

a

22

· · · a

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n2

· · · a

nm

÷

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

b

11

b

12

· · · b

1m

b

21

b

22

· · · b

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

b

n1

b

n2

· · · b

nm

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

÷b

11

a

12

÷b

12

· · · a

1m

÷b

1m

a

21

÷b

21

a

22

÷b

22

· · · a

2m

÷b

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

÷b

n1

a

n2

÷b

n2

· · · a

nm

÷b

nm

**Multiplying two matrices can be thought of as a series of transformations on the column vectors of the
**

multiplicand. The number of columns of the left matrix must be equal to the number of rows of the right

matrix (left and right are signiﬁcant since multiplication is not commutative for matrices in general).

A ∗ B =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

· · · a

1m

a

21

a

22

· · · a

2m

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n2

· · · a

nm

∗

¸

ˆ

b

1

ˆ

b

2

· · ·

ˆ

b

p

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

b

11

÷a

12

b

21

÷· · · ÷a

1m

b

m1

a

21

b

11

÷a

22

b

21

÷· · · ÷a

2m

b

m1

.

.

.

a

n1

b

11

÷a

n2

b

21

÷· · · ÷a

nm

b

m1

a

11

b

12

÷a

12

b

22

÷· · · ÷a

1m

b

m2

a

21

b

12

÷a

22

b

22

÷· · · ÷a

2m

b

m2

.

.

.

a

n1

b

12

÷a

n2

b

22

÷· · · ÷a

nm

b

m2

· · ·

· · ·

.

.

.

.

.

.

**Thestandardsymbols: +, -, *, and/willhandle all legal operationsbetween scalars, vectors, andmatrices
**

in MATLABwithout any further special notation.

2.2 Matrix Functions

The convenience of matrix notation is in the representation of a group of linear equations. For example, the

following set of equations,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

x

1

÷a

12

x

2

÷· · · ÷a

1n

x

n

= b

1

a

21

x

1

÷a

22

x

2

÷· · · ÷a

2n

x

n

= b

2

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

x

1

÷a

n2

x

2

÷· · · ÷a

nn

x

n

= b

n

can be represented compactly by the relation

A¯ x =

¯

b.

Note that we have the number of knowns

¯

b equal to the number of unknowns ¯ x here. How does one solve

this? The most simplistic (and computationally efﬁcient) method is to apply a succession of transformations

2.2. MATRIXFUNCTIONS 9

to the above system to eliminate values of A below the diagonal. Suppose that a

11

is nonzero then one can

multiply the ﬁrst equation by a

21

/a

11

and subtracts it from the second equation. The ﬁrst term in the second

equation would be eliminated,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

x

1

÷ a

12

x

2

÷ · · · ÷ a

1n

x

n

= b

1

0 ÷ (a

22

−a

12

a

21

/a

11

)x

2

÷ · · · ÷ (a

2n

−a

1n

a

21

/a

11

)x

n

= b

2

−b

1

a

21

/a

11

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. =

.

.

.

a

n1

x

1

÷ a

n2

x

2

÷ · · · ÷ a

nn

x

n

= b

n

Suppose that the procedure were repeated for all the other rows, resulting in the removal of the coefﬁcient

of x

1

in these equations. The same procedure is now applied to all coefﬁcients of x

2

for all rows below the

second row. What one would eventually have is the upper triangular system. (In general, the ˜ a

ij

’s and

˜

b

j

’s

are NOT the same as the original matrix entries a

ij

and b

j

, respectively).

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

x

1

÷ a

12

x

2

÷ · · · ÷ a

1n

x

n

= b

1

0 ÷ ˜ a

22

x

2

÷ · · · ÷ ˜ a

2n

x

n

= b

2

−b

1

a

21

/a

11

0 ÷ 0 ÷ · · · ÷ · · · = · · ·

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. ÷

.

.

. =

.

.

.

0 ÷ 0 ÷ · · · ÷ ˜ a

nn

x

n

=

˜

b

n

All values of ˜ a

ij

belowthe diagonal are zero. This matrixalso has the interesting propertythat the product of

the diagonal terms is equal to the determinant. This substantiates the argument that it costs about as much to

solve a linear system as it does to solve for a determinant. Note that one can now solve x

n

=

˜

b

n

/˜ a

nn

. Once

you have x

n

, you can substitute it into the next equation up and solve for x

n−1

. This continues until one gets

to x

1

(or until some diagonal term ˜ a

kk

is zero). Note that if a diagonal term is zero, then the determinant is

also zero and the system matrix A is called singular .

The above method is often called the method of Gaussian elimination with back substitution. MATLAB

implements a method very much similar to the above for solving a system of linear equations. You can,

however, obtain an answer from MATLABwith very little effort by just typing the command

x = A ` b

In a similarvein to whatis notedabove, the determinant is computedwith the followingcommand syntax

det(A).

The inverse can also be computed in a method similar to that above. If one solves for a succession of

vectors ¯ x

i

(i = 1, n), each one with

¯

b

1

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

.

.

.

0

:

¯

b

2

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0

1

.

.

.

0

: · · ·

¯

b

n

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0

0

.

.

.

1

:

thenthematrixcomposingofthecolumnvectors[ ¯ x

1

, · · · ¯ x

n

]wouldbethematrixinverseof A. In MATLAB,

computation of the matrix inverse is invoked by the command inv(A).

Itisoftennecessarytocomputeadeterminantoraninverseinsomethingresemblingaclosedform(which

will be seen in the calculation of eigenvalues). Thus, one introduces the expansion by minors method. A

10 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

minor M

ij

(A) of a matrix A is the determinant of the matrix A without its i

th

row and its j

th

column.

A =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

a

13

· · · a

1n

a

21

a

22

a

23

· · · a

2n

a

31

a

32

a

33

· · · a

3n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n2

a

n3

· · · a

nn

M

12

(A) = det

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

21

a

23

· · · a

2n

a

31

a

33

· · · a

3n

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

a

n1

a

n3

· · · a

nn

**A determinant is formed from expanding by minors along an arbitrary row i or column j of a matrix:
**

By Row i : det (A) =

n

¸

j =1

a

ij

M

ij

(A)(−1)

i ÷j

By Column j : det (A) =

n

¸

i =1

a

ij

M

ij

(A)(−1)

i ÷j

Thus, what one has for an arbitrary matrix is a successionof expansions. First the matrix is broken down into

a series of minors to determine the determinant, then these minors may need be broken down further into

their minors to ﬁnd their determinants, and so on until one gets to a 1 1 matrix. For a scalar (i.e., 1 1)

matrix,

A = [a

11

] =⇒ det (A) = a

11

.

It is also easy to evaluate the determinant of a 2 2 matrix by expanding along the ﬁrst row,

A =

¸

a

11

a

12

a

21

a

22

=⇒ det (A) = a

11

a

22

−a

12

a

21

.

With a little more effort, one can get the determinant for the case of a 3 3 matrix. Here we expand along

the ﬁrst row.

A =

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

a

13

a

21

a

22

a

23

a

31

a

32

a

33

=⇒ det (A) =

a

11

a

22

a

33

÷a

12

a

23

a

31

÷a

13

a

21

a

32

−a

11

a

23

a

32

−a

12

a

21

a

33

−a

13

a

22

a

31

The inverse can also be found through expansion by minors. The recipe for this is a little more complicated

than for the determinant. First one transposes the matrix, then each element a

ij

gets replaced by the term

M

ij

(A)(−1)

i ÷j

, where M

ij

(A) is the minor of A at i and j . Finally, each resulting new element is divided

by the determinant of the original matrix. For a 2 2 matrix, the inverse is

A =

¸

a

11

a

12

a

21

a

22

=⇒ A

−1

= inv(A) =

1

a

11

a

22

−a

12

a

21

¸

a

22

−a

12

−a

21

a

11

**2.3. LINEAR ORDINARYDIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 11
**

The inverse of a 3 3 matrix is somewhat more complicated.

A =

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

a

13

a

21

a

22

a

23

a

31

a

32

a

33

, A

/

=

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

21

a

31

a

12

a

22

a

32

a

13

a

23

a

33

=⇒ A

−1

= inv(A) =

1

det (A)

¸

¸

¸

a

22

a

33

−a

32

a

23

a

32

a

13

−a

12

a

33

a

12

a

23

−a

13

a

22

a

31

a

23

−a

21

a

33

a

11

a

33

−a

31

a

13

a

21

a

13

−a

11

a

23

a

21

a

32

−a

31

a

22

a

31

a

12

−a

11

a

32

a

11

a

22

−a

21

a

12

**Suppose that one applies this to the system
**

¸

¸

¸

a

11

a

12

a

13

a

21

a

22

a

23

a

31

a

32

a

33

∗

¸

¸

¸

x

1

x

2

x

3

=

¸

¸

¸

b

1

b

2

b

3

**where the solution ¯ x is given by
**

¯ x = A

−1

∗

¯

b

If one goes through the algebra, the result obtained from the Cramer’s Rule will be

x

1

=

1

det (A)

(b

1

a

22

a

33

÷b

2

a

32

a

13

÷b

3

a

12

a

23

−b

1

a

32

a

23

−b

2

a

12

a

33

−b

3

a

22

a

13

)

.

.

. = (etc...)

This can be expressed more compactly as (with [ A[ being the shorthand notation for the determinant of A),

x

1

=

b

1

a

12

a

13

b

2

a

22

a

23

b

3

a

32

a

33

det (A)

: x

2

=

a

11

b

1

a

13

a

21

b

2

a

23

a

31

b

3

a

33

det (A)

: x

3

=

a

11

a

12

b

1

a

21

a

22

b

2

a

31

a

32

b

3

det (A)

:

2.3 Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

Note that in this course we encounter mostly linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefﬁcients.

One can always ﬁnd an integrating factor for the ﬁrst-order equation

˙ x ÷ax = f, x(0

−

) = x

o

The term e

at

is an integrating factor for the above equation. Let’s multiply the above differential equation

with the integrating factor e

at

and collect terms, we have the following

d

dt

e

at

x

= e

at

f

Integrate both sides from 0

−

to time t ,

x = e

−at

¸

x

o

÷

t

0

−

e

aτ

f (τ) dτ

¸

12 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

or,

x = x

o

e

−at

÷

t

0

−

e

−a(t −τ)

f (τ) dτ

Theabovesolutioncontainsusuallyahomogeneoussolution(frominitialconditions)andaparticularsolution

(from the forcing function f ). Note that solution for the particular part involves a convolution integral.

A second-order equation given by

x ÷a ˙ x ÷bx = f, x(0

−

) = x

o

, ˙ x(0

−

) = v

o

can be written as a systemof two ﬁrst-order equations as follows. Let x

1

= x and x

2

= ˙ x, the above equation

can be re-written as

¸

˙ x

1

˙ x

2

=

¸

0 1

−b −a

¸

x

1

x

2

÷

¸

0

f

In fact, the procedure leading to the solution of the above scalar ﬁrst-order differential equation can be used

to derive the solution for a system of ﬁrst-order differential equations. In the latter case, it would involve the

matrix exponential (i.e., e

At

).

One could solve the above second-order system by ﬁrst solving the homogeneous systemwhose solution

is usually of the form x

h

(t ) = e

λt

where λ is the solution of the resulting characteristic equation. The

particular solution from the non-homogenous part can be done either by means of a trial substitution or

variation of parameters. It turns out that the system of ﬁrst-order differential equations is more amenable to

use on the computer when expressed in a matrix state-space form. A formal way of modeling a dynamic

system is by a set of state equations,

˙ x = Ax ÷ Bu (State equations)

y = Cx ÷ Du (Output equations)

Theinput u isthe particular forcing function driving the system(i.e., u = f ). Refer back toour second-order

system with both (x and ˙ x) as outputs. Then, in the above notation we have the following set of system

matrices

A =

¸

0 1

−b −a

B =

¸

0

1

C =

¸

1 0

0 1

D =

¸

0

0

**Togenerate a time series responseof a linear time-invariant system inMATLAB, oneneeds to generatethese
**

A, B, C, and D matrices. Suppose that one creates a vector of time points where the system outputs are to

be computed with the MATLABcommand

T =[0:0.1:10];

This vector contains time points from 0 to 10 in steps of 0.1. The forcing function f (often referred to as

the control input) is a vector whose entries correspond to the value of this function at those time points. To

generate the system time responses for the system matrices A, B, C, and D as deﬁned above, at the time

points deﬁned in the vector T to the forcing function f , we can issue the following MATLABcommand

Y = lsim(A,B,C,D,f,T);

The vector Y has 2 columns (each corresponding to an output) and 101 rows (each row corresponding to a

time point).

2.4. LAPLACE TRANSFORM 13

2.4 Laplace Transform

Solving differential equations can also be done using the Laplace transform. We deﬁne

L( f (t )) =

∞

0

−

e

−st

f (t ) dt = f (s)

The function e

−at

transforms as follows,

L(e

−at

) =

∞

0

−

e

−st

e

−at

dt =

∞

0

−

e

−(s÷a)t

dt = −

e

−(s÷a)t

s ÷a

∞

0

−

=

1

s ÷a

.

Note that it is much easier to transform a function than to do its inverse transform which would involve

from ﬁrst principles the intricate details of complex variables and contour integration. However, it is much

faster and easier for an engineer to use Table2.1. Every function used in Laplace transform work is assumed

multiplied by a unit-step (Heaviside) function at t = 0. That is to say, the function is identically zero for

t < 0 and equals to one for t ≥ 0.

f(t) f(s)

δ(t ) 1

1 (unit step at t=0)

1

s

t

1

s

2

t

2

2

1

s

3

t

n−1

(n−1)!

1

s

n

e

σt 1

s−σ

te

σt 1

(s−σ)

2

t

n−1

e

σt

(n−1)!

1

(s−σ)

n

1 −e

−σt σ

s(s÷σ)

sin (ωt )

ω

s

2

÷ω

2

cos(ωt )

s

s

2

÷ω

2

e

σt

sin (ωt )

ω

(s−σ)

2

÷ω

2

e

σt

cos(ωt )

s−σ

(s−σ)

2

÷ω

2

Table 2.1: Laplace Transforms of Some Common Functions

The Laplace transform is so attractive since

L(

d

dt

f (t )) =

∞

0

−

e

−st

d

dt

f (t ) dt = e

−st

f (t )

∞

0

−

÷s

∞

0

−

e

−st

f (t ) dt = −f (0

−

) ÷sf (s)

Thus, one can transform a differential equation into a set of algebraic equations involving the transform

variable s. For example, Laplace transform of the ﬁrst-order differential equation

˙ x ÷ax = f (t )

14 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

is

sx (s) − x(0

−

) ÷ax(s) = f (s)

Solving for the variable x(s), we obtain the solution of the above differential equation in the Laplace domain

as

x(s) =

x(0

−

)

s ÷a

÷

f (s)

s ÷a

The ﬁrst term of the sum corresponds to x(0

−

)e

−at

, the second is not solvable until one speciﬁes f (t ) (or

f (s)). However, in general, the product of two Laplace transforms (in this case, f (s) and

1

s÷a

) is equivalent

to the convolution of their time-based functions. This particular case is equal to what has been previously

demonstrated,

L

−1

¸

f (s)

s ÷a

¸

=

t

0

−

e

−a(t−τ)

f (τ) dτ

Consider now the second-order differential equation

x ÷a ˙ x ÷bx = f

Applying Laplace transform to the above equation, we obtain

s

2

x(s) −sx (0

−

) − ˙ x(0

−

) ÷asx (s) −ax(0

−

) ÷bx(s) = f (s)

and, solving for the solution x(s)

x(s) =

˙ x(0

−

) ÷(s ÷a)x(0

−

) ÷ f (s)

s

2

÷as ÷b

The homogeneous parts of this have equivalent time-domain functions that depend on the relation between

a and b. We distinguish three cases:

• b −a

2

/4 > 0

• b −a

2

/4 < 0

• b −a

2

/4 = 0

Case b −a

2

/4 > 0: The denominator can be written into the form s

2

÷2σs ÷σ

2

÷ω

2

which corresponds

to the time-domain functions e

−σt

sin ωt and e

−σt

cosωt where σ = −a/2 and ω =

b −a

2

/4.

Solutions to the homogeneous problem (i.e., to initial conditions x(0

−

)) can be obtained directly as

x

h

(t ) = ˙ x(0

−

)

e

−at /2

sin (

b −a

2

/4 t )

b −a

2

/4

÷

x(0

−

)e

−at /2

¸

cos(

b −a

2

/4 t ) ÷

a

2

b −a

2

/4

sin (

b −a

2

/4 t )

¸

Use of Table 2.1 is not always possible with some more complicated forms. Usually one needs to break

down a complicated polynomial fraction into simpler summands that are of the forms given in Table 2.1.

2.4. LAPLACE TRANSFORM 15

Suppose that the forcing function f (t ) is a step input (applied at t=0) whose Laplace transform is simply

1/s. We will derive the particular solution as an illustration to the partial fraction expansion methodology.

The particular solution to the non-homogenous problem is

x

p

(s) =

1

s(s

2

÷as ÷b)

The right-hand term can be decomposed into

1

s(s

2

÷as ÷b)

=

u

s

÷

vs ÷w

s

2

÷as ÷b

with unknowns u, v and w. Expanding and matching the numerator term, we have

u(s

2

÷as ÷b) ÷vs

2

÷ws = 1

Since the coefﬁcients of s

2

and s must be zero, and that ub = 1, we have

u = 1/b , v = −1/b , w = −a/b

The particular solution is given by

x

p

(t ) =

1

b

¸

1 −e

−at /2

¸

cos(

b −a

2

/4 t ) ÷

a

2

b −a

2

/4

sin (

b −a

2

/4 t )

¸

Case b −a

2

/4 < 0: In this case, we have two distinct real roots to the equation s

2

÷as ÷b = 0. They are

given by

σ

1

= −a/2 ÷

a

2

/4 −b

σ

2

= −a/2 −

a

2

/4 −b

Solution to the homogenous problem is simply

x

h

(s) =

˙ x(0

−

) ÷(s ÷a)x(0

−

)

(s −σ

1

)(s −σ

2

)

or,

x

h

(t ) =

˙ x(0

−

) ÷(σ

1

÷a)x(0

−

)

σ

1

−σ

2

e

σ

1

t

÷

˙ x(0

−

) ÷(σ

2

÷a)x(0

−

)

σ

2

−σ

1

e

σ

2

t

Similarly, for the particular solution we have

x

p

(s) =

1

s(s

2

÷as ÷b)

In partial fraction expansion

x

p

(s) =

u

s

÷

v

s −σ

1

÷

w

s −σ

2

The unknowns u, v and w are determined from the following equation

u(s

2

÷as ÷b) ÷vs

2

−vsσ

2

÷ws

2

−wsσ

1

= 1

16 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

For the coefﬁcients of s

2

and s to vanish we must have u ÷v ÷w = 0 and ua −vσ

2

−wσ

1

= 0 with ub = 1.

Thus, we have

u =

1

b

=

1

σ

1

σ

2

, v =

1

σ

1

(σ

1

−σ

2

)

, w =

1

σ

2

(σ

2

−σ

1

)

Hence, the time-domain solution is

x

p

(t ) =

1

σ

1

σ

2

÷

1

σ

1

(σ

1

−σ

2

)

e

σ

1

t

÷

1

σ

2

(σ

2

−σ

1

)

e

σ

2

t

H(t )

where H(t ) corresponds to the Heaviside (step) function at t = 0.

Case a

2

/4 = b: This case is similar to the previous case where

σ

2

= σ

1

= −

a

2

Solution to the homogenous problem is simply

x

h

(s) =

˙ x(0

−

) ÷(s ÷a)x(0

−

)

(s −σ

1

)

2

or,

x

h

(t ) = ˙ x(0

−

)te

σ

1

t

÷ x(0

−

)(1 −σ

1

t )e

σ

1

t

Similarly, for the particular solution we have

x

p

(s) =

1

s(s

2

÷as ÷b)

=

u

s

÷

v

s −σ

1

÷

w

(s −σ

1

)

2

For the coefﬁcients of s

2

and s to vanish we must have u ÷v = 0 and −2σ

1

u −σ

1

v ÷w = 0 with u = 1/b.

Hence,

u =

1

σ

2

1

, v = −

1

σ

2

1

, w =

1

σ

1

Or, in the time domain

x

p

(t ) =

1

σ

2

1

−

1

σ

2

1

e

σ

1

t

÷

1

σ

1

te

σ

1

t

H(t )

InMATLAB,timeresponsesofasystemcanbeobtainedfromtheirLaplacetransformsdirectly. Response

of the outputs to an input U deﬁned over the time points T can be obtained using the command

Y = lsim(NUM,DEN,U,T);

where the arguments NUM and DEN are arrays containing coefﬁcients of the numerator and denominator

polynomials in s arranged in descending powers of s.

2.5 Stability

Dynamicstability ischaracterizedbythe responseofasystem tononzeroinitialconditions. Initialconditions

are equivalent to an impulsive forcing function (i.e. Dirac delta function u(t ) = δ(t )).

For a ﬁrst-order system ˙ x ÷ax = 0 and x(0

−

) = x

o

, we have the homogeneous solution x(t ) = x

o

e

−at

.

It is simple to imagine that for a > 0, the response x(t ) to initial conditions x

o

would tend toward zero (thus

stable) as t → ∞. On the other hand, if a < 0 the response would tend to blow up.

For a second-order system x ÷a ˙ x ÷bx = 0, we have solutions of the form

2.6. EXAMPLE 17

• When a

2

/4 < b,

x(t ) = e

σt

[usin ωt ÷vcosωt ]

• When a

2

/4 > b,

x(t ) = ue

σ1t

÷ve

σ2t

• When a

2

/4 = b,

x(t ) = ue

σt

÷vte

σt

In any case, the argument σ in the exponential function e

σt

term must be less than or equal to zero. In the

case of a

2

/4 > b, both terms σ

1

and σ

2

must be less than or equal to zero. Otherwise, the solution will blow

up as t → ∞. For σ equal to zero, then one has a neutrally stable system.

2.6 Example

Consider the following ordinary differential equation

d

3

y(t )

dt

3

÷5

d

2

y(t )

dt

2

÷17

dy (t )

dt

÷13y(t ) = 13u(t ) (2.1)

with initial conditions y(0

−

) = 7, ˙ y(0

−

) = 0 and y(0

−

) = 0. Solve for the time response y(t ) when

u(t ) = δ(t ) (impulse function or Dirac delta function).

We can solve the problem using three methods:

• Laplace method

• Time-domain method involving the matrix exponential

• Numerical integration method (via MATLAB)

2.6.1 Laplace method

Taking the Laplace transform on the differential equation, we obtain

¸

s

3

y(s) −s

2

y(0

−

) −s ˙ y(0

−

) − y(0

−

)

¸

÷5

¸

s

2

y(s) −sy(0

−

) − ˙ y(0

−

)

¸

÷

17

¸

sy(s) − y(0

−

)

¸

÷13y(s) = 13u(s) (2.2)

With y(0

−

) = 7, ˙ y(0

−

) = y(0

−

) = 0, equation 2.2 becomes

¸

s

3

÷5s

2

÷17s ÷13

¸

y(s) −

¸

s

2

÷5s ÷17

¸

y(0

−

) = 13u(s) (2.3)

or, solving for y(s) we have

y(s) =

s

2

÷5s ÷17

s

3

÷5s

2

÷17s ÷13

y(0

−

) ÷

13

s

3

÷5s

2

÷17s ÷13

u(s) (2.4)

18 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

For a unit impulse input u(t ) = δ(t ) or u(s) = 1 and y(0

−

) = 7, equation 2.4 becomes

y(s) =

s

2

÷5s ÷17

s

3

÷5s

2

÷17s ÷13

7 ÷

13

s

3

÷5s

2

÷17s ÷13

1

=

7s

2

÷35s ÷132

(s ÷1)

¸

(s ÷2)

2

÷3

2

¸

(2.5)

Performing the partial fraction expansion on equation 2.5, we have

y(s) =

R

1

s ÷1

÷

R

2

s ÷2 − j 3

÷

R

3

s ÷2 ÷ j 3

(2.6)

where

R

1

=

7s

2

÷35s ÷132

¸

(s ÷2)

2

÷3

2

¸

s=−1

= 10.4

R

2

=

7s

2

÷35s ÷132

(s ÷1) (s ÷2 ÷ j 3)

s=−2÷j 3

= −1.7 − j 0.6

R

3

=

7s

2

÷35s ÷132

(s ÷1) (s ÷2 − j 3)

s=−2−j 3

= −1.7 ÷ j 0.6 =

¨

R

2

where

¨

R

2

is the complex conjugate of R

2

. Taking the inverse Laplace tranform on equation 2.6, we have

y(t ) = R

1

e

−t

÷ R

2

e

(−2÷j 3)t

÷

¨

R

2

e

(−2−j 3)t

(2.7)

or since e

a÷jb

= e

a

(cosb ÷ jsinb ), we have

y(t ) = 10.4e

−t

÷e

−2t

(−1.7 − j 0.6)(cos3t ÷ jsin 3t ) ÷(−1.7 ÷ j 0.6)(cos3t − jsin 3t ) (2.8)

y(t ) = 10.4e

−t

÷2e

−2t

(−1.7cos3t ÷0.6sin 3t ) (2.9)

2.6.2 Time-domain method

Let’s deﬁne x

1

(t ) = y(t ), x

2

(t ) = ˙ y(t ) and x

3

(t ) = y(t ), then clearly

˙ x

1

(t ) = x

2

(t ) = ˙ y(t ) (2.10)

˙ x

2

(t ) = x

3

(t ) = y(t ) (2.11)

and equation 2.1 can be re-written as

˙ x

3

(t ) ÷5x

3

(t ) ÷17x

2

÷13x

1

(t ) = 13u(t ) (2.12)

Combining equations 2.10-2.12 into a set of three ﬁrst-order differential equations which can be expressed

in a matrix equation,

¸

¸

˙ x

1

(t )

˙ x

2

(t )

˙ x

3

(t )

=

¸

¸

0 1 0

0 0 1

−13 −17 −5

¸

¸

x

1

(t )

x

2

(t )

x

3

(t )

÷

¸

¸

0

0

13

u(t ) (2.13)

2.6. EXAMPLE 19

with initial conditions x

1

(0

−

) = y(0

−

), x

2

(0

−

) = ˙ y(0

−

) and x

3

(0

−

) = y(0

−

).

Equation 2.13 can be written in a concise form as

¸

˙ x(t ) = Ax (t ) ÷ Bu(t )

x(0

−

) = x

o

(2.14)

where

x(t ) =

¸

¸

x

1

(t )

x

2

(t )

x

3

(t )

A =

¸

¸

0 1 0

0 0 1

−13 −17 −5

B =

¸

¸

0

0

13

x

o

=

¸

¸

y(0

−

)

˙ y(0

−

)

y(0

−

)

**Solution of equation 2.13 is obtained using the method of linear superposition and convolution (Duhamel)
**

integral. Namely,

x(t ) = e

At

x

o

÷

t

0

−

e

A(t−τ)

Bu(τ)dτ (2.15)

Since u(t ) = δ(t ) equation 2.15 becomes

x(t ) = e

At

x

o

÷

t

0

−

e

A(t −τ)

Bδ(τ )dτ (2.16)

or

x(t ) = e

At

x

o

÷e

At

B = e

At

(x

o

÷ B) (2.17)

Since x

o

=

¸

¸

7

0

0

, we have

x(t ) = e

¸

¸

0 1 0

0 0 1

−13 −17 −5

t

¸

¸

¸

7

0

0

÷

¸

¸

0

0

13

(2.18)

or

x(t ) = e

¸

¸

0 1 0

0 0 1

−13 −17 −5

t

¸

¸

7

0

13

(2.19)

20 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

2.6.3 Numerical integration method (via MATLAB)

In MATLAB, the command lsim would perform numerical integration on the linear system

¸

˙ x(t ) = Ax (t ) ÷ Bu(t )

y(t ) = Cx (t ) ÷ Du(t )

(2.20)

for a given initial condition x(0

−

) = x

o

and an input function u(t ) deﬁned in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ t

max

.

More precisely, we can use the following set of MATLABcodes to perform the time responses of y(t )

for the linear system described in equation 2.20.

t=[0:.1:tmax];

u= "some function of t" (e.g., u=ones(t) for a step input)

y=lsim(A,B,C,D,u,t,xo)

plot(t,y)

Below is a complete listing of the m-ﬁle for this example problem.

%Using the Laplace method

t=[0:.1:5];

y=10.4*exp(-t)+2*exp(-2*t) .* (-1.7*cos(3*t)+0.6*sin(3*t));

%Using the state-space method

A=[0,1,0;0,0,1;-13,-17,-5];

B=[0;0;13];

C=[1,0,0];

D=0;

xo=[7;0;0];

[n,m]=size(t);

%Solution from the exponential matrix

yexp=[];

for i=1:length(t)

ti=t(i);

ytemp= expm(A*ti)*(xo+B);

yexp=[yexp;ytemp'];

end

%MATLAB command for solving time responses

%For an impulse input the new initial condition becomes x(o+)=x(0-)+b

% and the input u(t)=0 for t>0+

xoplus=xo+B;

u=zeros(n,m);

ysim=lsim(A,B,C,D,u,t,xoplus);

%Plot the responses for comparison

plot(t,y,'o',t,yexp)

grid

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('y(t)')

title('Exponential matrix method')

pause

%Plot the responses for comparison

plot(t,y,'o',t,ysim)

grid

2.6. EXAMPLE 21

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('y(t)')

title('Laplace method')

22 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES

Chapter 3

Principles of Static and Dynamic Stability

In most design situation, static and dynamic stability analysis plays a signiﬁcant role in the determination of

the ﬁnal airplane design conﬁguration. The decision is based according to the requirements deﬁned in FAR

Part 23 which states that

“the airplanemust besafely controllableand maneuverableduring —(1)take off; (2)climb;

(3)levelﬂight; (4)dive; and(5)landing(poweron, off)(with wingﬂapsextendedandretracted)”

Stability of such a vehicle is also a major consideration in selecting a particular design conﬁguration. The

airplane must be longitudinally, directionally and laterally stable for airworthiness and minimal pilot work-

load. If the airplane turns out to have undesireable ﬂying qualities, then some of these requirements must

subsequently be met by the use of stability augmentation systems. This requires careful design of a control

system that feedbacks sensed aircraft motion variables to the appropriate control surfaces (e.g. elevator,

aileron and rudder). The topic of feedback synthesis of ﬂight control systems for stability augmentation and

autopilot designs is the subject of AA-517 and a continuation in AA-518. In the present course, we will

only examine the fundamental behaviour of ﬂight vehicle and its inherent ﬂight characteristics without the

inﬂuence of artiﬁcial feedback control.

The general notion of stability refers to the tendency of the vehicle to return to its original state of

equilibrium (e.g., trim point) when disturbed. There are basically two types of stability:

• Static stability refers to the tendency of an airplane under static conditions to return to its trimmed

condition. Clearly we assume that there exists an equilibrium point about which static stability is

investigated. The evaluation of static stability involves purely static (i.e. steady-state) equations from

force and moment balance applied to a vehicle disturbed from its equilibrium. Conditions for stability

are governedby the directionof the forces andmoments thatwill restorethevehicletothe originaltrim

states. Figure 3.1 shows the three possible cases of static stability. Clearly, from these illustrations, we

determine stability from the direction of the restoring force. In Figure 3.1 (a) component of the gravity

force tangential to the surface will bring the ball back to its original equilibrium point. However, in

staticstability analysisthereisnomentionon howandwhen theballwillreturntoitsequilibriumpoint.

For example, without the beneﬁt of friction, the ball will oscillate back and forth about the equilibrium

pointandthereforewillnever reachtheequilibriumstate. Totreatthisproblemconcerningthedynamic

behaviour of this ball rolling on a curved surface, one will need to ﬁrst develop its equation of motion

and then analyze the stability of its motion when released from a perturbed position. Stability of the

ball in motion is then determined by the phenomena of dynamic stability.

23

24 CHAPTER 3. PRINCIPLES OF STATICAND DYNAMICSTABILITY

(a) Statically Stable (b) Statically Unstable

(c) Neutrally Stable

Figure 3.1: Three Possible Cases of Static Stability

• Dynamicstability isgovernedbythefactthevehiclewillreturntoitsoriginalequilibriumconditionafter

some interval of time. As discussed in the previous section, analysis of dynamic stability would entail

a complete modeling of the vehicle dynamics and its responses when perturbed from the equilibrium

state. Figure3.2 shows typicalresponsesof a dynamicallystable, unstable andneutrally stablesystem.

It is important to observe from the above examples that a dynamically stable airplane must always be

statically stable. On the other hand, a statically stable airplane is not necessary dynamically stable.

Detailed study of dynamic stability of a ﬂight vehicle will be performed following the development of

the general equations of motion of a rigid-body airplane in Chapter 7.

25

(a) Dynamically Stable

Time Time

aperiodic response damped oscillation

Time

divergent oscillation

Time

(c) Dynamically Unstable

(b) Dynamically Neutrally Stable

θ

o

θ

o

θ

o

θ

o

Time

θ

o

Time

aperiodic divergence

θ

o

constant undamped oscillation

Figure 3.2: Three Possible Cases of Dynamic Stability

26 CHAPTER 3. PRINCIPLES OF STATICAND DYNAMICSTABILITY

Chapter 4

Static Longitudinal Stability

Astudy of airplane stability andcontrol is primarily focused on momentsabout the airplane center of gravity.

A balanced (i.e., trimmed) airplane will have zero moment about its center of gravity. The total moment

coefﬁcient about the center of gravity is deﬁned as

C

M

cg

=

M

cg

qSc

(4.1)

where S is the wing planform area, c is the mean aerodynamic chord and q

∞

is the dynamic pressure

corresponding to the freestream velocity V

∞

. There are numerous places where moments can be generated

in an airplane (Figure 4.1) such as moments contributed by the wing, the fuselage, the engine propulsion,

the controls (e.g., elevator, aileron, rudder, canard, etc...) and the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. Note

that the gravity force does not contribute any moment to the airplane since it is, by deﬁnition, applied at

the center of gravity. The aerodynamic center for the wing is deﬁned as the point about which the moment

M

ac

(or its moment coefﬁcient C

M,ac

) is independent of the angle of attack. This point is convenient for the

derivation of the moment equation since it isolates out the part that is independent of the angle of attack.

4.1 Notations and Sign Conventions

Hereweintroducethecommonlyusednotationsfordisplacements,velocities,forcesandmomentsinstability,

control and ﬂight mechanics. The origin of the axis system deﬁned by the x, y, z-coordinates is assumed

ﬁxed to the center of gravity of the airplane (see Figure 4.2). It will move and rotate with the aircraft. The x

displacement has a positive forward direction, the y displacement has a positive direction to the right-wing

directionwhile the z displacementis pointedpositively downward. Therespective componentsofthe aircraft

velocity V in the x, y and z directions are (u, v, w) respectively. The total force F applied to the airplane

has components (X, Y, Z) while the respective moment components are (L, M, N). Note that all the forces

and moments are assumed to apply at the center of gravity.

Wewill examine a simple airplane conﬁguration in our analysis of longitudinal static stability. The basic

airplane consists simply of a wing and tail conﬁguration only. This simple conﬁguration will illustrate well

the basic fundamentals in stability and control analysis.

4.2 Stick-Fixed Stability

The forces and moments of a wing-tail conﬁguration is shown in Figure 4.3. Without loss of generality, the

27

28 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

T

L

wing

wing

cg

aerodynamic center

L

tail

D

tail

M

y

D

W

Figure 4.1: Moments about the Center of Gravity of the Airplane

y,v,Y

z,w,Z

x,u,X

q,M

p,L

r,N

c.g.

Figure 4.2: Deﬁnition of Aircraft Variables in Flight Mechanics

V

zero-lift line

wing

α

w

V

ε

i

t

L

w

D

w

M

ac,w

M

ac,t

L

t

D

t

c.g.

z

t

z

w

l

t

hc

h

ac, w

c

h

ac, t

c

W

Figure 4.3: Forces and Moments Applied to a Wing-Tail Conﬁguration

4.2. STICK-FIXED STABILITY 29

horizontal axis is assumed to coincide with the zero-lift line of the wing. Relative to this reference line, the

tail is shown to have a positive incidence angle. Note that in our development, we adopt the same standard

convention for all angle deﬁnitions (i.e. according to the right-hand rule). The angle of attack of the wing

with respect to the zero-lift line is deﬁned as α

w

. At the tail, the angle of attack is reduced by an angle due

to the downwash at the wing. The airplane is in equilibrium when sums of all the forces and moments about

the center of gravity are zero.

In the longitudinal axis, we have

F

z

= W −(L

w

cosα

w

÷ D

w

sin α

w

) −[L

t

cos(α

w

−) ÷ D

t

sin (α

w

−)]

= 0

(4.2)

and

M

y

= M

ac,w

÷(L

w

cosα

w

÷ D

w

sin α

w

)(hc −h

ac,w

c) ÷(L

w

sin α

w

− D

w

cosα

w

)z

w

÷

M

ac,t

−[L

t

cos(α

w

−) ÷ D

t

sin (α

w

−)]l

t

÷[L

t

sin (α

w

−) − D

t

cos(α

w

−)]z

t

= 0

(4.3)

To simplify our analysis, one can usually assume that the angle of attack α

w

is small and use the following

approximations for cosα

w

∼

= 1 and sin α

w

∼

= α

w

where α

w

is in radians. Then equations (4.2) and (4.3)

become

W = (L

w

÷ D

w

α

w

) ÷[L

t

÷ D

t

(α

w

−)] (4.4)

and

M

ac,w

÷(L

w

÷ D

w

α

w

)(h −h

ac,w

)c ÷(L

w

α

w

− D

w

)z

w

÷

M

ac,t

−[L

t

÷ D

t

(α

w

−)]l

t

÷[L

t

(α

w

−) − D

t

]z

t

= 0

(4.5)

Let’sintroducethefollowingdeﬁnitionsfornon-dimensionalforcesandmomentsatthewingandtailsurfaces,

L

w

= qS

dC

Lw

dα

α

w

= qSa

w

α

w

M

ac,w

= qScC

M

ac,w

L

t

= q

t

S

t

C

L

t

= q

t

S

t

dC

Lt

dα

α

t

= q

t

S

t

dC

Lt

dα

(i

t

÷α

w

−)

= q

t

S

t

a

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−)

M

ac,t

= q

t

S

t

c

t

C

M

ac,t

(4.6)

Furthermore, we deﬁne the following

η

t

=

q

t

q

(4.7)

=

o

÷

d

dα

α

w

=

o

÷

α

α

w

(4.8)

30 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

C

M

0

α

u

n

s

t

a

b

l

e

s

t

a

b

l

e

C

M

o

>0

C

M

o

<0

C

M

α

< 0

C

M

α

> 0

Figure 4.4: Moment Coefﬁcient C

Mcg

versus α

where

o

is the downwash angle when the wing is at zero lift. Both

o

and

α

are obtained from wind

tunnel data. And the variable η

t

is simply the ratio of dynamic pressure at the tail to the freestream dynamic

pressure; this can be greater or less than unity depending on whether the tail is in the wake of the propulsion

system or not.

Further simpliﬁcation can be obtained using the fact that D

w

α

w

< L

w

, D

t

(α

w

−) < L

t

, z

w

∼

= 0 and

z

t

∼

= 0. Equations (4.4) and (4.5) simplify to

C

L

=

W

qS

= a

w

α

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−)

= C

L

o

÷C

L

α

α

w

= C

L

α

(α

w

−α

w,zerolift

)

(4.9)

where

C

L

o

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(i

t

−

o

)

C

Lα

= a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

)

(4.10)

and

C

Mcg

= C

Mac,w

÷a

w

α

w

(h −h

ac,w

) ÷

q

t

S

t

c

t

qSc

C

Mac,t

−

q

t

S

t

l

t

qSc

a

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−) ÷C

Mαfus

α

w

= C

M

ac,w

÷

q

t

S

t

c

t

qSc

C

M

ac,t

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) ÷{(h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

) ÷C

M

αfus

}α

w

= C

Mo

÷C

Mα

α

w

(4.11)

where

C

M

o

= C

M

ac,w

÷

q

t

S

t

c

t

qSc

C

M

ac,t

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(i

t

−

o

)

C

Mα

= (h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

) ÷C

Mαfus

=

dCM

dC

L

C

Lα

(4.12)

C

M

αfus

identiﬁes the contribution of the fuselage to the pitchingmoment (it is generally negligeable C

M

αfus

≈

0), and V

H

=

S

t

l

t

Sc

isthehorizontaltailvolumecoefﬁcient. Recall thatinequilibrium,wemusthave C

M

cg

= 0.

Referring to Figure 4.4, one can see that there are two possible cases for an equilibrium to exist; namely,

4.2. STICK-FIXED STABILITY 31

1. C

M

o

> 0 and C

M

α

< 0: This case corresponds to a statically stable equilibrium point since for any

small change in the angle of attack, a restoring momentis generated to bring it back to the equilibrium.

2. C

M

o

< 0 and C

M

α

> 0: This case corresponds to a statically unstable equilibrium point since the

moment created due to any change in angle of attack will tend to increase it further.

There exists a location of the center of gravity, i.e. when h = h

n

, where the coefﬁcient C

M

α

= 0. Recall that

V

H

=

S

t

l

t

Sc

(Tail volume coefﬁcient) and l

t

= (h

ac,t

−h)c, then equation (4.12) becomes, with h substituted

by h

n

,

(h

n

−h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

(h

ac,t

−h

n

)

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

) ÷C

M

αfus

= 0 (4.13)

or

[a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

)]h

n

= h

ac,w

a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

)h

ac,t

−C

M

αfus

(4.14)

Let’s examine the total lift on the wing-tail conﬁguration, it is given by

L = L

w

÷ L

t

= qSa

w

α

w

÷q

t

S

t

a

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−)

= qSa

w

α

w

÷q

t

S

t

a

t

{i

t

−

o

÷α

w

(1 −

α

)}

(4.15)

or the total lift coefﬁcient C

L

is

C

L

= η

t

St

S

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) ÷[a

w

÷η

t

St

S

a

t

(1 −

α

)]α

w

= C

L

o

÷C

L

α

α

w

(4.16)

Thus, the combined lift curve slope is

C

L

α

= a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

) (4.17)

From the above deﬁnition of C

L

α

, equation (4.14) is simpliﬁed to the following

C

L

α

h

n

= h

ac,w

a

w

÷(C

L

α

−a

w

)h

ac,t

−C

M

αfus

(4.18)

or the neutral point h

n

is given by

h

n

=

h

ac,w

÷[

C

Lα

a

w

−1]h

ac,t

C

Lα

a

w

−

C

M

αfus

C

L

α

(4.19)

or

h

n

= h

ac,t

−

a

w

C

Lα

(h

ac,t

−h

ac,w

) −

C

M

αfus

C

Lα

From the above, it can be easily shown that

C

M

α

= C

L

α

(h −h

n

) (4.20)

Note that C

Lα

> 0, thus C

Mα

< 0 if (h −h

n

) < 0 or, the center of gravity must be ahead of the neutral point.

The other condition C

M

o

> 0, where C

M

o

is deﬁned in equation (4.12), will be satisﬁed if the tail incidence

angle i

t

is negative. The quantity (h

n

−h) is called the static margin. It represents the distance (expressed as

a fraction of the mean aerodynamic chord) that the center of gravity is ahead of the neutral point. Roughly,

a desireable static margin of at least 5% is recommended. For airplane with relaxed static stability, the static

margin is negative. A stability augmentation system (SAS) is needed to ﬂy these vehicle.

32 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

Example 1

Given a light airplane with the following design parameters,

• Wing area S

w

= 160.0 f t

2

, Wing span b

w

= 30 f t ,

• Horizontal tail area S

t

= 24.4 f t

2

, Tail span b

t

= 10 f t ,

• h

ac,t

= 2.78

• Wing with 65

2

−415 type airfoil, C

M

ac,w

= −0.07 , h

ac,w

= 0.27,

• η

t

∼

= 1 and

α

∼

= 0.447.

The lift curve slopes at the wing and tail are obtained from the following empirical equation,

a

3D

= a

2D

A

A ÷[2(A ÷4)/(A ÷2)]

(4.21)

where A = b

2

/S is the aspect ratio of the surface and no sweep. Thus, with a

2D

= 2π per radians = 0.106

per degrees, we have

a

w

= 0.0731per degrees

a

t

= 0.0642per degrees

(4.22)

The total lift curve slope according to equation (4.17) is C

L

α

= 0.0785 per degrees, and the neutral point is

at h

n

= 0.443. Then

C

M

α

= 0.0785(h −0.443) (4.23)

Calculation of C

Mac

, Aerodynamic Center Location and Mean Aerodynamic Chord (mac) for

a Finite Wing

Consider a ﬁnite wing shown in Figure 4.5. The locus of the section aerodynamic centers deﬁnes the swept

back angle . The pitching moment about a line through the point A and normal to the chord line is given

by

M

A

= q

b/2

−b/2

c

2

C

mac

dy −q

b/2

−b/2

cC

l

y tan dy (4.24)

Then if X

A

is the distance of the aerodynamic center behind the point A, then

M

ac

= M

A

÷ LX

A

(4.25)

or

C

M

ac

= C

M

A

÷C

L

X

A

¨ c

(4.26)

Differentiating C

M

ac

with respect to α and using the deﬁnition of an aerodynamic center yields

0 =

dC

M

A

dα

÷

X

A

¨ c

C

L

α

(4.27)

Substituting equation (4.24) into the above equation and using the fact that

dC

m

ac

dα

= 0 (4.28)

4.2. STICK-FIXED STABILITY 33

Α

Λ

V

•

y

dL

dM

ac

ytanΛ

c

t

c

o

b

2

−

b

2

0

Figure 4.5: Calculation of Wing Aerodynamic Center

we obtain from equation (4.27),

X

A

=

1

C

L

α

S

b/2

−b/2

cC

l

α

y tandy (4.29)

If we assume that C

lα

is constant across the wing span, then we have

X

A

=

¸

b/2

0

cydy

S/2

C

l

α

C

Lα

tan (4.30)

or

X

A

= ¨ y

C

l

α

C

Lα

tan (4.31)

where ¨ y is the spanwise distance from the centerline out to the centroid of the half-wing area. As a special

case, for a linearly tapered wing, equation (4.31) becomes

X

A

=

(1 ÷2λ)

(1 ÷λ)

C

l

α

C

L

α

b

6

tan (4.32)

where λ =

c

t

c

o

is the wing taper ratio. The mean aerodynamic chord ¨ c of a ﬁnite wing is deﬁned as the chord

length that, when multiplied by the wing area S, the dynamic pressure q, and an average C

M

ac

, gives the total

moment about the wing’s aerodynamic center. Namely,

M

ac

= qS ¨ cC

Mac

(4.33)

Combining the above equation with equation (4.24), we have

qS ¨ cC

M

ac

= q

b/2

−b/2

c

2

C

m

ac

dy (4.34)

Thus, if the wing is straight and has constant airfoil cross section (i.e. C

m

ac

is constant across the wing span),

then we have ¨ c = c. However, if c is not constant (e.g in a tapered wing) and we assume that C

M

ac

= C

m

ac

and C

l

are constant across the wing span, then the mean aerodynamic chord ¨ c is simply,

¨ c =

1

S

b/2

−b/2

c

2

dy (4.35)

34 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

•

Hinge

c

e

c

(a) Stabilizer-Elevator Configuration

δ

e

+

+

+

δ

e

i

t

(b) Stabilator Configuration

Hinge

Figure 4.6: Horizontal Tail Conﬁgurations

This integral deﬁnition of ¨ c is used for any planform. As an example, for a linear tapered wing, we have

¨ c =

2c

o

3

1 ÷λ ÷λ

2

1 ÷λ

(4.36)

where c

o

is the midspan chord (Figure 4.5).

4.3 Stick-Free Stability

Wehaveseenintheprevioussectionthekeyelementsinstaticstabilityanalysisforastick-ﬁxedconﬁguration.

It was assumed that the position of the tail or elevator surface has been ﬁxed by the pilot holding onto the

control stick, i.e. to holdthe surfaceintrimmedposition the pilotmust exert aconstant force dueto anonzero

moment at the elevator hinge. This may not be desireable for long duration ﬂight. Of course, nowadays for

highperformanceandlarge-sizeairplane, theproblemisalleviatedwith theuseofpowerassistedcontrolsand

seldom there are unassisted control linkages between the pilot controls and the respective control surfaces.

Nevertheless, it would still be necessary for small-size airplanes to investigate the issue of stick-free

stability. It turns out that the effect of freeing the control surface amounts to a reduction in static stability

in a certain conﬁguration (e.g. stabilizer-elevator). Let’s examine the two basic conﬁgurations of horizontal

tail surfaces: stabilizer-elevator and stabilator as shown in Figure 4.6 .

Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration

Let’s consider the moment H

e

about the hinge line of the elevator and the corresponding elevator hinge

moment coefﬁcient C

h

e

deﬁned as,

C

he

=

H

e

1/2ρV

2

S

e

c

e

(4.37)

4.3. STICK-FREE STABILITY 35

The elevator hinge moment coefﬁcient C

h

e

is found to be a function of the tail angle of attack α

t

and of the

elevator deﬂection δ

e

. As an approximation, one can write

C

h

e

=

∂C

he

∂α

t

α

t

÷

∂C

he

∂δ

e

δ

e

(4.38)

where ∂C

he

/∂α

t

and ∂C

he

/∂δ

e

are assumed constant and determined empirically (i.e. they vary with the

conﬁgurationoftheplanformofthestabilizer-elevator). Withtheconventionthatapositiveelevatordeﬂection

is down, these derivative coefﬁcients are usually negative thus producing a negative hinge moment for any

positive change in either α

t

or δ

e

.

Clearly, the free elevator will reach an equilibrium position when its hinge moment is zero for any tail

angle of attack α

t

. Let’s denote this angle as δ

e free

which is determined by setting C

he

equal to zero,

C

h

e

= 0 =

∂C

h

e

∂α

t

α

t

÷

∂C

h

e

∂δ

e

δ

e

free

(4.39)

This equation allows us to solve for δ

e

free

in terms of the angle of attack at the tail α

t

. The tail lift coefﬁcient

derived from equation (4.6) is then modiﬁed to include the effect of a free elevator as follows,

C

L

t

= a

t

α

t

÷

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

δ

e

(4.40)

However, since for a stick-free case, δ

e

= δ

e

free

, equation (4.40) becomes

C

L

t

= a

t

α

t

−

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

∂C

he

∂α

t

∂C

he

∂δ

e

α

t

(4.41)

or

C

L

t

= F

e

a

t

α

t

(4.42)

where

F

e

= 1 −

1

a

t

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

∂C

he

∂α

t

∂C

he

∂δ

e

= 1 −τ

∂C

he

∂α

t

∂C

he

∂δ

e

(4.43)

where τ =

∂α

t

∂δ

e

is the elevator effectiveness (see Figure 5-33 on page 250 of Perkins & Hage) in

∂C

L,t

∂δ

e

=

∂C

L,t

∂α

t

∂α

t

∂δ

e

= τa

t

(4.44)

and a

t

is the lift-curve slope of the tail. The variable F

e

is called the free elevator factor, and it is usually less

than unity. Stability analysis for the stick-free case proceeds exactly as in the stick-ﬁxed case. The results

are obtained simply by substituting a

t

in equation (4.17) by F

e

a

t

. Namely,

C

L

α

free

= a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

F

e

a

t

(1 −

α

) < C

L

α

fixed

(4.45)

The lift curve slope for a stick-free case is always less than that of a stick-ﬁxed case. From the above result

for C

Lα free

, the neutral point h

n

is given by

h

n

free

=

h

ac,w

÷[

CLα free

a

w

−1]h

ac,t

C

Lα free

a

w

−

C

M

α

C

L

α

fus

(4.46)

36 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

or

h

n

free

= h

ac,t

−

a

w

C

L

α

free

(h

ac,t

−h

ac,w

) −

C

Mα

C

L

α

fus

(4.47)

Notice that since C

L

α

free

< C

L

α

fixed

, we deduce that the neutral point for a stick-free case is ahead of the

neutral point of a stick-ﬁxed case (i.e. h

n

free

< h

n

fixed

); hence the stick-free case is less statically stable than

the stick-ﬁxed case for a given center of gravity position.

From the above, it can be easily shown that

C

Mα free

= C

Lα free

(h −h

n free

) (4.48)

Example 2

Using results from Example 1 and assuming that C

he

= −0.31α

t

−0.68δ

e

(where α

t

and δ

e

are in radians)

with an elevator control effectiveness

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

of 1.616 per radians. Then

F

e

= 1 −

1

a

t

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

∂C

he

/∂α

t

∂C

he

/∂δ

e

= 1 −

1

0.0642per deg

1.616per rad

57.3deg/rad

(−0.31)

(−0.68)

= 0.80

(4.49)

The lift curve slope C

L

α

is given by

C

L

α

free

= a

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

F

e

a

t

(1 −

α

)

= 0.0731per deg ÷1

24.4

160

0.80 0.0642per deg(1 −0.447)

= 0.0774per deg < C

L

α

fixed

= 0.0785per deg

(4.50)

The neutral point is at

h

n

free

= 2.78 −

0.0731per deg

0.0774per deg

(2.78 −0.27) = 0.4094 < h

n

fixed

= 0.443 (4.51)

Then C

M

α

free

= 0.0744(h −0.4094).

Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration

With this conﬁguration, the elevator deﬂection is mechanically linked to the horizontal stabilator deﬂection

as follows,

δ

e

= k

e

i

t

÷δ

o

(4.52)

The deﬂection δ

o

is used to provide zero stick force at trim. The hinge moment at the horizontal tail is given

by

C

h

t

=

∂C

h

t

∂α

t

α

t

÷

∂C

h

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

(4.53)

Recall that the tail angle of attack α

t

in a wing-tail conﬁguration is given by α

t

= i

t

÷α

w

− (as in equation

(4.6)). Thus the ﬂoating incidence angle i

t

at the horizontal stabilator is obtained by letting C

h

t

= 0,

C

h

t

= 0 =

∂C

h

t

∂α

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−) ÷

∂C

h

t

∂δ

e

(k

e

i

t

÷δ

o

) (4.54)

4.3. STICK-FREE STABILITY 37

or

i

t

= B

e

{

∂C

ht

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)α

w

÷

∂C

ht

∂δ

e

δ

o

} (4.55)

where the constant B

e

is deﬁned as

B

e

=

−1

∂C

h

t

∂α

t

÷

∂C

h

t

∂δ

e

k

e

(4.56)

With the above tail incidence angle expressed as a function of α

w

and δ

o

, one can then determine the

corresponding tail lift coefﬁcient as follows,

C

L

t

= a

t

α

t

÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

(4.57)

After some simple algebra that proceeds roughly along the following line,

C

Lt

= a

t

(i

t

÷α

w

−) ÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(k

e

i

t

÷δ

o

) (4.58)

C

Lt

= F

e

a

t

(1 −

α

)α

w

÷G

e

δ

o

(4.59)

where

F

e

= 1 ÷(1 ÷

1

a

t

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

k

e

)B

e

∂C

ht

∂α

t

(4.60)

and

G

e

= (a

t

÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

k

e

)B

e

∂C

h

t

∂α

t

÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(4.61)

Note that in this case, the free elevatorfactor F

e

can be greater than unity; hence resultingin an improvement

on static margin for the stabilator conﬁguration.

Example 3:[Anderson]

For a wing-body combination, the aerodynamic center lies 0.05c ahead of the center of gravity. The moment

coefﬁcient about the aerodynamic center is C

Mac,wb

= −0.016. If the lift coefﬁcient is C

Lwb

= 0.45, what is

the moment coefﬁcient about the center of gravity?

Note that C

M

cg,wb

= C

M

ac,wb

÷C

L

wb

(h −h

ac,wb

) where h −h

ac,wb

= 0.05, C

L

wb

= 0.45 and C

M

ac,wb

=

−0.016. Thus, C

M

cg,wb

= −0.016 ÷0.45(0.05) = 0.0065.

Example 4:[Anderson]

A wing-body model is tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. The lift is found to be zero at a geometric angle

of attack α = −1.5

o

. At α = 5

o

, the lift coefﬁcient is measured as 0.52. Also at α = 1.0

o

and 7.88

o

, the

moment coefﬁcients about the center of gravity are measured as −0.01 and 0.05, respectively. The center

of gravity is located at hc = 0.35c. Determine the location of the aerodynamic center and the moment

coefﬁcient about the aerodynamic center C

M

ac,wb

.

Knowing the lift coefﬁcients at different angles of attack (C

L

wb

= 0 at α = −1.5

o

and C

L

wb

= 0.52 at

α = 5

o

) one can deduce the lift curve slope (as a linear approximation) a

wb

as follows,

a

wb

=

∂C

L

wb

∂α

=

0.52 −0

5 −(−1.5)

= 0.08per deg (4.62)

38 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

Measuring the moment coefﬁcients about the center of gravity at two different angles of attack and at the

same time we know from previous calculation the lift curve slope, one obtains from

C

M

cg,wb

= C

M

ac,wb

÷a

wb

α

wb

(h −h

ac,wb

) (4.63)

the following two linear equations in two unknowns C

Mac,wb

and (h −h

ac,wb

),

−0.01 = C

M

ac,wb

÷0.08(1 ÷1.5)(h −h

ac,wb

)

0.05 = C

Mac,wb

÷0.08(7.88 ÷1.5)(h −h

ac,wb

)

(4.64)

From equations (4.64), we can solve for C

M

ac,wb

and (h −h

ac,wb

) as

C

Mac,wb

= −0.032, (h −h

ac,wb

) = 0.11 (4.65)

Since h = 0.35, then h

ac,wb

= 0.35 −0.11 = 0.24.

Example 5:[Anderson]

Consider the wing-body model in Example 4 above. The area and chord of the wing are S = 0.1m

2

and

c = 0.1m, respectively. Nowassume that a horizontal tail is added to the model. The distance of the airplane

center of gravity to the tail’s aerodynamic center is l

t

= 0.17m, the tail area is S

t

= 0.02m

2

, the tail-setting

angle is i

t

= −2.7

o

, the tail lift slope is a

t

= 0.1 per degrees, and from experimental measurement

o

= 0

o

and

∂

∂α

=

α

= 0.35. If α = 7.88

o

, what is the moment coefﬁcient C

M

cg

for this airplane model? Does this

airplane have longitudinal static stability and balance? Find the neutral point.

From equation (4.11), we have

C

M

cg

= C

M

ac,w

÷

q

t

S

t

c

t

qSc

C

M

ac,t

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) ÷{(h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

)}α

w

(4.66)

We further assume that the tail has a symmetric airfoil shape where C

M

ac,t

= 0. From previous example, we

have C

M

ac,wb

= −0.032, a

w

= 0.08, α

w

= 7.88

o

÷1.5

o

= 9.38

o

and (h −h

ac,w

) = 0.11. Furthermore

η

t

= 1 (assumed )

V

H

=

S

t

l

t

SC

=

0.02(0.17)

0.1(0.1)

= 0.34

(4.67)

Thus

C

M

cg

= −0.032−1(0.34)(0.1)(−2.7 −0) ÷{0.11(0.08) −1(0.34)(0.1)(1 −0.35)}9.38 = −0.065 (4.68)

For longitudinal static stability, we examine C

M

α

as given in equation (4.12),

C

Mα

= (h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

) (4.69)

or

C

M

α

= 0.11(0.08) −1(0.34)(0.1)(1 −0.35)

= −0.0133 < 0(Statically stable)

(4.70)

Is the model longitudinally balanced? Toﬁnd out we need to determine C

M

o

(deﬁned in equation (4.12) and

from which we derive the equilibrium angle of attack.

C

Mo

= C

Mac,w

÷

q

t

S

t

c

t

qSc

C

Mac,t

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) (4.71)

4.4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 39

or

C

M

o

= −0.032 −1(0.34)(0.1)(−2.7 −0) = 0.0598 (4.72)

Thus, the equilibrium angle of attack is obtained by letting C

M

cg

= 0 in equation (4.11), or

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

equilibrium

=⇒ α

equilibrium

= −C

M

o

/C

M

α

= −(0.0598)/(−0.0133) = 4.4962

o

(4.73)

This angle of attack is within reasonable limits; hence the airplane can be balanced and at the same time it

is also statically stable.

The neutral point is given by equation (4.19) as

h

n

=

h

ac,wb

÷[

CLα

a

wb

−1]h

ac,t

C

Lα

awb

(4.74)

where

C

L

α

= a

wb

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(1 −

α

)

= 0.08 ÷1(0.02)/(0.1)(0.1)(1 −0.35) = 0.093

h

ac,t

= h ÷l

t

/c = 0.35 ÷0.17/0.1 = 2.05

(4.75)

Thus,

h

n

=

0.24 ÷[

0.093

0.08

−1]2.05

0.093

0.08

= 0.493 (4.76)

One can veriﬁes the above result using equation (4.20), namely

h −h

n

= C

M

α

/C

L

α

0.35 −0.493 = (−0.0133)/(0.093)

−0.143 = −0.143

(4.77)

In the following we discuss some other effects that enter into our analysis of the longitudinal static stability.

4.4 Other Inﬂuences on the Longitudinal Stability

4.4.1 Inﬂuence of Wing Flaps

Changes in the wing ﬂaps affect both trim and stability. Themain aerodynamic effects due to ﬂap deﬂections

are:

• Lowering the ﬂaps has the same effect on C

M

o,wb

as an increase in wing camber. That is producing a

negative increment in C

M

o,wb

.

• Theangleof wing-bodyzero-liftischanged tobemorenegative. Sincethe tailincidence i

t

ismeasured

relative to the wing-body zero lift line, this in effect places a positive increment in the tail incidence

angle i

t

.

• Change in the spanwise lift distribution at the wing leads to an increase in downwash at the tail, i.e.

o

and

∂

∂α

may increase.

40 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

T

V

α

p

c.g

z

p

N

p

l

p

Thrust

Normal Propeller Force

Figure 4.7: Forces on a Propeller

4.4.2 Inﬂuence of the Propulsive System

The incremental pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity due to the propulsion system (Figure

4.7) is

M

cg

= Tz

p

÷ N

p

l

p

(4.78)

where T is the thrust and N

p

is the propeller or inlet normal force due to turning of the air. Another inﬂuence

comes from the increase in ﬂow velocity induced by the propeller or the jet slipstream upon the tail, wing

and aft fuselage.

In terms of moment coefﬁcient,

C

Mcg

=

T

qS

z

p

c

÷

N

p

qS

l

p

c

(4.79)

Since the thrust is directed along the propeller axis and rotates with the airplane, its contribution to the

moment about the center of gravity is independent of α

w

. Then we have

C

M

o

=

T

qS

z

p

c

(4.80)

and

C

M

α

= N

prop

S

prop

l

p

Sc

∂C

N

p

∂α

(1 −

α

) (4.81)

where the propeller normal force coefﬁcient ∂C

N

p

/∂α and the downwash (or upwash)

α

are usually de-

termined empirically (Figure 4.8). N

prop

is the number of propellers and S

prop

is the propeller disk area

(= πD

2

/4) and D is the diameterof the propeller. Notethat a propeller mountedaft of the c.g. isstabilizing.

This is one of the advantages of the pusher-propeller conﬁguration. Note that n in Figure 4.8 is the propeller

angular speed in rps .

4.4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 41

Figure 4.8: Propeller Normal Force Coefﬁcient C

N

pα

=

∂C

N

blade

∂α

f (T)

42 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

4.4.3 Inﬂuence of Fuselage and Nacelles

The pitching moment contributions of the fuselage and nacelles can be approximated as follows (Perkins &

Hage p. 229, Equation (5.31)),

C

M

αfuselage

=

K

f

W

2

f

L

f

Sc

(per degrees) (4.82)

where W

f

is the maximum width of the fuselage or nacelle and L

f

is the length. The empirical pitching

moment factor K

f

is given in Figure 4.9 (NACATR 711).

Figure 4.9: K

f

as a Function of the Position of the Wing c/4 Root Chord

4.4.4 Effect of Airplane Flexibility

Flexibility of an airframe under aerodynamic loads is evident in any ﬂight vehicle. The phenomenon that

couples aerodynamics with structural deformations is studied under the subject of aeroelasticity. There are

two types of analysis:

• Static behaviour: Herethesteady-statedeformationsof thevehicle structureareinvestigated. Phenom-

ena such as aileron reversal, wing divergence and reduction in static longitudinal stability fall under

this category.

• Dynamic behaviour: The major problem of interest is associated with the phenomena of dynamic

loading, buffeting and ﬂutter.

Let’s study, for example, the effect of fuselage bending on the tail effectiveness. It can be seen that the angle

of attack at the tail is reduced by the fuselage bending according to the following equation,

α

t

= α

wb

÷i

t

− −kL

t

(4.83)

4.4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 43

The tail lift coefﬁcient (with δ

e

= 0) is

C

L

t

= a

t

α

t

= a

t

(α

wb

÷i

t

− −kL

t

) (4.84)

or

C

Lt

= a

t

(α

wb

÷i

t

− −kq

t

S

t

C

Lt

) (4.85)

Solving for C

L

t

, we get

C

L

t

=

a

t

1 ÷kη

t

qS

t

a

t

(α

wb

÷i

t

−) (4.86)

Thus the tail effectiveness is reduced by a factor 1/[1 ÷kη

t

qS

t

a

t

] that decreases with increasing speed V in

the dynamic pressure q. This decrease in the tail lift curve slope will cause the neutral point to move forward

(i.e. .reduced static stability).

Similarly, it can be shown that the elevator effectiveness is decreased due to fuselage bending since

C

Lt

= a

t

(α

wb

÷i

t

− −kL

t

) ÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

(4.87)

or solving for C

L

t

, we obtain

C

L

t

=

a

t

(α

wb

÷i

t

−) ÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

1 ÷kη

t

qS

t

a

t

(4.88)

Thus the elevator effectiveness is reduced by the same factor 1/[1 ÷kη

t

qS

t

a

t

].

4.4.5 Inﬂuence of Ground Effect

When the airplane is near the ground to within 20% of the wing span, the wing and tail lift curve slope will

increase by about 10%. At the same time, the downwash is reduced to about half of the normal value, which

requires a greater elevator deﬂection to hold the nose up. However, static stability is usually improved by

the ground effect.

The aircraft must have sufﬁcient elevator effectiveness to trim in ground effect with full ﬂaps and full

forward c.g. location, at both power off and full power.

44 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

Chapter 5

Static Longitudinal Control

We have studied in Section 4 the concept of longitudinal stability of an airplane in trim. It was shown that

static stability is primarily governedby the sign of the derivativeof the moment coefﬁcient aboutthe airplane

center of gravity with respect to the angle of attack, i.e C

M

α

, being negative. All the above analysis relies on

the fact that one can trim the airplane. The question is what are the controls that allowus to trim the airplane.

5.1 Longitudinal TrimConditions with Elevator Control

For a steady level ﬂight it is easily seen that the airplane velocity in trim is given by

V

trim

=

2W

ρSC

L

trim

(5.1)

Thus if the pilot wants to ﬂy at a lower velocity V < V

trim

, then from equation (5.1), we must have C

L

trim

(or the angle of attack) increased in order to offset the decrease in dynamic pressure. But increasing the

angle of attack away from trim would generate for a statically stable airplane a negative pitching moment

that tends to bring the angle of attack back to the original trim point (Figure 4.4). It would therefore be

impossible to change speed if nothing else is changed about the airplane. It turns out that there are basically

two ways to achieve a change in the trim angle of attack. The control concepts are illustrated in Figure 5.1.

One possibility is to change the slope of the moment coefﬁcient curve as indicated in Figure 5.1a. Thus, by

decreasing the slope C

Mα

(i.e more negative), one can achieve a smaller trim angle of attack and hence one

is able to ﬂy at a faster velocity. If we examine equation (4.12), the only way to modify C

M

α

is to change the

location of the airplane center of gravity that shows up in both the variables h and V

H

. This principle is used

extensively in modern hand gliding craft but it is clearly not practical for large ﬁxed wing airplanes. The

alternative is tochange the value of C

M

o

as indicatedin Figure5.1b. It will be shown belowthat by deﬂecting

the elevatorin the horizontal tail one can translate the moment coefﬁcient curve upward and downwardwhile

without affecting its slope.

Let’sexaminetheeffectofdeﬂectingtheelevatoronthetailliftcoefﬁcientcurve. Usingasignconvention

of positive elevator deﬂection being downward (or using the right-hand rule for angle), it is clear that a

deﬂected elevator causes the lift curve to shift upward and to the left as shown in Figure 5.2 . The lift curve

slope remains unchanged. Now, if we assume that the tail is at a constant angle of attack α

t

, say α

t 1

in Figure

5.2, then an increase in elevator deﬂection would lead to an increase in tail lift along the vertical dashed line

(Figure 5.2). If we plot the tail lift coefﬁcient C

Lt

as a function of δ

e

when the tail is at a given tail angle of

45

46 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

C

M

o

C

M

α

e

α

new

Shifting c.g. forward

C

M

o

C

M

α

e

α

new

Deflecting Elevator

α

t

α

t

(a) (b)

Figure 5.1: How to Change Airplane Trim Angle of Attack

α

t

α

t1

δ

e

= 0

o

δ

e

= 5

o

δ

e

=10

o

δ

e

=15

o C

L

t

Figure 5.2: Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Tail Angle of Attack

5.1. LONGITUDINAL TRIM CONDITIONS WITH ELEVATORCONTROL 47

C

L

t

δ

e

Slope

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

α

t

=cons tant

>0

Elevator control effectiveness

Figure 5.3: Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Elevator Deﬂection

attack α

t

(held constant), we would have a curve much like the one given in Figure 5.3 (where we assume

that the slope stays nearly constant and does not change with δ

e

). This slope of the tail lift coefﬁcient with

respect toelevatordeﬂectiondenoted by ∂C

L

t

/∂δ

e

iscalled the elevatorcontroleffectiveness . This quantiﬁes

the effectiveness of the elevator as a control surface. It can be seen that this constant ∂C

L

t

/∂δ

e

is always

positive. With the above deﬁnition, one can from here on express the tail lift coefﬁcient as a function of two

independent variables α

t

and δ

e

. In the form of a ﬁrst-order Taylor series expansion, we have

C

L

t

=

∂C

L

t

∂α

t

δ

e

α

t

÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

α

t

δ

e

(5.2)

or since a

t

=

∂C

Lt

∂α

t

, then

C

L

t

= a

t

α

t

÷

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

δ

e

(5.3)

Substitutingequation(5.3)intoequation(4.11)forthepitchingmomentcoefﬁcientaboutthecenterofgravity,

we have

C

M

cg

= C

M

ac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

M

ac,t

÷a

w

α

w

(h −h

ac,w

) −η

t

V

H

(a

t

α

t

÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

) (5.4)

Then the rate of change of C

M

cg

due to elevator only is deﬁned as

∂C

Mcg

∂δ

e

. From equation (5.4), we obtain

∂C

M

cg

∂δ

e

= −η

t

V

H

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(5.5)

Notethatsince

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

isalwayspositive, wededuce that

∂C

Mcg

∂δ

e

isalways negative. Thus, anincrementalchange

in C

M

cg

for a given elevator deﬂection δ

e

is simply,

C

M

cg

= −η

t

V

H

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

δ

e

(5.6)

So by deﬂecting the elevator one can shift the moment coefﬁcient curve downward by an amount C

M

cg

given in equation (5.6). This conﬁrms the behaviour depicted in Figure 5.1 b, where elevator control can

be used to change the trim point. Moreover, from equation (5.4) we can show that the slope of the moment

48 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

coefﬁcient curve with respect to angle of attack is not affected (to ﬁrst-order approximation) by the elevator

deﬂection. Only the value of C

Mo

is modiﬁed by elevator deﬂection. Namely,

C

M

cg

= (C

M

o

÷C

M

cg

) ÷

∂C

Mcg

∂αw

α

w

= (C

M

o

−η

t

V

H

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

) ÷

∂C

Mcg

∂α

w

α

w

(5.7)

5.1.1 Determination of Elevator Angle for a New TrimAngle of Attack

The problem is to ﬁnd the elevator deﬂection δ

etrim

such that the moment coefﬁcient equation is balanced at

a new angle of attack α

n

. We return to equation (5.7) where we substitute α

w

by α

n

and using equation (5.6)

for C

Mcg

C

M

cg

= 0 = C

M

o

−η

t

V

H

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

etrim

÷

∂C

M

cg

∂α

w

α

n

(5.8)

Solving for δ

etrim

, we obtain

δ

etrim

=

C

M

o

÷

∂C

Mcg

∂α

w

α

n

η

t

V

H

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(5.9)

Example 6 [Anderson]

Considerafull-sizeairplanewiththeaerodynamic characteristicsdeﬁnedfortheairplanemodelin Examples

4 and 5 of Section 4.3. The full-size airplane wing area is S = 19m

2

with a weight of W = 2.27 10

4

N,

and an elevator control effectiveness of 0.04. Determine the elevator deﬂection angle needed to trim the

airplane at a velocity of V = 61m/s at sea level.

First, we need to ﬁnd the airplane angle of attack to ﬂy at V = 61m/s. It is given by

C

L

=

2W

ρV

2

S

=

2(2.27 10

4

)

1.225(61)

2

(19)

= 0.52 (5.10)

From Example 5, we have C

L

α

= 0.093. Then the absolute angle of attack of the airplane is

α

n

=

C

L

C

Lα

=

0.52

0.093

= 5.59

o

(5.11)

From equation (5.9), we have

δ

etrim

=

C

Mo

÷

∂C

Mcg

∂α

w

α

n

η

t

V

H

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(5.12)

or

δ

etrim

=

0.0598 ÷(−0.0133)(5.59)

1(0.34)0.04

= −1.0696

o

(5.13)

5.1.2 Longitudinal Control Position as a Function of Lift Coefﬁcient

From equation (4.16) we have expressed the total lift coefﬁcient as a function of angle of attack at the wing,

constant component of downwash and the tail incidence angle,

C

L

= C

L

α

α

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) (5.14)

5.1. LONGITUDINAL TRIM CONDITIONS WITH ELEVATORCONTROL 49

or

C

L

= C

Lα

α

w

÷C

Lti

t

(i

t

−

o

) (5.15)

with

C

L

ti

t

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(5.16)

Note that C

L

α

is given in equation (4.17). From equation (5.15), we see that C

L

is a linear function of angle

of attack α

w

. Thus for a given C

L

and tail incidence angle i

t

, one can solve for α

w

as

α

w

=

C

L

−C

L

ti

t

(i

t

−

o

)

C

L

α

(5.17)

The other equation of importance is the one for the pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity as

given in equations (4.11)-(4.12),

C

Mcg

= C

Mo

÷C

Mα

α

w

(5.18)

where C

Mo

and C

Mα

are as deﬁned previously in equations (4.12) where C

Mα

can also be expressed as

C

M

α

= C

L

α

(h −h

n

). Substituting equation (5.17) and equation (4.12) into equation (5.18) the pitching

moment equation is now a function of the total lift coefﬁcient C

L

and the tail incidence angle i

t

. Namely,

C

Mcg

= C

Mac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

Mac,t

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(i

t

−

o

) ÷C

Mα

C

L

−C

L

ti t

(i

t

−

o

)

C

Lα

(5.19)

For an airplane in trim, one must have C

M

cg

= 0 in equation (5.19). Then one can solve for the tail incidence

angle at a particular C

L

trim,

i

t

= A

t

÷ B

t

C

L

(5.20)

where

A

t

=

o

÷

C

Mac,w

÷η

t

St ct

Sc

C

M

ac,t

C

Mα

C

L

ti t

C

Lα

÷ηt VHat

=

o

÷

CMac,w

÷ηt

S

t

c

t

Sc

CM

ac,t

η

t

St

S

a

t

[

lt

c

÷h−h

n

]

(5.21)

and

B

t

=

CMα

C

Mα

C

L

ti

t

÷η

t

V

H

a

t

C

Lα

=

h−hn

η

t

S

t

S

a

t

[

l

t

c

÷h−h

n

]

(5.22)

Let’s study the sign of the coefﬁcient B

t

. Note that for a statically stable airplane, C

M

α

< 0. It can be easily

shown that the denominator term C

M

α

C

L

ti

t

÷η

t

V

H

a

t

C

L

α

is equal to

C

M

α

C

L

ti t

÷η

t

V

H

a

t

C

L

α

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

C

L

α

(h −h

n

÷

l

t

c

) (5.23)

Thus if l

t

/c > h

n

− h, then the coefﬁcient B

t

will be negative. Equation (5.22) allows one to determine

experimentally the neutral point. This is done by measuring i

t

as a function of C

L

for differentc.g. locations.

The slopes of the experimentally derived curves are then plotted as a function of center of gravity locations

(i.e. h). The neutral point h

n

is determined by extrapolation to ﬁnd the value of c.g. that gives a zero slope

in ∂i

t

/∂C

L

(see Figure 5.4). According to equation (5.20) this simply corresponds to having C

M

α

= 0 or

h = h

n

in equation (4.20).

50 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

h

•

•

•

•

•

∂i

t

∂C

L

0

h

n

Figure 5.4: Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Point from Flight Test

5.2 Control Stick Forces

Pilotsusecontrolstickforcesasoneofthemeansofevaluatingtheﬂyingqualitiesofanairplane. Thus,ability

to control an airplane is quantiﬁed in terms of required maximum exerted control forces and its sensitivity

with respect to airspeed. For simple mechanical control systems, the pilot controls are directly linked to the

respective control surfaces and the forces he must exert are proportional to the hinge moment (generated

primarily from aerodynamics) about the pivot point at the surfaces.

Let’s reviewthe key equations governing the analysis of control hinge moments.

In the design of airplane control system, the stick (or control wheel) forces must lie within acceptable

limits throughout the operating envelope (V-n diagram) of the airplane. And the gradient of these forces

with respect to airspeed at trim point must produce the proper “feel” to the pilot. In general, the pilot tends

to push forward in the longitudinal control to ﬂy faster and pull on it to slow down. A requirement stated in

FARPart 23 poses a limit on the maximum force of 60lbs for the stick and 75lbs for the control wheel.

For analysis, we often assume that the control force P is proportional to the hinge moment H at the

elevator. Namely,

P = GH (5.24)

It can be shown that for a system in equilibrium we have Ps ÷ Hδ = 0. Or

δ

H

P

s

Figure 5.5: Longitudinal Control Stick to Stabilator

P = −

δ

s

H (5.25)

5.2. CONTROL STICK FORCES 51

Thus, G = −δ/s is the gearing ratio which, as derived here, is totally independent of the details of the

mechanical linkage. Since δ is negative for a positive stick displacement s as shown in Figure 5.5, the hinge

moment would be positive for a positive stick force; thus G is positive.

5.2.1 Stick Force for a Stabilator

For a symmetrical airfoil, the pitching moment at the horizontal stabilator is given by

C

M

t

= C

M

tac

(= 0) ÷C

M

t αt

α

t

÷C

M

t δe

δ

e

(5.26)

From equation (5.24), we deduce the stick force for the stabilator to be

P = Gq

t

S

t

c

t

{C

Mt α

t

α

t

÷C

Mt δe

δ

e

} (5.27)

Note that C

M

t αt

can be positive or negative depending on whether the aerodynamic center of the stabilator is

ahead or behind the pivot. The coefﬁcient C

M

t δe

is generally negative. The ﬁrst step is to express α

t

and δ

e

in terms of C

L

. First we recall that the elevator deﬂection is linked to the horizontal tail incidence as

δ

e

= k

e

i

t

÷δ

o

(5.28)

The trim angle of attack α

w

is determined from the total lift coefﬁcient and the tail angle of incidence i

t

from

the pitching moment equation in balance. Namely,

C

L

= a

w

α

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

{a

t

[i

t

−

o

÷(1 −

α

)α

w

] ÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

(k

e

i

t

÷δ

o

)} (5.29)

or

C

L

= C

L

α

α

w

÷C

L

ti t

F

e

i

t

÷η

t

S

t

S

[

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

o

−a

t

o

] (5.30)

where C

Lα

is given in equation (4.17),

F

e

= 1 ÷

1

a

t

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

k

e

(5.31)

and

C

L

ti t

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

(5.32)

One can solve for α

w

in terms of C

L

, i

t

, δ

o

,

o

as follows,

α

w

=

1

C

L

α

{C

L

−η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

δ

o

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

o

−C

L

ti

t

F

e

i

t

} (5.33)

The other equation we use is the pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity,

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

w

(5.34)

where

C

M

o

= C

M

ac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

M

ac,t

−η

t

V

H

[a

t

(F

e

i

t

−

o

) ÷

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

o

] (5.35)

and

C

Mα

= (h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

) = C

Lα

(h −h

n

) (5.36)

52 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

Using equations (5.28), (5.33) and the fact that in trim C

M

cg

= 0, we can solve for i

t

in terms of C

L

, δ

o

,

o

.

We obtain

i

t

= A

s

÷ B

s

C

L

(5.37)

where

A

s

=

1

η

t

S

t

S

a

t

F

e

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)

{C

Mac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

Mac,t

} ÷

1

F

e

o

−

1

a

t

F

e

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

o

(5.38)

and

B

s

=

h −h

n

η

t

S

t

S

a

t

F

e

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)

(5.39)

Substituting i

t

of equation (5.37) into equation (5.33), we obtain

α

w

= A

a

÷ B

a

C

L

(5.40)

where

A

a

= −

1

(

lt

c

÷h −h

n

)C

L

α

{C

M

ac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

M

ac,t

} (5.41)

and

B

a

=

lt

c

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)C

L

α

(5.42)

The stick force P given in equation (5.27) becomes

P

Gη

t

qS

t

c

t

= [(C

Mt α

t

÷C

Mt δe

k

e

)i

t

÷C

Mt α

t

(1 −

α

)α

w

−C

Mt α

t

o

÷C

Mt δe

δ

o

] (5.43)

or

P

Gη

t

qS

t

c

t

= [(C

M

t αt

÷C

M

t δe

k

e

)(A

s

÷ B

s

C

L

) ÷C

M

t αt

(1 −

α

)(A

a

÷ B

a

C

L

) −C

M

t αt

o

÷C

M

t δe

δ

o

] (5.44)

Thus the stick force P is a linear function of C

L

. By collecting all the terms we have

P

Gη

t

qS

t

c

t

=

¨

A ÷

¨

BC

L

(5.45)

where

¨

A = [(C

M

t αt

÷C

M

t δe

k

e

)A

s

÷C

M

t αt

(1 −

α

)A

a

−C

M

t αt

o

÷C

M

t δe

δ

o

] (5.46)

and

¨

B = [(C

M

t αt

÷C

M

t δe

k

e

)B

s

÷C

M

t αt

(1 −

α

)B

a

] (5.47)

Notice that the parameter δ

o

in

¨

A can be used to achieve P = 0 at a particular trim velocity V

trim

. That is,

0 =

¨

A ÷

¨

BC

Ltrim

(5.48)

or

¨

A = −

¨

BC

L

trim

. We can substitute C

L

by

C

L

=

W

qS

=

W

1

2

ρV

2

S

(5.49)

5.2. CONTROL STICK FORCES 53

Using equations (5.45) and (5.49), it can be easily shown that

P

Gη

t

S

t

c

t

= q

¨

B

C

L

−C

L

trim

= q

¨

BC

L

1 −

C

L

trim

C

L

= (

W

S

)

¨

B{1 −

V

2

V

2

trim

}

(5.50)

Note that V

trim

is given in equation (5.1) and W/S is simply the wing loading.

Fromtheabove equation, wecan obtain thegradient of thestick force with respect to speedat V = V

trim

,

dP

dV

V=V

trim

= −2Gη

t

S

t

c

t

W

S

¨

B

V

trim

(5.51)

For a given trim speed, a proper stick force gradient as stated in FAR Part 23 must be negative for all

conditions of ﬂight. Or

¨

B must be positive. Notice that the gradient is large if V

trim

is small. Figure 5.6

shows a typical stick force versus speed curve described in equation (5.51). At V = 0, clearly from equation

(5.50) we have

P = Gη

t

S

t

c

t

W

S

¨

B (5.52)

P (lb)

60 80 100 120

V(mph)

0

10

20

-10

-20

V

trim

= 120

Figure 5.6: Stick Force versus Velocity Curve

5.2.2 Stick Force for a Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration

We proceed as before by ﬁrst giving the hinge moment associated with the stick force P,

C

H

= C

H

o

÷

∂C

H

∂α

t

α

t

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

t

δ

t

(5.53)

54 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

where in general C

H

o

= 0. Next we examine the total lift coefﬁcient

C

L

= C

L

α

α

w

÷η

t

S

t

S

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

−η

t

S

t

S

a

t

o

(5.54)

where we assume that the lift contributed by the trim tab is negligeable. Solve α

w

in terms of δ

e

and C

L

,

α

w

=

1

C

L

α

{C

L

−η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷η

t

S

t

S

a

t

o

} (5.55)

Now we consider the pitching moment,

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

w

(5.56)

where

C

M

o

= C

M

ac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

M

ac,t

÷η

t

V

H

[a

t

o

−

∂C

L

t

∂δ

e

δ

e

] (5.57)

and

C

M

α

= (h −h

ac,w

)a

w

−η

t

V

H

a

t

(1 −

α

) (5.58)

From trim balance with C

M

cg

= 0, we solve for δ

e

δ

e

= A

e

÷ B

e

C

L

(5.59)

where

A

e

=

1

η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂δe

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)

{C

Mac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

Mac,t

} ÷

a

t

∂C

Lt

∂δe

o

(5.60)

and

B

e

=

h −h

n

η

t

St

S

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

(

lt

c

÷h −h

n

)

(5.61)

Similarly, by substituting equation (5.59) in equation (5.55), we can express α

w

in terms of C

L

,

α

w

= A

a

÷ B

a

C

L

(5.62)

where

A

a

= −

1

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)C

L

α

{C

Mac,w

÷η

t

S

t

c

t

Sc

C

Mac,t

} (5.63)

and

B

a

=

lt

c

(

l

t

c

÷h −h

n

)C

L

α

(5.64)

From equations (5.24)) and (5.53), the stick force P becomes

P

Gη

t

qS

e

c

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)α

w

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

t

δ

t

] (5.65)

Thus the stick force P is a linear function of C

L

. By collecting all the terms we have

P

Gη

t

qS

e

c

e

=

¨

A

e

÷

¨

B

e

C

L

(5.66)

5.3. STEADYMANEUVER 55

where

¨

A

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)A

a

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

A

e

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

t

δ

t

] (5.67)

and

¨

B

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)B

a

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

B

e

] (5.68)

Again the trim tab δ

t

is used to achieve P = 0 at V = V

trim

, then one can simplify the above equation for

the stick force P to the following,

P

Gη

t

S

e

c

e

= (

W

S

)

¨

B

e

{1 −

V

2

V

2

trim

} (5.69)

From the above equation, we obtain the gradient of the stick force with respect to speed at V = V

trim

,

dP

dV

V=V

trim

= −2Gη

t

S

e

c

e

W

S

¨

B

e

V

trim

(5.70)

5.3 Steady Maneuver

We now consider the determination of the elevator angle per g in a pull-up maneuver. In the analysis, the

concepts of stick-ﬁxed and stick-free maneuver margins are introduced. For an airplane in a steady pull-up

maneuver, the lift force will exceed the vehicle weight. Namely,

L = W(1 ÷

a

n

g

) (5.71)

where a

n

is the vehicle acceleration. The lift to weight ratio is known as the load factor n or

n = 1 ÷

a

n

g

(5.72)

For a straight level ﬂight, a

n

= 0 and n = 1.

We examine the pitching moment of the airplane in this pull-up maneuver from which we derive the

quantity known as elevator angle per g. Again we have

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

w

÷C

M

(due to airplane rotation in a steady pull-up maneuver) (5.73)

where

C

M

= −

qη

t

S

t

a

t

α

t

l

t

qSc

= −η

t

V

H

a

t

α

t

(5.74)

The incremental angle of attack at the tail due to a constant angular velocity Q is

α

t

=

l

t

Q

V

(5.75)

or

α

t

=

2l

t

c

¨ q (5.76)

with ¨ q being the dimensionless pitch rate variable deﬁned as

¨ q =

Qc

2V

(5.77)

56 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

5.3.1 Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g

When the airplane is in straight and level ﬂight (unaccelerated), the elevator angle and stick force to trim are

δ

e

and P respectively. When in the pull-up maneuver, the elevator is deﬂected to δ

e

÷δ

e

and the stick force

required is P ÷P. The quantities δ

e

/(a

n

/g) and P/(a

n

/g) are known as the elevator angle per g and

the stick force per g respectively. These are measures of airplane maneuverability; the smaller they are the

more maneuverable it is.

Including the effects due to pitch rotation Q in a pull-up maneuver, the pitching moment becomes

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

w

÷

∂C

M

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷

∂C

M

∂ Q

Q (5.78)

Note that Q is not dimensionless and it has the units of rad /s or deg/s. To nondimensionalize Q we use

the variable ¨ q deﬁned in equation (5.77). Then equation (5.78) becomes,

C

M

cg

= C

M

o

÷C

M

α

α

w

÷

∂C

M

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷C

M

¨ q

¨ q (5.79)

We can derive C

M

¨ q

from C

M

and the expression of α

t

due to Q,

C

M

¨ q

= −η

t

a

t

V

H

2l

t

c

(5.80)

This term C

M

¨ q

is often referred to as the pitch damping term, since it produces a negative pitching moment

due to a change in pitch rate.

In a steady pull-up there is still no angular acceleration in the pitch axis, thus for equilibrium C

M

cg

= 0

as it is in trimmed straight level ﬂight condition. The increment C

M

resulting from a steady maneuver is

C

M

cg

= 0 = C

M

α

α

w

÷C

M

δe

δ

e

÷C

M

¨ q

¨ q (5.81)

where we assume that C

M

o

remains constant in the maneuver. From the above equation, one can solve for

δ

e

as

δ

e

= −

C

M

α

α

w

÷C

M

¨ q

¨ q

C

M

δe

(5.82)

It can be shown that since a

n

= QV we have

¨ q =

Qc

2V

=

a

n

c

2V

2

=

gc

2V

2

(

a

n

g

) (5.83)

Again the incremental change in angle of attack α

w

is determined from

C

L

= C

L

α

α

w

÷

∂C

L

∂δ

e

δ

e

(5.84)

where C

L

is the incremental lift coefﬁcient due to the pull-up; namely

C

L

÷C

L

C

L

=

L

W

= 1 ÷

a

n

g

(5.85)

or

C

L

=

a

n

g

C

L

(for 1 g ﬂight) (5.86)

5.3. STEADYMANEUVER 57

Then

α

w

=

C

L

C

L

α

a

n

g

−

C

L

δe

C

L

α

δ

e

(5.87)

Note that

C

L

δe

=

∂C

L

∂δ

e

= η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂δ

e

(5.88)

or

C

L

δe

= η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂α

t

∂α

t

∂δ

e

= η

t

S

t

S

∂C

Lt

∂α

t

τ = η

t

S

t

S

a

t

τ (5.89)

where the coefﬁcient τ can be determined from Figure 5.33 (Perkins & Hage p. 250).

Substituting equations (5.83) and (5.87) into equation (5.82) we have

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

= −

C

Mα

C

L

÷C

M¨ q

C

Lα

(

gc

2V

2

)

C

Mδe

C

Lα

−C

Mα

C

Lδe

(5.90)

Note that W = qSC

L

=

1

2

ρV

2

SC

L

and W = mg where m is the mass of the airplane. Hence, C

L

=

2W

ρV

2

S

.

Also recall that C

M

δe

= −η

t

V

H

C

L

t δe

from equation (5.6). Then

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

= −C

L

C

L

α

h −h

n

÷

ρSc

4m

C

M

¨ q

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

(5.91)

or letting µ =

2m

ρSc

(known as the relative mass parameter), then

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

= −C

L

C

L

α

h −h

n

÷

1

2µ

C

M¨ q

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

(5.92)

Similarly to the neutral point, there is also a particular value of h, known as the stick-ﬁxed maneuver point

denoted here by h

m

, forwhich no (i.e. very small) elevator willbe required toproduce a ﬁnite (i.e. not small)

acceleration. This is determined from equation (5.92) by setting δ

e

= 0; namely

h

m

= h

n

−

1

2µ

C

M

¨ q

(5.93)

Since C

M¨ q

< 0, then h

m

> h

n

or the stick-ﬁxed maneuver point lies aft of the neutral point. The quantity

h

m

−h is known as the stick-ﬁxed maneuver margin. And we can rewrite equation (5.92) as

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

=

C

L

C

L

α

(h

m

−h)

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

(5.94)

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

=

C

L

(h

m

−h)

C

L

t

δe

¸

−η

t

V

H

−(h −h

n

)η

t

S

t

S

¸ (5.95)

or

δ

e

(a

n

/g)

=

C

L

(h

m

−h)

C

L

t

δe

η

t

S

t

S

(h

n

−h

ac,t

)

< 0 (5.96)

58 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

5.3.2 Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g

A similar derivation can be performed for the stabilator conﬁguration and we obtain the following results,

i

t

(a

n

/g)

= −C

L

C

L

α

h −h

n

÷

1

2µ

C

M

q

C

M

it

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

it

(5.97)

where we replace C

M

δe

by C

M

it

and C

L

δe

by C

L

it

.

5.3.3 Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g

Recall from equation (5.53) that

C

H

=

∂C

H

∂α

t

α

t

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

t

δ

t

(5.98)

assuming that the trim tab has negligeable contribution to the total lift and moment. In a steady pull-up,

α

t

= i

t

÷α

w

− ÷2

l

t

c

¨ q (5.99)

or, assuming

o

= 0,

α

t

= i

t

÷(1 −

α

)α

w

÷2

l

t

c

¨ q (5.100)

Then the stick force P is given by

P

Gη

t

qS

e

c

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

[i

t

÷(1 −

α

)α

w

÷

2l

t

c

¨ q] ÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

÷

∂C

H

∂δ

t

δ

t

] (5.101)

Let δ

t

be adjusted to achieve P = 0 at straight level ﬂight (unaccelerated). Then α

w

= α

o

÷ α

w

,

δ

e

= δ

eo

÷δ

e

. It then follows that

P

Gη

t

qS

e

c

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

[(1 −

α

)α

w

÷

2l

t

c

¨ q] ÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

] (5.102)

Recall that

2l

t

c

¨ q =

gl

t

V

2

(

a

n

g

) (5.103)

Thevariables α

w

and δ

e

are thoseobtainedin thepreviousanalysis forelevatorper g asgiven inequations

(5.87) and (5.96) respectively. Thus, equation (5.102) becomes

P

Gη

t

qS

e

c

e

= [

∂C

H

∂α

t

[(1 −

α

){

C

L

C

L

α

(

a

n

g

) −

C

L

δe

C

L

α

δ

e

} ÷

gl

t

V

2

(

a

n

g

)] ÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

δ

e

] (5.104)

After some simple manipulations, we obtain

P

(a

n

/g)

= Gη

t

S

e

c

e

(

W

S

){

∂C

H

∂α

t

[

(1 −

α

)

C

L

α

÷

1

µ

l

t

c

] ÷

∂C

H

∂δ

e

C

L

α

−

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)C

L

δe

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

(h

m

−h)} (5.105)

5.3. STEADYMANEUVER 59

Again, there is a position of center of gravity h for which P = 0. This is known as the stick-free maneuver

point denoted by h

/

m

. It is called the stick-free maneuver point since it corresponds to the fact that the pilot

can let go of his control stick (i.e. stick free). Equation (5.105) can be rewritten as

P

(a

n

/g)

= Gη

t

S

e

c

e

(

W

S

){

∂C

H

∂δ

e

C

L

α

−

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)C

L

δe

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

(h

/

m

−h)} (5.106)

where

h

/

m

= h

m

÷

∂C

H

∂α

t

[

(1 −

α

)

C

L

α

÷

1

µ

l

t

c

]

C

M

δe

C

L

α

−C

M

α

C

L

δe

∂C

H

∂δ

e

C

L

α

−

∂C

H

∂α

t

(1 −

α

)C

L

δe

(5.107)

One would create a catastrophic situation if we load the airplane such that h = h

/

m

. In this case, the pilot

would inadvertently generate extremely large inertia loads on the airplane by exerting little or no control

force. Such a situation rarely occurs if the vehicle has an adequate static margin since the stick-ﬁxed and

stick-free maneuver points are always aft of the neutral point.

5.3.4 Stabilator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g

A similar analysis as the one performed for the stabilizer-elevator conﬁguration can also be done for the

stabilator conﬁguration. Details are left to the students. (They can be found in the reference book by B. W.

McCormick)

Remarks:

• Stick force per g is a linear function of h. For a normal range of c.g. (i.e. h < h

/

m

) locations, the

force gradient is positive. That is the pilot must exert a pull (positive) force on the stick to maneuver a

pitch up maneuver. The airplane is highly maneuverable if this force gradient is small (i.e. when the

c.g. location is near the stick-free maneuver point). In this case, the airplane may even be statically

unstable.

• Stick force per g is directly proportional to wing loading (W/S).

• It is independent of C

L

or V apart from Mach and Reynold effects.

60 CHAPTER 5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL

Chapter 6

Lateral Static Stability and Control

The concept of static stability and control we studied for the longitudinal axis can also be applied to the

lateral axis. The key motion variables in the lateral axis correspond to sideslip (with sideslip angle β, or side

velocity v), roll (with roll rate p) and yaw (with yaw rate r). Primary controls are rudder δ

r

and ailerons δ

a

.

6.1 Yawing and Rolling Moment Equations

The lateral motion of an airplane is described in terms of two tightly coupled motions: yawabout the z-body

axis (i.e. directional) and roll about the x-body axis (i.e. lateral).

Using Figure 6.1, let’s ﬁrst identify the motion variables, the control effectors and their sign conventions

used in the lateral-directional stability analysis.

Note that all along we adhere strictly to the right-hand rule for sign conventions:

• x-body axis pointed forward,

• y-body axis pointed to the right wing,

• z-axis pointed down toward the earth,

• Positive yaw motion (clockwise) (i.e. yaw rate r > 0 with yaw angle ψ),

• Positive roll motion (right wing down) (i.e. roll rate p > 0 with roll angle φ),

• Positive sideslip β = sin

−1

(v/V) corresponding to a positive v-component in side velocity.

• Aileron control positive with right aileron down (δ

ar

> 0 again consistent with the right-hand rule

where a positive rotation about the positive y-body axis) and left aileron up (δ

al

> 0). In general, we

deﬁne aileron angle δ

a

to be δ

a

= δ

ar

÷δ

al

. Notice that this deﬁnition of positive aileron will produce

a negative rolling moment.

• Positive rudder deﬂection (δ

r

> 0) is to the left (again according to the right-hand rule a positive

rotation about the positive z-body axis). Withthis deﬁnition, a positive rudder will generate a negative

yawing moment and a positive side force. This is similar to the deﬁnition that a positive elevator

deﬂection would pitch the airplane down, i.e. producing a negative pitching moment and a positive

contribution to lift.

61

62 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

x

y

r,N

β

V

v

T

right

δ

aR δ

spR

δ

r

F

v

p,

Positive down

L

Figure 6.1: Deﬁnition of the Lateral Directional Motion of an Airplane

6.1. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 63

6.1.1 Contributions to the Yawing Moment

There are numerous components that contribute to the yawing moment in the airplane when perturbed in the

lateral motion variables. Note that in straight and level ﬂight, we usually have β = r = p = 0 in trimmed

ﬂight.

The airplane yawing moment about the center of gravity can be written as

N

cg

= N

wing

÷ N

fuselage

÷ N

verticaltail

÷ N

propulsion

÷ N

rudder

÷ N

aileron

(6.1)

or in terms of moment coefﬁcients,

C

N

=

N

qSb

= C

N

wing

÷C

N

fuselage

÷C

N

verticaltail

÷C

N

propulsion

÷C

N

rudder

÷C

N

aileron

(6.2)

• Wing Contribution N

wing

: Yawingmoment generated at the wing is developed mainly from perturbed

motions in sideslip β and roll rate p in the lateral axis. Let’s examine some of these effects:

– Due to sideslip, there is an increase in drag on one side of the wing that is more perpendicular to

the ﬂowand thereby would produce a yawing moment. If the wing is swept aft, then this yawing

moment is stabilizing (i.e. producing a positive yawing moment to a positive sideslip). An

empirical formula for the wing yawing moment coefﬁcient due to sideslip, C

N

w,β

= ∂C

N

w

/∂β,

is given by

C

N

w,β

= C

2

L

{

1

4π A

−[

tan

π A(A ÷4cos)

][cos−

A

2

−

A

2

8cos

÷

6(h

ac,w

−h)sin

A

]} (6.3)

where A is the wing aspect ratio, is the wing sweep angle, C

L

is the total lift coefﬁcient, h

ac,w

is the location of the wing aerodynamic center in percent chord and h is the location of c.g. in

percent chord.

– Due to roll rate, the right wing will move down and thereby see an increase in angle of attack of

py/V applied to a wing section located at a distance y from the root. This increase in angle of

attack will tilt the lift vector forward on the right wing, while on the left wing the inclination is

to the rear. As a result, a differential yawing moment is created and is given by

dN

w

= −q(cdy )C

l

(

py

V

)(2y) (6.4)

or

dN

w

= −2

p

V

q(cC

l

y

2

dy ) (6.5)

Thus integrating from 0 to b/2, we obtain the incremental yawing moment due to roll rate p as

N

w

= −2

p

V

q

b/2

0

cC

l

y

2

dy (6.6)

or, in terms of the yawing moment coefﬁcient, we have

C

Nw

= −2

p

SbV

b/2

0

cC

l

y

2

dy (6.7)

64 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

For a linearly tapered wing with taper ratio λ = c

t

/c

o

and assuming that C

l

is constant across

the wing span, we can show that

C

N

w

= −

C

L

12

1 ÷3λ

1 ÷λ

¨ p (6.8)

or the yawing moment coefﬁcient contributed by the wing due to roll rate is given by

C

Nw, ¨ p

= −

C

L

12

1 ÷3λ

1 ÷λ

(6.9)

in terms of the dimensionless roll rate ¨ p = pb/2V.

• Fuselage (and Nacelle) Contribution N

fuselage

: Yawing moment due to sideslip is a function of the

fuselage (or nacelle) volume, length and width as follows,

∂C

N

fuselage

∂β

= C

Nfuselage ,β

= −1.3

Volume

Sb

(

D

f

W

f

) (per radians) (6.10)

where W

f

and D

f

are respectivelythemaximum widthanddepth ofthe fuselage. Clearly, the fuselage

produces a negative contribution to the lateral stability, i.e., making the vehicle less stable in the yaw

axis.

• Vertical Tail Contribution N

verticaltail

: The vertical tail plays as signiﬁcant a role in the lateral motion

as the horizontal tail in the longitudinal motion. The effects on the vertical tail due to sideslip, roll rate

and yaw rate are described below.

– Due to a sideslip β, the vertical tail produces a side force F

v

which in turn will result in yawing

moment about the center of gravity as follows. Note that the side force F

v

is given by

F

v

= −η

v

qS

v

a

v

β

v

= −η

v

qS

v

a

v

∂β

v

∂β

β = −η

v

qS

v

a

v

(1 −

β

)β (6.11)

The yawing moment coefﬁcient produced by this side force is

C

Nv

= C

Nv,β

β = −

F

v

l

v

qSb

(6.12)

Using equation (6.11), we deduce

C

Nv,β

= η

v

S

v

S

a

v

l

v

b

(1 −

β

) (6.13)

where η

v

is the ratiobetween the dynamic pressure at the verticaltail and the freestreamdynamic

pressure, l

v

is the distancefrom the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail to the center of gravity,

β

is the sidewash factor.

– Due to roll rate p, points along the vertical tail will see an increase in angle of attack of py/V,

thus we have an incremental yawing moment of,

dN

v

= q

v

(c

v

dy)a

v

yp

V

l

v

(6.14)

6.1. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 65

where c

v

is the chord length at a section of the vertical tail located at a distance y from the root.

Thus, by integrating from 0 to b

v

(where b

v

is the height of the vertical tail) and dividing by qSb ,

we obtain the following contribution to yawing moment at the vertical tail due to roll rate,

C

Nv

= η

v

l

v

Sb

p

V

a

v

b

v

0

c

v

ydy (6.15)

In terms of the dimensionless roll rate ¨ p = pb/2V, we have

C

N

v, ¨ p

= 2

η

v

b

l

v

Sb

a

v

bv

0

c

v

ydy (6.16)

– Due to yaw rate r, the vertical tail will have a change in angle of attack of α

v

= −rl

v

/V. An

incremental side force of

F

v

= η

v

qS

v

a

v

rl

v

V

(6.17)

is thereby produced that results in an incremental yawing moment of

N

v

= −F

v

l

v

= −η

v

qS

v

a

v

rl

v

V

l

v

(6.18)

In terms of yawing moment coefﬁcient obtained by dividing equation (6.18) by qSb , we have

C

N

v

= −η

v

S

v

l

v

Sb

a

v

l

v

r

V

(6.19)

or the yaw damping coefﬁcient C

N

v,r

primarily due to the vertical tail is given by

C

N

v,r

= −η

v

S

v

l

v

Sb

a

v

l

v

V

(6.20)

In terms of the dimensionless yaw rate ¨ r = rb/2V, we have

C

Nv,¨ r

= −η

v

S

v

l

v

Sb

a

v

l

v

V

2V

b

(6.21)

or

C

Nv,¨ r

= −2η

v

S

v

l

v

Sb

a

v

l

v

b

= −2η

v

V

V

a

v

l

v

b

(6.22)

where V

V

=

S

v

l

v

Sb

is the vertical tail volume. In Perkins & Hage, additional contribution to the

total yawing moment due to yaw rate is included for the differential wing drag as follows,

C

N¨ r

= −

C

D

w

4

÷C

Nv,¨ r

= −

C

D

w

4

−2η

v

V

V

a

v

l

v

b

(6.23)

• Propulsion Contribution N

propulsion

: As in the longitudinal case, the propulsionsystem will contribute

to the overall yawing moment due to unbalanced thrusts from left and right engines (e.g an engine

failure). Also the normal forces exerted at the propeller disc due to sideslip will produce additional

yawing moment. In summary, we can write

C

N

propulsion

= C

N

propulsion o

÷C

N

propulsion

β

β (6.24)

66 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

where

C

N

propulsion o

=

−(T

right

− T

left

)y

p

qSb

(6.25)

where y

p

is the distance between the engine and the fuselage centerlines, and

C

Npropulsion

β

= −N

prop

S

prop

l

p

Sb

∂C

N

p

∂β

(1 −

β

) (6.26)

where N

prop

is the number ofpropellers, l

p

is the x-distance from the propeller tothe c.g. (Figure 4.7),

the coefﬁcient

∂C

Np

∂β

( by symmetry consideration) can be obtained in a similar fashion using Figure

4.8.

• Rudder Contribution N

rudder

: As seen in Section 6.3, rudder surface provides an effective way to

control the yawing moment of the airplane. The incremental contribution to the yawing moment is

governed by equation (6.79) from which we obtain the yawing moment coefﬁcient due to rudder δ

r

as

given in equation (6.80). A major consideration in sizing the rudder is in the case of engine failure.

The rudder must have enough authority to trim out the imbalance in yawing moment −Ty

p

due to a

failure, for example, of the left engine. Then, since T = D in trim,

− Dy

p

−qSbη

v

V

V

a

v

τ δ

r

= 0 (6.27)

or

δ

r

= −

Dy

p

qSb η

v

V

V

a

v

τ

= −

C

D

y

p

η

v

bV

V

a

v

τ

(6.28)

• Aileron Contribution N

aileron

: As the ailerons are deﬂected asymmetrically (and in equal amount) to

produce a roll about the x-axis, drag produced at the downward deﬂected aileron surface is higher

than that generated at the upward deﬂected aileron. In this way, a yawing moment is created by the

aileron surfaces when the airplane is in a roll maneuver. For example, in a positive roll maneuver,

the left aileron is down and the right aileron is up; thus a negative yawing moment is produced that is

adverse to the turn coordination. In some cases, to remove the adverse yaweffect, one can increase the

drag of the upward deﬂected surface by introducing a greater deﬂection angle at this surface. Other

design concepts may be used to generate higher drags (e.g a Frise aileron sticks out into the ﬂowwhen

deﬂected upward).

• Spoiler Contribution N

spoiler

: Aspoileris anaerodynamic device, placedon the upperwing surface, to

generate drag; thus it is a speed control effector. The spoilers are sometimes also used for roll control.

When deﬂected (upward), it causes the ﬂowto separate on the upper surface and thereby resulting in a

loss of lift. In roll control, deﬂecting the right spoiler upward will result in a positive rolling moment.

At the same time, the drag on the right spoiler would generate a desired positive yawing moment

(hence there is no adverse yaw effect when the spoiler is used to roll the airplane). The difﬁculty in

using spoilers as control effectors for roll stabilization is due to the fact its aerodynamic behaviour is

highly nonlinear, and besides they are less effective than the aileron control surfaces since they are

located near the wing root. In general, a loss in lift will be accompanied by a loss in altitude, and thus

may be undesireable.

6.1. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 67

6.1.2 Contributions to the Rolling Moment

Therollingmotionisgenerallyaffectedbythemotionvariablesinyaw r,sidelip β androll p. Thecomponents

that contribute mostly to the rolling moment are the wing, the vertical tail, the ailerons (located on the wing)

and the rudder.

The airplane rolling moment about the center of gravity can be written as

L = L

wing

÷ L

fuselage

÷ L

verticaltail

÷ L

aileron

÷ L

rudder

(6.29)

In terms of the moment coefﬁcients,

C

L

=

L

qSb

= C

L

wing

÷C

L

fuselage

÷C

L

verticaltail

÷C

L

aileron

÷C

L

rudder

(6.30)

• Wing Contribution L

wing

: The rolling moment produced at the wing is developed primarily from

perturbed motions in sideslip β, roll rate p and yaw rate r.

– Due to sideslip, the rolling moment is primarily obtained from the wing dihedral (depicted by

the dihedral angle > 0 above the horizontal plane). The rate of change of rolling moment with

sideslip, C

Lβ

= ∂C

L

/∂β, is important to the handling qualities of an airplane. A small negative

value of C

L

β

is desireable. Too much dihedral will make the airplane hard to ﬂy. When the

airplane is in a positive sideslip, the right wing will see an increase in angle of attack of

α = βV/V = β (6.31)

The opposite change in α occurs over the left wing. This results in a differential increment in

rolling moment,

dL

w

= −2q(cdy )a

w

βy = −2qa

w

βcydy (6.32)

or

C

L

w

= −2a

w

β

b/2

0

cydy

Sb

(6.33)

For a linearly tapered wing, we have

C

L

w

= −

a

w

6

(

1 ÷2λ

1 ÷λ

)β (6.34)

or

C

L

w,β

= −

a

w

6

(

1 ÷2λ

1 ÷λ

) (6.35)

Another effect due to sideslip is derived from a swept-back conﬁgured wing. Figure 6.2 shows a

swept wing in a positive sideslip. The velocity normal to the right leading edge is V cos(−β)

andontheleftwing V cos(÷β). Let C

l

n

bethesection liftcorrespondingtothenormalvelocity

V cos(−β) (or V cos(÷β)) and normal chord c cos ,

Differential lift on the right wing = dL

R

= q cos

2

(−β)c cos C

l

n

ds (6.36)

and

Differential lift on the left wing = dL

L

= q cos

2

(÷β)c cos C

l

n

ds (6.37)

The differential rolling moment is simply,

68 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

Λ

V V

Vcos(Λ−β)

Vcos(Λ+β)

β

y

Γ

Dihedral Angle

βV

βVΓ

y

s

Figure 6.2: Effect of Sweepback on Total Lift and Rolling Moment to Sideslip

dL

w

= (dL

L

−dL

R

)y = q[cos

2

(÷β) −cos

2

(−β)]c cos C

l

n

yds (6.38)

where y = s cos or dy = cos ds . Integrating from 0 to b/2 we obtain,

L

w

= qC

l

n

[cos

2

(÷β) −cos

2

(−β)]

b/2

0

cydy (6.39)

Note that the incremental lift for a swept wing is

dL =

1

2

ρ(Vcos )

2

C

l

n

cdy (6.40)

Hence, integrating over the entire wing span, the total lift for a swept wing is given by

L = 2q cos

2

C

l

n

b/2

0

cdy = qSC

l

n

cos

2

(6.41)

or the wing C

L

and the normal section C

l

n

are related by

C

L

= C

ln

cos

2

(6.42)

Then the rolling moment coefﬁcient becomes

C

L

w

=

C

L

cos

2

[cos

2

(÷β) −cos

2

(−β)]

b/2

0

cydy

Sb

(6.43)

6.1. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 69

If we differentiate with respect to β and evaluate the derivative at β = 0, we obtain

C

L

w,β

= −4C

L

tan

b/2

0

cydy

Sb

(6.44)

Again for a linear tapered wing, we have

C

Lw,β

= −

1 ÷2λ

3(1 ÷λ)

C

L

tan (6.45)

Generally, we have

C

Lw,β

= −f (A, λ)C

L

tan (6.46)

where f (A, λ) is an empirically derived function of aspect ratio A and taper ratio λ. It should

be noted that wing placement on the fuselage combined with the cross-ﬂow over the fuselage in

sideslip (Figure 6.3) introduces additional factors in the rolling moment due to sideslip, i.e. the

rolling coefﬁcient C

L

w,β

,

∗ High wing: C

Lw,β

= −0.00016/deg,

∗ Mid-wing: C

Lw,β

= 0,

∗ Low wing: C

Lw,β

= ÷0.00016/deg,

•

L

More lift

Less lift

positive

sideslip

High wing

Figure 6.3: Effect of Wing Placement on the Rolling Moment to Sideslip

– Due to roll rate, the resulting effect is related to damping in roll. As the airplane rolls, a section

on the right wing located at a distance y from the centerline will experience an increase in angle

of attack of,

α =

py

V

(6.47)

Neglecting induced effects (i.e. tilting of the lift vector), the associated incremental rolling

moment is

dL

w

= −2q(cdy )a

w

py

V

y (6.48)

By integrating from 0 to b/2 and using the nondimensional variable x = y/(b/2), we have

C

Lw

=

L

w

qSb

= −

a

w

A

2

(

pb

2V

)

1

0

(

c

b

)x

2

dx (6.49)

70 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

where A = b

2

/S is the wing aspect ratio. For a linearly tapered wing, we have

C

Lw

= −

a

w

12

1 ÷3λ

1 ÷λ

¨ p (6.50)

or

C

L

w, ¨ p

= −

a

w

12

1 ÷3λ

1 ÷λ

(6.51)

where the dimensionless roll rate is ¨ p = pb/2V.

The aileron control can be used to produce constant roll rate in steady-state. It is obtained from

the following equation,

C

L

δa

δ

a

÷C

L

¨ p

¨ p = 0 (6.52)

or

¨ p = −

C

L

δa

C

L

¨ p

δ

a

(6.53)

– Due to yaw rate, the left wing will see a higher velocity than the right wing which is retracting

away from the forward motion. Assuming that the wing is operating at a constant C

L

and the

section lift C

l

is constant and equals to C

L

. Then a differential rolling moment is produced from

the imbalance in dynamic pressure from the two sides; namely

dL

w

=

1

2

ρ[(V ÷ry )

2

−(V −ry )

2

]C

L

cdyy (6.54)

dL

w

= 2ρVrC

L

cy

2

dy (6.55)

Integrating from 0 to b/2, and assuming a straight wing with no taper, we obtain

L

w

= 2ρVrC

L

c

b/2

0

y

2

dy (6.56)

or

L

w

=

ρcC

L

rVb

3

12

=

1

3

qSb ¨ rC

L

(6.57)

Therefore,

C

Lw

=

C

L

3

¨ r (6.58)

or

C

L

w,¨ r

=

dC

L

w

d ¨ r

=

C

L

3

(6.59)

For a linearly tapered wing, we derive

C

L

w,¨ r

=

C

L

6

1 ÷3λ

1 ÷λ

(6.60)

• Fuselage Contribution L

fuselage

: In general, there is no contribution of the fuselage to the rolling

moment, i.e. L

fuselage

= 0.

• Vertical Tail Contribution L

verticaltail

:

6.1. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 71

– Due to yaw rate, the angle of sideslip is decreased by rl

v

/V. Thus an increment in side force at

the tail is

F

v

= η

v

qS

v

a

v

rl

v

V

(6.61)

And the resulting rolling moment is

L

v

= F

v

z

v

= η

v

qS

v

a

v

rl

v

V

z

v

= 2η

v

qS

v

a

v

rb

2V

l

v

b

z

v

= 2η

v

qS

v

a

v

l

v

b

z

v

¨ r (6.62)

where z

v

is the distance of the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail to the axis of rotation

(x-axis) and ¨ r =

rb

2V

is the dimensionless yaw rate variable.

Dividing equation (6.62) by qSb , we have

C

Lv,¨ r

= 2η

v

S

v

l

v

Sb

a

v

z

v

b

= 2η

v

V

V

a

v

z

v

b

(6.63)

– Due to sideslip, the vertical tail produces a side force F

v

as given in equation (6.11). The rolling

moment coefﬁcient produced by this side force is

C

L

v

= C

L

v,β

β =

F

v

z

v

qSb

= −η

v

qS

v

a

v

(1 −

β

)βz

v

qSb

(6.64)

From which we deduce

C

L

v,β

= −η

v

S

v

S

a

v

z

v

b

(1 −

β

) (6.65)

where the variables η

v

and

β

are as exactly those deﬁned for equation (6.11).

• Aileron Contribution L

aileron

: Aileroncontrols areeffectiveinthe generationofrolling momentdueto

its location from the axis of rotation (i.e. x-axis). As the right aileron is deﬂected, there is an increase

in sectional lift per unit span produced on the right side. It is given by

dL = qca

w

dy τδ

a

R

(6.66)

where τ istheaileroneffectiveness (SeeFigure9-15ofPerkins&Hage). Thisresultsinanincremental

change in the rolling moment as follows,

dL = −qca

w

dyτδ

a

R

y (6.67)

Combining with the contribution from the left aileron, we have

dL = −qca

w

dy τ(δ

a

R

−δ

a

L

)y (6.68)

Integrating over the spanwise length of the aileron, we obtain

L = −qa

w

τ(δ

a

R

−δ

a

L

)

y

2

y

1

cydy (6.69)

In dimensionless form, where we deﬁne x = y/(b/2), the above equation (6.69) becomes

C

L

=

L

δa

qSb

= −

1

4

a

w

τδ

a

A

x

2

x1

c

b

xdx (6.70)

where A = b

2

/S is the wing aspect ratio and δ

a

= δ

aR

−δ

aL

. Again for a simple linearly tapered wing,

we obtain

C

L

δa

= −a

w

τ

3(x

2

2

− x

2

1

) −2(1 −λ)(x

3

2

− x

3

1

)

12(1 ÷λ)

(6.71)

72 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

• Rudder Contribution L

rudder

: As in equation (6.79) for the yawing moment due to rudder, the rudder

when deﬂected will also produce a rolling moment,

L

δ

r

= z

v

η

v

qS

v

a

v

τδ

r

(6.72)

or, the rolling moment coefﬁcient with respect to δ

r

is given by

C

L

δr

= η

v

S

v

z

v

Sb

τa

v

(6.73)

6.2 Directional Stability (Weathercock Stability)

Figure 6.4 shows an airplane at a positive sideslip angle β > 0 or v > 0. The positive yawing moment N is

deﬁned according to the right-hand rule as shown. The non-dimensional yawing moment coefﬁcient is given

by

C

N

=

N

1

2

ρV

2

Sb

(6.74)

The change of yawing moment with respect to sideslip β is deﬁned as

C

N

β

=

∂C

N

∂β

(6.75)

This quantity has the same signiﬁcance as the coefﬁcient C

M

α

. However, for stability we see that a positive

yawing moment would be required to bring β back to zero. Therefore, we expect C

Nβ

to be positive for

directional static stability.

Notethatwhentheairplanehasapositivesideslipthevelocityvectorisnolongerintheplaneofsymmetry.

Thereexistsayawingmomentproducedbythefuselageandbythe sideforceontheverticaltail. Theairplane

is directional stable if C

N

β

> 0. Usually the yawing moment due to the fuselage is destabilizing but its effect

is small compared to the stabilizing moment contributed by the vertical tail. However, in most situation, the

vertical tail is not sized by any consideration of static stability. Instead the minimum tail size is determined

by controllability requirements in the event of an asymmetric engine failure or according to ﬂying quality

requirements.

If the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail is located a distance of l

v

behind the center of gravity. Then

N = η

v

qS

v

l

v

a

v

(1 −

β

)β (6.76)

or

C

N

=

N

qSb

= η

v

S

v

S

l

v

b

a

v

(1 −

β

)β (6.77)

and thus

C

N

β

= η

t

V

V

a

v

(1 −

β

) (6.78)

where V

V

= S

v

l

v

/Sb is the vertical tail volume,

β

is the sidewash factor (difﬁcult to estimate), a

v

is the

lift-curve slope for the vertical tail.

6.2. DIRECTIONAL STABILITY(WEATHERCOCKSTABILITY) 73

x

y

Hinge

•

c

r

c

v

δ

r

N

•

∆L

v

a.c

l

v

V

β

∆

Figure 6.4: Airplane with a Positive Sideslip

74 CHAPTER 6. LATERALSTATICSTABILITYAND CONTROL

6.3 Directional Control

Effective control of yawing moment is provided by the rudder, a movable surface hinged to the vertical

stabilizer. Incremental yawing moment created by the rudder is

N = −l

v

L

v

(6.79)

where L

v

= η

t

qS

v

a

v

τδ

r

and the rate of change of C

N

with respect to δ

r

is given by

C

N

δr

= −η

v

V

V

a

v

τ (6.80)

where τ is the effective factor which depends on the ratio of c

r

/c

v

(For example, see Figure 5-33 of Perkins

& Hage).

6.4 Roll Stability

Rollmomentisgeneratedbyasymmetricdeﬂectionof therightandleftailerons. Whenan airplaneisinitially

perturbed in roll, and without the use of the aileron controls, there is no physical mechanism to provide a

restoring moment. Thus in general C

L

φ

is always zero and the conceptof static stability does not exist inroll.

Or we can also say that the airplane simply possesses neutral static stability in roll. Recall that the rolling

moment coefﬁcient is deﬁned as

C

L

=

L

qSb

(6.81)

Dynamic stability in roll motion is governed by the roll damping term in the stability derivative C

Lp

or

the non-dimensional stability derivative C

L

¨ p

. This term is always negative thereby providing positive roll

damping.

6.5 Roll Control

Roll control is provided primarily by the asymmetric deﬂection of the left and right aileron surfaces. Effec-

tiveness oftheaileroncontrol isdeterminedby therollingmomentcoefﬁcient C

L

δa

derivedinequation(6.71).

A small contribution in roll control can be derived from the rudder control as deﬁned by the term C

L

δr

given

in equation (6.73). In some airplane, additional roll control may be derived from asymmetric deﬂection of

the spoilers.

Chapter 7

Review of Rigid Body Dynamics

In general a deformable body of ﬁnite dimensions may be regarded as being composed of an inﬁnite number

of particles, thus the system possesses an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. This case would apply to a

deformable airplane conﬁguration if we take into consideration structural ﬂexibility. However, in this course

we consider the airplane to be a rigid body with a given mass and moments of inertia. It should be noted

that for a rigid body, the system undergoes no deformation and should possess only 6 degrees of freedom,

namely 3 translations and 3 rotations.

To describe completely the motion of a rigid body, it is convenient to use:

• 3 translations of a certain point in the rigid body and

• 3 rotations about that point.

A system of axes attached to the body are called body axes. As shown in Figure 7.1, the motion of the body

can be described by

1. Translation of the origin O’ of the body axes and

2. Rotation of the axes with respect to the inertial space.

It should be noted that velocity of any point P in the rigid body is given by

V

P

= V

O

/ ÷ω r

P

(7.1)

Similarly, acceleration of a point P in the rigid body is given by

a

P

= a

O

/ ÷ ˙ ω r

P

÷ω (ω r

P

) (7.2)

Todevelopthe dynamical equationsfor a rigid body, we need ﬁrsttodeﬁne itslinear and angularmomentum.

Consider Figure 7.1 where OXY Z is the inertial reference axes and O

/

xyz corresponds to a set of axes

attached to the rigid body. Note that the origin O

/

does not necessarily coincide with the body center of mass

C. We note the following,

• Mass of the rigid body m is given by

m =

Body

dm (7.3)

75

76 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODYDYNAMICS

O'

O

X

Y

Z

(Inertial)

dm

r

C

r

c

p

x

y

z

ω

i

j

k

Figure 7.1: Motion of a Rigid Body

• The mass center C is deﬁned as

r

C

=

1

m

Body

r

P

dm (7.4)

Note that if the origin O

/

coincides with the center of mass C, we have r

C

= 0.

• The linear momentum of a rigid body is deﬁned as

p =

Body

V

P

dm =

Body

(V

O

/ ÷ω r

P

) dm (7.5)

or

p = V

O

/

Body

dm ÷ω

Body

r

P

dm (7.6)

or

p = m(V

O

/ ÷ω r

C

) = mV

C

(7.7)

where V

C

is the velocity of the center of mass C. Thus the linear momentum of a rigid body is equal

to the product of the total mass m and the velocity of the mass center V

C

. It should be noted that the

above equation (7.7) applies to any body-axis reference with origin O

/

. In particular, if O

/

coincides

with the mass center C, we have r

C

= 0 and V

O

/ = V

C

.

• Now we derive the angular momentum of a rigid body about the origin O

/

. By deﬁnition,

H

O

/ =

Body

r

P

V

P

dm (7.8)

or

H

O

/ =

Body

r

P

(V

O

/ ÷ω r

P

) dm (7.9)

or

H

O

/ =

Body

r

P

dm V

O

/ ÷

Body

r

P

(ω r

P

) dm (7.10)

77

or

H

O

/ = mr

C

V

O

/ ÷

Body

r

P

(ω r

P

) dm (7.11)

From here on, we conveniently locate the origin O

/

to be at the center of mass C, then r

C

= 0 and

equation (7.11) simpliﬁes to the following

H

C

=

Body

r

P

(ω r

P

) dm (7.12)

From vector algebra, we have the following identity: r (ω r) = ω(r • r) −r(ω • r). Then

equation (7.12) becomes

H

C

=

Body

ω(r

P

• r

P

)dm −

Body

r

P

(ω • r

P

)dm (7.13)

In Cartesian coordinates, where

r

P

= xi ÷ yj ÷ zk (7.14)

and

ω = ω

x

i ÷ω

y

j ÷ω

z

k (7.15)

we deduce

r

P

• r

P

= x

2

÷ y

2

÷z

2

(7.16)

and

ω • r

P

= ω

x

x ÷ω

y

y ÷ω

z

z (7.17)

Substituting into equation (7.13) we obtain

H

C

=

Body

¸

(x

2

÷ y

2

÷z

2

)(ω

x

i ÷ω

y

j ÷ω

z

k) −(ω

x

x ÷ω

y

y ÷ω

z

z)(xi ÷ yj ÷ zk)

¸

dm (7.18)

or

H

C

=

Body

¸¸

(y

2

÷ z

2

)ω

x

− xy ω

y

− xz ω

z

¸

i ÷

¸

(x

2

÷z

2

)ω

y

− yx ω

x

− yzω

z

¸

j÷

¸

(x

2

÷ y

2

)ω

z

−zx ω

x

−zyω

y

¸

k

¸

dm

(7.19)

Letting H

C

= H

x

i ÷ H

y

j ÷ H

z

k, then

H

x

=

Body

¸

(y

2

÷z

2

)ω

x

− xy ω

y

− xz ω

z

¸

dm = I

xx

ω

x

− I

xy

ω

y

− I

xz

ω

z

(7.20)

H

y

=

Body

¸

(x

2

÷z

2

)ω

y

− xy ω

x

− yz ω

z

¸

dm = −I

yx

ω

x

÷ I

yy

ω

y

− I

yz

ω

z

(7.21)

H

z

=

Body

¸

(x

2

÷ y

2

)ω

z

− zx ω

x

−zyω

y

¸

dm = −I

zx

ω

x

− I

zy

ω

y

÷ I

zz

ω

z

(7.22)

We can deﬁne an inertia matrix I to be of the following form,

I =

¸

¸

I

xx

−I

xy

−I

xz

−I

yx

I

yy

−I

yz

−I

zx

−I

zy

I

zz

(7.23)

78 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODYDYNAMICS

Notice that the matrix I is a symmetric, positive deﬁnite (i.e nonsingular) matrix whose elements have

units of (ML

2

). The angular momentum equation in (7.13) now can be re-written as

H

C

= Iω (7.24)

where the vector ω is the angular velocity vector of the rigid body with components (ω

x

, ω

y

, ω

z

). The

inertia matrix I is a constant (i.e., not time-varying) matrix since it is deﬁned in the body-axis O

/

xyz .

Now we can proceed to the development of the equations of motion for a rigid body from Newton’s

laws.

7.1 Force Equations

We have from Newton’s laws,

dp

dt

= F (7.25)

or

d

dt

(mV

C

) = F (7.26)

where p = mV

C

is the linear momentum of the body, m is the total body mass, V

C

is the velocity of the

center of mass. Since the rigid body has an angular velocity ω, then equation (7.26) becomes

m (

dV

C

dt

)

OXYZ

= m[ (

dV

C

dt

)

O

/

xyz

÷ω V

C

] = F (7.27)

Let the velocity of the center of mass V

C

= ui ÷ vj ÷ wk and the angular velocity of the rigid body be

ω = pi ÷qj ÷rk where ω

x

= p, ω

y

= q and ω

z

= r. Then the force equations of motion of a rigid body

airplane are given by

• Along the body O

/

x direction:

m( ˙ u −rv ÷qw) = F

x

= X force component (7.28)

• Along the body O

/

y direction:

m( ˙ v − pw ÷ru) = F

y

= Y force component (7.29)

• Along the body O

/

z direction:

m( ˙ w −qu ÷ pv) = F

z

= Z force component (7.30)

The force components X, Y and Z on the right-hand side of the above equations are due to gravitional force,

aerodynamic forces and propulsion forces. We will examine these in the next section. Let’s now proceed to

the equations of motion for the rotational degrees of freedom.

7.2. MOMENT EQUATIONS 79

7.2 Moment Equations

With Newton’s laws applying to the angular momentum, we have

(

dH

C

dt

)

OXYZ

= (

dH

C

dt

)

O

/

xyz

÷ω H

C

= M (7.31)

Using equation (7.24), equation (7.31) becomes

I ˙ ω ÷ω Iω = M (7.32)

Using the above deﬁnitions for ω and the inertia matrix I, equation (7.32) can be written in the following

form,

• About the body O

/

x direction:

I

xx

˙ p −(I

yy

− I

zz

)qr − I

yz

(q

2

−r

2

) − I

zx

(˙ r ÷ pq) − I

xy

( ˙ q −rp) = M

x

= L (7.33)

• About the body O

/

y direction:

I

yy

˙ q −(I

zz

− I

xx

)rp − I

zx

(r

2

− p

2

) − I

xy

( ˙ p ÷qr ) − I

yz

(˙ r − pq) = M

y

= M (7.34)

• About the body O

/

z direction:

I

zz

˙ r −(I

xx

− I

yy

)pq − I

xy

( p

2

−q

2

) − I

yz

( ˙ q ÷rp) − I

zx

( ˙ p −qr ) = M

z

= N (7.35)

The moment components L, M and N on the right-hand side of the above equations are due to aerodynamic

forces and propulsion forces. We will examine these in the next section. Note that there is no contribution

from the gravitational force since these moments are taken about the center of gravity.

7.3 Euler’s Angles

The angular velocity components ω

x

(or p), ω

y

(or q) and ω

z

(or r) about the body axes x, y and z cannot

be integrated to obtain the corresponding angular displacements about these axes. In other words, the

orientation of the rigid body in space is not known until we describe the three rotational degrees of freedom

in terms of a set of independent coordinates. Of course, such a set is not necessarily unique. One useful

set of angular displacements called Euler’s angles obtained through successive rotations about three (not

necessarily orthogonal) axes as follows.

Formostairplanedynamics,westartwithasetofinertialaxes OXY Z andperformthefollowingrotations

in a particular order (Figure 7.2),

1. Rotation about the Z-axis (i.e yaw) through an angle ψ ⇒ (x

1

, y

1

, z

1

),

2. Rotation about the y

1

-axis (i.e pitch) through an angle θ ⇒ (x

2

, y

2

, z

2

),

3. Rotation about the x

2

-axis (i.e roll) through an angle φ ⇒ (x

3

, y

3

, z

3

).

80 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODYDYNAMICS

y

z

z

1

y

1

x

ψ

ψ

θ

θ

x

2

z

2

x

3

z

3

φ

y

3

φ

y

2

ψ

θ

φ

x

1

Figure 7.2: Euler’s Angle Deﬁnition

The Euler’s angles for an aircraft are deﬁned as above in terms of (ψ, θ, φ). At each rotation, components of

a vector expressed in the coordinate frame before and after the rotation are related through a rotation matrix.

Namely,

• ψ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

1

y

1

z

1

=

¸

¸

cos ψ sin ψ 0

−sin ψ cos ψ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

x

y

z

(7.36)

• θ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

2

y

2

z

2

=

¸

¸

cos θ 0 −sin θ

0 1 0

sin θ 0 cos θ

¸

¸

x

1

y

1

z

1

(7.37)

• φ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

3

y

3

z

3

=

¸

¸

1 0 0

0 cos φ sin φ

0 −sin φ cos φ

¸

¸

x

2

y

2

z

2

(7.38)

Notice that all the above rotation matrices are orthogonal matrices and hence nonsingular and invertible.

Angular velocity ω of the rotating frame attached to the rigid body is given by

ω =

˙

ψk ÷

˙

θj

1

÷

˙

φi

2

= pi

3

÷qj

3

÷rk

3

(7.39)

We need to express ω in terms of its components in the (x

3

, y

3

, z

3

) coordinate frame. We use the above

results for rotation of coordinate frames to obtain.

˙

φ −

˙

ψ sin θ = p (7.40)

˙

θ cos φ ÷

˙

ψ cos θ sin φ = q (7.41)

and

˙

ψ cos θ cos φ −

˙

θ sin φ = r (7.42)

7.3. EULER’S ANGLES 81

Equations (7.40)-(7.42) are solved (i.e integrated) to determine the orientation of the vehicle (φ, θ, ψ) from

the body angular rates (p, q, r) derived from equations (7.33)-(7.35) when we know the externally applied

moment components (L, M, N)

We can use the above transformations given in equations (7.36)-(7.38) to express the gravitational force

into the body components as follows.

F

gravity

= mgk = F

x,gravity

i

3

÷ F

y,gra vity

j

3

÷ F

z,gravity

k

3

(7.43)

The “ﬂat-earth” model is represented by having the gravitational force always pointed along the vector k.

Solving for the components of the gravitational force along the vehicle body axes, we obtain

F

x,gravity

= −mg sin θ (7.44)

F

y,gravity

= mg cos θ sin φ (7.45)

and

F

z,gravity

= mg cos θ cos φ (7.46)

These components constitute respectively parts of the force components in the right-hand side of equations

(7.28)-(7.30). In general, the three successive rotations in equations (7.36)-(7.38) yield the relationship

between the coordinates in the two reference frames following the Euler’s angle deﬁnition,

¸

¸

x

3

y

3

z

3

=

¸

¸

cos θ cos ψ cos θ sin ψ −sin θ

sin φ sin θ cosψ −cos φ sin ψ sin φ sin θ sin ψ ÷cos φ cos ψ sin φ cos θ

cos φsin θ cos ψ ÷sin φ sin ψ cos φ sin θ sin ψ −sin φ cos ψ cos φ cos θ

¸

¸

x

y

z

(7.47)

Similarly, one can express the coordinates (x, y, z) in terms of the coordinates (x

3

, y

3

, z

3

) by reversing the

above sequence of rotations. Namely,

• −φ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

2

y

2

z

2

=

¸

¸

1 0 0

0 cos φ −sin φ

0 sin φ cos φ

¸

¸

x

3

y

3

z

3

(7.48)

• −θ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

1

y

1

z

1

=

¸

¸

cos θ 0 sin θ

0 1 0

−sin θ 0 cos θ

¸

¸

x

2

y

2

z

2

(7.49)

• −ψ Rotation:

¸

¸

x

y

z

=

¸

¸

cos ψ −sin ψ 0

sin ψ cos ψ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

x

1

y

2

z

3

(7.50)

This yields the following complete transformation,

¸

¸

x

y

z

=

¸

¸

cos ψ cos θ −sin ψ cos φ ÷cos ψ sin θsin φ sin ψ sin φ ÷cos ψ sin θcosφ

sin ψ cos θ cos ψ cos φ ÷sin ψ sin θ sin φ −cos ψ sin φ ÷sin ψ sin θ cos φ

−sin θ cos θ sin φ cos θ cos φ

¸

¸

x

3

y

3

z

3

(7.51)

82 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODYDYNAMICS

The above transformation can be used to determine the aircraft position in terms of its linear velocity V with

components (u, v, w) in the body-ﬁxed axis. First we make the observation

«r = ˙ xi ÷ ˙ yj ÷ ˙ zk = ui

3

÷vj

3

÷wk

3

(7.52)

or

¸

¸

˙ x

˙ y

˙ z

=

¸

¸

cos ψ cos θ −sin ψ cos φ ÷cos ψ sin θsin φ sin ψ sin φ ÷cos ψ sin θcosφ

sin ψ cos θ cos ψ cos φ ÷sin ψ sin θ sin φ −cos ψ sin φ ÷sin ψ sin θ cos φ

−sin θ cos θ sin φ cos θ cos φ

¸

¸

u

v

w

(7.53)

Expanding the above expression, we have

˙ x = u cos ψ cos θ ÷v(−sin ψ cos φ ÷cos ψ sin θsin φ) ÷w(sin ψ sin φ ÷cos ψ sin θcosφ) (7.54)

˙ y = u sin ψ cos θ ÷v(cos ψ cos φ ÷sin ψ sin θ sin φ) ÷w(−cos ψ sin φ ÷sin ψ sin θ cos φ) (7.55)

and

˙ z = −u sin θ ÷v cos θ sin φ ÷wcos θ cos φ (7.56)

Let’s summarize here the equations governing the motion of a rigid body aircraft.

• Linear momentum equations:

– Along the body O

/

x direction:

˙ u = rv −qw −g sin θ ÷

1

m

(X

aero

÷ X

propulsion

) (7.57)

– Along the body O

/

y direction:

˙ v = pw −ru ÷ g sin φ cos θ ÷

1

m

(Y

aero

÷Y

propulsion

) (7.58)

– Along the body O

/

z direction:

˙ w = qu − pv ÷g cos θ cos φ ÷

1

m

(Z

aero

÷ Z

propulsion

) (7.59)

• Angular momentum equations:

˙ ω = I

−1

(−ω Iω ÷M) (7.60)

• Equations for the vehicle attitude rates:

¸

¸

˙

φ

˙

θ

˙

ψ

=

¸

¸

1 0 −sin θ

0 cos φ cos θ sin φ

0 −sin φ cos θ cos φ

−1

¸

¸

p

q

r

(7.61)

or

¸

¸

˙

θ = q cos φ −r sin φ

˙

ψ = q sin φsecθ ÷r cos φsecθ

˙

φ = p ÷q sin φtan θ ÷r cos φtan θ

(7.62)

7.3. EULER’S ANGLES 83

• Equations for Earth-relative velocities:

– x-distance:

˙ x = u cos ψ cos θ ÷v(−sin ψ cos φ ÷cos ψ sin θsin φ) ÷w(sin ψ sin φ ÷cos ψ sin θcosφ)

(7.63)

– y-distance:

˙ y = u sin ψ cos θ ÷v(cos ψ cos φ ÷sin ψ sin θ sin φ) ÷w(−cos ψ sin φ ÷sin ψ sin θ cos φ)

(7.64)

– Vertical altitude h = −z:

˙

h = u sin θ −v cos θ sin φ −wcos θ cos φ (7.65)

In the above equations, the external forces F and moments M (about the center of gravity) on the right-hand

side remain tobe determined. They are derived from basic aerodynamic and propulsionforces and moments.

In the above derivation, we made the following assumptions:

• Rigid airframe

• Flat Earth (i.e gravity is always pointing in the vertical k direction)

• Axes ﬁxed to the body with origin at the center of gravity

• Earth-ﬁxed reference is treated as inertial reference

84 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODYDYNAMICS

Chapter 8

Linearized Equations of Motion

8.1 Linearized Linear Acceleration Equations

Major contributions to the forces and moments in a ﬂight vehicle are coming from the aerodynamics of

wings, body and tail surfaces. It would be difﬁcult to express these in terms of the vehicle motion variables

u, v and w. However it is much easier to express them in terms of the vehicle velocity V, angle of attack

α and angle of sideslip β. As shown in Figure 8.1, we can express the linear velocities (u, v, w) directly in

terms of V, α, β through the following relations:

¸

¸

¸

¸

u = V cos β cos α

v = V sin β

w = V cos β sin α

(8.1)

where V is the aircraft velocity, α is the aircraft angle of attack and β the aircraft sideslip.

α

β

V

V

c

o

s

β

O'

x

y

z

Vcosβcosα

Vcosβsinα

Vsinβ

Figure 8.1: Deﬁnition of Angle of Attack α and Sideslip β

We can rewrite the linear equations of motion given in equations (7.28)-(7.30) as follows,

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙ u = rv −qw −g sin θ ÷ X/m

˙ v = pw −ru ÷ g sin φ cos θ ÷Y/m

˙ w = qu − pv ÷ g cos θ cos φ ÷ Z/m

(8.2)

85

86 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION

The linear accelerations ˙ u, ˙ v and ˙ w can be derived in terms of the variables V, β and α by differentiating

equations (8.1) with respect to time t . We obtain

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙ u =

˙

Vcos αcosβ − V ˙ αsin αcosβ − V

˙

βcosαsinβ

˙ v =

˙

Vsin β ÷

˙

βVcos β

˙ w =

˙

Vsin αcosβ ÷ V ˙ αcosαcosβ − V

˙

βsin αsinβ

(8.3)

Or we can re-write equations (8.3) in terms of a linear system of equations,

¸

¸

cos α cos β −V sin α cos β −V cos α sin β

sin β 0 V cos β

sin α cos β V cos α cos β −V sin α sin β

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙

β

=

¸

¸

˙ u

˙ v

˙ w

(8.4)

Solving for

˙

V, ˙ α and

˙

β, we obtain

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙

β

=

¸

¸

cos α cos β −V sin α cos β −V cos α sin β

sin β 0 V cos β

sin α cos β V cos α cos β −V sin α sin β

−1

¸

¸

˙ u

˙ v

˙ w

(8.5)

or

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙

β

=

¸

¸

cos α cos β sin β sin α cos β

−

sinα

V cos β

0

cos α

V cos β

−

cos α cos β

V

cos β

V

−

sinα sin β

V

¸

¸

˙ u

˙ v

˙ w

(8.6)

Substitute equations (8.2) into equations (8.6) and expand into components,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −g(sin θcosαcosβ −cosθsin φsinβ −cosθcosφsin αcosβ)

÷

X

m

cosαcosβ ÷

Y

m

sinβ ÷

Z

m

sin αcosβ

˙ α = q − pcosαtanβ −rsin αtanβ ÷ g

cosθcosφcosα ÷sin θsin α

Vcos β

−

X

m

sin α

Vcos β

÷

Z

m

cosα

Vcos β

˙

β = psin α −rcos α ÷

g

V

(sin θcosαsinβ ÷cosθsin φcosβ

−cosθcosφsin αsinβ) −

X

mV

cosαsinβ ÷

Y

mV

cosβ −

Z

mV

sin αsinβ

(8.7)

where α, β, θ and φ are the angles of attack, sideslip, pitch and roll respectively, X, Y and Z are the external

forces along the x, y and z-body axes, m is the total airplane mass, g is the gravitational acceleration and V

is the total velocity.

From equations (8.7), we can obtain a set of linearized equations in terms of the perturbation variables

V, α, β, p, q, r, X, Y, Z, θ and φ in a symmetric climb condition with

• Linear velocities:

V = V

o

÷V, α = α

o

÷α, β = β

o

÷β, (8.8)

• Angular velocities:

p = p

o

÷p, q = q

o

÷q, r = r

o

÷r, (8.9)

• Force components:

X = X

o

÷X, Y = Y

o

÷Y, Z = Z

o

÷Z (8.10)

8.1. LINEARIZED LINEAR ACCELERATIONEQUATIONS 87

• Airplane attitude angles:

θ = θ

o

÷θ, φ = φ

o

÷φ, ψ = ψ

o

÷ψ (8.11)

where V

o

is the constant aircraft trim velocity, α

o

is the trim angle of attack, θ

o

is the trim airplane pitch

attitude, X

o

is the trim force component in the x-direction and Z

o

is the trim force component in the z-

direction. For a symmetric climb condition, we have β

o

= p

o

= q

o

= r

o

= Y

o

= φ

o

= ψ

o

= 0. These trim

quantities may not be zero for other ﬂight condition (e.g. steady level turn). Note that the variables V,

α, β, p, q, r, X, Y, Z, θ and φ are perturbation variables about the trim condition. They

are always treated as small quantities.

Substituting equations (8.8)-(8.11)into equations (8.7), we can derive the linearized equations of motion

governing the perturbed variables V, β and α. The linearization is done by neglecting the higher-order

terms (e.g. βα ≈ 0, Vα ≈ 0, etc...) and invoking at the same time small angle approximations (i.e.

cos β ≈ 1, sin β ≈ β, etc ...). After some lengthy manipulation, the following equations of motion for

the perturbation variables V, α and β are derived,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gcos(θ

o

−α

o

)θ ÷

cosα

o

m

X ÷

sin α

o

m

Z

˙ α = q −

g

V

o

sin (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

sin α

o

mV

o

X ÷

cosα

o

mV

o

Z

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cosα

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cosθ

o

φ ÷

1

mV

o

Y

(8.12)

x

O

L

T

D

V

z

mg

α

θ

α

T

X

Ζ

Figure 8.2: X and Z-Force Components in terms of L, D and T

Using Figure (8.2), we can further express the external force components X and Z in terms of the lift

L, drag D and propulsion force T as follows,

¸

X = Lsin α − Dcos α ÷ Tcos α

T

Z = −Lcos α − Dsin α − Tsin α

T

(8.13)

88 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION

Again we can deﬁne L = L

o

÷ L, D = D

o

÷ D and T = T

o

÷ T. The trim conditions are now

determined from force balance with the gravity force mg. Namely,

¸

X

o

= L

o

sin α

o

− D

o

cosα

o

÷ T

o

cosα

T

= mgsin θ

o

Z

o

= −L

o

cosα

o

− D

o

sin α

o

− T

o

sin α

T

= −mgcos θ

o

(8.14)

and

¸

X = (L

o

cosα

o

÷ D

o

sin α

o

)α ÷sin α

o

L −cosα

o

D ÷cosα

T

T

Z = (L

o

sin α

o

− D

o

cosα

o

)α −cosα

o

L −sin α

o

D −sin α

T

T

(8.15)

Substituting equations (8.15) into equations (8.12), we express the linearized equations in terms of L, D,

T and Y,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gcos(θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

T

o

sin (θ

o

÷α

T

)

m

α −

1

m

D ÷

cos(α

o

÷α

T

)

m

T

˙ α = q −

g

V

o

sin (θ

o

−α

o

)(θ −α) −

T

o

cos(θ

o

÷α

o

)

mV

o

α

−

sin (α

o

÷α

T

)

mV

o

T −

1

mV

o

L

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cosα

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cosθ

o

φ ÷

1

mV

o

Y

(8.16)

We also note that

¸

D

o

÷mgsin (θ

o

−α

o

) − T

o

cos(α

o

÷α

T

) = 0

L

o

−mgcos (θ

o

−α

o

) ÷T

o

sin (α

o

÷α

T

) = 0

(8.17)

Equations (8.16) then reduce to

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gcos (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

L

o

m

α −

1

m

D ÷

cos(α

o

÷α

T

)

m

T

˙ α = q −

g

V

o

sin (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

D

o

mV

o

α −

1

mV

o

L −

sin (α

o

÷α

T

)

mV

o

T

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cosα

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cosθ

o

φ ÷

1

mV

o

Y

(8.18)

The above equations are the linearized equations of the linear acceleration equations. To complete these

equations, one needs to express in details the terms involved in L, D, T and Y as a function of the

vehicle motion variables and their perturbations. In the next section, we proceed to formulate the linearized

equations of motion corresponding to the angular velocity components p, q and r.

8.2 Linearized Angular Acceleration Equations

According to equations (7.33)-(7.35) and examining the condition related to a steady level climb condition,

with the angular velocities deﬁned as

¸

¸

¸

¸

p = p

o

÷p

q = q

o

÷q

r = r

o

÷r

(8.19)

and the moments as

¸

¸

¸

¸

L = L

o

÷L

M = M

o

÷M

N = N

o

÷N

(8.20)

8.2. LINEARIZED ANGULAR ACCELERATIONEQUATIONS 89

Notice that for a steady level climb condition, p

o

= q

o

= r

o

= 0 and L

o

= M

o

= N

o

= 0. Substituting

equations (8.19) into equations (7.33)-(7.35) and retaining only the ﬁrst-order terms in p, q and r, we

obtain

• About the O

/

y direction:

I

yy

˙ q −(I

zz

− I

xx

)rp − I

zx

(r

2

−p

2

) − I

xy

(˙ p −qr) − I

yz

(˙ r −pq) = M

or, after neglecting all the high-order terms,

I

yy

˙ q − I

xy

˙ p − I

yz

˙ r = M (8.21)

Assuming further that the airplane has a symmetry about the O

/

xz plane then we have I

xy

= I

yz

= 0.

Equation (8.21) now simpliﬁes greatly to

I

yy

˙ q = M (Pitching equation) (8.22)

• About the O

/

x direction:

I

xx

˙ p −(I

yy

− I

zz

)qr − I

yz

(q

2

−r

2

) − I

xz

(˙ r ÷qp) − I

xy

(˙ q −rp) = L

or, after neglecting all the high-order terms,

I

xx

˙ p − I

xz

˙ r = L (Rolling equation) (8.23)

Note that in general I

xz

,= 0.

• About the O

/

z direction:

I

zz

˙ r −(I

xx

− I

yy

)pq − I

xy

(p

2

−q

2

) − I

yz

(˙ q ÷rp) − I

zx

(˙ p −qr) = N

or, after neglecting all the high-order terms,

I

zz

˙ r − I

zx

˙ p = N (Yawing equation) (8.24)

In summary, the equations describing the angular accelerations of the vehicle are given by

¸

¸

I

yy

0 0

0 I

xx

−I

xz

0 −I

zx

I

zz

¸

¸

˙ q

˙ p

˙ r

=

¸

¸

M

L

N

(8.25)

To complete these equations, one needs to express in details the terms involved in M, L and N as a

function of the vehicle motion variables and their perturbations. The vehicle attitudes are described using

the Euler’s angles. In the next section, equations that describe the vehicle attitudes for small perturbation

angles are developed.

90 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION

8.3 Linearized Euler’s Angle Equations

Fromequations (7.40)-(7.42), and assuming the trim conditions as deﬁned in equations (8.8)-(8.11),we have

• For the pitch angle θ:

˙

θcosφ ÷

˙

ψcos(θ

o

÷θ)sin φ = q

Since cosφ ≈ 1 and

˙

ψsin φ ≈ 0, then

˙

θ = q (Pitch angle equation) (8.26)

• For the yaw (heading) angle ψ:

˙

ψcos(θ

o

÷θ)cosφ −

˙

θsin φ = r

or

˙

ψ(cosθ

o

−sin θ

o

θ) = r

Further simpliﬁcation yields

˙

ψ =

1

cosθ

o

r (Yawangle equation) (8.27)

• For the bank angle φ:

˙

φ −

˙

ψsin (θ

o

÷θ) = p

or

˙

φ −

˙

ψ(sin θ

o

÷cosθ

o

θ) = p

Again, ignoring the high-order terms,

˙

φ −sin θ

o

˙

ψ = p (Bank angle equation) (8.28)

Using equation (8.27), the above equation simpliﬁes to

˙

φ = p ÷tan θ

o

r (8.29)

8.4 Forces and Moments in terms of their Coefﬁcient Derivatives

In this section, the lift, drag and propulsion forces are expressed in terms of the motion variables and their

perturbations; similarly, for moments about the vehicle axes. Results are represented in terms of the vehicle

stability derivatives.

Let’s deﬁne the following dimensionless motion related variables,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¨ p = pb/(2V

o

)

¨ q = qc/(2V

o

)

¨ r = rb/(2V

o

)

¨

V = V/V

o

¨

˙ α = ˙ αc/(2V

o

)

¨

˙

β =

˙

βb/(2V

o

)

(8.30)

Equations describing forces due to aerodynamics and propulsion are given below.

8.4. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES 91

8.4.1 Lift Force L

L =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

L

= L

o

÷L (8.31)

where C

L

is the total lift coefﬁcient. At trim, we have

L

o

= L

trim

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L

trim

(8.32)

And the perturbation in lift L is given by expanding equation (8.31) in terms of V and C

L

. Namely

L = ρ

o

V

o

SC

L

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L

(8.33)

Now we can express C

L

in terms of the vehicle lift coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

L

= C

L

M

M ÷C

L

h

h ÷C

L

α

α ÷C

L

β

β

÷C

L

¨ p

¨ p ÷C

L

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

L

¨ r

¨ r

÷C

L ¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

L ¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β

÷C

L

δe

δ

e

÷C

L

δsp

δ

sp

÷C

L

δa

δ

a

÷C

L

δr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.34)

Thecoefﬁcients C

L ¨

˙ α

(andlikewise C

L ¨

˙

β

comeaboutfromthefactthattheinﬂuenceofdownwash(orsidewash)

on the tail angle of attack (or sideslip) is not felt until it has been propagated from the wing (where it was

generated) to the tail location traveling at a velocity V

o

. This means that the downwash (or sidewash) can be

expressed in terms of the wing angle of attack α (or sideslip β) through a time-delay function e

−τs

where

τ =

l

t

V

o

. Namely,

=

o

÷

∂

∂α

e

−l

t

s/V

o

α (8.35)

and

=

o

÷

∂

∂β

e

−lt s/Vo

β (8.36)

Noting that the exponential function e

−l

t

s/V

o

can be expanded into

e

−lt s

Vo

≈ 1 −

l

t

s

V

o

÷

1

2

l

t

s

V

o

2

÷... (8.37)

Thus, the coefﬁcient C

L ¨

˙ α

is obtained from

L

t

(s) = η

t

qS

t

a

t

α

t

(s)

or

L

t

(s) = η

t

qS

t

a

t

(α(s) −(s)) (8.38)

Substituting equations (8.35) and (8.37) into equation (8.38), we otain

L

t

(s) = η

t

qS

t

a

t

α(s) −

o

−

∂

∂α

e

−l

t

s/V

o

α(s)

**92 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION
**

or

L

t

(s) = η

t

qS

t

a

t

¸

α(s) −

o

−

∂

∂α

¸

1 −

l

t

s

V

o

÷

1

2

l

t

s

V

o

2

÷...

α(s)

¸

Or re-written in time domain, we have

L

t

(t ) = η

t

qS

t

a

t

¸

α(t ) −

o

−

∂

∂α

¸

α(t ) −

l

t

V

o

˙ α(t ) ÷

1

2

l

t

V

o

2

α(t ) ÷...

¸

(8.39)

From the above equation (8.39), we can deduce that

C

Lt ,α

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

1 −

∂

∂α

(8.40)

Similarly,

C

Lt , ˙ α

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

∂

∂α

l

t

V

o

(8.41)

and for a better approximation one can also include terms involving α,

C

L

t, α

= −η

t

S

t

S

a

t

∂

∂α

1

2

l

t

V

o

2

(8.42)

or higher-order time derivatives in α, such as

d

3

α

dt

3

etc...

In terms of the nondimensional variable

¨

˙ α, we have

C

L

¨

˙ α

= C

L

t, ˙ α

2V

o

c

= η

t

S

t

S

a

t

∂

∂α

2l

t

c

(8.43)

The same procedure could be applied to the calculation of C

L ¨

˙

β

and terms involving derivatives with

respect to

˙

β and higher time derivatives in sideslip β. However, in most circumstances, the effects of sideslip

on lift are considered insigniﬁcant and can be neglected.

Note that we make use of the following relationship to convert between Mach number M and velocity V

derivatives,

∂C

L

∂V

=

∂C

L

∂ M

dM

dV

=

1

a

∂C

L

∂M

(8.44)

and a is the speed of sound.

8.4.2 Drag Force D

D =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

D

= D

o

÷D (8.45)

where C

D

is the total drag coefﬁcient. At trim, we have

D

o

= D

trim

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

D

trim

(8.46)

And the perturbation in drag D is given by expanding equation (8.45) in terms of V and C

D

. Namely

D = ρ

o

V

o

SC

D

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

D

(8.47)

8.4. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES 93

Now we can express C

D

in terms of the vehicle drag coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

D

= C

D

M

M ÷C

D

h

h ÷C

D

α

α ÷C

D

β

β

÷C

D

¨ p

¨ p ÷C

D

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

D

¨ r

¨ r

÷C

D

¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

D

¨

˙ β

¨

˙

β

÷C

Dδe

δ

e

÷C

Dδsp

δ

sp

÷C

Dδa

δ

a

÷C

Dδr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.48)

8.4.3 Side-Force Y

Y =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

Y

= Y

o

÷Y (8.49)

where C

Y

is the total side-force coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in side force Y is given by expanding

equation (8.49) in terms of V and C

Y

. Namely

Y = ρ

o

V

o

SC

Y

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

Y

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

Y

(8.50)

Sinceintrim, Y

trim

= 0 or C

Ytrim

= 0. Nowwecanexpress C

Y

intermsofthevehicleside-force coefﬁcient

derivatives,

C

Y

= C

Y

M

M ÷C

Y

h

h ÷C

Y

α

α ÷C

Y

β

β

÷C

Y ¨ p

¨ p ÷C

Y¨ q

¨ q ÷C

Y¨ r

¨ r

÷C

Y¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

Y¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β

÷C

Yδe

δ

e

÷C

Yδsp

δ

sp

÷C

Yδa

δ

a

÷C

Yδr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.51)

8.4.4 Thrust Force T

T =

1

2

ρV

2

SC

T

(8.52)

where C

T

is the total thrust coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in thrust T is given by expanding equation

(8.52) in terms of V and C

T

. Namely

T = ρ

o

V

o

SC

T

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

T

(8.53)

Now we can express C

T

in terms of the thrust coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

T

= C

T¨

V

¨

V ÷C

T

α

α ÷C

T

δ

th

δ

th

÷C

T¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷· · · (8.54)

Similarly, the moments due to the aerodynamic and propulsion forces are given below. However, for

simplicity, we assume that the thrust force is assumed to apply at the airplane center of gravity. Hence it has

no effects on the vehicle pitching, rolling and yawing moments.

94 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION

8.4.5 Pitching Moment M

M =

1

2

ρV

2

ScC

M

(8.55)

where C

M

is the total pitchingmoment coefﬁcient. And the perturbation inpitching moment M isgiven by

expanding equation (8.55) in terms of V and C

M

. Note that for a vehicle in trim, M

trim

= C

M

trim

= 0.

Namely

M = ρ

o

V

o

ScC

M

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

ScC

M

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

ScC

M

(8.56)

Now we can express C

M

in terms of the vehicle pitching moment coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

M

= C

MM

M ÷C

Mh

h ÷C

Mα

α ÷C

Mβ

β

÷C

M¨ p

¨ p ÷C

M¨ q

¨ q ÷C

M¨ r

¨ r

÷C

M¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

M¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β

÷C

M

δe

δ

e

÷C

M

δsp

δ

sp

÷C

M

δa

δ

a

÷C

M

δr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.57)

As in the calculation of C

L ¨

˙ α

, we can use the same approach to obtain C

M¨

˙ α

. Namely,

M

t

= −L

t

l

t

(8.58)

Thus

C

M

˙ α

= −

l

t

c

C

L

˙ α

or

C

M

˙ α

= −η

t

V

H

a

t

∂

∂α

l

t

V

o

(8.59)

In terms of the nondimensional variable

¨

˙ α, we have

C

M

¨˙ α

= C

M

˙ α

2V

o

c

= −η

t

V

H

a

t

∂

∂α

2l

t

c

(8.60)

8.4.6 Yawing Moment N

N =

1

2

ρV

2

SbC

N

(8.61)

where C

N

is the total yawing moment coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in yawing moment N is given by

expanding equation (8.61) in terms of V and C

N

. Note that for a vehicle in trim, N

trim

= C

N

trim

= 0.

Namely

N = ρ

o

V

o

SbC

N

trim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SbC

N

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SbC

N

(8.62)

Now we can express C

N

in terms of the vehicle yawing moment coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

N

= C

NM

M ÷C

Nh

h ÷C

Nα

α ÷C

Nβ

β

÷C

N ¨ p

¨ p ÷C

N¨ q

¨ q ÷C

N¨ r

¨ r

÷C

N¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

N¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β

÷C

N

δe

δ

e

÷C

N

δsp

δ

sp

÷C

N

δa

δ

a

÷C

N

δr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.63)

8.4. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES 95

8.4.7 Rolling Moment L

L =

1

2

ρV

2

SbC

L

(8.64)

where C

L

is the total rolling moment coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in rolling moment L is given by

expanding equation (8.64) in terms of V and C

L

. Note that for a vehicle in trim, L

trim

= C

L

trim

= 0.

Namely

L = ρ

o

V

o

SbC

Ltrim

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SbC

L

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SbC

L

(8.65)

Now we can express C

L

in terms of the vehicle rolling moment coefﬁcient derivatives,

C

L

= C

L

M

M ÷C

L

h

h ÷C

L

α

α ÷C

L

β

β

÷C

L

¨ p

¨ p ÷C

L

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

L

¨ r

¨ r

÷C

L ¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

L ¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β

÷C

L

δe

δ

e

÷C

L

δsp

δ

sp

÷C

L

δa

δ

a

÷C

L

δr

δ

r

÷· · ·

(8.66)

In the most general cases, dynamics of a ﬂight vehicle are fully described by 9 highly coupled nonlinear

ordinary differential equations governing the motion variables {V, α, β, p, q, r, θ, φ, ψ}. Linearization

about a trim condition reduces them to a set of 9 highly coupled (but) linear ordinary differential equations

for the perturbed variables {V, α, β, p, q, r, θ, φ, ψ}. When further simpliﬁcation

can be achievedby taking into considerationthe airplane symmetry and the decoupled effects in aerodynamic

forces and moments. This usually leads to the separation of the the basic equations of motion of an airplane

into two distinct sets: one set corresponds to the longitudinal motion for the variables {V, α, q, θ},

and the other set to the lateral motion for the variables {β, p, r, φ, ψ}.

96 CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONSOF MOTION

Chapter 9

Linearized Longitudinal Equations of Motion

In this chapter, we examine the ﬂight dynamics characteristics associated with motion in the longitudinal

axis. The assumptions made in the analysis are that the effects of lateral motion on the aerodynamic and

propulsion forces and moments associated with the lift L, drag D and thrust T forces are negligeable. Of

course, in the model linearization, wealso assume that the motion of the vehicle is undergoing small changes

in the variables V, α, q and θ along with small inputs in the controls δ

e

, δ

sp

and δ

th

.

Simple approximation models for the longitudinal dynamics are developed that provide further insights

intothefrequency separationbetween thephugoidandtheshort-periodmodes. Timeresponsesofthe vehicle

motion inthe longitudinalaxis arealsodevelopedillustratingthe effectivenessofthecontrols. Criticaldesign

parameters affecting these responses are delineated. Flying qualities of the vehicle are subsequently deﬁned

in terms of these fundamental response characteristics.

Following the linearization performed in Chapter 8, the equations of motion governing the longitudinal

dynamics are for the motion variables {V, α, q, θ}. Thus, in general, it is described by a set of 4

linear ordinary differential equations obtained from equations (8.18), (8.25) and (8.26). Namely,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gcos (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

L

o

m

α −

1

m

D ÷

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

m

T

˙ α = q −

g

V

o

sin (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

D

o

mV

o

α −

1

mV

o

L −

sin (α

T

÷α

o

)

mV

o

T

˙ q =

1

I

yy

M

˙

θ = q

(9.1)

The variables θ

o

, α

o

, V

o

, L

o

and D

o

are determined from the trim conditions involving usually the solutions

of a set of nonlinear algebraic equations.

Using expressions for L

o

, L, D

o

, D and T as derived in equations (8.32), (8.33), (8.46), (8.47) and

97

98 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

(8.53), equations (9.1) become

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gcos (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

1

m

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L(trim )

α −

1

m

¸

ρ

o

V

o

SC

D(trim )

V ÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

¸

C

D

M

a

V ÷C

D

h

h ÷C

D

α

α ÷C

D

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

D

¨˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

D

δe

δ

e

÷C

D

δsp

δ

sp

¸¸

÷

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

m

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

¸

C

T

¨

V

¨

V ÷C

T

α

α ÷C

T

δ

th

δ

th

¸

˙ α = q −

g

V

o

sin (θ

o

−α

o

)θ −

1

mV

o

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

D(trim )

α −

1

mV

o

¸

ρ

o

V

o

SC

L(trim )

V

÷

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

¸

C

L

M

a

V ÷C

L

h

h ÷C

L

α

α ÷C

L

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

L ¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α ÷C

L

δe

δ

e

÷C

L

δsp

δ

sp

¸¸

−

sin (α

T

÷α

o

)

mV

o

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

¸

C

T¨

V

¨

V ÷C

T

α

α ÷C

T

δ

th

δ

th

¸

˙ q =

1

I

yy

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

¸

C

M

M

a

V ÷C

M

h

h ÷C

M

α

α ÷C

M

¨ q

¨ q ÷C

M

¨

˙ α

¨

˙ α

÷C

M

δe

δ

e

÷C

M

δsp

δ

sp

¸

˙

θ = q

(9.2)

Foranairplanetrimmedatlevelﬂight, wehave h = 0. Usingthedeﬁnition ofthenondimensionalvariables

¨

V, ¨ q and

¨

˙ α in equations (8.30), we obtain

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

4m

C

D¨

˙ α

0 0

0 1 ÷

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L ¨

˙ α

0 0

0 −

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

4I

yy

C

M¨

˙ α

1 0

0 0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙ q

˙

θ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

2C

D

÷C

D

M

M −C

T¨

V

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

−

ρ

o

S

2m

2C

L

÷C

L

M

M ÷C

T¨

V

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

M

M

0

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

L

−C

D

α

÷C

T

α

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

4m

C

D

¨ q

−g cos(θ

o

−α

o

)

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

D

÷C

L

α

÷C

T

α

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

1 −

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L

¨ q

−

g

V

o

sin(θ

o

−α

o

)

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

α

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

4I

yy

C

M

¨ q

0

0 1 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

V

α

q

θ

÷

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

D

δe

−

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

D

δsp

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

T

δth

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δe

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δsp

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

T

δth

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δe

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δsp

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δth

0 0 0

¸

¸

δ

e

δ

sp

δ

th

(9.3)

99

We can solve for {

˙

V, ˙ α, ˙ q,

˙

θ} as follows,

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙ q

˙

θ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

4m

C

D

¨

˙ α

0 0

0 1 ÷

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L

¨

˙ α

0 0

0 −

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

4I

yy

C

M

¨

˙ α

1 0

0 0 0 1

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

2C

D

÷C

D

M

M −C

T

¨

V

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

−

ρ

o

S

2m

2C

L

÷C

L

M

M ÷C

T

¨

V

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

MM

M

0

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

L

−C

Dα

÷C

Tα

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

4m

C

D¨ q

−g cos(θ

o

−α

o

)

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

D

÷C

Lα

÷C

Tα

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

1 −

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L ¨ q

−

g

V

o

sin(θ

o

−α

o

)

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

α

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

4I

yy

C

M

¨ q

0

0 1 0

¸

¸

¸

¸

V

α

q

θ

÷

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

D

δe

−

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

D

δsp

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

2m

C

T

δth

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δe

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δsp

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

T

δth

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δe

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δsp

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δth

0 0 0

¸

¸

δ

e

δ

sp

δ

th

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(9.4)

In abbreviated notation, we write the above equation in the following form

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙ q

˙

θ

= F

¸

¸

¸

¸

V

α

q

θ

÷ G

¸

¸

δ

e

δ

sp

δ

th

(9.5)

where the matrices F and G can be deduced from the above equation directly.

Inmostsituations,wehave C

M

M

= 0andforlevelﬂight γ

o

= θ

o

−α

o

= 0, thenthecharacteristicequation

forthelongitudinalequationisa4

th

-orderpolynomialin s ofthefollowingform s

4

÷Bs

3

÷Cs

2

÷Ds ÷E = 0

where

E = −

ρ

2

o

S

2

V

2

o

c

4mI

yy

¸

2C

L

÷C

L

M

M ÷C

T¨

V

sin (α

T

÷α

o

)

¸

gC

M

α

(9.6)

Thus, a necessary condition for the quartic characteristic equation to have stable roots is for the coefﬁcient

E to be positive. In this case, clearly if the aircraft is statically stable then E will be positive; in another

words, if the aircraft is statically unstable (i.e. C

Mα

≥ 0) then E is negative and we know with certainty that

the aircraft is dynamically unstable. This situation illustrates the fact that a statically unstable airplane is

dynamicallyunstable; however when the airplane isstatically stable, we cannot tell whether it isdynamically

stable until we solve for the roots of the quartic characteristic equation. In most problems, we actually do

not calculate the characteristic equation explicitly, rather we develop the corresponding system matrix F

(deﬁned above) and solve for its eigenvalues (They are then exactly the roots of the characteristic equation).

AMATLAB-mﬁle toformulatethe longitudinal equationsof motion isgiven belowfor thedesign model

described in Section 11.1.

rho=0.00230990;

Vo=556.29559;

100 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

S=608;

c=15.95;

b=42.8;

Ixx=28700;

Iyy=165100;

Izz=187900;

Izx=-520;

Ixy=0;Iyz=0;

M=0.5;

CL=0.20709;

CD=0.01468;

g=32.17095;

Weight=45000;m=Weight/g;

%Lift Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CLq=-17.2322;

CLM=7.45058e-6;

CLalpha=4.8706;

CLalphadot=17.2322;

CLelev=0.572957;

%Drag Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CDq=0;

CDM=0;

CDalpha=0.37257;

CDalphadot=0;

CDelev=4.38308e-2;

%Pitch Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CMq=3.8953;

CMM=-7.05586e-6;

CMalpha=-0.168819;

CMalphadot=-11.887;

CMelev=-0.695281;

%Thrust Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CTv=0;

CTalpha=0;

alphaT=0;

%Trim angle of attack

alphao=0.18105*pi/180;

thetao=alphao;

%Matrix A

A=[1,rho*Vo*S*c*CDalphadot/4/m,0,0;

0,1+rho*S*c*CLalphadot/4/m,0,0;

0,-rho*Vo*S*c^2*CMalphadot/4/Iyy,1,0;

0,0,0,1];

B1=[-rho*Vo*S/2/m*(2*CD+CDM*M-CTv*cos(alphaT+alphao));

-rho*S/2/m*(2*CL+CLM*M+CTv*sin(alphaT+alphao));

101

rho*Vo*S*c*CMM*M/2/Iyy;0];

B2=[rho*Vo^2*S/2/m*(CL-CDalpha+CTalpha*cos(alphaT+alphao));

-rho*Vo*S/2/m*(CD+CLalpha+CTalpha*sin(alphaT+alphao));

rho*Vo^2*S*c*CMalpha/2/Iyy;

0];

B3=[rho*Vo*S*c*CDq/4/m;

1-rho*S*c*CLq/4/m;

rho*Vo*S*c^2*CMq/4/Iyy;

1];

B4=[-g*cos(thetao-alphao);

-g/Vo*sin(thetao-alphao);

0;

0];

B=[B1,B2,B3,B4];

C=[-rho*Vo^2*S*CDelev/2/m;

-rho*Vo*S*CLelev/2/m;

rho*Vo^2*S*c*CMelev/2/Iyy;

0];

%Longitudinal equations of motion

F=inv(A)*B;

G=inv(A)*C;

%Phugoid and Short-Period modes

eigx(F);

%Elevator pulse inputs

xo=G*pi/180;

t1=[0:.5:100];

u=zeros(t1);

y1=lsim(F,G,eye(4),zeros(4,1),u,t1,xo);

t2=[0:.01:10];

u=zeros(t2);

y2=lsim(F,G,eye(4),zeros(4,1),u,t2,xo);

clg;

subplot(221);

plot(t1,y1(:,1));

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Velocity (ft/sec)')

subplot(223);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,4)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Pitch Attitude (deg)')

subplot(222);

plot(t2,180*y2(:,2)/pi);

102 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Angle of Attack (deg)')

subplot(224);

plot(t2,180*y2(:,3)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Pitch Rate (deg/sec)')

pause

%Short-period approximation: Delete the velocity and theta equations

Fsp=F(2:3,2:3);

Gsp=G(2:3,1);

damp(Fsp);

%Elevator pulse inputs

xo=Gsp*pi/180;

t1=[0:.01:10];

u=zeros(t1);

y1=lsim(Fsp,Gsp,eye(2),zeros(2,1),u,t1,xo);

clg;

subplot(211);

plot(t1,y1(:,1));

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Angle of Attack (deg)')

subplot(212);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,2)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Pitch Rate (deg/sec)')

pause

%Phugoid approximation

freqphg=g/Vo*sqrt(2)

Running this MATLABm-ﬁle generates the following longitudinal models:

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V

˙ α

˙ q

˙

θ

= F

¸

¸

¸

¸

V

α

q

θ

÷Gδ

e

(9.7)

where the matrices F and G are given by

F =

-8.1994e-03 -2.5708e+01 0 -3.2171e+01

-1.9451e-04 -1.2763e+00 1.0000e+00 0

6.9573e-04 1.0218e+00 -2.4052e+00 0

0 0 1.0000e+00 0

9.1. PHUGOID-MODE APPROXIMATION 103

G =

-6.8094e+00

-1.4968e-01

-1.4061e+01

0

Characteristic roots of the longitudinal model are given by the eigenvalues of the system matrix F. This can

be calculated using the MATLABfunction damp(F).

Eigenvalues Damping Frequency(rad/sec)

-0.0012693 0.10392i 0.012 0.10392 (Phugoid mode)

-0.0012693 -0.10392i 0.012 0.10392 (Phugoid mode)

-0.68348 0i 1.000 0.68348 (Short-Period mode)

-3.0037 0i 1.000 3.0037 (Short-Period mode)

where the damping ratio ζ of a complex root (s = σ ÷ j ω) is deﬁned as follows

ζ =

−σ

√

σ

2

÷ω

2

Notice that −1 ≤ ζ ≤ 1. A negative damping ratio means that the motion is dynamically unstable.

In most longitudinal aircraft motion, we can distinguish two basic modes: the phugoid mode and the

short-period mode. The phugoid mode is the one that has the longest time constant and is usually lightly

damped. Responses of the aircraft that are signiﬁcantly affected by the phugoid mode are the velocity and

the pitch attitude as seen in Fig. 9.1 . There is very little response seen in the angle of attack α when

the aircraft is excited in the phugoid mode. Note that the period of the velocity V and pitch attitude

q responses is roughly equal to the period of the phugoid mode determined from the approximation

T

phugoid

=

√

2πV

o

/g =

√

2π556.29559/32.17095 = 76.8(sec) as discussed in Section 9.1. Damping

of the phugoid mode is predominantly governed by the drag coefﬁcient C

D

and its derivative C

D

M

in the

equation for V. More precisely, the term (2C

D

÷C

D

M

M) or (2C

D

÷C

D

V

V

o

) is the damping factor in the

speed equation.

The short-period mode is displayed in the motion of the airplane angle of attack α and pitch rate q

(Fig. 9.1). It has a relatively short time constant (hence the name short-period). In most situation, this mode

is relatively well damped (if not, then one must provide stabilization of thismodes using feedback control for

ﬂight safety since the pilot cannot control this mode). Theshort-period mode is usuallyidentiﬁed by a pair of

complex roots, but in some ﬂight conditions it can be in terms of two real roots as seen in the above example

problem where s

3

= −0.68 rad/sec and s

4

= −3.0 rad/sec. In some control design problems, one would like

to obtain a simpliﬁed second-order dynamic model for the longitudinal aircraft motion that captures the fast

motion (i.e. the short-period mode) only.

9.1 Phugoid-Mode Approximation

The phugoid frequency ω

phugoid

in a level-ﬂight trim condition (i.e. γ

o

= θ

o

− α

o

= 0) can be estimated

from the speed and pitch attitude equations where we neglect the variation in α (i.e. α = 0) and the drag

effects. Furthermore, we assume C

T

¨

V

= 0 and C

T

α

= 0 and for a ﬁxed elevator δ

e

= 0. In this case, the

104 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

-50

0

50

0 50 100

Time (sec)

V

e

l

o

c

i

t

y

(

f

t

/

s

e

c

)

-10

0

10

0 50 100

Time (sec)

P

i

t

c

h

A

t

t

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

e

g

)

-4

-2

0

2

0 5 10

Time (sec)

A

n

g

l

e

o

f

A

t

t

a

c

k

(

d

e

g

)

-20

-10

0

10

0 5 10

Time (sec)

P

i

t

c

h

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

Figure 9.1: Longitudinal Aircraft Responses to a 1-deg Elevator Impulsive Input

motion of the airplane is governed entirely by the exchange of kinetic and potential energies. And we have

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

V = −gθ

˙ α = 0 = q −

ρ

o

SC

L

m

V

˙

θ = q =

ρ

o

SC

L

m

V

(9.8)

or

¸

˙

V

˙

θ

¸

=

¸

0 −g

ρ

o

SC

L

m

0

¸ ¸

V

θ

¸

(9.9)

Characteristic equation of the above equation is simply equal to

det

¸

s g

−

ρ

o

SC

L

m

s

¸

= s

2

÷

ρ

o

gSC

L

m

= s

2

÷2

g

2

V

2

o

= 0 (9.10)

with characteristicroots at s

1,2

= ±j

√

2g/V

o

which correspondtosinusoidal motions inthe aircraftvelocity

and pitch attitude. Thus, the phugoid mode frequency should be roughly equal to ω

phugoid

=

√

2g/V

o

(rad/sec).

Applyingtothegivennumericalexample, wehave ω

phugoid

= 0.0818rad/secwithaperiodof T

phugoid

=

2π/ω

phugoid

= 76.8 sec.

Another interpretation of the phugoid oscillation is as follows. The motion exhibited in the phugoid

mode typiﬁes the exchange of potential and kinetic energies of the aircraft. Recall that when the airplane is

treated as a point mass m, the total energy is given by

1

2

mV

2

÷mgh = constant (9.11)

9.2. SHORT-PERIODAPPROXIMATION 105

Differentiating this equation with respect to time, we obtain

mV

˙

V ÷mg

˙

h = 0 (9.12)

or

˙

V = −g

˙

h

V

= −gγ (9.13)

Recall from (way back!) equation (1.9), we have

mV ˙ γ = L − W (9.14)

where L is the total lift given by

L =

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

SC

L(trim )

and

W = mg =

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L(trim )

Then for small velocity perturbations V in V = V

o

÷V, we obtain

V = −g ˙ γ = −g

L − W

mV

= −g

1

m(V

o

÷V)

1

2

ρ

o

(V

o

÷V)

2

SC

L

−

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L

or

V

∼

= −g

1

mV

o

(ρ

o

V

o

V SC

L

) = −

g

mV

2

o

2

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

SC

L

V

V

∼

= −2

g

2

V

2

o

V (9.15)

Thus, the perturbed velocity V has a second-order harmonic motion with frequency ω

o

=

√

2g/V

o

(rad/sec).

9.2 Short-Period Approximation

A short-period approximation model is developed based on the following observations:

• There is a signiﬁcant frequency separation between the phugoid and short-period modes. Usually

an order of magnitude difference in frequency between the phugoid and short-period modes, e.g.

ω

phugoid

= 0.1 rad/sec and ω

shortperiod

= 3 rad/sec.

• Thevelocityoftheaircrafthasnosigniﬁcantcomponentsintheshort-periodmode. Inanotherword,the

velocitycan be assumed nearlyconstant when theairplane responds toan excitationinthe short-period

mode.

Thus, the longitudinal equations of motion can be simpliﬁed by simply removing (i.e. deleting the variables

V and θ) in the original equations. That is, we obtain a set of equations involving only α and q.

Namely,

¸

˙ α

˙ q

¸

=

¸

¸

1 ÷

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L

¨˙ α

0

−

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

C

M

¨

˙ α

4I

yy

1

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

(C

D

÷C

Lα

÷C

Tα

sin(α

T

÷α

o

)) 1 −

ρ

o

Sc

4m

C

L

¨ q

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

α

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

4I

yy

C

M

¨ q

¸

α

q

¸

÷

106 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

¸

¸

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δe

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

L

δsp

−

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Tδ

th

cos(α

T

÷α

o

)

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δe

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δsp

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

M

δth

¸

¸

δ

e

δ

sp

δ

th

¸

¸

¸

(9.16)

For the above problem, we obtain the following short-period approximation model

¸

˙ α

˙ q

¸

=

¸

−1.2763 1

1.0218 −2.4052

¸ ¸

α(rad )

q

¸

÷

¸

−0.1497

−14.0611

¸

δ

e

(9.17)

where α, δ

e

are in radians and q in radians/sec. Characteristic roots of the short-period model are given

below. They are almost the same as those obtained in the full (4

th

-order) longitudinal model.

Eigenvalues Damping Frequency(rad/sec)

-0.68299 1.000 0.68299

-2.9985 1.000 2.9985

Figure 9.2 shows the responses of the short-period approximation model to a 1-deg elevator impulse

input. Note that these responses of α and q match closely those obtained for the full (i.e. 4

th

-order)

longitudinal model. In general, C

L

α

>> C

D

, C

T

α

≈ 0 and

ρ

o

ScC

L

¨ q

4m

<< 1, then the above short-period

approximation has the following characteristic equation

s

2

÷

ρ

o

V

o

Sc

2

2I

yy

I

yy

C

L

α

mc

2

−

1

2

C

M

q

s ÷

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sc

2I

yy

C

L

α

−

C

M

α

C

L

α

−

ρSc

4m

C

M

¨ q

= 0 (9.18)

9.2. SHORT-PERIODAPPROXIMATION 107

-4

-2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (sec)

A

n

g

l

e

o

f

A

t

t

a

c

k

(

d

e

g

)

-15

-10

-5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (sec)

P

i

t

c

h

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

Figure 9.2: Short-Period Approximation Model to a 1-deg Elevator Impulse Input

108 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONSOF MOTION

Chapter 10

Linearized Lateral Equations of Motion

In this chapter, we examine the ﬂight dynamics characteristics associated with motion in the lateral axis.

The assumptions made in the analysis are that the effects of longitudinal motion on the aerodynamic and

propulsion forces and moments associated with the lift L, drag D and thrust T forces are negligeable.

Hence, the motion in the lateral axis is decoupled from the longitudinal dynamics. Of course, in any model

linearization, we also assume that the motion of the vehicle is undergoing small changes in the variables β,

p, r and φ along with small inputs in the controls δ

a

and δ

r

.

Equationsgoverningthelateralmotionofanaircraftareassociatedwiththemotionvariables β, p, r, φ.

Hence, the lateral dynamic model is described by a set of 4 linear ordinary differential equations as derived

in equations (8.18), (8.25) and (8.28). Namely,

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cos α

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cos θ

o

φ ÷

1

mV

o

Y

¸

I

xx

−I

xz

−I

zx

I

zz

¸ ¸

˙ p

˙ r

¸

=

¸

L

N

¸

˙

φ = p ÷tanθ

o

r

(10.1)

Using equations (8.50), (8.65) and (8.62) for Y, L and N, and retaining only the contributions due to

lateral motion variables, we obtain

• Sideslip equation for β:

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cos α

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cos θ

o

φ

÷

1

mV

o

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

C

Y

β

β ÷C

Y

¨ p

¨ p ÷C

Y

¨ r

¨ r ÷C

Y¨

˙

β

¨

˙

β÷C

Y

δa

δ

a

÷C

Y

δr

δ

r

(10.2)

or

1 −

1

mV

o

C

Y¨

˙

β

b

2V

o

˙

β = sin α

o

p −cos α

o

r ÷

g

V

o

cos θ

o

φ

÷

1

mV

o

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

S

C

Y

β

β ÷C

Y

¨ p

¨ p ÷C

Y

¨ r

¨ r ÷C

Y

δa

δ

a

÷C

Y

δr

δ

r

(10.3)

Dividing by (1 −

b

2mV

2

o

C

Y¨

˙

β

), we obtain

˙

β =

1

1 −

b

2mV

2

o

C

Y¨

˙

β

¸

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Y

β

β ÷

sin α

o

÷

ρ

o

bS

4m

C

Y

¨ p

p

109

110 CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERALEQUATIONSOF MOTION

÷

−cos α

o

÷

ρ

o

bS

4m

C

Y

¨ r

r ÷

g

V

o

cos θ

o

φ ÷

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Y

δa

δ

a

÷

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Y

δr

δ

r

¸

(10.4)

• Angular velocities p and r:

¸

I

xx

−I

xz

−I

zx

I

zz

¸ ¸

˙ p

˙ r

¸

=

1

2

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

¸

C

L

β

β ÷C

L

¨ p

b

2V

o

p ÷C

L

¨ r

b

2V

o

r ÷C

L

δa

δ

a

÷C

L

δr

δ

r

C

N

β

β ÷C

N

¨ p

b

2V

o

p ÷C

N

¨ r

b

2V

o

r ÷C

N

δa

δ

a

÷C

N

δr

δ

r

(10.5)

• Kinematic equation for φ:

˙

φ = p ÷tan θ

o

r (10.6)

Re-arrangingtheaboveequations,weobtainasetof4linearordinarydifferentialequationsin {β, p, r, φ}

as follows.

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

β

˙ p

˙ r

˙

φ

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 −

b

2mV

2

o

C

Y¨

˙

β

0 0 0

0 I

xx

−I

xz

0

0 −I

xz

I

zz

0

0 0 0 1

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Y

β

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

L

β

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

N

β

0

sin α

o

÷

ρ

o

bS

4m

C

Y

¨ p

−cos α

o

÷

ρ

o

bS

4m

C

Y

¨ r

g

V

o

cos θ

o

ρ

o

V

o

Sb

2

4

C

L

¨ p

ρ

o

V

o

Sb

2

4

C

L

¨ r

0

ρ

o

V

o

Sb

2

4

C

N

¨ p

ρ

o

V

o

Sb

2

4

C

N

¨ r

0

1 tanθ

o

0

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

p

r

φ

÷ (10.7)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Yδa

ρ

o

V

o

S

2m

C

Yδr

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

Lδa

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

Lδr

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

N

δa

ρ

o

V

2

o

Sb

2

C

N

δr

0 0

¸

δ

a

δ

r

¸

In abbreviated notation, we write the above equation in the following form

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

β

˙ p

˙ r

˙

φ

= F

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

p

r

φ

÷G

¸

δ

a

δ

r

¸

(10.8)

where the matrices F and G can be deduced from the above equation directly.

Note that we have added an additional equation for the heading variable ψ as given in equation (8.27).

Namely,

˙

ψ =

1

cosθ

o

r (10.9)

AMATLAB-mﬁle to formulatethe lateral equationsof motion for the designmodel described inSection

11.1 are given below.

111

clg;clear;

rho=0.00230990;

Vo=556.29559;

S=608;

c=15.95;

b=42.8;

Ixx=28700;

Iyy=165100;

Izz=187900;

Izx=-520;

Ixy=0;Iyz=0;

M=0.5;

CL=0.20709;

CD=0.01468;

g=32.17095;

Weight=45000;m=Weight/g;

%Side Force Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CYp=0;

CYr=0;

CYbeta=-0.97403;

CYbetadot=0;

CYrud=-1.5041e-1;

CYail=-1.1516e-3;

%Yawing Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CNp=-3.3721e-2;

CNr=-4.0471e-1;

CNbeta=1.2996e-1;

CNrud=-6.9763e-2;

CNail=2.1917e-3;

%Rolling Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives

CLp=-0.2;

CLr=0.15099;

CLbeta=-0.13345;

CLrud=-2.3859e-3;

CLail=2.6356e-2;

%Trim angle of attack

alphao=0.18105*pi/180;

thetao=alphao;

%Matrix A

A=[1-b*CYbetadot/(2*m*Vo^2),0,0,0

0,Ixx,-Izx,0

0,-Izx,Izz,0

0,0,0,1];

B1=[rho*Vo*S*CYbeta/2/m;

0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLbeta;

112 CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERALEQUATIONSOF MOTION

0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNbeta;0];

B2=[sin(alphao)+rho*b*S*CYp/4/m;

0.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CLp;

0.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CNp;

1];

B3=[-cos(alphao)+rho*b*S*CYr/4/m;

0.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CLr;

0.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CNr;

tan(thetao)];

B4=[g/Vo*cos(thetao);

0;

0;

0];

B=[B1,B2,B3,B4];

C=[rho*Vo*S*CYail/2/m, rho*Vo*S*CYrud/2/m;

0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLail, 0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLrud;

0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNail, 0.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNrud;

0,0];

%Lateral equations of motion

F=inv(A)*B;

G=inv(A)*C;

%Add the heading equation

Fx=[[F,zeros(4,1)];[0,0,1/cos(thetao),0,0]];

Gx=[G;[0,0]];

%Dutch roll, spiral and roll modes

eigx(F);

eigx(Fx);

%Aileron pulse inputs

xo=-Gx(:,1)*pi/180; %Switch sign for + right aileron down

t1=[0:.1:30];

u=zeros(t1);

y1=lsim(Fx,Gx(:,1),eye(5),zeros(5,1),u,t1,xo);

clg;

subplot(221);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,1)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Sideslip (deg)')

title('Aileron 1-deg Pulse Input')

subplot(223);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,2)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Roll Rate (deg/sec)')

subplot(222);

113

plot(t1,180*y1(:,3)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Yaw Rate (deg/sec)')

subplot(224);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,4)/pi,t1,180*y1(:,5)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Roll/Heading Angles (deg)')

pause

%Rudder pulse inputs

xo=Gx(:,2)*pi/180;

t1=[0:.1:30];

u=zeros(t1);

y1=lsim(Fx,Gx(:,2),eye(5),zeros(5,1),u,t1,xo);

clg;

subplot(221);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,1)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Sideslip (deg)')

title('Rudder 1-deg Pulse Input')

subplot(223);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,2)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Roll Rate (deg/sec)')

subplot(222);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,3)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Yaw Rate (deg/sec)')

subplot(224);

plot(t1,180*y1(:,4)/pi,t1,180*y1(:,5)/pi);

grid;

xlabel('Time (sec)')

ylabel('Roll/Heading Angles (deg)')

Running this MATLABm-ﬁle generates the following linearized lateral dynamic model:

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

˙

β

˙ p

˙ r

˙

φ

˙

ψ

= F

p

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

p

r

φ

ψ

÷G

p

¸

δ

a

δ

r

¸

(10.10)

where the matrices F

p

and G

p

are given by

114 CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERALEQUATIONSOF MOTION

Fp =

-2.7202e-01 3.1599e-03 -1.0000e+00 5.7830e-02 0

-4.3366e+01 -2.4923e+00 1.8964e+00 0 0

6.5529e+00 -5.7313e-02 -7.7588e-01 0 0

0 1.0000e+00 3.1599e-03 0 0

0 0 1.0000e+00 0 0

Gp =

-3.2161e-04 -4.2005e-02

8.5397e+00 -7.1067e-01

8.4854e-02 -3.4512e+00

0 0

0 0

Characteristic roots of the lateral model are given by the eigenvalues of the system matrix F

p

. This can be

calculated using the MATLABfunction damp(F).

Eigenvalues Damping Frequency(rad/sec)

0.00000e+00 0.00000e+00i 1.000 0.00000e+00 (Heading mode)

-5.71628e-02 0.00000e+00i 1.000 5.71628e-02 (Spiral mode)

-3.27498e-01 2.73177e+00i 0.119 2.75133e+00 (Dutch-roll mode)

-3.27498e-01 -2.73177e+00i 0.119 2.75133e+00 (Dutch-roll mode)

-2.82802e+00 0.00000e+00i 1.000 2.82802e+00 (Roll mode)

There are 4 basic modes associated with the lateral motion:

• The heading mode corresponds to a root at the origin (s = 0). This mode is simply associated with

the integral of yaw rate for the heading angle ψ.

• The spiral mode (s = −0.05716 rad/sec) is a slow mode that is associated with a real root depicting

predominantly motion in the roll attitude φ. Its value is signiﬁcantly affected by the damping in roll

from the term C

Lp

(i.e. rolling moment due to roll rate). At some ﬂight condition, this mode may

even be unstable; since it is a slow mode, the pilot can interact and correct satisfactorily for the spiral

instability.

• The Dutch-roll mode (s = −0.327498 ± j 2.73177 rad/sec) is an oscillatory mode with signiﬁcant

components in the yaw r and the roll φ variables. This mode did not have adequate damping

(ζ = 0.12), and in general ﬂying qualities may dictate the need of a lateral stability augmentation

system to improve the Dutch-roll damnping via a yaw-damper feedback control design.

• The roll mode (s = −2.82802 rad/sec) is usually associated with a real root which is located far to the

left, i.e. very stable. The motion is predominantly in roll rate p and settles down quite quickly.

ShowninFigures(10.1)and(10.2)aretimeresponsesinthelateralmotiontoaseparatelyappliedimpulse

input at the aileron and rudder control surfaces respectively.

115

-0.1

-0.05

0

0.05

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

S

i

d

e

s

l

i

p

(

d

e

g

)

Aileron 1-deg Pulse Input

-10

-5

0

5

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

R

o

l

l

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0

0.1

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

Y

a

w

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

-3

-2

-1

0

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

R

o

l

l

/

H

e

a

d

i

n

g

A

n

g

l

e

s

(

d

e

g

)

Figure 10.1: Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Aileron Impulse Input

116 CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERALEQUATIONSOF MOTION

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

S

i

d

e

s

l

i

p

(

d

e

g

)

Rudder 1-deg Pulse Input

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

R

o

l

l

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

-4

-2

0

2

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

Y

a

w

R

a

t

e

(

d

e

g

/

s

e

c

)

-15

-10

-5

0

5

0 10 20 30

Time (sec)

R

o

l

l

/

H

e

a

d

i

n

g

A

n

g

l

e

s

(

d

e

g

)

Figure 10.2: Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Rudder Impulse Input

Chapter 11

Flight Vehicle Models

11.1 Generic F-15 Model Data (Subsonic)

WING AREA 608.000 (FT**2)

WING SPAN 42.800 (FT)

MEAN CHORD 15.950 (FT)

VEHICLE WEIGHT 45000.000 (LB)

IXX 28700.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IYY 165100.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IZZ 187900.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IXZ -520.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IXY 0.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IYZ 0.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

COEFFICIENT OF LIFT = 0.20709

COEFFICIENT OF DRAG = 0.01468

LIFT (LBS) = 45001.75037

DRAG (LBS) = 3190.16917

ALTITUDE (FT) = 1000.

MACH = 0.50000

VELOCITY (FT/SEC) = 556.29559

EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED (KTS) = 324.60706

SPEED OF SOUND (FT/SEC) = 1112.59123

GRAVITATIONAL ACCEL (FT/SEC**2) = 32.17095

NORMAL ACCELERATION (G-S) = 1.00026

LOAD FACTOR = 1.00013

DYNAMIC PRESSURE (LBS/FT**2) = 357.41711

DENSITY (SLUG/FT**3) = 0.00230990

WEIGHT (@ALTITUDE) (LBS) = 44995.73786

BETA (DEG) = 0.00000

ALPHA (DEG) = 0.18105

PHI (DEG) = 0.00000

THETA (DEG) = 0.18105

ALTITUDE RATE (FT/SEC) = 0.00000

GAMMA (DEG) = 0.00000

ROLL RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

PITCH RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

117

118 CHAPTER 11. FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS

YAW RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

THRUST (LBS) = 3188.85962

CONTROL VARIABLES

ELEVATOR = 0.05994

THROTTLE = 0.06643

SPEED BRAKE = 0.00000

RUDDER = 0.00000

AILERON = 0.00000

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL = 0.00000

11.1. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUBSONIC) 119

NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES

SIDE

DRAG LIFT FORCE

________ ________ ________

ZERO COEFFICIENTS 1.08760D-02 1.57360D-01 2.12070D-18

ROLL RATE 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

PITCH RATE 0.00000D+00 -1.72322D+01 0.00000D+00

YAW RATE 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

MACH NUMBER 0.00000D+00 7.45058D-06 0.00000D+00

ALPHA (RAD) 3.72570D-01 4.87060D+00 0.00000D+00

BETA (RAD) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -9.74030D-01

ALTITUDE (FT) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ALPHA DOT 0.00000D+00 1.72322D+01 0.00000D+00

BETA DOT 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ELEVATOR 4.38308D-02 5.72957D-01 0.00000D+00

SPEED BRAKE 6.49346D-02 3.74913D-02 0.00000D+00

RUDDER 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.50410D-01

AILERON 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.15160D-03

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -7.93150D-02

120 CHAPTER 11. FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS

NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES

ROLLING PITCHING YAWING

MOMENT MOMENT MOMENT

________ ________ ________

ZERO COEFFICIENTS -2.75542D-20 4.22040D-02 -6.80788D-20

ROLL RATE -2.00000D-01 0.00000D+00 -3.37210D-02

PITCH RATE 0.00000D+00 3.89530D+00 0.00000D+00

YAW RATE 1.50990D-01 0.00000D+00 -4.04710D-01

MACH NUMBER 2.59775D-13 -7.05586D-06 2.32475D-12

ALPHA (RAD) 0.00000D+00 -1.68819D-01 0.00000D+00

BETA (RAD) -1.33450D-01 0.00000D+00 1.29960D-01

ALTITUDE (FT) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ALPHA DOT 0.00000D+00 -1.18870D+01 0.00000D+00

BETA DOT 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ELEVATOR 0.00000D+00 -6.95281D-01 0.00000D+00

SPEED BRAKE 0.00000D+00 -4.17500D-01 0.00000D+00

RUDDER -2.38590D-03 0.00000D+00 -6.97630D-02

AILERON 2.63560D-02 0.00000D+00 2.19170D-03

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL 4.01070D-02 0.00000D+00 3.05310D-02

VEHICLE STATIC MARGIN IS 3.5% MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD STABLE

11.2. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUPERSONIC) 121

11.2 Generic F-15 Model Data (Supersonic)

WING AREA 608.000 (FT**2)

WING SPAN 42.800 (FT)

MEAN CHORD 15.950 (FT)

VEHICLE WEIGHT 45000.000 (LB)

IXX 28700.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IYY 165100.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IZZ 187900.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IXZ -520.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IXY 0.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

IYZ 0.000 (SLUG-FT**2)

COEFFICIENT OF LIFT = 0.05540

COEFFICIENT OF DRAG = 0.00308

LIFT (LBS) = 44992.04685

DRAG (LBS) = 2498.81524

ALTITUDE (FT) = 20000.

MACH = 1.40000

VELOCITY (FT/SEC) = 1451.69421

EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED (KTS) = 627.54694

SPEED OF SOUND (FT/SEC) = 1036.92440

GRAVITATIONAL ACCEL (FT/SEC**2) = 32.11294

NORMAL ACCELERATION (G-S) = 0.99780

LOAD FACTOR = 1.00172

DYNAMIC PRESSURE (LBS/FT**2) = 1335.83203

DENSITY (SLUG/FT**3) = 0.00126774

WEIGHT (@ALTITUDE) (LBS) = 44914.60527

BETA (DEG) = 0.00000

ALPHA (DEG) = -1.65589

PHI (DEG) = 0.00000

THETA (DEG) = -1.65589

ALTITUDE RATE (FT/SEC) = 0.00000

GAMMA (DEG) = 0.00000

ROLL RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

PITCH RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

YAW RATE (DEG/SEC) = 0.00000

THRUST (LBS) = 2499.44214

CONTROL VARIABLES

ELEVATOR = 0.06772

THROTTLE = 0.05207

SPEED BRAKE = 0.00000

RUDDER = 0.00000

AILERON = 0.00000

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL = 0.00000

122 CHAPTER 11. FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS

NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES

SIDE

DRAG LIFT FORCE

________ ________ ________

ZERO COEFFICIENTS 1.08760D-02 1.57360D-01 2.12070D-18

ROLL RATE (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

PITCH RATE (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 -1.72320D+01 0.00000D+00

YAW RATE (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

VELOCITY (FT/SEC) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

MACH NUMBER 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ALPHA (RAD) 3.72570D-01 4.87060D+00 0.00000D+00

BETA (RAD) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -9.74030D-01

ALTITUDE (FT) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ALPHA DOT (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 1.72320D+01 0.00000D+00

BETA DOT (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ELEVATOR 4.38310D-02 5.72959D-01 0.00000D+00

THROTTLE 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

SPEED BRAKE 6.49351D-02 3.74913D-02 0.00000D+00

RUDDER 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.50410D-01

AILERON 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.15160D-03

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -7.93150D-02

11.2. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUPERSONIC) 123

NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES

ROLLING PITCHING YAWING

MOMENT MOMENT MOMENT

________ ________ ________

ZERO COEFFICIENTS 2.77192D-19 4.22040D-02 -1.74198D-19

ROLL RATE (RAD/SEC) -2.00000D-01 0.00000D+00 -3.37210D-02

PITCH RATE (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 3.89530D+00 0.00000D+00

YAW RATE (RAD/SEC) 1.50990D-01 0.00000D+00 -4.04710D-01

VELOCITY (FT/SEC) 3.42955D-17 -1.15312D-10 3.06986D-16

MACH NUMBER 3.55618D-14 -1.19570D-07 3.18322D-13

ALPHA (RAD) 0.00000D+00 -1.68819D-01 0.00000D+00

BETA (RAD) -1.33450D-01 0.00000D+00 1.29960D-01

ALTITUDE (FT) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ALPHA DOT (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 -1.18870D+01 0.00000D+00

BETA DOT (RAD/SEC) 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

ELEVATOR 0.00000D+00 -6.95279D-01 0.00000D+00

THROTTLE 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00

SPEED BRAKE 0.00000D+00 -4.17500D-01 0.00000D+00

RUDDER -2.38590D-03 0.00000D+00 -6.97630D-02

AILERON 2.63560D-02 0.00000D+00 2.19170D-03

DIFFERENTIAL TAIL 4.01070D-02 0.00000D+00 3.05310D-02

VEHICLE STATIC MARGIN IS 3.5% MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD STABLE

i c Copyright 1997, by Uy-Loi Ly. All rights reserved.

No parts of this book may be photocopied or reproduced in any form without the written permission.

Contents

Glossary 1 Introduction 1.1 Lift Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Drag Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Pitching Moment Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Linear Algebra and Matrices 2.1 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Matrix Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Linear Ordinary Differential Equations . . . . . . . . 2.4 Laplace Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Laplace method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Time-domain method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.3 Numerical integration method (via MATLAB) . 3 Principles of Static and Dynamic Stability 4 Static Longitudinal Stability 4.1 Notations and Sign Conventions . . . . . . . 4.2 Stick-Fixed Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Stick-Free Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Other Inﬂuences on the Longitudinal Stability 4.4.1 Inﬂuence of Wing Flaps . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Inﬂuence of the Propulsive System . 4.4.3 Inﬂuence of Fuselage and Nacelles . 4.4.4 Effect of Airplane Flexibility . . . . 4.4.5 Inﬂuence of Ground Effect . . . . . .

viii 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 11 13 16 17 17 18 20 23 27 27 27 34 39 39 40 42 42 43 45 45 48 48

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5 Static Longitudinal Control 5.1 Longitudinal Trim Conditions with Elevator Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Determination of Elevator Angle for a New Trim Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Longitudinal Control Position as a Function of Lift Coefﬁcient . . . . . . . . . . . ii

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Contributions to the Rolling Moment 6. 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Phugoid-Mode Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g 5. . . 8 Linearized Equations of Motion 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Linearized Angular Acceleration Equations . . . . .1 Force Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Forces and Moments in terms of their Coefﬁcient Derivatives 8. . . .4 Roll Stability . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Stabilator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Moment Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. .1 Lift Force L . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Generic F-15 Model Data (Supersonic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Linearized Linear Acceleration Equations . . . .2. . .1. . .1 Yawing and Rolling Moment Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . .3 Linearized Euler’s Angle Equations . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6 Lateral Static Stability and Control 6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Pitching Moment M . . . . . . . . .4. . 5. . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Directional Control . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . .1 Generic F-15 Model Data (Subsonic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Roll Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g . . . . . . .2 Stick Force for a Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Review of Rigid Body Dynamics 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Short-Period Approximation . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .2. 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .4. . . . . iii 50 51 53 55 56 58 58 59 61 61 63 67 72 74 74 74 75 78 79 79 85 85 88 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 94 95 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Control Stick Forces . . . . . . . . . Steady Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Thrust Force T . . . . . .3 Side-Force Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .7 Rolling Moment L . 105 10 Linearized Lateral Equations of Motion 109 11 Flight Vehicle Models 117 11. . . . . . .3. 117 11. . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g . . . . . . . . . .1 Contributions to the Yawing Moment 6. . . . . . . . . 103 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Euler’s Angles . . . .4. . . 8. . .1 Stick Force for a Stabilator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Linearized Longitudinal Equations of Motion 97 9. . 8. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Yawing Moment N . .4. .4. . . . . . . . . .2 Drag Force D . . . . . . . . .2 Directional Stability (Weathercock Stability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .9 5. .4 5. D and T . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Point from Flight Test Longitudinal Control Stick to Stabilator . . . . . . . .6 4. . . Three Possible Cases of Static Stability . . . . . . Forces and Moments Applied to a Wing-Tail Conﬁguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment Coefﬁcient C Mcg versus α . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . .2 6. .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . Deﬁnition of Aircraft Variables in Flight Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . 107 10. Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Tail Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. Longitudinal Aircraft Responses to a 1-deg Elevator Impulsive Input . . . . . Stick Force versus Velocity Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . .1 Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Aileron Impulse Input . 104 Short-Period Approximation Model to a 1-deg Elevator Impulse Input . . . . Horizontal Tail Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 iv . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Elevator Deﬂection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ∂C N blade Propeller Normal Force Coefﬁcient C N pα = ∂α f (T ) . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Wing Aerodynamic Center . .2 Motion in the Longitudinal Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. 2 24 25 28 28 28 30 33 34 40 41 42 46 46 47 50 50 53 62 68 69 73 76 80 85 87 Deﬁnition of the Lateral Directional Motion of an Airplane . Motion of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euler’s Angle Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . .1 9. K f as a Function of the Position of the Wing c/4 Root Chord How to Change Airplane Trim Angle of Attack . . . . .2 5. . Deﬁnition of Angle of Attack α and Sideslip β . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Sweepback on Total Lift and Rolling Moment to Sideslip Effect of Wing Placement on the Rolling Moment to Sideslip . . . . . Forces on a Propeller . . . . . X and Z -Force Components in terms of L. . Airplane with a Positive Sideslip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three Possible Cases of Dynamic Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments about the Center of Gravity of the Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .LIST OF FIGURES v 10. . . .2 Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Rudder Impulse Input . . . . . . . . . . 116 . . . .

. . . . .List of Tables 2. . . 13 vi .1 Laplace Transforms of Some Common Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii .

viii Glossary Glossary a a b c c ¯ D F Fx Fy Fz g H I I I xx I yy I zz L L m M M Mx My Mz M N p q q r S t T u v V V VH Lift curve slope (1/rad) Speed of sound (ft/sec) Wing span (ft) Wing chord (ft) Mean aerodynamic chord (ft) Drag force (lbs) Total force (lbs) Force component along the x-axis (lbs) Force component along the y-axis (lbs) Force component along the z-axis (lbs) Gravitational acceleration (ft/sec2 ) Hinge moment (ft-lbs) Identity matrix Inertia matrix (slugs-ft2 ) Moment of inertia about the x-axis (slugs-ft2 ) Moment of inertia about the y-axis (slugs-ft2 ) Moment of inertia about the z-axis (slugs-ft2 ) Lift force (lbs) Rolling moment (ft-lbs) Vehicle mass (slugs) Mach number (dimensionless) Total moment (ft-lbs) Moment about the vehicle x -axis (ft-lbs) Moment about the vehicle y-axis (ft-lbs) Moment about the vehicle z-axis (ft-lbs) Pitching moment (ft-lbs) Yawing moment (ft-lbs) Roll rate (rad/sec) Pitch rate (rad/sec) Dynamic pressure (psi) Yaw rate (rad/sec) Surface area (ft2) Time (sec) Thrust force (lbs) Velocity component along the x-axis (ft/sec) Velocity component along the y-axis (ft/sec) Aircraft velocity vector (ft/sec) Velocity (ft/sec) Horizontal tail volume (dimensionless) .

Glossary w W X Y Z Greek Symbols α β δ γ λ ρ σ ¯ θ Subscripts cg ac a e r w t Operators E [∗] x ˙ xi Aij Velocity component along the z-axis (ft/sec) Vehicle weight (lbs) Force along the x-axis (lbs) Side force or force along the y-axis (lbs) Force along the z-axis (lbs) Angle of attack (rad) Sideslip angle (rad) Surface deﬂection (rad) Downwash angle (rad) Flight path angle (rad) Taper ratio (dimensionless) Air density (slugs/ft3 ) Maximum singular value Pitch angle (rad) Center of gravity Aerodynamic center Aileron Elevator Rudder Wing Tail Expected value Time derivative of the variable x i th element of the vector x Element of the A matrix in the i th row and j th column ix .

x Glossary .

Chapter 1 Introduction The objective of this course is to develop fundamental understanding on the subject of stability. etc· · ·). 5.. Listed below are some that provide good reference materials: 1. Familiarities with the basic components in aerodynamics of wing and airfoil section are expected. Inc. Barnes W.. wing conﬁguration (wing span. Mass properties. etc· · ·. 1 . fuselage and tail conﬁgurations of the airplane are therefore assumed known and given a-priori. 1979. First Edition.. shape of the airfoil (camber.. Analysis of the airplane dynamic responses to initial changes in its basic motion variables (e. John Wiley & Sons. Reynold number. General equations of motion for a rigid-body airplane are derived. drag and moment of wing section. dynamic pressure. Concepts of static stability and dynamic stability are introduced in this course. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Third Edition. fuselage and tail conﬁguration.. Basic motions of the aircraft separated into longitudinal and lateral modes are discussed in details. control and ﬂight mechanics. Inc. John H. thickness. sweep angle). and physical parameters that govern these aerodynamic forces and moments suchas freestream velocity. and Flight Mechanics. Mach number. McCormick. mean aerodynamic chord. angle of attack. Pergamon Press. Flying qualities of the uncontrolled airplane can subsequently be assessed. There is an extensive number of references that cover the subject of aircraft stability. aerodynamic center). Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. Aeronautics. wing. control and ﬂight mechanics. tocontrol inputs and external gust inputs iscovered using Laplace transform techniques and time simulation. taper ratio. although we will deﬁne the relevant ones as we encounter them in our problem formulation. Second Edition. reference area. Anderson. angle of attack. Babister. It is expected that students are familiar somewhat with the use of the MATLAB software for analysis. we will develop airplane static and dynamic model to study its behavior under different ﬂight regimes. 2. Inc. Aerodynamics. Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control. 4. Starting from known forces and moments generated on a given wing. It is not the intent of this course to provide all these relevant background materials. Introduction to Flight. Jr. Arthur W. Aircraft Dynamic Stability and Response. pitch attitude. 1991. sideslip. John D. John Wiley & Sons. Bernard Etkin. density. namely deﬁnition of lift. 1980. 1989. 1982. Effects of aerodynamic stability derivatives upon the behaviour of the perturbed equations of motions are studied. Blakelock. 3. Automatic Control of Aircraft and Missiles.g. roll angle.

Moler.e. David R.1. Stability and Control. Gravity force mg and the engine thrust T constitute the remaining forces exerted on the vehicle. They correspond to the lift. 1964. The pitching moment M y about the airplane center of gravity (cg) is mainly due to aerodynamic and propulsion forces and has no contribution from gravity. drag and moment equations respectively. Inc. As an introduction. Edward Seckel. Here we idealize the airplane as a lumped system with mass m andmomentof inertia aboutthe y-axis as I yy . let’s ﬁrst examine the development of the following three basic equations corresponding to motion in the vertical plane (i.1 Lift Equation Let’s consider the point mass system shown in Figure 1. Hage. Stability and Control of Airplanes and Helicopters.2 CHAPTER 1. 1988.. Notethat theﬂight pathisalwaystangentialto the velocity vector V. Perkins and Robert E. 1949. First Edition. John Wiley & Sons. Academic Press. The lift force is by deﬁnition perpendicular to the velocity vector V while the drag force is parallel to the velocity vector V and is pointed in the opposite direction. longitudinal set). Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Controls.1: Motion in the Longitudinal Axis 6. Jan Roskam. Random House. D. 9. Experiments in Computational Matrix Algebra. Courtland. 7.. 1979. 8. INTRODUCTION L (lift) α V γ x-body axis My T (thrust) θ D (drag) mg z-body axis Figure 1. Airplane Performance. Hill and Clever B.1) . The aerodynamic forces applied to the center of mass of the vehicle can be decomposed into the li f t and drag components. Roskam Aviation and Engineering Corporation. The equation of motion along the z-body axis is given by m(w − qu ) = ˙ Fz (1. 1.

Let’s rewrite the velocity component w as w = Vsin α and thus. Hence. For a constant ﬂight path angle (i.7) ˙ since q = θ and u = Vcos α ∼ V . From Figure 1.8) Thus. w is the component along the z-body axis and q is the pitch angular velocity about the y-body axis. thrust T and gravity W forces according to Figure 1. ˙ m(V α − θ V ) = −L + (T − D)α + W ˙ (1. (1.2 Drag Equation Again we refer to Figure 1. we must have γ = 0 and L − W = 0.1. the terms T − D and α are small and hence we can drop the = product (T − D)α in the above equation. m(u + qw) = ˙ Fx (1.e.4) (1.1.8) can be rewritten as mV γ = L − W ˙ (1. equation (1. (1. we have Fz = Fz(aerodynamics ) + Fz( propulsion ) + Fz(gra vity ) where Fz(aerodynamics ) + Fz( propulsion ) = −Lcos α + (T − D)sin α ∼ −L + (T − D)α (for small α) = Fz(gra vity ) = mgcos θ ∼ W (for small θ) = ˙ w = Vsin α + V αcosα ˙ ˙ ∼ Vα + Vα ˙ (for small α) = ˙ (1.3) (1.1). Namely.2) where W is the weight of the vehicle. (1.6). The force components in the x-body direction are only consisted of Fx = Fx(aerodynamics ) + Fx(propulsion ) + Fx(gra vity ) . γ = γo =constant). Fx(aerodynamics ) + Fx( propulsion ) = Lsin α + (T − D)cosα ∼ Lα + (T − D) (for small α) = (1.2. equation (1.5) ˙ Generally.5) is simpliﬁed to ˙ w = Vα ˙ ˙ (1. we notice that the product V α is much smaller than V α.1. (1. we obtain the following equation in the z-body direction.9) (1.2). Each of these components can again be written in terms of the lift L. Usually.4) and (1. ˙ mV (α − θ ) = W − L ˙ Note that the ﬂight path angle is deﬁned as γ = θ − α. change in ﬂight path occurs when L − W = 0 and the correspondingﬂight trajectory would be curved.1. ˙ 1. the equation of motion in the x-body direction is as follows. drag D.6) Combining equations (1. Thus.3).11) .10) since we are limited to motion in the vertical plane only. DRAG EQUATION 3 where u is the component of velocity along the x-body axis of the vehicle.

equation (1.11). we obtain the following ˙ ˙ m V + mα(V θ − V α) = T − D + (L − W )α − W (θ − α) ˙ or.15) (1.9). This corresponds to an accelerated straight and level ﬂight. ¨ I yy θ = M y(aerodynamics ) + M y( propulsion ) (1. the velocity component u can be rewritten as u = Vcos α.13) into equation (1.16) (1.3 Pitching Moment Equation Finally. (1. INTRODUCTION (for small θ) (1.13) Thus from the above equation with excess thrust. one can have different ﬂight trajectories: 1.12) Furthermore. i. (T − D) > 0.e. The vehicle speed increases while climbing. ˙ • Positive acceleration V > 0 and γ > 0. gravity would have no moment contribution to the pitching moment equation when it is taken about the vehicle center of gravity.12) and (1. ˙ • Positive acceleration V > 0 with γ = 0.15) is simpliﬁed to ˙ mV + W γ = T − D ˙ • Positive ﬂight path angle γ > 0 with V = 0. . its time derivative becomes ˙ u = Vcos α − V αsin α ˙ ˙ ˙ = V − V αα ˙ (for small α) Substituting equations (1. Hence.10). we derive the pitching moment equation for the vehicle shown in Figure 1.14) (1. This results in a steady (nonaccelerated) climb. ˙ m V + W γ = T − D + α(L − W − mV γ ) ˙ Using equation (1. It sufﬁces to say that static longitudinal stability is predominantly governed by the behaviour of the pitching moment as the vehicle is perturbed from its equilibrium state.4 and Fx(gra vity ) = −mgsin θ ≈ −W θ CHAPTER 1.17) Notice that by deﬁnition. (1.1. Detailed description of the moments produced by aerodynamic and propulsive forces will be given later when we examine issues related to longitudinal static stability.

one dimensional groupings of scalars (one column. and the second corresponds to MATLAB’s response. . several columns). Usually the shorthand [x. matrices. 2. vectors.Chapter 2 Linear Algebra and Matrices We deal with 3 classes of numbers: scalars. However column vectors are more often used in its functions.]’ A= 1 2 3 4 5 s= s1 s2 . y . sn . 3. . • A = [1. ˆ ˆ ˆ MATLAB will use both row and column vectors. the position vector r given by r = x x + y y + zz ˆ ˆ ˆ is represented with respect to a cartesian basis [ x. and ﬁnally. Note that in the example below. which for us will be 2-dimensional (rows and columns). or a column vector. y. z ].] A= 1234 • A = [1. 3. 2. Implied with every vector is a basis (often a physical basis) to which each component refers. or one row. 4. single numbers without association. . the ﬁrst entry in boldface is what the user types. z] is used. 4. several rows. such as Column vectors are vastly more common. For instance. A vector can be either a row vector such as s = [s1 s2 · · · sn ] .

an1 a12 · · · a1m a22 · · · a2m .4] A= 1 2 3 4 • A = [1 2 3 4] A= 1 2 3 4 CHAPTER 2.2. . It follows along the lines of a vector. 3 4 5 6 7 8. though that will be beyond the scope of this course.5 6 7 8. or a column of row vectors. .6 • A = [1.9 10 11 12] A= 1234 5678 9 10 11 12 • A = [1 2 3 4 5678 9 10 11 12] A= 1234 5678 9 10 11 12 • B = [A [0 1. One can think of matrices as having a basis in the form of dyadic products of basis vectors. Entry of a matrix in MATLAB is fairly straightforward. . . an2 · · · anm . . . LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES A matrix can be thought of as a row of column vectors. = A = a1 a2 · · · am ˆ ˆ ˆ a1 ¯ a2 ¯ . but remember that the entries are processed in row fashion: • A = [1 2 3 4. . . 1 3 5 7 9 11] B= 123401 567823 .3. an ¯ = a11 a21 . 6 5 4 3 2 1. . . .4 5].2 3..

an1 an2 · · · anm ∗ A∗v = = v1 v2 . . .2. . . While much mathematical theory has been expounded on inner product spaces and such. . the matrix function zeros(n. α ∗v = αs1 αs2 . . . you can add a scalar to every element in a vector or matrix without any special notation. u1 u2 vn ] ∗ . . Multiplication of two vectors is mostly deﬁned in terms of the dot product. . . OPERATIONS 9 10 11 12 4 5 654321 345678 1 3 5 7 9 11 7 MATLAB also has facilities for creating simple matrices such as a matrix of zeros or the identity matrix. . . .. . the only item we need know here is the inner product of two vectors expressed in a Cartesian coordinate frame. . . . however.1 Operations Addition and multiplication not only need to be deﬁned for within a certain class. v · u = [ v1 v2 ··· un = v1 u 1 + v2 u 2 + · · · + vn u n Multiplying a vector by a matrix is equivalent to transforming the vector. αan1 αan2 · · · αanm .. . vm a11 v1 + a12 v2 + · · · + a1m vm a21 v1 + a22 v2 + · · · + a2m vm . . α∗M = αa11 αa12 · · · αa1m αa21 αa22 · · · αa2m . the product of a matrix and a vector is given by a11 a12 · · · a1m a21 a22 · · · a2m . but between classes. 2. For example. an1 v1 + an2 v2 + · · · + anm vm .m) will create a zero matrix of dimension n by m. .1. . . . αsn In MATLAB. Adding two vectors occurs on an element by element level. Implied in all of this is that the basis of the two vectors is the same: v + u = [ v1 v2 = [ v1 + u 1 ··· v2 + u 2 vn ] + [ u 1 ··· u2 vn + u n ] ··· un ] . multiplication of vectors and matrices by a scalar. . . In components. . . and eye(n) will create an identity matrix of dimension n. . For example.

an2 + bn2 · · · anm + bnm + b11 b21 . . How does one solve this? The most simplistic (and computationally efﬁcient) method is to apply a succession of transformations . . . the number of columns of A must match the number of rows of v. A∗B = a11 a12 · · · a1m a21 a22 · · · a2m . vectors.. Note that we have the number of knowns b equal to the number of unknowns x here. +an2 x 2 + · · · +ann xn = bn can be represented compactly by the relation Ax = b. . ... . . . . ∗ b1 b2 · · · b p ˆ ˆ ˆ a11 b12 + a12b22 + · · · + a1m bm2 a21 b12 + a22b22 + · · · + a2m bm2 . bn2 · · · bnm Multiplying two matrices can be thought of as a series of transformations on the column vectors of the multiplicand. . . 2. an1 an2 · · · anm a11 + b11 a21 + b21 . . . . LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES Of course. . .. . . . . -. a11 x1 a21 x1 an1 x1 +a12 x2 + · · · +a1n x n = b1 +a22 x2 + · · · +a2n x n = b2 . . . . and/willhandle all legal operationsbetween scalars. . Adding two matrices of the same dimensions would occur on an element by element basis.2 Matrix Functions The convenience of matrix notation is in the representation of a group of linear equations. The number of columns of the left matrix must be equal to the number of rows of the right matrix (left and right are signiﬁcant since multiplication is not commutative for matrices in general). andmatrices in MATLAB without any further special notation. . . . . . . Thestandardsymbols: +. .. . . A+B = a11 a12 · · · a1m a21 a22 · · · a2m . an1 b11 + an2b21 + · · · + anm bm1 an1 b12 + an2 b22 + · · · + anm bm2 ··· ··· . . . bn1 b12 · · · b1m b22 · · · b2m . . *. . . . the following set of equations. an1 an2 · · · anm = a11 b11 + a12 b21 + · · · + a1m bm1 a21 b11 + a22 b21 + · · · + a2m bm1 . . . . . . . . = an1 + bn1 a12 + b12 · · · a1m + b1m a22 + b22 · · · a2m + b2m . . For example. .8 CHAPTER 2. . . .

resulting in the removal of the coefﬁcient of x 1 in these equations. . you can substitute it into the next equation up and solve for xn−1. . Itisoftennecessarytocomputeadeterminantoraninverseinsomethingresemblingaclosedform(which will be seen in the calculation of eigenvalues). an1 x1 + a12 x2 + ··· + (a22 − a12 a21 /a11 )x 2 + · · · . This substantiates the argument that it costs about as much to ˜ ˜ solve a linear system as it does to solve for a determinant. = b1 = b2 − b1 a21 /a11 = ··· . . + ann x n = b1 = b2 − b1a21 /a11 . + · · · + ann x n ˜ + a1n xn + a2n xn ˜ + ··· . · · · x n ]wouldbethematrixinverseof A. The inverse can also be computed in a method similar to that above. . n). Suppose that a11 is nonzero then one can multiply the ﬁrst equation by a21 /a11 and subtracts it from the second equation. . ˜ = bn All values of aij below the diagonal are zero. 0 . The ﬁrst term in the second equation would be eliminated. + . · · · bn = 0 0 . the determinant is computedwith the followingcommand syntax det(A). You can. . + . . Thus. . 0 . MATLAB implements a method very much similar to the above for solving a system of linear equations. . Note that if a diagonal term is zero. . + . . + . . In MATLAB. . Note that one can now solve x n = bn /ann . The same procedure is now applied to all coefﬁcients of x 2 for all rows below the ˜ second row. = . obtain an answer from MATLAB with very little effort by just typing the command x=A\b In a similarvein to whatis notedabove. (In general. + 0 + ··· + ··· + ··· . the aij ’s and b j ’s ˜ are NOT the same as the original matrix entries aij and b j . Once you have x n . thenthematrixcomposingofthecolumnvectors[ x1 . If one solves for a succession of vectors x i (i = 1. + an2 x 2 + ··· + a1n x n + (a2n − a1n a21 /a11 )xn . . 1 . computation of the matrix inverse is invoked by the command inv(A).2. The above method is often called the method of Gaussian elimination with back substitution. . What one would eventually have is the upper triangular system. . however. + . MATRIX FUNCTIONS 9 to the above system to eliminate values of A below the diagonal.2. A . one introduces the expansion by minors method. a11 x 1 0 . This matrixalso has the interesting propertythat the product of ˜ the diagonal terms is equal to the determinant. 0 + a12 x2 + a22 x2 ˜ + 0 . This continues until one gets to x1 (or until some diagonal term akk is zero). = . a11 x1 0 0 . . . = bn Suppose that the procedure were repeated for all the other rows. then the determinant is ˜ also zero and the system matrix A is called singular . respectively). . b2 = 0 1 . each one with b1 = 1 0 . + .

one can get the determinant for the case of a 3 × 3 matrix. Here we expand along the ﬁrst row. then these minors may need be broken down further into their minors to ﬁnd their determinants. It is also easy to evaluate the determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix by expanding along the ﬁrst row. . . A= a11 a12 a21 a22 ⇒ det ( A) = a11 a22 − a12 a21 . . . . A = [a11 ] ⇒ det (A) = a11 . . . and so on until one gets to a 1 × 1 matrix. A = a11 a21 a31 . . an1 an3 · · · ann a13 · · · a23 · · · a33 · · · . First one transposes the matrix.e. the inverse is A= a11 a12 a21 a22 ⇒ A−1 = in v( A) = 1 a11a22 − a12 a21 a22 −a12 −a21 a11 . an1 an2 M12 (A) = det a21 a23 · · · a2n a31 a33 · · · a3n . . . an3 · · · a1n a2n a3n .10 CHAPTER 2. . . each resulting new element is divided by the determinant of the original matrix. .. . . a12 a22 a32 .. For a 2 × 2 matrix. . 1 × 1) matrix. where Mij (A) is the minor of A at i and j. The recipe for this is a little more complicated than for the determinant. First the matrix is broken down into a series of minors to determine the determinant. . With a little more effort. For a scalar (i. what one has for an arbitrary matrix is a successionof expansions. a11 a12 a13 A = a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 ⇒ det ( A) = a11a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13a21 a32 −a11a23 a32 − a12 a21 a33 − a13a22 a31 The inverse can also be found through expansion by minors.. Finally. . ann A determinant is formed from expanding by minors along an arbitrary row i or column j of a matrix: n By Row i : det ( A) = By Column j : det ( A) = aij Mij (A)(−1)i+ j j=1 n aij Mij ( A)(−1)i+ j i=1 Thus. then each element aij gets replaced by the term Mij ( A)(−1)i+ j . . . LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES minor Mij ( A) of a matrix A is the determinant of the matrix A without its i th row and its j th column.

2. A = a12 a22 a32 a31 a32 a33 a13 a23 a33 ⇒ A−1 Suppose that one applies this to the system a a − a32 a23 a32 a13 − a12 a33 a12 a23 − a13 a22 1 22 33 = in v(A) = a31 a23 − a21 a33 a11 a33 − a31 a13 a21 a13 − a11 a23 det (A) a21 a32 − a31 a22 a31 a12 − a11 a32 a11 a22 − a21 a12 a11 a12 a13 x1 b1 a21 a22 a23 ∗ x2 = b2 a31 a32 a33 x3 b3 x = A−1 ∗ b where the solution x is given by If one goes through the algebra. x(0− ) = x o ˙ The term eat is an integrating factor for the above equation. LINEAR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS The inverse of a 3 × 3 matrix is somewhat more complicated.) . 11 a11 a12 a13 a11 a21 a31 A = a21 a22 a23 . the result obtained from the Cramer’s Rule will be x1 = 1 (b1 a22a33 + b2 a32 a13 + b3 a12a23 − b1a32 a23 − b2 a12 a33 − b3a22 a13 ) det ( A) .3 Linear Ordinary Differential Equations Note that in this course we encounter mostly linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefﬁcients.3. x2 = . . One can always ﬁnd an integrating factor for the ﬁrst-order equation x + ax = f.. Let’s multiply the above differential equation with the integrating factor eat and collect terms. x = e−at x o + t 0− eaτ f (τ ) dτ . x3 = .. we have the following d at e x = eat f dt Integrate both sides from 0− to time t.2. b1 a12 a13 b2 a22 a23 b3 a32 a33 det ( A) a11 b1 a13 a21 b2 a23 a31 b3 a33 det ( A) a11 a12 b1 a21 a22 b2 a31 a32 b3 det ( A) x1 = . = (etc. This can be expressed more compactly as (with | A| being the shorthand notation for the determinant of A).

. Suppose that one creates a vector of time points where the system outputs are to be computed with the MATLAB command T =[0:0. Let x 1 = x and x 2 = x ..1:10]. To generate the system time responses for the system matrices A.e.e. A formal way of modeling a dynamic system is by a set of state equations. The vector Y has 2 columns (each corresponding to an output) and 101 rows (each row corresponding to a time point). A second-order equation given by x + a x + bx = f. It turns out that the system of ﬁrst-order differential equations is more amenable to use on the computer when expressed in a matrix state-space form. in the above notation we have the following set of system ˙ matrices 0 1 0 1 0 0 A= B= C= D= −b −a 1 0 1 0 To generate a time series responseof a linear time-invariant system inMATLAB. In the latter case. and D matrices. The forcing function f (often referred to as the control input) is a vector whose entries correspond to the value of this function at those time points.f.1. x(0− ) = vo ¨ ˙ ˙ can be written as a system of two ﬁrst-order equations as follows.B.C. C.12 or. u = f ). x(0− ) = x o . LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES t 0− e −a(t−τ ) f (τ ) dτ Theabovesolutioncontainsusuallyahomogeneoussolution(frominitialconditions)andaparticularsolution (from the forcing function f ). This vector contains time points from 0 to 10 in steps of 0.. Then. e At ).T). B. oneneeds to generatethese A. Refer back toour second-order system with both (x and x ) as outputs. and D as deﬁned above. it would involve the matrix exponential (i. x = ˙ Ax + Bu (State equations) y = Cx + Du (Output equations) Theinput u isthe particular forcing function driving the system (i. B. C. One could solve the above second-order system by ﬁrst solving the homogeneous system whose solution is usually of the form x h (t) = eλt where λ is the solution of the resulting characteristic equation. at the time points deﬁned in the vector T to the forcing function f . Note that solution for the particular part involves a convolution integral. x = x o e−at + CHAPTER 2. we can issue the following MATLAB command Y = lsim(A.D. the above equation ˙ can be re-written as x1 ˙ 0 1 x1 0 = + x2 ˙ −b −a x2 f In fact. the procedure leading to the solution of the above scalar ﬁrst-order differential equation can be used to derive the solution for a system of ﬁrst-order differential equations. The particular solution from the non-homogenous part can be done either by means of a trial substitution or variation of parameters.

That is to say. the function is identically zero for t < 0 and equals to one for t ≥ 0. it is much faster and easier for an engineer to use Table 2.1. However. Every function used in Laplace transform work is assumed multiplied by a unit-step (Heaviside) function at t = 0.1: Laplace Transforms of Some Common Functions The Laplace transform is so attractive since L( d f (t)) = dt ∞ 0− e−st d ∞ f (t) dt = e−st f (t) 0− + s dt ∞ 0− e−st f (t) dt = − f (0− ) + sf (s) Thus. For example. We deﬁne L( f (t)) = The function e−at transforms as follows. f(t) δ(t) 1 (unit step at t=0) t t2 2 t n−1 (n−1)! eσ t f(s) 1 1 s 1 s2 1 s3 1 sn 1 s−σ 1 (s−σ )2 1 (s−σ )n σ s(s+σ ) ω s 2 +ω 2 s s 2 +ω 2 ω (s−σ )2 +ω 2 s−σ (s−σ )2 +ω 2 te σ t t n−1 eσ t (n−1)! 1 − e−σ t sin (ωt) cos(ωt) eσ t sin (ωt) e σ t cos(ωt) Table 2. LAPLACE TRANSFORM 13 2. L(e−at ) = ∞ 0− ∞ 0− e−st f (t) dt = f (s) e −(s+a)t s +a ∞ 0− e−st e−at dt = ∞ 0− e−(s+a)t dt = − = 1 .4. s+a Note that it is much easier to transform a function than to do its inverse transform which would involve from ﬁrst principles the intricate details of complex variables and contour integration. Laplace transform of the ﬁrst-order differential equation x + ax = f (t) ˙ .2.4 Laplace Transform Solving differential equations can also be done using the Laplace transform. one can transform a differential equation into a set of algebraic equations involving the transform variable s.

we obtain s 2 x(s) − sx (0− ) − x(0− ) + asx (s) − ax (0−) + bx (s) = f (s) ˙ and. the second is not solvable until one speciﬁes f (t) (or 1 f (s)). .. solving for the solution x(s) x(s) = x (0− ) + (s + a)x(0− ) + f (s) ˙ s 2 + as + b The homogeneous parts of this have equivalent time-domain functions that depend on the relation between a and b. t f (s) L −1 = e−a(t−τ ) f (τ ) dτ s+a 0− Consider now the second-order differential equation x + a x + bx = f ¨ ˙ Applying Laplace transform to the above equation.1.e. However. Usually one needs to break down a complicated polynomial fraction into simpler summands that are of the forms given in Table 2. in general. This particular case is equal to what has been previously demonstrated. We distinguish three cases: • b − a 2 /4 > 0 • b − a 2 /4 < 0 • b − a 2 /4 = 0 Case b − a 2 /4 > 0: The denominator can be written into the form s 2 + 2σ s + σ 2 + ω2 which corresponds to the time-domain functions e −σ t sin ωt and e−σ t cosωt where σ = −a/2 and ω = b − a 2 /4.1 is not always possible with some more complicated forms.14 is CHAPTER 2. we obtain the solution of the above differential equation in the Laplace domain as x(0− ) f (s) x(s) = + s+a s +a The ﬁrst term of the sum corresponds to x(0− )e−at . Solutions to the homogeneous problem (i. the product of two Laplace transforms (in this case. f (s) and s+a ) is equivalent to the convolution of their time-based functions. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES sx (s) − x(0− ) + ax (s) = f (s) Solving for the variable x(s). to initial conditions x(0− )) can be obtained directly as x h (t ) = x(0− ) ˙ e−at /2 sin ( b − a 2 /4 t) b − a 2 /4 + a 2 b − a 2 /4 sin ( b − a 2 /4 t) x(0− )e−at /2 cos( b − a2 /4 t) + Use of Table 2.

The particular solution is given by x p (t) = 1 a 1 − e −at /2 cos( b − a 2 /4 t) + sin ( b − a 2 /4 t) b 2 b − a 2/4 v = −1/b . LAPLACE TRANSFORM 15 Suppose that the forcing function f (t) is a step input (applied at t=0) whose Laplace transform is simply 1/s. w = −a/b Case b − a 2 /4 < 0: In this case. we have u(s 2 + as + b) + vs 2 + ws = 1 Since the coefﬁcients of s 2 and s must be zero. for the particular solution we have x p (s) = In partial fraction expansion x p (s) = s(s 2 1 + as + b) u v w + + s s − σ1 s − σ2 The unknowns u. We will derive the particular solution as an illustration to the partial fraction expansion methodology. They are given by σ1 = −a/2 + a 2 /4 − b σ2 = −a/2 − a 2 /4 − b Solution to the homogenous problem is simply x h (s) = or.2.4. we have u = 1/b . we have two distinct real roots to the equation s 2 + as + b = 0. v and w are determined from the following equation u(s 2 + as + b) + vs 2 − vsσ2 + ws 2 − wsσ1 = 1 . The particular solution to the non-homogenous problem is x p (s) = The right-hand term can be decomposed into s(s 2 1 u vs + w = + 2 + as + b) s s + as + b 1 s(s 2 + as + b) with unknowns u. v and w. and that ub = 1. x h (t) = x(0− ) + (s + a)x(0− ) ˙ (s − σ1 )(s − σ2 ) x(0−) + (σ1 + a)x (0− ) σ1 t x(0− ) + (σ2 + a)x(0− ) σ2t ˙ ˙ e + e σ1 − σ2 σ2 − σ1 Similarly. Expanding and matching the numerator term.

Similarly. in the time domain x p (t) = 1 1 1 − 2 eσ1 t + te σ1t H (t) 2 σ1 σ1 σ1 InMATLAB. where the arguments NUM and DEN are arrays containing coefﬁcients of the numerator and denominator polynomials in s arranged in descending powers of s. v= . LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES For the coefﬁcients of s 2 and s to vanish we must have u + v + w = 0 and ua − vσ2 − wσ1 = 0 with ub = 1. Hence.5 Stability Dynamicstability ischaracterizedbythe responseofasystem tononzeroinitialconditions. 2. v=− 2 . For a second-order system x + a x + bx = 0. if a < 0 the response would tend to blow up. for the particular solution we have x p (s) = s(s 2 1 u v w = + + + as + b) s s − σ1 (s − σ1 )2 x(0− ) + (s + a)x(0− ) ˙ (s − σ1 )2 a 2 x h (t) = x(0− )te σ1 t + x(0− )(1 − σ1 t)eσ1 t ˙ For the coefﬁcients of s 2 and s to vanish we must have u + v = 0 and −2σ1 u − σ1 v + w = 0 with u = 1/b. w= b σ1 σ2 σ1 (σ1 − σ2 ) σ2 (σ2 − σ1 ) Hence. 1 1 1 u= 2 .U. For a ﬁrst-order system x + ax = 0 and x (0− ) = x o . Initialconditions are equivalent to an impulsive forcing function (i. we have the homogeneous solution x(t) = x o e−at . w= σ1 σ1 σ1 Or. On the other hand. ˙ It is simple to imagine that for a > 0.e.timeresponsesofasystemcanbeobtainedfromtheirLaplacetransformsdirectly. Response of the outputs to an input U deﬁned over the time points T can be obtained using the command Y = lsim(NUM. Thus.T).DEN. the time-domain solution is x p (t) = 1 1 1 + eσ1 t + eσ2 t H (t) σ1 σ2 σ1 (σ1 − σ2 ) σ2 (σ2 − σ1 ) where H (t) corresponds to the Heaviside (step) function at t = 0. we have solutions of the form ¨ ˙ . Dirac delta function u(t) = δ(t)). we have 1 1 1 1 u= = . the response x(t ) to initial conditions x o would tend toward zero (thus stable) as t → ∞.16 CHAPTER 2. Case a 2 /4 = b: This case is similar to the previous case where σ2 = σ1 = − Solution to the homogenous problem is simply x h (s) = or.

EXAMPLE • When a 2 /4 < b. y (0− ) = 0 and y (0− ) = 0.1 Laplace method Taking the Laplace transform on the differential equation. y (0−) = y (0− ) = 0. then one has a neutrally stable system.1) with initial conditions y(0− ) = 7.6 Example Consider the following ordinary differential equation d 3 y(t) d 2 y(t) dy (t) +5 + 17 + 13y(t) = 13u(t) dt 3 dt 2 dt (2.2 becomes ˙ ¨ s 3 + 5s 2 + 17s + 13 y(s) − s 2 + 5s + 17 y(0−) = 13u(s) or. we obtain s 3 y(s) − s 2 y(0− ) − s y (0− ) − y (0− ) + 5 s 2 y(s) − sy (0− ) − y (0− ) + ˙ ¨ ˙ 17 sy (s) − y(0− ) + 13y(s) = 13u(s) With y(0− ) = 7. Solve for the time response y(t) when ˙ ¨ u(t) = δ(t) (impulse function or Dirac delta function).6. 2. the solution will blow up as t → ∞. both terms σ1 and σ2 must be less than or equal to zero. Otherwise. 17 x(t) = eσ t [usin ωt + vcosωt] x(t) = ue σ1 t + ve σ2 t x(t) = ue σ t + vte σ t In any case. For σ equal to zero.4) (2.6.2. the argument σ in the exponential function eσ t term must be less than or equal to zero. equation 2.2) . In the case of a 2/4 > b. solving for y(s) we have y(s) = s 2 + 5s + 17 13 y(0− ) + 3 u(s) 3 + 5s 2 + 17s + 13 2 + 17s + 13 s s + 5s (2. • When a 2 /4 = b. • When a 2 /4 > b. We can solve the problem using three methods: • Laplace method • Time-domain method involving the matrix exponential • Numerical integration method (via MATLAB) 2.3) (2.

10) (2.6)(cos3t − jsin 3t) y(t) = 10. x 2 (t) = y (t) and x 3 (t) = y (t).1 can be re-written as x3 (t) + 5x 3 (t) + 17x2 + 13x1 (t ) = 13u(t) ˙ (2.10-2.9) (2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES For a unit impulse input u(t) = δ(t) or u(s) = 1 and y(0− ) = 7.7 + j 0. we have y(s) = where R1 = R2 = R3 = (2.6) s=−1 7s 2 + 35s + 132 (s + 1) (s + 2 + j3) 7s 2 s=−2+ j3 + 35s + 132 (s + 1) (s + 2 − j3) s=−2− j3 ¯ = −1. then clearly ˙ ¨ x 1 (t) = x2 (t) = y (t) ˙ ˙ x 2 (t) = x3 (t) = y (t) ˙ ¨ and equation 2.6)(cos3t + jsin 3t ) + (−1. we have y(t) = 10.12) (2.2 Time-domain method Let’s deﬁne x 1(t) = y(t).11) Combining equations 2.5.6 = R2 ¯ where R2 is the complex conjugate of R2 .7) 2.8) (2. Taking the inverse Laplace tranform on equation 2.13) .6sin 3t) (2.7cos3t + 0.4 = −1.4 becomes y(s) = = s3 s 2 + 5s + 17 13 7+ 3 1 + 5s 2 + 17s + 13 s + 5s 2 + 17s + 13 (2.6.7 − j0. x 1 (t) ˙ 0 1 x 2 (t) = 0 ˙ 0 x 3 (t) ˙ −13 −17 0 x1 (t ) 0 1 x2 (t ) + 0 u(t) −5 x3 (t ) 13 (2.6.4e−t + e−2t (−1.5) 7s 2 + 35s + 132 (s + 1) (s + 2)2 + 32 R1 R2 R3 + + s + 1 s + 2 − j3 s + 2 + j 3 7s 2 + 35s + 132 (s + 2)2 + 32 = 10. we have ¯ y(t) = R1 e−t + R2 e(−2+ j3)t + R2 e (−2− j3)t or since ea+ jb = e a (cosb + jsinb ).7 + j0.12 into a set of three ﬁrst-order differential equations which can be expressed in a matrix equation.6 Performing the partial fraction expansion on equation 2.18 CHAPTER 2.7 − j0. equation 2.4e−t + 2e−2t (−1.

x 2(0−) = y (0−) and x3 (0− ) = y (0− ).2.17) 7 0 Since x o = 0 .13 can be written in a concise form as x(t) ˙ = Ax (t) + Bu (t) x(0− ) = x o where x1 (t) x2 (t) x(t) = x3 (t) 19 (2. we have 0 0 x(t) = e −13 or 1 0 0 1 t 7 0 −17 −5 0 + 0 0 13 0 1 t 7 −5 0 13 (2. Namely.19) . EXAMPLE with initial conditions x 1 (0− ) = y(0− ).13 is obtained using the method of linear superposition and convolution (Duhamel) integral.18) 0 1 0 0 −13 −17 x (t) = e (2. ˙ ¨ Equation 2.14) 0 1 0 0 A= 0 1 −13 −17 −5 0 B= 0 13 Solution of equation 2.15 becomes x(t) = e At xo + or t 0− t 0− y(0− ) xo = y (0− ) ˙ y (0− ) ¨ e A(t−τ ) Bu (τ )dτ (2. x(t) = e At x o + Since u(t) = δ(t) equation 2.16) x(t) = e At xo + e At B = e At (xo + B) (2.15) e A(t−τ) Bδ(τ )dτ (2.6.

ytemp']. %Using the Laplace method t=[0:.6.* (-1. for i=1:length(t) ti=t(i).B. %Using the state-space method A=[0.y.m]=size(t).y) Below is a complete listing of the m-ﬁle for this example problem.t.D. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES 2.C.3 Numerical integration method (via MATLAB) In MATLAB. yexp=[yexp.0].0.13].20) for a given initial condition x(0− ) = xo and an input function u(t) deﬁned in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ tmax .t.y.20.D.0.xo) plot(t.B.6*sin(3*t)). y=10.u.4*exp(-t)+2*exp(-2*t) .xoplus). %Solution from the exponential matrix yexp=[]. %Plot the responses for comparison plot(t. More precisely.0.'o'. we can use the following set of MATLAB codes to perform the time responses of y(t) for the linear system described in equation 2. ytemp= expm(A*ti)*(xo+B). u=ones(t) for a step input) y=lsim(A. B=[0. end %MATLAB command for solving time responses %For an impulse input the new initial condition becomes x(o+)=x(0-)+b % and the input u(t)=0 for t>0+ xoplus=xo+B.g. u= "some function of t" (e.1.20 CHAPTER 2..1:tmax].t.-5].0]. the command lsim would perform numerical integration on the linear system x(t) = Ax (t) + Bu (t) ˙ y(t) = Cx (t) + Du(t) (2.'o'.1:5].1.C. C=[1.7*cos(3*t)+0.0. ysim=lsim(A.u.0.-13.0.yexp) grid xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('y(t)') title('Exponential matrix method') pause %Plot the responses for comparison plot(t. D=0.ysim) grid .m). xo=[7. u=zeros(n.-17.t. [n. t=[0:.

EXAMPLE xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('y(t)') title('Laplace method') 21 .2.6.

22 CHAPTER 2. LINEAR ALGEBRA AND MATRICES .

we will only examine the fundamental behaviour of ﬂight vehicle and its inherent ﬂight characteristics without the inﬂuence of artiﬁcial feedback control. then some of these requirements must subsequently be met by the use of stability augmentation systems. The evaluation of static stability involves purely static (i. directionally and laterally stable for airworthiness and minimal pilot workload. the ball will oscillate back and forth about the equilibrium pointandthereforewillnever reachtheequilibriumstate. The decision is based according to the requirements deﬁned in FAR Part 23 which states that “the airplanemust besafely controllableand maneuverableduring — (1)take off. 23 . Totreatthisproblemconcerningthedynamic behaviour of this ball rolling on a curved surface. in staticstability analysisthereisnomentionon how andwhen theballwillreturntoitsequilibriumpoint. Conditions for stability are governedby the directionof the forces andmoments thatwill restorethevehicletothe originaltrim states.1 shows the three possible cases of static stability. elevator.1 (a) component of the gravity force tangential to the surface will bring the ball back to its original equilibrium point.. For example. aileron and rudder). Clearly. trim point) when disturbed. static and dynamic stability analysis plays a signiﬁcant role in the determination of the ﬁnal airplane design conﬁguration. from these illustrations. In Figure 3.e.g. In the present course. (4)dive. without the beneﬁt of friction. The topic of feedback synthesis of ﬂight control systems for stability augmentation and autopilot designs is the subject of AA-517 and a continuation in AA-518. steady-state) equations from force and moment balance applied to a vehicle disturbed from its equilibrium. (2)climb. one will need to ﬁrst develop its equation of motion and then analyze the stability of its motion when released from a perturbed position. There are basically two types of stability: • Static stability refers to the tendency of an airplane under static conditions to return to its trimmed condition. The airplane must be longitudinally. This requires careful design of a control system that feedbacks sensed aircraft motion variables to the appropriate control surfaces (e. Clearly we assume that there exists an equilibrium point about which static stability is investigated.g. If the airplane turns out to have undesireable ﬂying qualities.Chapter 3 Principles of Static and Dynamic Stability In most design situation. Figure 3. we determine stability from the direction of the restoring force. The general notion of stability refers to the tendency of the vehicle to return to its original state of equilibrium (e. Stability of the ball in motion is then determined by the phenomena of dynamic stability. off)(with wingﬂapsextendedandretracted)” Stability of such a vehicle is also a major consideration in selecting a particular design conﬁguration. However. and(5)landing(poweron. (3)levelﬂight.

1: Three Possible Cases of Static Stability • Dynamicstability isgovernedbythefactthevehiclewillreturntoitsoriginalequilibriumconditionafter some interval of time. PRINCIPLES OF STATICAND DYNAMIC STABILITY (a) Statically Stable (b) Statically Unstable (c) Neutrally Stable Figure 3. Detailed study of dynamic stability of a ﬂight vehicle will be performed following the development of the general equations of motion of a rigid-body airplane in Chapter 7. As discussed in the previous section.24 CHAPTER 3. . analysis of dynamic stability would entail a complete modeling of the vehicle dynamics and its responses when perturbed from the equilibrium state. unstable andneutrally stablesystem.2 shows typicalresponsesof a dynamicallystable. It is important to observe from the above examples that a dynamically stable airplane must always be statically stable. On the other hand. Figure3. a statically stable airplane is not necessary dynamically stable.

25 θo aperiodic response θo damped oscillation Time (a) Dynamically Stable θo constant θo Time undamped oscillation Time Time (b) Dynamically Neutrally Stable aperiodic divergence θo θo divergent oscillation Time (c) Dynamically Unstable Figure 3.2: Three Possible Cases of Dynamic Stability Time .

26 CHAPTER 3. PRINCIPLES OF STATICAND DYNAMIC STABILITY .

. y and z directions are (u. trimmed) airplane will have zero moment about its center of gravity. c is the mean aerodynamic chord and q∞ is the dynamic pressure corresponding to the freestream velocity V∞ . Z) while the respective moment components are (L .2 Stick-Fixed Stability The forces and moments of a wing-tail conﬁguration is shown in Figure 4. the controls (e. canard. elevator. w) respectively. the 27 .3. This point is convenient for the derivation of the moment equation since it isolates out the part that is independent of the angle of attack. The basic airplane consists simply of a wing and tail conﬁguration only. y. the y displacement has a positive direction to the right-wing directionwhile the z displacementis pointedpositively downward.. Therespective componentsofthe aircraft velocity V in the x. This simple conﬁguration will illustrate well the basic fundamentals in stability and control analysis.1) such as moments contributed by the wing. The aerodynamic center for the wing is deﬁned as the point about which the moment Mac (or its moment coefﬁcient C M.1 Notations and Sign Conventions Hereweintroducethecommonlyusednotationsfordisplacements. Y. The total moment coefﬁcient about the center of gravity is deﬁned as C Mcg = Mcg qSc (4.. The origin of the axis system deﬁned by the x . by deﬁnition.1) where S is the wing planform area.forcesandmomentsinstability.ac ) is independent of the angle of attack. Note that the gravity force does not contribute any moment to the airplane since it is.e.Chapter 4 Static Longitudinal Stability A study of airplane stability andcontrol is primarily focused on momentsabout the airplane center of gravity. aileron. Without loss of generality. Note that all the forces and moments are assumed to apply at the center of gravity. 4. The x displacement has a positive forward direction. the engine propulsion. z-coordinates is assumed ﬁxed to the center of gravity of the airplane (see Figure 4. A balanced (i. N ).2). applied at the center of gravity. The total force F applied to the airplane has components (X. etc.g. We will examine a simple airplane conﬁguration in our analysis of longitudinal static stability. the fuselage. v. control and ﬂight mechanics. It will move and rotate with the aircraft. rudder. There are numerous places where moments can be generated in an airplane (Figure 4. M..velocities.) and the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces. 4.

28 CHAPTER 4.g. q.w c Lt Dt Mac .3: Forces and Moments Applied to a Wing-Tail Conﬁguration .u.Y r.v. zw Dw M ac .w.M y.1: Moments about the Center of Gravity of the Airplane T cg Dtail c.2: Deﬁnition of Aircraft Variables in Flight Mechanics h ac.N z.L Figure 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY L wing L tail My Dwing aerodynamic center W Figure 4.Z x.t c lt hc h ac.X p.w zero-lift line αw wing V Lw Figure 4.g.t ε it V W zt c.

t qt q d dα αw α αw (4. Mac.5) (4. Then equations (4. Note that in our development.w = qScC Mac.e. the tail is shown to have a positive incidence angle.4) and Mac. according to the right-hand rule). the angle of attack is reduced by an angle due to the downwash at the wing.6) = qt St ct C Mac. we deﬁne the following ηt = = = o (4.t Furthermore. In the longitudinal axis. we have Fz = W − (L w cosαw + Dw sin αw ) − [L t cos(αw − ) + Dt sin (αw − )] = 0 and My = Mac.2) and (4. we adopt the same standard convention for all angle deﬁnitions (i. STICK-FIXED STABILITY 29 horizontal axis is assumed to coincide with the zero-lift line of the wing.7) (4.w + (L w cosαw + Dw sin αw )(hc − h ac.2) (4.3) Let’sintroducethefollowingdeﬁnitionsfornon-dimensionalforcesandmomentsatthewingandtailsurfaces.t − [L t + Dt (αw − )]lt + [L t (αw − ) − Dt ]z t = 0 Lw = qS dC Lw αw dα = qSa w αw (4. Relative to this reference line.w Lt = qt St C L t = qt St dC Lt αt dα = qt St dC Lt (i t + αw − ) dα = qt St at (it + αw − ) Mac. one can usually assume that the angle of attack αw is small and use the following approximations for cosαw ∼ 1 and sin αw ∼ αw where αw is in radians.w )c + (L w αw − Dw )z w + Mac.3) = = become W = (L w + Dw αw ) + [L t + Dt (αw − )] (4. The angle of attack of the wing with respect to the zero-lift line is deﬁned as αw . The airplane is in equilibrium when sums of all the forces and moments about the center of gravity are zero.4.w c) + (L w sin αw − Dw cosαw )zw + Mac.8) + o+ .t − [L t cos(αw − ) + Dt sin (αw − )]lt + [L t sin (αw − ) − Dt cos(αw − )]z t = 0 To simplify our analysis.2.w + (L w + Dw αw )(h − h ac. At the tail.

Both o and α are obtained from wind tunnel data. Sc Referring to Figure 4.30 CHAPTER 4. this can be greater or less than unity depending on whether the tail is in the wake of the propulsion system or not.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − α ) + C Mα fus (4.t − qqSclt at (i t + αw − ) + C Mα fus αw t St = C Mac. Further simpliﬁcation can be obtained using the fact that Dw αw L w .t − ηt VH at (i t − o ) = (h − h ac.5) simplify to zt = CL W = qS = aw αw + ηt St at (i t + αw − ) S = C L o + C L α αw = C L α (αw − αw. Dt (αw − ) L t .9) where CLo CLα and C Mcg = ηt St at (i t − o ) S = aw + ηt St at (1 − S α) (4.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − α ) + C Mα fus }αw = C M o + C M α αw (4.10) t St t St = C Mac. Equations (4. one can see that there are two possible cases for an equilibrium to exist.11) where C Mo C Mα t St = C Mac. Recall thatinequilibrium.4.12) = dC M dC L C L α C Mα fus identiﬁes the contribution of the fuselage to the pitchingmoment (it is generally negligeable C Mα fus ≈ 0). .w + aw αw (h − h ac.4) and (4.t − ηt VH at (it − o ) + {(h − h ac.w + qqScct C Mac. And the variable ηt is simply the ratio of dynamic pressure at the tail to the freestream dynamic pressure.zerolift ) (4. and VH = St lt isthehorizontaltailvolumecoefﬁcient. z w ∼ 0 and = ∼ 0.4: Moment Coefﬁcient C Mcg versus α where o is the downwash angle when the wing is at zero lift. namely.wemusthave C Mcg = 0.w + qqScct C Mac. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY CM C M >0 o CM < 0 α uns tabl e 0 C M <0 o CM > 0 α stab le α Figure 4.w ) + qqScct C Mac.

4.2. STICK-FIXED STABILITY

31

1. C Mo > 0 and C Mα < 0: This case corresponds to a statically stable equilibrium point since for any small change in the angle of attack, a restoring momentis generated to bring it back to the equilibrium. 2. C Mo < 0 and C Mα > 0: This case corresponds to a statically unstable equilibrium point since the moment created due to any change in angle of attack will tend to increase it further. There exists a location of the center of gravity, i.e. when h = h n , where the coefﬁcient C Mα = 0. Recall that VH = St lt (Tail volume coefﬁcient) and lt = (h ac,t − h)c, then equation (4.12) becomes, with h substituted Sc by h n , St (h n − h ac,w )aw − ηt (h ac,t − h n ) at (1 − α ) + C Mα fus = 0 (4.13) S or St St [aw + ηt at (1 − α )]h n = h ac,w aw + ηt at (1 − α )h ac,t − C Mα fus (4.14) S S Let’s examine the total lift on the wing-tail conﬁguration, it is given by L = Lw + Lt = qSa w αw + qt St at (i t + αw − ) = qSa w αw + qt St at {i t − o + αw (1 − or the total lift coefﬁcient C L is CL = ηt St at (i t − o ) + [aw + ηt St at (1 − S S = C L o + C L α αw St at (1 − S

α )]αw

(4.15)

α )}

(4.16)

**Thus, the combined lift curve slope is C L α = aw + η t
**

α)

(4.17)

**From the above deﬁnition of C L α , equation (4.14) is simpliﬁed to the following C L α h n = h ac,w aw + (C L α − aw )h ac,t − C Mα fus or the neutral point h n is given by hn = or h n = h ac,t −
**

aw CLα

(4.18)

h ac,w + [

C Lα aw C Lα aw

− 1]h ac,t

−

C Mα fus CLα

C Mα fus CLα

(4.19)

(h ac,t − h ac,w ) −

From the above, it can be easily shown that C Mα = C L α (h − h n ) (4.20)

Note that C L α > 0, thus C Mα < 0 if (h − h n ) < 0 or, the center of gravity must be ahead of the neutral point. The other condition C Mo > 0, where C Mo is deﬁned in equation (4.12), will be satisﬁed if the tail incidence angle i t is negative. The quantity (h n − h) is called the static margin. It represents the distance (expressed as a fraction of the mean aerodynamic chord) that the center of gravity is ahead of the neutral point. Roughly, a desireable static margin of at least 5% is recommended. For airplane with relaxed static stability, the static margin is negative. A stability augmentation system (SAS) is needed to ﬂy these vehicle.

32

CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY

Example 1

Given a light airplane with the following design parameters, • Wing area Sw = 160.0 f t 2 , Wing span bw = 30 f t, • Horizontal tail area St = 24.4 f t 2 , Tail span bt = 10 f t, • h ac,t = 2.78 • Wing with 652 − 415 type airfoil, C Mac,w = −0.07 , h ac,w = 0.27, • ηt ∼ 1 and =

α

∼ 0.447. = A A + [2( A + 4)/(A + 2)]

The lift curve slopes at the wing and tail are obtained from the following empirical equation, a3D = a2D (4.21)

where A = b2 /S is the aspect ratio of the surface and no sweep. Thus, with a2D = 2π per radians = 0.106 per degrees, we have aw = 0.0731per degrees (4.22) at = 0.0642per degrees The total lift curve slope according to equation (4.17) is C L α = 0.0785 per degrees, and the neutral point is at h n = 0.443. Then C Mα = 0.0785(h − 0.443) (4.23)

**Calculation of C Mac , Aerodynamic Center Location and Mean Aerodynamic Chord (mac) for a Finite Wing
**

Consider a ﬁnite wing shown in Figure 4.5. The locus of the section aerodynamic centers deﬁnes the swept back angle . The pitching moment about a line through the point A and normal to the chord line is given by

b/2

MA = q

−b/2

c 2C m ac dy − q

b/2 −b/2

cCl y tan dy

(4.24)

Then if X A is the distance of the aerodynamic center behind the point A, then Mac = M A + LX A or XA c ¯ with respect to α and using the deﬁnition of an aerodynamic center yields C Mac = C M A + C L 0= dC M A XA + CLα dα c ¯ dC m ac =0 dα (4.25)

(4.26)

Differentiating C Mac

(4.27)

Substituting equation (4.24) into the above equation and using the fact that (4.28)

4.2. STICK-FIXED STABILITY

33

b 2 y 0

ct

Λ • V co Α

b −2

dMac

dL ytanΛ

**Figure 4.5: Calculation of Wing Aerodynamic Center we obtain from equation (4.27), XA = 1 CLα S
**

b/2 −b/2

cC lα y tan dy

(4.29)

**If we assume that Clα is constant across the wing span, then we have XA = or XA = y ¯
**

b/2 cydy 0

S/2

C lα tan CLα

(4.30)

C lα tan CLα

(4.31)

where y is the spanwise distance from the centerline out to the centroid of the half-wing area. As a special ¯ case, for a linearly tapered wing, equation (4.31) becomes XA = (1 + 2λ) Clα b tan (1 + λ) C L α 6 (4.32)

ct where λ = co is the wing taper ratio. The mean aerodynamic chord c of a ﬁnite wing is deﬁned as the chord ¯ length that, when multiplied by the wing area S, the dynamic pressure q, and an average C Mac , gives the total moment about the wing’s aerodynamic center. Namely,

**Mac = qS cC Mac ¯ Combining the above equation with equation (4.24), we have
**

b/2

(4.33)

qS cC Mac = q ¯

−b/2

c2 Cm ac dy

(4.34)

Thus, if the wing is straight and has constant airfoil cross section (i.e. C m ac is constant across the wing span), then we have c = c. However, if c is not constant (e.g in a tapered wing) and we assume that C Mac = Cm ac ¯ and Cl are constant across the wing span, then the mean aerodynamic chord c is simply, ¯ c= ¯ 1 S

b/2 −b/2

c2 dy

(4.35)

theproblemisalleviatedwith theuseofpowerassistedcontrolsand seldom there are unassisted control linkages between the pilot controls and the respective control surfaces.36) 4. stabilizer-elevator). Let’s examine the two basic conﬁgurations of horizontal tail surfaces: stabilizer-elevator and stabilator as shown in Figure 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY Hinge • ce c δe (a) Stabilizer-Elevator Configuration Hinge it + + + δe (b) Stabilator Configuration Figure 4.e. It turns out that the effect of freeing the control surface amounts to a reduction in static stability in a certain conﬁguration (e. He Ch e = (4. As an example. it would still be necessary for small-size airplanes to investigate the issue of stick-free stability. Nevertheless.g. for a linear tapered wing. we have ¯ c= ¯ where co is the midspan chord (Figure 4. This may not be desireable for long duration ﬂight. i.6 . Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration Let’s consider the moment He about the hinge line of the elevator and the corresponding elevator hinge moment coefﬁcient Ch e deﬁned as.5). Of course.3 Stick-Free Stability Wehaveseenintheprevioussectionthekeyelementsinstaticstabilityanalysisforastick-ﬁxedconﬁguration. It was assumed that the position of the tail or elevator surface has been ﬁxed by the pilot holding onto the control stick. nowadays for highperformanceandlarge-sizeairplane.6: Horizontal Tail Conﬁgurations This integral deﬁnition of c is used for any planform. to holdthe surfaceintrimmedposition the pilotmust exert aconstant force dueto anonzero moment at the elevator hinge.37) 1/2ρV 2 Se ce .34 CHAPTER 4. 2co 1 + λ + λ2 3 1+λ (4.

STICK-FREE STABILITY 35 The elevator hinge moment coefﬁcient Ch e is found to be a function of the tail angle of attack αt and of the elevator deﬂection δe . one can write C he = ∂Ch e ∂Ch e αt + δe ∂αt ∂δe (4.45) The lift curve slope for a stick-free case is always less than that of a stick-ﬁxed case.46) fus . As an approximation. Namely. the neutral point h n is given by h n free = h ac.40) However. Withtheconventionthatapositiveelevatordeﬂection is down.42) ∂Ch e ∂αt ∂Ch e ∂δe = 1−τ (4.t ∂αt = = τ at ∂δe ∂αt ∂δe (4.e.4. Stability analysis for the stick-free case proceeds exactly as in the stick-ﬁxed case.44) and at is the lift-curve slope of the tail. since for a stick-free case.39) This equation allows us to solve for δe free in terms of the angle of attack at the tail αt .6) is then modiﬁed to include the effect of a free elevator as follows. Ch e = 0 = ∂C he ∂C he αt + δe ∂αt ∂δe free (4.3.w + [ C L α free aw C L α free aw − 1]h ac. the free elevator will reach an equilibrium position when its hinge moment is zero for any tail angle of attack αt . The tail lift coefﬁcient derived from equation (4.38) where ∂C he /∂αt and ∂Ch e /∂δe are assumed constant and determined empirically (i. equation (4. Clearly. these derivative coefﬁcients are usually negative thus producing a negative hinge moment for any positive change in either αt or δe . δe = δe free .17) by Fe at . The results are obtained simply by substituting at in equation (4.40) becomes CLt or C L t = Fe at αt where 1 ∂C L t Fe = 1 − at ∂δe ∂Ch e ∂αt ∂Ch e ∂δe ∂C L t = a t αt − ∂δe ∂C h e ∂αt ∂C h e ∂δe αt (4. From the above result for C L α free .t − C Mα CLα (4. and it is usually less than unity. they vary with the conﬁgurationoftheplanformofthestabilizer-elevator). C L t = at αt + ∂C L t δe ∂δe (4.43) where τ = ∂αt is the elevator effectiveness (see Figure 5-33 on page 250 of Perkins & Hage) in ∂δe ∂C L . The variable Fe is called the free elevator factor. Let’s denote this angle as δe free which is determined by setting Ch e equal to zero.41) (4. C L α free = aw + ηt St Fe at (1 − S α) < C L α fixed (4.t ∂C L .

hence the stick-free case is less statically stable than the stick-ﬁxed case for a given center of gravity position.80 (4. it can be easily shown that C Mα free = C L α free (h − h n free ) (4.t − h ac.616 per radians. The hinge moment at the horizontal tail is given by ∂Ch t ∂Ch t Ch t = αt + δe (4.68δe (where αt and δe are in radians) ∂C with an elevator control effectiveness ∂δL t of 1.47) fus Notice that since C L α free < C L α fixed .48) Example 2 Using results from Example 1 and assuming that Ch e = −0.78 − 0.0731per deg (2.78 − 0.0642per deg 57.0744(h − 0.443 0. we deduce that the neutral point for a stick-free case is ahead of the neutral point of a stick-ﬁxed case (i.36 or h n free = h ac.50) 1 ∂C L t ∂Ch e /∂αt at ∂δe ∂Ch e /∂ δe 1.616per rad (−0.49) The neutral point is at h n free = 2.0774per deg (4.4094 < h n fixed = 0. the elevator deﬂection is mechanically linked to the horizontal stabilator deﬂection as follows. h n free < h n fixed ).31) 1 0. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY (h ac. Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration With this conﬁguration.3deg /rad (−0.52) The deﬂection δo is used to provide zero stick force at trim.51) Then C Mα free = 0.80 × 0.w ) − C Mα CLα (4.0731per deg + 1 × 24.68) = 0.t − aw C L α free CHAPTER 4.6)). Then e Fe = 1 − = 1− The lift curve slope C L α is given by C L α free = aw + ηt St Fe at (1 − α ) S = 0.53) ∂αt ∂δe Recall that the tail angle of attack αt in a wing-tail conﬁguration is given by αt = it + αw − (as in equation (4. Thus the ﬂoating incidence angle it at the horizontal stabilator is obtained by letting Ch t = 0.4 0.0774per deg < C L α fixed = 0.0642per deg(1 − 0.54) . Ch t = 0 = ∂Ch t ∂C ht (i t + αw − ) + (k e i t + δo ) ∂αt ∂δe (4.447) 160 = 0. From the above. δe = k e i t + δo (4.0785per deg (4.4094).31αt − 0.e.27) = 0.

5o . C L t = at αt + ∂C L t δe ∂δe (4.016 + 0. If the lift coefﬁcient is C L wb = 0. The center of gravity is located at hc = 0.52.5) (4.wb = −0.52 at α = 5o ) one can deduce the lift curve slope (as a linear approximation) awb as follows.55) −1 + ∂C h t ∂δe k e (4.wb + C L wb (h − h ac.08per deg ∂α 5 − (−1.016. Knowing the lift coefﬁcients at different angles of attack (C L wb = 0 at α = −1. C L t = at (i t + αw − ) + C L t = Fe at (1 − where Fe = 1 + (1 + and G e = (at + ∂C L t (k e i t + δo ) ∂δe + G e δo (4. what is the moment coefﬁcient about the center of gravity? Note that C Mcg. Determine the location of the aerodynamic center and the moment coefﬁcient about the aerodynamic center C Mac. Also at α = 1.61) Note that in this case.016.wb = −0.wb = −0.05.wb = C Mac.05) = 0.05.35c.60) α )αw 1 ∂C L t ∂C ht k e )Be at ∂δe ∂αt ∂C L t ∂C ht ∂C L t k e )Be + ∂δe ∂αt ∂δe (4. hence resultingin an improvement on static margin for the stabilator conﬁguration.57) After some simple algebra that proceeds roughly along the following line. the aerodynamic center lies 0.01 and 0.45. Example 3:[Anderson] For a wing-body combination.52 − 0 = = 0.56) With the above tail incidence angle expressed as a function of αw and δo . STICK-FREE STABILITY or i t = Be { where the constant Be is deﬁned as Be = ∂Ch t ∂αt 37 ∂C ht (1 − ∂αt ∂C ht δo } ∂δe α )αw + (4.0065. Example 4:[Anderson] A wing-body model is tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. The lift is found to be zero at a geometric angle of attack α = −1.59) (4. one can then determine the corresponding tail lift coefﬁcient as follows. Thus.wb ) where h − h ac.3. awb = ∂C L wb 0. The moment coefﬁcient about the aerodynamic center is C Mac.58) (4.45 and C Mac.88o .4. the moment coefﬁcients about the center of gravity are measured as −0.05c ahead of the center of gravity.0o and 7.wb . At α = 5o . the lift coefﬁcient is measured as 0.62) .45(0.wb = 0. C L wb = 0. the free elevatorfactor Fe can be greater than unity. respectively.5o and C L wb = 0. C Mcg.

64) (4.5)(h − h ac.wb ).wb and (h − h ac.12) and from which we derive the equilibrium angle of attack. The distance of the airplane center of gravity to the tail’s aerodynamic center is lt = 0.11(0.wb ) as C Mac.wb + 0. we examine C Mα as given in equation (4.38o and (h − h ac.38 CHAPTER 4.032 − 1(0.wb ) the following two linear equations in two unknowns C Mac.1 per degrees.35. respectively.08) − 1(0.wb + awb αwb (h − h ac.64). C Mo = C Mac.wb and (h − h ac.17m.67) (4.065 (4. From equation (4.24.7 − 0) + {0.wb ) = 0.05 = C Mac.11).1m 2 and c = 0.1)(1 − 0.70) α) = 1 (assumed ) = St lt = 0.02(0.11(0. the tail lift slope is at = 0.11 (4. Now assume that a horizontal tail is added to the model.11.69) Is the model longitudinally balanced? To ﬁnd out we need to determine C Mo (deﬁned in equation (4.032. (h − h ac.w + qt St ct C Mac.w + qt St c t C Mac. Since h = 0.032.wb ) From equations (4. −0.63) Example 5:[Anderson] Consider the wing-body model in Example 4 above.38 = −0.01 = C Mac.5)(h − h ac.88o + 1. and from experimental measurement o = 0o ∂ and ∂α = α = 0. From previous example.1) (4.08(7. If α = 7.5o = 9.t − ηt VH at (i t − qSc o) (4.34)(0.wb + 0.08(1 + 1.88 + 1.35 − 0. the tail-setting angle is it = −2.68) For longitudinal static stability. αw = 7. The area and chord of the wing are S = 0. C Mα = (h − h ac. one obtains from C Mcg. Furthermore ηt VH Thus C Mcg = −0.08.71) .wb = C Mac.wb = −0.wb = 0.t = 0.88o .1(0.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − α )}αw (4.34)(0.17) = 0. then h ac. we have C Mcg = C Mac.35)}9.w ) = 0.12). the tail area is St = 0.08) − 1(0.1)(1 − 0. we can solve for C Mac.35) = −0.wb ) 0.1)(−2.wb = −0.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − or C Mα = 0.1m.34)(0.34 SC 0.35.0133 < 0(Statically stable) (4. aw = 0.11 = 0. what is the moment coefﬁcient C Mcg for this airplane model? Does this airplane have longitudinal static stability and balance? Find the neutral point.66) We further assume that the tail has a symmetric airfoil shape where C Mac.02m 2 .65) (4.t − ηt VH at (i t − qSc o) + {(h − h ac. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY Measuring the moment coefﬁcients about the center of gravity at two different angles of attack and at the same time we know from previous calculation the lift curve slope. we have C Mac.7o .

02)/(0. this in effect places a positive increment in the tail incidence angle i t .74) = awb + ηt St at (1 − α ) S = 0.24 + [ 0.wb .wb as an increase in wing camber. • Theangleof wing-bodyzero-liftischanged tobemorenegative. hence the airplane can be balanced and at the same time it is also statically stable. • Change in the spanwise lift distribution at the wing leads to an increase in downwash at the tail.093 = h + lt /c = 0.0133) = 4. .0133)/(0.493 = (−0. i.143 (4.05 0. ∂ o and ∂α may increase.08 + 1(0.493 (4.17/0.4.1)(−2.032 − 1(0. hn = 0.093 0.1 = 2. Themain aerodynamic effects due to ﬂap deﬂections are: • Lowering the ﬂaps has the same effect on C Mo.35) = 0.1 Inﬂuence of Wing Flaps Changes in the wing ﬂaps affect both trim and stability.72) (4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY or C Mo = −0.35 − 0.08 Lα h ac. the equilibrium angle of attack is obtained by letting C Mcg = 0 in equation (4.76) One can veriﬁes the above result using equation (4.7 − 0) = 0.08 0.t Thus.05 = 0.73) This angle of attack is within reasonable limits.11).093) −0.4.20).0598)/(−0.4962o 39 (4.093 − 1]2.0598 Thus.143 = −0. That is producing a negative increment in C Mo.4.1)(1 − 0. or C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αequilibrium ⇒ αequilibrium = −C Mo /C Mα = −(0. The neutral point is given by equation (4.34)(0.19) as hn = where CLα h ac.e. Sincethe tailincidence i t ismeasured relative to the wing-body zero lift line.1)(0. 4.t C C Lα awb (4.35 + 0.4 Other Inﬂuences on the Longitudinal Stability 4.77) In the following we discuss some other effects that enter into our analysis of the longitudinal static stability.75) (4.wb + [ awb − 1]h ac. namely h − hn = C Mα /C L α 0.

its contribution to the moment about the center of gravity is independent of αw . Then we have C Mo = and C Mα = N prop S prop l p ∂C N p (1 − Sc ∂α α) T zp qS c (4. wing and aft fuselage.79) qS c qS c Since the thrust is directed along the propeller axis and rotates with the airplane. T zp Np lp C Mcg = + (4.8 is the propeller angular speed in rps . Another inﬂuence comes from the increase in ﬂow velocity induced by the propeller or the jet slipstream upon the tail.81) where the propeller normal force coefﬁcient ∂C N p /∂α and the downwash (or upwash) α are usually determined empirically (Figure 4.4.40 CHAPTER 4. . STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY Normal Propeller Force Np lp Thrust T αp V zp c.7: Forces on a Propeller 4. Notethat a propeller mountedaft of the c.78) where T is the thrust and N p is the propeller or inlet normal force due to turning of the air.g. Note that n in Figure 4. In terms of moment coefﬁcient.80) (4. This is one of the advantages of the pusher-propeller conﬁguration. isstabilizing.2 Inﬂuence of the Propulsive System The incremental pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity due to the propulsion system (Figure 4.g Figure 4.8).7) is Mcg = Tz p + N p l p (4. N prop is the number of propellers and S prop is the propeller disk area (= π D 2 /4) and D is the diameterof the propeller.

8: Propeller Normal Force Coefﬁcient C N pα = ∂C Nblade ∂α f (T ) .4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY 41 Figure 4.4.

31)). αt = αwb + i t − − kL t (4. Phenomena such as aileron reversal.83) . The empirical pitching moment factor K f is given in Figure 4. It can be seen that the angle of attack at the tail is reduced by the fuselage bending according to the following equation. wing divergence and reduction in static longitudinal stability fall under this category. The phenomenon that couples aerodynamics with structural deformations is studied under the subject of aeroelasticity. • Dynamic behaviour: The major problem of interest is associated with the phenomena of dynamic loading.82) where W f is the maximum width of the fuselage or nacelle and L f is the length.4. the effect of fuselage bending on the tail effectiveness. for example. Let’s study. 229. Equation (5. There are two types of analysis: • Static behaviour: Herethesteady-statedeformationsof thevehicle structureareinvestigated.9: K f as a Function of the Position of the Wing c/4 Root Chord 4. Figure 4. C Mα fuselage = K f W2L f f Sc (per degrees) (4.3 Inﬂuence of Fuselage and Nacelles The pitching moment contributions of the fuselage and nacelles can be approximated as follows (Perkins & Hage p.42 CHAPTER 4. STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY 4.4.9 (NACA TR 711). buffeting and ﬂutter.4 Effect of Airplane Flexibility Flexibility of an airframe under aerodynamic loads is evident in any ﬂight vehicle.

88) Thus the elevator effectiveness is reduced by the same factor 1/[1 + kηt qS t at ].86) Thus the tail effectiveness is reduced by a factor 1/[1 + kηt qS t at ] that decreases with increasing speed V in the dynamic pressure q.g.4.85) (4. at both power off and full power.5 Inﬂuence of Ground Effect When the airplane is near the ground to within 20% of the wing span.4. the wing and tail lift curve slope will increase by about 10%.4.reduced static stability). Similarly.e. which requires a greater elevator deﬂection to hold the nose up.87) ∂C L t ∂δe δe (4. location. 4. OTHER INFLUENCES ON THE LONGITUDINAL STABILITY The tail lift coefﬁcient (with δe = 0) is C L t = at αt = at (αwb + i t − − kL t ) or C L t = at (αwb + i t − − kq t St C L t ) Solving for C L t . we get CLt = at (αwb + i t − ) 1 + kηt qS t at 43 (4. The aircraft must have sufﬁcient elevator effectiveness to trim in ground effect with full ﬂaps and full forward c. the downwash is reduced to about half of the normal value. it can be shown that the elevator effectiveness is decreased due to fuselage bending since C L t = at (αwb + it − − kL t ) + or solving for C L t .84) (4. This decrease in the tail lift curve slope will cause the neutral point to move forward (i. . However. static stability is usually improved by the ground effect. we obtain CLt = at (αwb + i t − ) + 1 + kηt qS t at ∂C L t δe ∂δe (4. . At the same time.

STATICLONGITUDINAL STABILITY .44 CHAPTER 4.

e more negative). Now. by decreasing the slope C Mα (i. 5.1. The question is what are the controls that allow us to trim the airplane.2. say αt1 in Figure 5. Let’sexaminetheeffectofdeﬂectingtheelevatoronthetailliftcoefﬁcientcurve.2). Usingasignconvention of positive elevator deﬂection being downward (or using the right-hand rule for angle). Thus. being negative.Chapter 5 Static Longitudinal Control We have studied in Section 4 the concept of longitudinal stability of an airplane in trim. The lift curve slope remains unchanged. it is clear that a deﬂected elevator causes the lift curve to shift upward and to the left as shown in Figure 5.1 Longitudinal Trim Conditions with Elevator Control For a steady level ﬂight it is easily seen that the airplane velocity in trim is given by Vtrim = 2W ρSC L trim (5.4). i. It turns out that there are basically two ways to achieve a change in the trim angle of attack.12). The alternative is tochange the value of C Mo as indicatedin Figure5.1) Thus if the pilot wants to ﬂy at a lower velocity V < Vtrim . This principle is used extensively in modern hand gliding craft but it is clearly not practical for large ﬁxed wing airplanes. One possibility is to change the slope of the moment coefﬁcient curve as indicated in Figure 5. It would therefore be impossible to change speed if nothing else is changed about the airplane.1b. one can achieve a smaller trim angle of attack and hence one is able to ﬂy at a faster velocity. then an increase in elevator deﬂection would lead to an increase in tail lift along the vertical dashed line (Figure 5. then from equation (5. It will be shown below that by deﬂecting the elevatorin the horizontal tail one can translate the moment coefﬁcient curve upward and downward while without affecting its slope. The control concepts are illustrated in Figure 5.1).e C Mα . If we examine equation (4. if we assume that the tail is at a constant angle of attack αt . If we plot the tail lift coefﬁcient C L t as a function of δe when the tail is at a given tail angle of 45 . we must have C L trim (or the angle of attack) increased in order to offset the decrease in dynamic pressure. It was shown that static stability is primarily governedby the sign of the derivative of the moment coefﬁcient aboutthe airplane center of gravity with respect to the angle of attack. But increasing the angle of attack away from trim would generate for a statically stable airplane a negative pitching moment that tends to bring the angle of attack back to the original trim point (Figure 4. the only way to modify C Mα is to change the location of the airplane center of gravity that shows up in both the variables h and VH . All the above analysis relies on the fact that one can trim the airplane.1a.2 .

STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL CM CM o CM Shifting c. forward CM o Deflecting Elevator αnew (a) αe αt αnew (b) αe αt Figure 5.1: How to Change Airplane Trim Angle of Attack CL t δ e = 15o δ e = 10 o δ e = 5o δ e = 0o αt1 αt Figure 5.46 CHAPTER 5.g.2: Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Tail Angle of Attack .

6) So by deﬂecting the elevator one can shift the moment coefﬁcient curve downward by an amount C Mcg given in equation (5.11)forthepitchingmomentcoefﬁcientaboutthecenterofgravity. we have St c t ∂C L t C Mcg = C Mac. In the form of a ﬁrst-order Taylor series expansion. This conﬁrms the behaviour depicted in Figure 5. It can be seen that this constant ∂C L t /∂δe is always positive.3)intoequation(4. This quantiﬁes the effectiveness of the elevator as a control surface.t + aw αw (h − h ac.4) Sc ∂δe Then the rate of change of C Mcg due to elevator only is deﬁned as ∂C Mcg ∂C L t = −ηt VH ∂δe ∂δe Notethatsince ∂δL t isalwayspositive. ∂C ∂C Mcg ∂δe ∂C Mcg ∂δe .3 (where we assume that the slope stays nearly constant and does not change with δe ).5) isalways negative.w ) − ηt VH (at αt + δe ) (5. LONGITUDINAL TRIM CONDITIONS WITH ELEVATORCONTROL 47 CL t Slope ∂C L ∂δe t >0 α t = cons tan t Elevator control effectiveness δe Figure 5.3) ∂δe Substitutingequation(5. From equation (5. wededuce that e in C Mcg for a given elevator deﬂection δe is simply. one can from here on express the tail lift coefﬁcient as a function of two independent variables αt and δe .5.6). from equation (5. we obtain (5. With the above deﬁnition.1 b.4). This slope of the tail lift coefﬁcient with respect toelevatordeﬂectiondenoted by ∂C L t /∂δe iscalled the elevatorcontroleffectiveness . we have CLt = or since at = ∂C L t ∂αt ∂C L t ∂αt δe αt + ∂C L t ∂δe δe αt (5. then C L t = at αt + ∂C L t δe (5.2) . Moreover.w + ηt C Mac.4) we can show that the slope of the moment . anincrementalchange ∂C L t δe ∂δe C Mcg = −ηt VH (5.1. where elevator control can be used to change the trim point. we would have a curve much like the one given in Figure 5. Thus.3: Tail Lift Coefﬁcient vs Elevator Deﬂection attack αt (held constant).

we need to ﬁnd the airplane angle of attack to ﬂy at V = 61m/s.8) ∂δe ∂αw Solving for δetrim . STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL coefﬁcient curve with respect to angle of attack is not affected (to ﬁrst-order approximation) by the elevator deﬂection. we have δetrim = or δetrim = C Mo + ∂C Mcg ∂αw ∂C L t ηt VH ∂δe CL 0.52 ρV 2 S 1.10) From Example 5.34)0. we have C L α = 0. Namely.04.9).0133)(5.2 Longitudinal Control Position as a Function of Lift Coefﬁcient From equation (4.27 × 104 ) = = 0.59o CLα 0.0598 + (−0. we obtain ∂C M C Mo + ∂αwcg αn δetrim = (5. and an elevator control effectiveness of 0. C Mcg = (C Mo + = ∂C (C Mo − ηt VH ∂δL t δe ) e C Mcg ) + ∂C Mcg ∂αw + αw ∂C Mcg ∂αw αw (5.0696o 1(0.3. C L = C L α αw + η t St at (i t − S o) (5.1.225(61)2 (19) (5. First.16) we have expressed the total lift coefﬁcient as a function of angle of attack at the wing.6) for C Mcg ∂C Mcg ∂C L t C Mcg = 0 = C Mo − ηt VH δetrim + αn (5.1 Determination of Elevator Angle for a New Trim Angle of Attack The problem is to ﬁnd the elevator deﬂection δetrim such that the moment coefﬁcient equation is balanced at a new angle of attack αn . constant component of downwash and the tail incidence angle.27 × 104 N . Then the absolute angle of attack of the airplane is αn = From equation (5.59) = −1.093. Only the value of C Mo is modiﬁed by elevator deﬂection.14) . The full-size airplane wing area is S = 19m 2 with a weight of W = 2.12) 0.093 αn (5.48 CHAPTER 5. It is given by CL = 2W 2(2.11) (5. We return to equation (5.7) 5.13) 5.52 = = 5.04 (5.9) ∂C ηt VH ∂δL t e Example 6 [Anderson] Considerafull-sizeairplanewiththeaerodynamic characteristicsdeﬁnedfortheairplanemodelin Examples 4 and 5 of Section 4.7) where we substitute αw by αn and using equation (5.1. Determine the elevator deﬂection angle needed to trim the airplane at a velocity of V = 61m/s at sea level.

w +ηt C Mα C L CLα ti t St ct Sc C Mac.12). one can solve for αw as αw = C L − C L ti t (i t − CLα o) (5.t +ηt V H at (5.g. we see that C L is a linear function of angle of attack αw .22) h−h n t ηt St at [ lc +h−h n ] S Let’s study the sign of the coefﬁcient Bt . This is done by measuring i t as a function of C L for differentc. From equation (5.w + ηt St ct C Mac.17).e. The slopes of the experimentally derived curves are then plotted as a function of center of gravity locations (i.17) The other equation of importance is the one for the pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity as given in equations (4. one must have C Mcg = 0 in equation (5.17) and equation (4. C Mα < 0.19) For an airplane in trim. that gives a zero slope in ∂i t /∂C L (see Figure 5.15) St at (5.19). Substituting equation (5.w +ηt SSc t C Mac.18) where C Mo and C Mα are as deﬁned previously in equations (4.16) S Note that C L α is given in equation (4. Then one can solve for the tail incidence angle at a particular C L trim.12) into equation (5. .1.g.11)-(4. The neutral point h n is determined by extrapolation to ﬁnd the value of c. Namely. LONGITUDINAL TRIM CONDITIONS WITH ELEVATORCONTROL or C L = C L α αw + C L ti t (i t − with C L ti t = ηt o) 49 (5.5.20) this simply corresponds to having C Mα = 0 or h = h n in equation (4.15).4). h). then the coefﬁcient Bt will be negative. it = At + Bt C L (5.20) where At = = and Bt = = o + + C Mac.23) Thus if lt /c > h n − h. Note that for a statically stable airplane.21) o tc C Mac.18) the pitching moment equation is now a function of the total lift coefﬁcient C L and the tail incidence angle it . Thus for a given C L and tail incidence angle it . According to equation (5.22) allows one to determine experimentally the neutral point. It can be easily shown that the denominator term C Mα C L ti t + ηt VH at C L α is equal to C Mα C L ti t + ηt VH at C L α = ηt St lt at C L α (h − h n + ) S c (5. C Mcg = C Mac.12) where C Mα can also be expressed as C Mα = C L α (h − h n ).20).t St lt ηt S at [ c +h−h n ] C Mα C Mα C L ti +ηt VH at C L α t (5. Equation (5.t − ηt VH at (i t − Sc o) + C Mα C L − C L ti t (i t − CLα o) (5. locations. C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw (5.

P = GH (5. the pilot controls are directly linked to the respective control surfaces and the forces he must exert are proportional to the hinge moment (generated primarily from aerodynamics) about the pivot point at the surfaces.5: Longitudinal Control Stick to Stabilator δ P=− H s (5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL ∂C L 0 • •• hn • h ∂i t • Figure 5. the pilot tends to push forward in the longitudinal control to ﬂy faster and pull on it to slow down.ability to control an airplane is quantiﬁed in terms of required maximum exerted control forces and its sensitivity with respect to airspeed.4: Determination of Stick-Fixed Neutral Point from Flight Test 5. Or s P δ H Figure 5.50 CHAPTER 5. Namely.24) It can be shown that for a system in equilibrium we have Ps + H δ = 0. A requirement stated in FAR Part 23 poses a limit on the maximum force of 60 lbs for the stick and 75 lbs for the control wheel. For simple mechanical control systems. In general. the stick (or control wheel) forces must lie within acceptable limits throughout the operating envelope (V-n diagram) of the airplane. Thus. we often assume that the control force P is proportional to the hinge moment H at the elevator. In the design of airplane control system. And the gradient of these forces with respect to airspeed at trim point must produce the proper “feel” to the pilot. Let’s review the key equations governing the analysis of control hinge moments. For analysis.2 Control Stick Forces Pilotsusecontrolstickforcesasoneofthemeansofevaluatingtheﬂyingqualitiesofanairplane.25) .

C L ti t = ηt αw = 1 St ∂C L t St {C L − ηt δ o + η t at CLα S ∂δe S o (5.27) (5. Since δ is negative for a positive stick displacement s as shown in Figure 5. Fe = 1 + and St {at [i t − S o + (1 − α )αw ] + ∂C L t (k e i t + δo )} ∂δe (5.29) St ∂C L t [ δ o − at o ] S ∂δe (5. C L = a w αw + η t or C L = C L α αw + C L ti t Fe i t + ηt where C L α is given in equation (4. C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw where C Mo = C Mac.30) 1 ∂C L t ke at ∂δe (5.1 Stick Force for a Stabilator For a symmetrical airfoil.24).2. δo . i t .2. the pitching moment at the horizontal stabilator is given by C Mt = C Mtac (= 0) + C Mt αt αt + C Mt δe δe From equation (5.31) St at S One can solve for αw in terms of C L . Namely.28) The trim angle of attack αw is determined from the total lift coefﬁcient and the tail angle of incidence i t from the pitching moment equation in balance. The ﬁrst step is to express αt and δe in terms of C L .5.t − ηt VH [at (Fe i t − Sc o) + (5. as derived here.5. o as follows. G = −δ/s is the gearing ratio which.35) = C L α (h − h n ) (5.32) − C L ti t Fe i t } (5.34) ∂C L t δo ] ∂δe St ct C Mac. is totally independent of the details of the mechanical linkage.36) . CONTROL STICK FORCES 51 Thus.26) Note that C Mt αt can be positive or negative depending on whether the aerodynamic center of the stabilator is ahead or behind the pivot.17).w + ηt and C Mα = (h − h ac. we deduce the stick force for the stabilator to be P = Gq t St ct {C Mtαt αt + C Mt δe δe } (5.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − α) (5. First we recall that the elevator deﬂection is linked to the horizontal tail incidence as δe = k e i t + δo (5. the hinge moment would be positive for a positive stick force. 5.33) The other equation we use is the pitching moment about the airplane center of gravity. The coefﬁcient C Mt δe is generally negative. thus G is positive.

49) α )Ba ] α ) Aa (5. (5.w + ηt St ct 1 C Mac. (5.45) − C Mt αt o + C Mt δe δo ] (5.t } + Sc Fe o − 1 ∂C L t δo at Fe ∂δe (5.37) where As = and Bs = 1 ηt St at Fe ( lct S + h − hn ) {C Mac.t } Sc (5.48) .52 CHAPTER 5.33) and the fact that in trim C Mcg = 0.38) ηt St at Fe ( lct S h − hn + h − hn ) (5.27) becomes P = [(C Mt αt + C Mt δe ke )it + C Mt αt (1 − Gηt qS t ct or P = [(C Mt αt + C Mt δe k e )(As + Bs C L ) + C Mt αt (1 − Gηt qS t ct α )(Aa α )αw − C Mt αt o + C Mtδe δo ] (5.39) Substituting it of equation (5.43) + Ba C L ) − C Mt αt o + C Mt δe δo ] (5. we can solve for i t in terms of C L . That is.47) ¯ Notice that the parameter δo in A can be used to achieve P = 0 at a particular trim velocity Vtrim . We can substitute C L by CL = W W = 1 2 qS 2 ρV S (5.28).46) (5.33). δo . By collecting all the terms we have P ¯ ¯ = A + BC L Gηt qS t ct where ¯ A = [(C Mt αt + C Mt δe ke )As + C Mt αt (1 − and ¯ B = [(C Mt αt + C Mt δe ke )Bs + C Mt αt (1 − ¯ ¯ 0 = A + BC L trim ¯ ¯ or A = − BC L trim .41) ( lct + h − h n )C L α (5. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL Using equations (5.40) St ct C Mac. We obtain i t = As + Bs C L (5.37) into equation (5. o . we obtain αw = Aa + Ba C L where Aa = − and Ba = ( lct 1 + h − h n )C L α {C Mac.42) The stick force P given in equation (5.44) Thus the stick force P is a linear function of C L .w + ηt lt c (5.

clearly from equation (5.6: Stick Force versus Velocity Curve Vtrim = 120 60 80 100 120 V(mph) 5.5. it can be easily shown that P Gηt St ct ¯ = q B C L − C L trim CL ¯ = q BC L 1 − Ctrim L 2 ¯ = ( W ) B{1 − V } 2 S Vtrim 53 (5.51).2 Stick Force for a Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration We proceed as before by ﬁrst giving the hinge moment associated with the stick force P.52) S P (lb) 20 10 0 -10 -20 Figure 5.45) and (5.51) For a given trim speed. CONTROL STICK FORCES Using equations (5.50) Note that Vtrim is given in equation (5.50) we have W ¯ P = Gηt St ct B (5. wecan obtain thegradient of thestick force with respect to speedat V = Vtrim .49). C H = C Ho + ∂C H ∂C H ∂C H αt + δe + δt ∂αt ∂δe ∂δt (5. Notice that the gradient is large if Vtrim is small.2. Or B must be positive.6 shows a typical stick force versus speed curve described in equation (5. Figure 5.1) and W/S is simply the wing loading. dP dV V =Vtrim = −2Gηt St ct ¯ W B S Vtrim (5. At V = 0. From theabove equation. a proper stick force gradient as stated in FAR Part 23 must be negative for all ¯ conditions of ﬂight.2.53) .

60) ∂C ηt St ∂δL t ( lct S e (5.54 CHAPTER 5.t + ηt VH [at Sc o − (5. we solve for δe δe = Ae + Be C L where Ae = and Be = 1 ∂C ηt St ∂ δL t ( lct S e α) (5.55).64) From equations (5.57) (5.65) Thus the stick force P is a linear function of C L .w + ηt h − hn o (5.62) St ct C Mac.55) Now we consider the pitching moment.24)) and (5.t } + ∂C Lt Sc ∂δe + h − hn ) {C Mac.54) where we assume that the lift contributed by the trim tab is negligeable. Next we examine the total lift coefﬁcient C L = C L α αw + η t St ∂C L t St δ e − η t at S ∂δe S o (5.t } Sc Similarly.63) ( lct + h − h n )C L α ∂C H ∂C H δe + δt ] ∂δe ∂δt (5.w + ηt and C Mα = (h − h ac.w )aw − ηt VH at (1 − From trim balance with C Mcg = 0. C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw where C Mo = C Mac.59) in equation (5.58) (5.66) . STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL where in general C Ho = 0.w + ηt lt c (5. we can express αw in terms of C L . αw = Aa + Ba C L where Aa = − and Ba = ( lct 1 + h − h n )C L α {C Mac.53). by substituting equation (5.59) St ct at C Mac. the stick force P becomes P ∂C H =[ (1 − Gηt qS e ce ∂αt α )αw + (5. αw = 1 St ∂C L t St {C L − ηt δe + ηt at o } CLα S ∂δe S (5. Solve αw in terms of δe and C L . By collecting all the terms we have P ¯ ¯ = A e + Be C L Gηt qS e ce (5.61) + h − hn ) (5.56) ∂C L t δe ] ∂δe St c t C Mac.

73) qηt St at αt lt = −ηt VH at αt qSc The incremental angle of attack at the tail due to a constant angular velocity Q is αt = or αt = lt Q V (5. an = 0 and n = 1. then one can simplify the above equation for the stick force P to the following. the lift force will exceed the vehicle weight. For an airplane in a steady pull-up maneuver.67) and ∂C H ∂C H ¯ Be = [ (1 − α )Ba + Be ] (5.3. We examine the pitching moment of the airplane in this pull-up maneuver from which we derive the quantity known as elevator angle per g. L = W (1 + an ) g (5.68) ∂αt ∂δe Again the trim tab δt is used to achieve P = 0 at V = Vtrim . The lift to weight ratio is known as the load factor n or n =1+ an g (5.5.72) For a straight level ﬂight.71) where an is the vehicle acceleration.70) 5.74) (5. Again we have C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw + where C M (due to airplane rotation in a steady pull-up maneuver) CM = − (5.77) . dP dV V =Vtrim = −2Gηt Se ce (5.69) From the above equation. the concepts of stick-ﬁxed and stick-free maneuver margins are introduced. STEADY MANEUVER where ∂C H ¯ Ae = [ (1 − ∂αt ∂C H ∂C H Ae + δt ] ∂δe ∂δt 55 α )A a + (5.75) 2lt q ¯ c with q being the dimensionless pitch rate variable deﬁned as ¯ q= ¯ Qc 2V (5.3 Steady Maneuver We now consider the determination of the elevator angle per g in a pull-up maneuver. we obtain the gradient of the stick force with respect to speed at V = Vtrim . Namely. P W ¯ V2 = ( ) Be {1 − 2 } Gηt Se ce S Vtrim ¯ W Be S Vtrim (5. In the analysis.76) (5.

Including the effects due to pitch rotation Q in a pull-up maneuver.81) where we assume that C Mo remains constant in the maneuver. These are measures of airplane maneuverability.78) Note that Q is not dimensionless and it has the units of rad /s or deg /s. In a steady pull-up there is still no angular acceleration in the pitch axis. To nondimensionalize Q we use the variable q deﬁned in equation (5. one can solve for δe as C Mα αw + C Mq¯ q ¯ δe = − (5. 2lt c (5. the elevator angle and stick force to trim are δe and P respectively. since it produces a negative pitching moment due to a change in pitch rate. The increment C M resulting from a steady maneuver is C Mcg = 0 = C Mα αw + C Mδe δe + C Mq¯ q ¯ (5.80) C Mq¯ = −ηt at VH This term C Mq¯ is often referred to as the pitch damping term. namely CL + CL L an = = 1+ CL W g (5. the pitching moment becomes C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw + ∂C M ∂C M δe + Q ∂δe ∂Q (5.86) . The quantities δe /(an /g) and P/(an /g) are known as the elevator angle per g and the stick force per g respectively.78) becomes. From the above equation.3.77). the elevator is deﬂected to δe + δe and the stick force required is P + P.83) Again the incremental change in angle of attack C L = C L α αw + where C L is the incremental lift coefﬁcient due to the pull-up. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL 5.84) (5. ¯ C Mcg = C Mo + C Mα αw + We can derive C Mq from ¯ C M and the expression of ∂C M δe + C M q q ¯ ¯ ∂δe (5.1 Horizontal Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g When the airplane is in straight and level ﬂight (unaccelerated). the smaller they are the more maneuverable it is.56 CHAPTER 5.85) or CL = an C L (for 1 g ﬂight) g (5.82) C Mδe It can be shown that since an = QV we have q= ¯ Qc an c gc an = = ( ) 2 2V 2V 2V 2 g αw is determined from ∂C L ∂δe δe (5. Then equation (5. thus for equilibrium C Mcg = 0 as it is in trimmed straight level ﬂight condition. When in the pull-up maneuver.79) αt due to Q.

Substituting equations (5. forwhich no (i. there is also a particular value of h.5. very small) elevator willbe required toproduce a ﬁnite (i.t ) S e (5.89) where the coefﬁcient τ can be determined from Figure 5. then 1 h − h n + 2µ C Mq¯ δe = −C L C L α (an /g) C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe (5.87) ∂C L St ∂C L t = ηt ∂δe S ∂δe (5.33 (Perkins & Hage p.e.87) into equation (5.92) by setting δe = 0.e.6).91) (known as the relative mass parameter). This is determined from equation (5.92) as δe C L C L α (h m − h) = (an /g) C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe δe = (an /g) C L tδ or −ηt VH − (h − h n )ηt St S C L (h m − h) (5. namely hm = h n − 1 CM 2µ q¯ (5. Hence.92) Similarly to the neutral point.95) e δe C L (h m − h) = <0 (an /g) C L tδ ηt St (h n − h ac.82) we have gc C Mα C L + C Mq¯ C L α ( 2V 2 ) δe =− (an /g) C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe (5. C L = 2 Also recall that C Mδe = −ηt VH C L t δe from equation (5.3. ρV 2 S Note that W = qSC L = 1 ρV 2 SC L and W = mg where m is the mass of the airplane. The quantity h m − h is known as the stick-ﬁxed maneuver margin.90) 2W . then h m > h n or the stick-ﬁxed maneuver point lies aft of the neutral point. And we can rewrite equation (5. STEADY MANEUVER Then αw = Note that C L δe = or C L δe = ηt 57 C L δe C L an − CLα g CLα δe (5.93) Since C Mq¯ < 0.83) and (5. 250).88) St ∂C L t ∂αt St ∂C L t St = ηt τ = ηt at τ S ∂αt ∂δe S ∂αt S (5.96) . known as the stick-ﬁxed maneuver point denoted here by h m . not small) acceleration.94) (5. Then h − h n + ρ Sc C Mq¯ δe 4m = −C L C L α (an /g) C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe or letting µ = 2m ρ Sc (5.

1 h − h n + 2µ C Mq it = −C L C L α (an /g) C Mit C L α − C Mα C L it (5. αt = i t + (1 − α )αw lt +2 q ¯ c (5.2 Horizontal Stabilator Conﬁguration: Elevator per g A similar derivation can be performed for the stabilator conﬁguration and we obtain the following results. lt αt = i t + αw − + 2 q ¯ c or.87) and (5.3. STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL 5. we obtain P W ∂C H (1 − α ) 1 lt = Gηt Se ce ( ){ [ + ]+ (an /g) S ∂αt CLα µc ∂C H ∂δe C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe CLα − ∂C H ∂αt (1 − α )C L δe (h m − h)} (5. assuming o (5.3 Stabilizer-Elevator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g Recall from equation (5.102) becomes P ∂C H =[ [(1 − Gηt qS e ce ∂αt α ){ C L δe C L an ( )− CLα g CLα δe } + gl t an ∂C H ( )] + 2 g V ∂δe δe ] (5.102) 2lt gl t an q = 2( ) ¯ c V g (5.97) where we replace C Mδe by C Mit and C L δe by C L it . Let δt be adjusted to achieve P = 0 at straight level ﬂight (unaccelerated).104) After some simple manipulations.101) αw .99) = 0. Then αw = αo + δe = δeo + δe . It then follows that P ∂C H =[ [(1 − Gηt qS e ce ∂αt Recall that α) αw + 2lt ∂C H q] + ¯ c ∂δe δe ] (5.103) Thevariables αw and δe are thoseobtainedin thepreviousanalysis forelevatorper g asgiven inequations (5. 5.98) assuming that the trim tab has negligeable contribution to the total lift and moment.105) . Thus. equation (5.58 CHAPTER 5.53) that CH = ∂C H ∂C H ∂C H αt + δe + δt ∂αt ∂δe ∂δt (5.100) Then the stick force P is given by P ∂C H =[ [it + (1 − Gηt qS e ce ∂αt α )αw + 2lt ∂C H ∂C H q] + ¯ δe + δt ] c ∂δe ∂δt (5. In a steady pull-up.3.96) respectively.

. the airplane may even be statically unstable. h < h m ) locations. That is the pilot must exert a pull (positive) force on the stick to maneuver a pitch up maneuver. • It is independent of C L or V apart from Mach and Reynold effects. It is called the stick-free maneuver point since it corresponds to the fact that the pilot can let go of his control stick (i. This is known as the stick-free maneuver point denoted by h m . The airplane is highly maneuverable if this force gradient is small (i. (i. For a normal range of c.4 Stabilator Conﬁguration: Stick Force per g A similar analysis as the one performed for the stabilizer-elevator conﬁguration can also be done for the stabilator conﬁguration.106) C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe ∂C H (1 − α ) 1 lt [ + ] ∂αt CLα µ c ∂C H C L α − ∂C H (1 − α )C L δe ∂δ ∂α e t (5.g. Equation (5.5. 5. • Stick force per g is directly proportional to wing loading (W/S).105) can be rewritten as P W = Gηt Se ce ( ){ (an /g) S where hm = hm + ∂C H ∂δe C Mδe C L α − C Mα C L δe CLα − ∂C H ∂αt (1 − α )C L δe (h m − h)} (5.107) One would create a catastrophic situation if we load the airplane such that h = h m .e.3. Details are left to the students. W. In this case. (They can be found in the reference book by B. In this case.3. Such a situation rarely occurs if the vehicle has an adequate static margin since the stick-ﬁxed and stick-free maneuver points are always aft of the neutral point. McCormick) Remarks: • Stick force per g is a linear function of h. the pilot would inadvertently generate extremely large inertia loads on the airplane by exerting little or no control force.e. stick free). there is a position of center of gravity h for which P = 0. when the c.e. the force gradient is positive. STEADY MANEUVER 59 Again.g. location is near the stick-free maneuver point).

STATICLONGITUDINAL CONTROL .60 CHAPTER 5.

let’s ﬁrst identify the motion variables. 61 . a positive rudder will generate a negative yawing moment and a positive side force.e. The key motion variables in the lateral axis correspond to sideslip (with sideslip angle β.e. With this deﬁnition. • z-axis pointed down toward the earth.1 Yawing and Rolling Moment Equations The lateral motion of an airplane is described in terms of two tightly coupled motions: yaw about the z-body axis (i. • y-body axis pointed to the right wing. Note that all along we adhere strictly to the right-hand rule for sign conventions: • x -body axis pointed forward.e. or side velocity v). roll rate p > 0 with roll angle φ). • Positive sideslip β = sin −1 (v/V ) corresponding to a positive v-component in side velocity. directional) and roll about the x-body axis (i. roll (with roll rate p) and yaw (with yaw rate r). yaw rate r > 0 with yaw angle ψ). lateral). Using Figure 6. • Positive roll motion (right wing down) (i. Notice that this deﬁnition of positive aileron will produce a negative rolling moment.e. • Aileron control positive with right aileron down (δar > 0 again consistent with the right-hand rule where a positive rotation about the positive y-body axis) and left aileron up (δal > 0). In general. • Positive yaw motion (clockwise) (i. This is similar to the deﬁnition that a positive elevator deﬂection would pitch the airplane down. i. Primary controls are rudder δr and ailerons δa .e. producing a negative pitching moment and a positive contribution to lift. we deﬁne aileron angle δa to be δa = δar + δal .Chapter 6 Lateral Static Stability and Control The concept of static stability and control we studied for the longitudinal axis can also be applied to the lateral axis.1. • Positive rudder deﬂection (δr > 0) is to the left (again according to the right-hand rule a positive rotation about the positive z-body axis). 6. the control effectors and their sign conventions used in the lateral-directional stability analysis.

LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL x p. L V β r.62 CHAPTER 6.N v Tright y δ spR δ aR Positive down Fv δr Figure 6.1: Deﬁnition of the Lateral Directional Motion of an Airplane .

An empirical formula for the wing yawing moment coefﬁcient due to sideslip. we obtain the incremental yawing moment due to roll rate p as Nw = −2 p q V b/2 0 cC l y 2 dy (6.6) or.2) (6. C Nw. – Due to roll rate. Let’s examine some of these effects: – Due to sideslip. a differential yawing moment is created and is given by dN w = −q(cdy )Cl ( or py )(2y) V (6.6.7) . CN = N = C Nwing + C N fuselage + C Nverticaltail + C N propulsion + C Nrudder + C Naileron qSb (6. The airplane yawing moment about the center of gravity can be written as Ncg = Nwing + N fuselage + Nverticaltail + N propulsion + Nrudder + Naileron or in terms of moment coefﬁcients.β = ∂C Nw /∂β. in terms of the yawing moment coefﬁcient. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 63 6. producing a positive yawing moment to a positive sideslip). h ac. Note that in straight and level ﬂight. the right wing will move down and thereby see an increase in angle of attack of py /V applied to a wing section located at a distance y from the root.3) where A is the wing aspect ratio. we usually have β = r = p = 0 in trimmed ﬂight.w − h)sin A ]} (6.1.e. there is an increase in drag on one side of the wing that is more perpendicular to the ﬂow and thereby would produce a yawing moment. we have C Nw = −2 p SbV b/2 0 cC l y 2 dy (6. is the wing sweep angle.1.g. As a result.w is the location of the wing aerodynamic center in percent chord and h is the location of c.β = C L { 1 tan −[ ][cos 4π A π A(A + 4cos ) − A A2 − 2 8cos + 6(h ac. If the wing is swept aft. is given by 2 C Nw. This increase in angle of attack will tilt the lift vector forward on the right wing. while on the left wing the inclination is to the rear.1 Contributions to the Yawing Moment There are numerous components that contribute to the yawing moment in the airplane when perturbed in the lateral motion variables.5) V Thus integrating from 0 to b/2.4) p dN w = −2 q(cCl y 2 dy ) (6.1) • Wing Contribution Nwing : Yawing moment generated at the wing is developed mainly from perturbed motions in sideslip β and roll rate p in the lateral axis. then this yawing moment is stabilizing (i. in percent chord. C L is the total lift coefﬁcient.

The effects on the vertical tail due to sideslip.10) where W f and D f are respectively themaximum widthanddepth ofthe fuselage. – Due to a sideslip β.13) where ηv is the ratiobetween the dynamic pressure at the verticaltail and the freestream dynamic pressure.12) (6. we can show that C Nw = − CL 12 1 + 3λ 1+λ 1 + 3λ 1+λ p ¯ (6. roll rate and yaw rate are described below. Clearly.11).3 ( ) (per radians) ∂β Sb Wf (6. i.β = ηv Sv lv av (1 − S b β) Fv lv qSb (6. points along the vertical tail will see an increase in angle of attack of py/ V . dN v = qv (cv dy )av yp lv V (6. ∂C N fuselage Volume D f = C N fuselage .64 CHAPTER 6. the fuselage produces a negative contribution to the lateral stability. thus we have an incremental yawing moment of. LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL For a linearly tapered wing with taper ratio λ = ct /co and assuming that Cl is constant across the wing span. p = − ¯ CL 12 (6.8) or the yawing moment coefﬁcient contributed by the wing due to roll rate is given by C Nw. ¯ • Fuselage (and Nacelle) Contribution N fuselage : Yawing moment due to sideslip is a function of the fuselage (or nacelle) volume. we deduce C Nv. making the vehicle less stable in the yaw axis. • Vertical Tail Contribution Nverticaltail : The vertical tail plays as signiﬁcant a role in the lateral motion as the horizontal tail in the longitudinal motion.β β = − Using equation (6.11) The yawing moment coefﬁcient produced by this side force is C Nv = C Nv.. length and width as follows. lv is the distancefrom the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail to the center of gravity. – Due to roll rate p. β is the sidewash factor.9) in terms of the dimensionless roll rate p = pb/2V .e. Note that the side force Fv is given by Fv = −ηv qS v av βv = −ηv qS v av ∂βv β = −ηv qS v av (1 − ∂β β )β (6.β = −1.14) . the vertical tail produces a side force Fv which in turn will result in yawing moment about the center of gravity as follows.

20) In terms of the dimensionless yaw rate r = rb /2V .17) – Due to yaw rate r . we can write C N propulsion = C N propulsion o + C N propulsion β β (6. In Perkins & Hage. we have C Nv = −ηv Sv lv lv r av Sb V (6.24) .¯ = − w − 2ηv VV av r 4 4 b (6.¯ = −ηv r or C Nv. we have ¯ C Nv. C N v = ηv lv p av Sb V bv 0 cv ydy (6.18) In terms of yawing moment coefﬁcient obtained by dividing equation (6.15) In terms of the dimensionless roll rate p = pb/2V . the propulsionsystem will contribute to the overall yawing moment due to unbalanced thrusts from left and right engines (e.r = −ηv Sv lv lv av Sb V (6.6. C Nr¯ = − C Dw CD lv + C Nv. the vertical tail will have a change in angle of attack of incremental side force of rl v Fv = ηv qS v av V is thereby produced that results in an incremental yawing moment of Nv = −Fv lv = −ηv qS v av rl v lv V (6.18) by qSb . we obtain the following contribution to yawing moment at the vertical tail due to roll rate. In summary. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 65 where cv is the chord length at a section of the vertical tail located at a distance y from the root.¯ = −2ηv r Sv lv lv 2V av Sb V b (6.23) • Propulsion Contribution N propulsion : As in the longitudinal case.1. by integrating from 0 to bv (where bv is the height of the vertical tail) and dividing by qSb . we have ¯ C Nv.16) αv = −rl v / V . p = 2 ¯ ηv lv av b Sb bv 0 cv ydy (6.g an engine failure).21) Sv lv lv lv av = −2ηv VV av Sb b b (6.19) or the yaw damping coefﬁcient C Nv.22) where VV = Sv lv is the vertical tail volume. Also the normal forces exerted at the propeller disc due to sideslip will produce additional yawing moment.r primarily due to the vertical tail is given by C Nv. Thus. additional contribution to the Sb total yawing moment due to yaw rate is included for the differential wing drag as follows. An (6.

placedon the upperwing surface.28) (6.27) • Aileron Contribution Naileron : As the ailerons are deﬂected asymmetrically (and in equal amount) to produce a roll about the x-axis. drag produced at the downward deﬂected aileron surface is higher than that generated at the upward deﬂected aileron.66 where CHAPTER 6. of the left engine. a loss in lift will be accompanied by a loss in altitude. For example. since T = D in trim. thus it is a speed control effector.8. ∂C N the coefﬁcient ∂β p ( by symmetry consideration) can be obtained in a similar fashion using Figure 4.7). . A major consideration in sizing the rudder is in the case of engine failure. When deﬂected (upward). to generate drag. and thus may be undesireable. one can increase the drag of the upward deﬂected surface by introducing a greater deﬂection angle at this surface. The incremental contribution to the yawing moment is governed by equation (6. In roll control.3. The rudder must have enough authority to trim out the imbalance in yawing moment −Ty p due to a failure. it causes the ﬂow to separate on the upper surface and thereby resulting in a loss of lift. At the same time. Then.26) where N prop is the number ofpropellers. the left aileron is down and the right aileron is up. the drag on the right spoiler would generate a desired positive yawing moment (hence there is no adverse yaw effect when the spoiler is used to roll the airplane). In this way. deﬂecting the right spoiler upward will result in a positive rolling moment. a yawing moment is created by the aileron surfaces when the airplane is in a roll maneuver. rudder surface provides an effective way to control the yawing moment of the airplane.79) from which we obtain the yawing moment coefﬁcient due to rudder δr as given in equation (6. LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL C N propulsion o = −(Tright − Tleft )y p qSb (6.g a Frise aileron sticks out into the ﬂow when deﬂected upward). and besides they are less effective than the aileron control surfaces since they are located near the wing root. • Spoiler Contribution Nspoiler : Aspoileris anaerodynamic device. • Rudder Contribution Nrudder : As seen in Section 6. l p is the x-distance from the propeller tothe c. Other design concepts may be used to generate higher drags (e. and C N propulsion β = −N prop S prop l p ∂C N p (1 − Sb ∂β β) (6. In some cases. − Dy p − qSb ηv VV av τ δr = 0 or δr = − Dy p CD yp =− qSb ηv VV av τ ηv bV V av τ (6. to remove the adverse yaw effect. thus a negative yawing moment is produced that is adverse to the turn coordination.25) where y p is the distance between the engine and the fuselage centerlines. In general.g. (Figure 4. The difﬁculty in using spoilers as control effectors for roll stabilization is due to the fact its aerodynamic behaviour is highly nonlinear. for example. in a positive roll maneuver. The spoilers are sometimes also used for roll control.80).

dL w = −2q(cdy )aw β y = −2qa w β cydy (6. the ailerons (located on the wing) and the rudder. The rate of change of rolling moment with sideslip. the right wing will see an increase in angle of attack of α = β V/V = β (6. The airplane rolling moment about the center of gravity can be written as L = L wing + L fuselage + L verticaltail + L aileron + L rudder In terms of the moment coefﬁcients.1.6.1. C L β = ∂C L /∂β. is important to the handling qualities of an airplane. Too much dihedral will make the airplane hard to ﬂy.34) b/2 0 cydy Sb (6. roll rate p and yaw rate r.33) aw 1 + 2λ ( ) (6. the vertical tail.30) (6. C L w.β = − Differential lift on the right wing = dL R = q cos2 ( − β)c cos Cln ds and Differential lift on the left wing = dL L = q cos2 ( The differential rolling moment is simply.sidelip β androll p. the rolling moment is primarily obtained from the wing dihedral (depicted by the dihedral angle > 0 above the horizontal plane). YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 67 6. Figure 6.2 Contributions to the Rolling Moment Therollingmotionisgenerallyaffectedbythemotionvariablesinyaw r. A small negative value of C L β is desireable.31) The opposite change in α occurs over the left wing.35) 6 1+λ Another effect due to sideslip is derived from a swept-back conﬁgured wing.29) • Wing Contribution L wing : The rolling moment produced at the wing is developed primarily from perturbed motions in sideslip β.2 shows a swept wing in a positive sideslip.32) or C L w = −2aw β For a linearly tapered wing. + β)c cos Cln ds (6. we have CLw = − or aw 1 + 2λ ( ) β 6 1+λ (6.36) . – Due to sideslip. Let Cln bethesection liftcorrespondingtothenormalvelocity V cos( − β) (or V cos( + β)) and normal chord c cos . When the airplane is in a positive sideslip. The velocity normal to the right leading edge is V cos( − β) andontheleftwing V cos( +β). CL = L = C L wing + C L fuselage + C L verticaltail + C L aileron + C L rudder qSb (6.37) (6. Thecomponents that contribute mostly to the rolling moment are the wing. This results in a differential increment in rolling moment.

LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL V β Vcos(Λ+β) V Vcos(Λ−β) y Λ s y Dihedral Angle Γ βV βVΓ Figure 6. integrating over the entire wing span. the total lift for a swept wing is given by L = 2q cos2 b/2 Cln 0 cdy = qSC ln cos2 (6.2: Effect of Sweepback on Total Lift and Rolling Moment to Sideslip dL w = (dL L − dL R )y = q[cos2 ( where y = s cos + β) − cos2 ( − β)]c cos Cln yds (6.41) or the wing C L and the normal section Cln are related by C L = Cln cos2 Then the rolling moment coefﬁcient becomes CLw = CL [cos2 ( cos2 + β) − cos2 ( − β)] b/2 cydy 0 (6.38) or dy = cos ds .40) Hence.42) Sb (6.68 CHAPTER 6. L w = qC ln [cos2 ( + β) − cos2 ( b/2 − β)] cydy 0 (6.39) Note that the incremental lift for a swept wing is 1 dL = ρ(Vcos 2 )2Cln cdy (6.43) . Integrating from 0 to b/2 we obtain.

00016/deg .45) (6. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS If we differentiate with respect to β and evaluate the derivative at β = 0.β = 0. py α= (6.00016/deg . It should be noted that wing placement on the fuselage combined with the cross-ﬂow over the fuselage in sideslip (Figure 6. we have C L w.β = −0.β = +0.β = −4C L tan Again for a linear tapered wing.6. the rolling coefﬁcient C L w.3) introduces additional factors in the rolling moment due to sideslip.46) where f ( A. As the airplane rolls. ∗ Mid-wing: C L w.e.β = − f (A.1.49) . we obtain C L w. More lift Less lift High wing L • positive sideslip Figure 6. the resulting effect is related to damping in roll.48) V By integrating from 0 to b/2 and using the nondimensional variable x = y/(b/2).e.3: Effect of Wing Placement on the Rolling Moment to Sideslip – Due to roll rate. we have CLw = Lw aw A pb =− ( ) qSb 2 2V 1 0 c ( )x 2 dx b (6.β = − Generally.44) (6. tilting of the lift vector). λ)C L tan 1 + 2λ C L tan 3(1 + λ) b/2 0 69 cydy Sb (6. i. λ) is an empirically derived function of aspect ratio A and taper ratio λ. we have C L w. ∗ High wing: C L w. the associated incremental rolling moment is py dL w = −2q(cdy )aw y (6.β . a section on the right wing located at a distance y from the centerline will experience an increase in angle of attack of. ∗ Low wing: C L w.47) V Neglecting induced effects (i.

Assuming that the wing is operating at a constant C L and the section lift Cl is constant and equals to C L . It is obtained from the following equation.59) dC L w CL = dr ¯ 3 C L 1 + 3λ 6 1+λ C L w.55) L w = 2ρVrC L c or Lw = Therefore.58) (6. there is no contribution of the fuselage to the rolling moment.¯ = r (6.52) ¯ ¯ C L w.54) (6.60) • Fuselage Contribution L fuselage : In general. ¯ The aileron control can be used to produce constant roll rate in steady-state. CLw = or C L w. we have CLw = − or aw 1 + 3λ p ¯ 12 1 + λ (6.70 CHAPTER 6. namely dL w = 1 ρ[(V + ry )2 − (V − ry )2 ]C L cdyy 2 dL w = 2ρVrC L cy 2 dy Integrating from 0 to b/2. Then a differential rolling moment is produced from the imbalance in dynamic pressure from the two sides. we obtain b/2 (6. C L δa δa + C L p p = 0 (6. LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL where A = b2 /S is the wing aspect ratio.e.¯ = r For a linearly tapered wing. and assuming a straight wing with no taper.56) 0 ρcC L rVb 3 1 = qSb rC L ¯ 12 3 CL r ¯ 3 (6. i.50) aw 1 + 3λ (6.57) (6. L fuselage = 0. the left wing will see a higher velocity than the right wing which is retracting away from the forward motion.53) – Due to yaw rate.51) 12 1 + λ where the dimensionless roll rate is p = pb/2V . p¯ = − or p=− ¯ C L δa δa CL p ¯ (6. • Vertical Tail Contribution L verticaltail : . we derive y 2 dy (6. For a linearly tapered wing.

70) where A = b2 /S is the wing aspect ratio and δa = δa R − δaL .61) V And the resulting rolling moment is rl v rb lv lv zv = 2ηv qS v av zv = 2ηv qS v av zv r ¯ (6.1. Again for a simple linearly tapered wing.¯ = 2ηv r Sv lv zv zv av = 2ηv VV av Sb b b (6.69) In dimensionless form.64) β Sv zv av (1 − β ) S b are as exactly those deﬁned for equation (6. where we deﬁne x = y/(b/2). dL = −qca w dy τ δa R y Combining with the contribution from the left aileron.62) V 2V b b where z v is the distance of the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail to the axis of rotation rb (x-axis) and r = 2V is the dimensionless yaw rate variable. YAWINGAND ROLLING MOMENT EQUATIONS 71 – Due to yaw rate.e. C L v.67) (6.β = −ηv (6. Thus an increment in side force at the tail is rl v Fv = ηv qS v av (6. the angle of sideslip is decreased by rl v /V . The rolling moment coefﬁcient produced by this side force is C L v = C L v.11). the above equation (6. x -axis). the vertical tail produces a side force Fv as given in equation (6. we obtain 2 2 3 3 3(x2 − x1 ) − 2(1 − λ)(x 2 − x 1 ) C L δa = −aw τ (6. ¯ Dividing equation (6. we have L v = Fv z v = ηv qS v av C L v.β β = From which we deduce where the variables ηv and Fv z v qS v av (1 − = −ηv qSb qSb β )βz v (6.71) 12(1 + λ) .63) – Due to sideslip. we have dL = −qca w dy τ (δa R − δaL )y Integrating over the spanwise length of the aileron.69) becomes x2 CL = x1 c xdx b (6.62) by qSb . It is given by dL = qca w dy τ δa R where τ istheaileroneffectiveness (SeeFigure9-15ofPerkins&Hage).65) • Aileron Contribution L aileron : Aileroncontrols areeffectiveinthe generationofrolling momentdueto its location from the axis of rotation (i. As the right aileron is deﬂected.66) Thisresultsinanincremental (6. change in the rolling moment as follows.11). we obtain y2 (6.68) L = −qa w τ (δa R − δa L ) L δa 1 = − aw τ δ a A qSb 4 cydy y1 (6.6. there is an increase in sectional lift per unit span produced on the right side.

78) is the sidewash factor (difﬁcult to estimate). Therefore.79) for the yawing moment due to rudder. β β) β )β (6.4 shows an airplane at a positive sideslip angle β > 0 or v > 0. The positive yawing moment N is deﬁned according to the right-hand rule as shown. If the aerodynamic center of the vertical tail is located a distance of lv behind the center of gravity. L δr = z v ηv qS v av τ δr or. the vertical tail is not sized by any consideration of static stability. av is the . Then N = ηv qS v lv av (1 − or CN = and thus C Nβ = ηt VV av (1 − where VV = Sv lv /Sb is the vertical tail volume. Instead the minimum tail size is determined by controllability requirements in the event of an asymmetric engine failure or according to ﬂying quality requirements. However. in most situation. we expect C Nβ to be positive for directional static stability. for stability we see that a positive yawing moment would be required to bring β back to zero.72) 6. LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL • Rudder Contribution L rudder : As in equation (6.75) This quantity has the same signiﬁcance as the coefﬁcient C Mα .76) N Sv l v = ηv av (1 − qSb S b β )β (6. However.73) (6. the rolling moment coefﬁcient with respect to δr is given by C L δr = ηv Sv zv τ av Sb (6. Thereexistsayawingmomentproducedbythefuselageandbythe sideforceontheverticaltail.2 Directional Stability (Weathercock Stability) Figure 6.74) ρV 2 Sb 2 The change of yawing moment with respect to sideslip β is deﬁned as C Nβ = ∂C N ∂β (6.72 CHAPTER 6. lift-curve slope for the vertical tail. Notethatwhentheairplanehasapositivesideslipthevelocityvectorisnolongerintheplaneofsymmetry. Theairplane is directional stable if C Nβ > 0. Usually the yawing moment due to the fuselage is destabilizing but its effect is small compared to the stabilizing moment contributed by the vertical tail. The non-dimensional yawing moment coefﬁcient is given by N CN = 1 (6. the rudder when deﬂected will also produce a rolling moment.77) (6.

6. DIRECTIONAL STABILITY (WEATHERCOCK STABILITY) 73 x β ∆N V y lv a.2.4: Airplane with a Positive Sideslip .c cv ∆Lv • • cr Hinge δr Figure 6.

79) where τ is the effective factor which depends on the ratio of cr /cv (For example. there is no physical mechanism to provide a restoring moment.71). . Recall that the rolling moment coefﬁcient is deﬁned as L CL = (6.5 Roll Control Roll control is provided primarily by the asymmetric deﬂection of the left and right aileron surfaces. see Figure 5-33 of Perkins & Hage). Whenan airplaneisinitially perturbed in roll. Or we can also say that the airplane simply possesses neutral static stability in roll. Incremental yawing moment created by the rudder is N = −lv L v where L v = ηt qS v av τ δr and the rate of change of C N with respect to δr is given by C Nδr = −ηv VV av τ (6. A small contribution in roll control can be derived from the rudder control as deﬁned by the term C L δr given in equation (6. and without the use of the aileron controls.4 Roll Stability Rollmomentisgeneratedbyasymmetricdeﬂectionof therightandleftailerons. additional roll control may be derived from asymmetric deﬂection of the spoilers.80) (6.81) qSb Dynamic stability in roll motion is governed by the roll damping term in the stability derivative C L p or the non-dimensional stability derivative C L p . Effectiveness oftheaileroncontrol isdeterminedby therollingmomentcoefﬁcient C L δa derivedinequation(6. a movable surface hinged to the vertical stabilizer. LATERAL STATICSTABILITY AND CONTROL 6. 6. In some airplane. 6.74 CHAPTER 6. Thus in general C L φ is always zero and the conceptof static stability does not exist inroll. This term is always negative thereby providing positive roll ¯ damping.73).3 Directional Control Effective control of yawing moment is provided by the rudder.

in this course we consider the airplane to be a rigid body with a given mass and moments of inertia. Rotation of the axes with respect to the inertial space. acceleration of a point P in the rigid body is given by a P = a O + ω × r P + ω × (ω × r P ) ˙ (7. Consider Figure 7. thus the system possesses an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. To describe completely the motion of a rigid body. This case would apply to a deformable airplane conﬁguration if we take into consideration structural ﬂexibility. As shown in Figure 7. the system undergoes no deformation and should possess only 6 degrees of freedom. • Mass of the rigid body m is given by m= dm Body (7. Note that the origin O does not necessarily coincide with the body center of mass C.1 where OXY Z is the inertial reference axes and O xyz corresponds to a set of axes attached to the rigid body. We note the following. It should be noted that velocity of any point P in the rigid body is given by VP = VO + ω × rP Similarly. It should be noted that for a rigid body.3) 75 .Chapter 7 Review of Rigid Body Dynamics In general a deformable body of ﬁnite dimensions may be regarded as being composed of an inﬁnite number of particles.1) To developthe dynamical equationsfor a rigid body. Translation of the origin O’ of the body axes and 2.1. the motion of the body can be described by 1.2) (7. namely 3 translations and 3 rotations. However. it is convenient to use: • 3 translations of a certain point in the rigid body and • 3 rotations about that point. we need ﬁrsttodeﬁne itslinear and angularmomentum. A system of axes attached to the body are called body axes.

4) Note that if the origin O coincides with the center of mass C. HO = or HO = or HO = Body Body Body Body Body V P dm = Body (V O + ω × r P ) dm r P dm Body (7. • Now we derive the angular momentum of a rigid body about the origin O . if O coincides with the mass center C.76 CHAPTER 7.9) r P dm × V O + (7. we have rC = 0. REVIEW OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS dm z Z k i O' j x O (Inertial) X Figure 7. By deﬁnition. Thus the linear momentum of a rigid body is equal to the product of the total mass m and the velocity of the mass center VC .6) r P × V P dm (7.1: Motion of a Rigid Body • The mass center C is deﬁned as ω rp rc y C Y rC = 1 m r P dm Body (7.7) where VC is the velocity of the center of mass C.5) dm + ω × (7.8) r P × (V O + ω × r P ) dm r P × (ω × r P ) dm (7.10) Body . It should be noted that the above equation (7.7) applies to any body-axis reference with origin O . In particular. • The linear momentum of a rigid body is deﬁned as p= or p = VO or p = m(V O + ω × rC ) = mVC (7. we have rC = 0 and V O = VC .

18) (y 2 + z 2 )ωx − xy ω y − xz ωz i + (x 2 + z 2 )ω y − yx ω x − yz ωz j+ (x 2 + y 2)ωz − zx ωx − zy ω y k dm Letting HC = Hx i + Hy j + Hz k.11) simpliﬁes to the following HC = r P × (ω × r P ) dm (7.12) becomes HC = In Cartesian coordinates.16) (7.13) we obtain HC = or HC = Body Body ω(r P • r P )dm − Body r P (ω • r P )dm (7.21) (7. then rC = 0 and equation (7.23) . Then equation (7. then Hx = Hy = Hz = Body (7. I xx I = −I yx −Izx −I xy I yy −I zy −I xz −I yz Izz (7.15) (7.20) (7. we have the following identity: r × (ω × r) = ω(r • r) − r(ω • r ).17) Body (x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )(ωx i + ω y j + ωz k) − (ωx x + ω y y + ωz z)(xi + yj + zk) dm (7.22) Body Body We can deﬁne an inertia matrix I to be of the following form.11) From here on.14) (7.19) (y 2 + z 2 )ωx − xy ω y − xz ωz dm = I xx ωx − I xy ω y − I xz ωz (x 2 + z 2 )ω y − xy ωx − yz ωz dm = −I yx ωx + I yy ω y − I yz ωz (x 2 + y 2 )ωz − zx ω x − zy ω y dm = −Izx ωx − Izy ω y + Izz ωz (7. where r P = xi + yj + zk and ω = ωx i + ω y j + ωz k we deduce rP • rP = x 2 + y2 + z2 and ω • r P = ω x x + ω y y + ωz z Substituting into equation (7.12) Body From vector algebra. we conveniently locate the origin O to be at the center of mass C.77 or H O = mrC × V O + Body r P × (ω × r P ) dm (7.13) (7.

26) (7.29) (7. Then the force equations of motion of a rigid body airplane are given by • Along the body O x direction: m(u − rv + qw) = Fx = X force component ˙ • Along the body O y direction: m(v − pw + ru ) = Fy = Y force component ˙ • Along the body O z direction: m(w − qu + pv) = Fz = Z force component ˙ (7.13) now can be re-written as HC = Iω (7.25) where p = mVC is the linear momentum of the body. dp =F dt or d (mVC ) = F dt (7. The inertia matrix I is a constant (i. Let’s now proceed to the equations of motion for the rotational degrees of freedom. ω y ..30) (7. then equation (7. 7.28) The force components X.e.78 CHAPTER 7.27) OXYZ O xyz Let the velocity of the center of mass VC = ui + vj + wk and the angular velocity of the rigid body be ω = pi + qj + rk where ωx = p. ω y = q and ωz = r . .24) where the vector ω is the angular velocity vector of the rigid body with components (ωx . VC is the velocity of the center of mass. Y and Z on the right-hand side of the above equations are due to gravitional force. REVIEW OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS Notice that the matrix I is a symmetric. We will examine these in the next section. positive deﬁnite (i. m is the total body mass.1 Force Equations We have from Newton’s laws.e nonsingular) matrix whose elements have units of (ML 2 ). The angular momentum equation in (7.26) becomes m( dVC ) dt = m[ ( dVC ) dt + ω × VC ] = F (7. aerodynamic forces and propulsion forces. not time-varying) matrix since it is deﬁned in the body-axis O xyz . Now we can proceed to the development of the equations of motion for a rigid body from Newton’s laws. Since the rigid body has an angular velocity ω. ωz ).

3 Euler’s Angles The angular velocity components ωx (or p).34) (7.2 Moment Equations With Newton’s laws applying to the angular momentum. y1 . . y3 . In other words.24). Formostairplanedynamics. ω y (or q) and ωz (or r) about the body axes x . 7. equation (7. Rotation about the Z-axis (i. 3. z 3 ).31) becomes Iω + ω × Iω = M ˙ (7. One useful set of angular displacements called Euler’s angles obtained through successive rotations about three (not necessarily orthogonal) axes as follows. MOMENT EQUATIONS 79 7. such a set is not necessarily unique. We will examine these in the next section. • About the body O x direction: I xx p − (I yy − I zz )qr − I yz (q 2 − r 2 ) − Izx (˙ + pq) − I xy (q − rp ) = M x = L ˙ r ˙ • About the body O y direction: I yy q − (Izz − I xx )rp − Izx (r 2 − p2 ) − I xy ( p + qr ) − I yz (˙ − pq) = M y = M ˙ ˙ r • About the body O z direction: I zz r − (I xx − I yy ) pq − I xy ( p2 − q 2 ) − I yz (q + rp ) − I zx ( p − qr ) = Mz = N ˙ ˙ ˙ (7.32) can be written in the following form.33) The moment components L .7. y and z cannot be integrated to obtain the corresponding angular displacements about these axes. Rotation about the x2 -axis (i. M and N on the right-hand side of the above equations are due to aerodynamic forces and propulsion forces.westartwithasetofinertialaxes OXY Z andperformthefollowingrotations in a particular order (Figure 7.e roll) through an angle φ ⇒ (x3 .2. Rotation about the y1 -axis (i.31) OXYZ O xyz Using equation (7.e yaw) through an angle ψ ⇒ (x1 .32) Using the above deﬁnitions for ω and the inertia matrix I. Of course. z 2 ).2). equation (7. y2. z 1 ).e pitch) through an angle θ ⇒ (x 2 . the orientation of the rigid body in space is not known until we describe the three rotational degrees of freedom in terms of a set of independent coordinates. we have ( dHC ) dt =( dHC ) dt + ω × HC = M (7.35) (7. Note that there is no contribution from the gravitational force since these moments are taken about the center of gravity. 1. 2.

φ). z3 ) coordinate frame. y3 .40) (7.80 CHAPTER 7. We use the above results for rotation of coordinate frames to obtain. ˙ ˙ φ − ψ sin θ = p ˙ ˙ θ cos φ + ψ cos θ sin φ = q and ˙ ˙ ψ cos θ cos φ − θ sin φ = r (7.42) (7. • ψ Rotation: • θ Rotation: x1 cos ψ y1 = − sin ψ z1 0 sin ψ cos ψ 0 0 1 0 0 x 0 y 1 z (7. At each rotation. REVIEW OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS φ x3 θ x2 x ψ x1 y2 y1 θ ψ φ y3 ψ y θ φ z2 z1 z z3 Figure 7.37) Notice that all the above rotation matrices are orthogonal matrices and hence nonsingular and invertible. Namely.2: Euler’s Angle Deﬁnition The Euler’s angles for an aircraft are deﬁned as above in terms of (ψ. Angular velocity ω of the rotating frame attached to the rigid body is given by ˙ ˙ ˙ ω = ψk + θj1 + φi2 = pi3 + qj3 + rk3 (7.41) .39) x3 1 0 y3 = 0 cos φ z3 0 − sin φ (7. θ.38) We need to express ω in terms of its components in the (x 3 .36) • φ Rotation: x2 cos θ y2 = 0 z2 sin θ − sin θ x1 y1 0 cos θ z1 0 x2 y2 sin φ cos φ z2 (7. components of a vector expressed in the coordinate frame before and after the rotation are related through a rotation matrix.

N ) We can use the above transformations given in equations (7.gra vity j3 + Fz.36)-(7.42) are solved (i.46) These components constitute respectively parts of the force components in the right-hand side of equations (7. (7. r) derived from equations (7. EULER’S ANGLES 81 Equations (7.gra vity = mg cos θ sin φ and Fz.43) The “ﬂat-earth” model is represented by having the gravitational force always pointed along the vector k. one can express the coordinates (x.3.51) . Namely.49) • −ψ Rotation: x cos ψ y = sin ψ z 0 − sin ψ cos ψ 0 (7.40)-(7. we obtain Fx.gra vity = mg cos θ cos φ (7.38) to express the gravitational force into the body components as follows.gra vity = −mg sin θ Fy.50) This yields the following complete transformation.44) (7. z 3 ) by reversing the above sequence of rotations. x cos ψ cos θ y = sin ψ cos θ z − sin θ − sin ψ cos φ + cos ψ sin θsin φ cos ψ cos φ + sin ψ sin θ sin φ cos θ sin φ sin ψ sin φ + cos ψ sin θ cosφ x3 − cos ψ sin φ + sin ψ sin θ cos φ y3 cos θ cos φ z3 (7.7. Fgra vity = mg k = Fx.gra vity k3 (7. q. z) in terms of the coordinates (x3 . ψ) from the body angular rates ( p. • −φ Rotation: x2 1 0 y2 = 0 cos φ z2 0 sin φ 0 x3 − sin φ y3 cos φ z3 0 1 0 sin θ x2 y2 0 cos θ z2 0 x1 0 y2 1 z3 (7.38) yield the relationship between the coordinates in the two reference frames following the Euler’s angle deﬁnition. Solving for the components of the gravitational force along the vehicle body axes.28)-(7. In general. M.48) • −θ Rotation: x1 cos θ y1 = 0 z1 − sin θ (7.e integrated) to determine the orientation of the vehicle (φ. θ.47) sin φ cos θ cos φ cos θ z Similarly.gra vity i3 + Fy. y3 . the three successive rotations in equations (7.30).45) x3 cos θ cos ψ y3 = sin φ sin θ cosψ − cos φ sin ψ z3 cos φsin θ cos ψ + sin φ sin ψ cos θ sin ψ sin φ sin θ sin ψ + cos φ cos ψ cos φ sin θ sin ψ − sin φ cos ψ − sin θ x y (7.33)-(7. y.35) when we know the externally applied moment components (L .36)-(7.

54) (7.53) (7. First we make the observation « = xi + y j + z k = ui3 + vj3 + wk3 r ˙ ˙ ˙ or (7.57) ω = I−1 (−ω × Iω + M) ˙ (7.56) Expanding the above expression. w) in the body-ﬁxed axis.59) 1 (Yaero + Y propulsion ) m (7.62) . REVIEW OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS The above transformation can be used to determine the aircraft position in terms of its linear velocity V with components (u.61) ˙ ψ = q sin φsecθ + r cos φsecθ ˙ = p + q sin φtan θ + r cos φtan θ φ (7.55) (7.82 CHAPTER 7. v.58) 1 (X aero + X propulsion ) m (7.52) x ˙ cos ψ cos θ y = sin ψ cos θ ˙ z ˙ − sin θ − sin ψ cos φ + cos ψ sin θ sin φ cos ψ cos φ + sin ψ sin θ sin φ cos θ sin φ sin ψ sin φ + cos ψ sin θ cosφ u − cos ψ sin φ + sin ψ sin θ cos φ v cos θ cos φ w (7. • Linear momentum equations: – Along the body O x direction: u = rv − qw − g sin θ + ˙ – Along the body O y direction: v = pw − ru + g sin φ cos θ + ˙ – Along the body O z direction: w = qu − pv + g cos θ cos φ + ˙ • Angular momentum equations: 1 (Z aero + Z propulsion ) m (7. we have x = u cos ψ cos θ + v(− sin ψ cos φ + cos ψ sin θsin φ) + w(sin ψ sin φ + cos ψ sin θ cosφ) ˙ y = u sin ψ cos θ + v(cos ψ cos φ + sin ψ sin θ sin φ) + w(− cos ψ sin φ + sin ψ sin θ cos φ) ˙ and z = −u sin θ + v cos θ sin φ + w cos θ cos φ ˙ Let’s summarize here the equations governing the motion of a rigid body aircraft.60) • Equations for the vehicle attitude rates: ˙ φ 1 θ = 0 ˙ ˙ ψ 0 cos φ 0 − sin φ or ˙ θ = q cos φ − r sin φ −1 − sin θ p q cos θ sin φ cos θ cos φ r (7.

7.3. EULER’S ANGLES • Equations for Earth-relative velocities: – x -distance: 83 x = u cos ψ cos θ + v(− sin ψ cos φ + cos ψ sin θsin φ) + w(sin ψ sin φ + cos ψ sin θ cosφ) ˙ (7. In the above derivation. the external forces F and moments M (about the center of gravity) on the right-hand side remain tobe determined.e gravity is always pointing in the vertical k direction) • Axes ﬁxed to the body with origin at the center of gravity • Earth-ﬁxed reference is treated as inertial reference . They are derived from basic aerodynamic and propulsionforces and moments.64) – Vertical altitude h = −z: ˙ h = u sin θ − v cos θ sin φ − w cos θ cos φ (7.63) – y-distance: y = u sin ψ cos θ + v(cos ψ cos φ + sin ψ sin θ sin φ) + w(− cos ψ sin φ + sin ψ sin θ cos φ) ˙ (7.65) In the above equations. we made the following assumptions: • Rigid airframe • Flat Earth (i.

84 CHAPTER 7. REVIEW OF RIGID BODY DYNAMICS .

w) directly in terms of V. β through the following relations: u where V is the aircraft velocity. As shown in Figure 8. we can express the linear velocities (u.1) O' Vcosβsinα Vcosβcosα β α Vcos β x Vsinβ z y V Figure 8.28)-(7. u ˙ = rv − qw − g sin θ + X/m v = pw − ru + g sin φ cos θ + Y/m ˙ w = qu − pv + g cos θ cos φ + Z /m ˙ 85 (8.1 Linearized Linear Acceleration Equations Major contributions to the forces and moments in a ﬂight vehicle are coming from the aerodynamics of wings. = V cos β cos α v = V sin β w = V cos β sin α (8.30) as follows.1. v. v and w.2) . α is the aircraft angle of attack and β the aircraft sideslip.1: Deﬁnition of Angle of Attack α and Sideslip β We can rewrite the linear equations of motion given in equations (7. α.Chapter 8 Linearized Equations of Motion 8. It would be difﬁcult to express these in terms of the vehicle motion variables u. angle of attack α and angle of sideslip β. body and tail surfaces. However it is much easier to express them in terms of the vehicle velocity V .

5) Substitute equations (8. X. g is the gravitational acceleration and V is the total velocity. Y = Yo + α. q = qo + X.86 CHAPTER 8. v and w can be derived in terms of the variables V . r . m is the total airplane mass. Y . We obtain u ˙ Or we can re-write equations (8. X. q. Z.10) . q.1) with respect to time t. p.6) ˙ β − cos αVcos β = −g(sin θcosαcosβ − cosθ sin φsinβ − cosθ cosφsin αcosβ) X Y Z + m cosαcosβ + m sin β + m sin αcosβ cosθ cosφcosα + sin θsin α = q − pcos αtanβ − rsin αtanβ + g Vcos β X sin α + Z cos α − m Vcos β m Vcos β g = psin α − rcos α + V (sin θcosαsinβ + cos θsin φcosβ X Y Z −cosθcosφsin αsinβ) − mV cosαsin β + mV cosβ − mV sin αsin β (8.7) where α. ˙ ˙ = Vcos αcosβ − V αsin αcosβ − V βcosαsinβ ˙ ˙ ˙ v = Vsin β + βVcos β ˙ w = Vsin αcosβ + V αcosαcosβ − V βsin αsin β ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ −V sin α cos β 0 V cos α cos β ˙ −V cos α sin β V u ˙ α = v V cos β ˙ ˙ ˙ −V sin α sin β β w ˙ (8. sideslip. r = ro + Y. β. β.9) Z (8.6) and expand into components.7). Y and Z are the external forces along the x . LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION The linear accelerations u. α. From equations (8. Z = Z o + r.3) ˙ ˙ ˙ Solving for V . ˙ V ˙ α ˙ β ˙ cos α cos β V α = − Vsin αβ ˙ cos (8. we obtain cos α cos β sin β sin α cos β (8. θ and φ in a symmetric climb condition with • Linear velocities: • Angular velocities: • Force components: V = Vo + p = po + X = Xo + V.2) into equations (8.4) or ˙ V cos α cos β α= ˙ sin β ˙ β sin α cos β −V sin α cos β 0 V cos α cos β sin β 0 cos β V −V cos α sin β −1 u ˙ v V cos β ˙ −V sin α sin β w ˙ sin α cos β u ˙ cos α v ˙ V cos β sin α sin β w ˙ − V (8. α and β. pitch and roll respectively. θ and φ are the angles of attack. β = βo + β. (8. α = αo + p.3) in terms of a linear system of equations.8) (8. we can obtain a set of linearized equations in terms of the perturbation variables V . y and z-body axes. β and α by differentiating ˙ ˙ ˙ equations (8.

θ and φ are perturbation variables about the trim condition. p.11)into equations (8.) and invoking at the same time small angle approximations (i. Y . X. we can further express the external force components X and Z in terms of the lift L. we can derive the linearized equations of motion governing the perturbed variables V . After some lengthy manipulation.7).2: X and Z-Force Components in terms of L. Z .. The linearization is done by neglecting the higher-order terms (e. cos β ≈ 1.g.. we have βo = po = qo = ro = Yo = φo = ψo = 0. sin β ≈ β. α. ˙ V α ˙ ˙ β = −gcos (θo − αo ) θ + cosαo X + sin αo Z m m g sin αo X + cos αo = q − V sin (θo − αo ) θ − mV mV o o o g 1 = sin αo p − cosαo r + V cosθo φ + mV Y o o Z (8. V α ≈ 0. αo is the trim angle of attack.12) x L X V θ αT α T O D Ζ mg z Figure 8.2).11) where Vo is the constant aircraft trim velocity. β α ≈ 0. ψ = ψo + ψ 87 (8. θo is the trim airplane pitch attitude. They are always treated as small quantities.e. Substituting equations (8. These trim quantities may not be zero for other ﬂight condition (e. For a symmetric climb condition. D and T Using Figure (8. Note that the variables V . LINEARIZED LINEAR ACCELERATION EQUATIONS • Airplane attitude angles: θ = θo + θ . φ = φo + φ. α and β are derived.1. β and α..g..13) .8. etc . r. etc.). q.8)-(8. X Z = Lsin α − Dcos α + Tcos αT = −Lcos α − Dsin α − Tsin αT (8. β. the following equations of motion for the perturbation variables V . drag D and propulsion force T as follows. X o is the trim force component in the x-direction and Z o is the trim force component in the zdirection. steady level turn).

Namely. Substituting equations (8. D. T and Y as a function of the vehicle motion variables and their perturbations.33)-(7.16) then reduce to ˙ V α ˙ ˙ β 1 = −gcos (θo − αo ) θ − L o α − m D + cos(αo + αT ) T m m g sin (αo + αT ) T Do α − 1 = q − V sin (θo − αo ) θ − mV mV o L − mV o o o g 1 = sin αo p − cosαo r + V cosθo φ + mV Y o o (8. To complete these equations.88 CHAPTER 8.20) .14) (8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION T . we express the linearized equations in terms of T and Y .35) and examining the condition related to a steady level climb condition.12).17) Equations (8.18) The above equations are the linearized equations of the linear acceleration equations. ˙ V α ˙ ˙ β 1 = −gcos (θo − αo ) θ − To sin (θo + αT ) α − m D + cos(αo + αT ) T m m g T cos(θo + αo ) = q − V sin (θo − αo )( θ − α) − o mV α o o 1 − sin (αo + αT ) T − mV L mV o o g 1 = sin αo p − cosαo r + V cosθo φ + mV Y o o Do + mgsin (θo − αo ) − To cos(αo + αT ) = 0 L o − mgcos (θo − αo ) + To sin (αo + αT ) = 0 (8. 8. D = Do + D and T = To + determined from force balance with the gravity force mg. with the angular velocities deﬁned as p = po + p q = qo + q (8.15) into equations (8. D.16) We also note that (8. one needs to express in details the terms involved in L.15) L. The trim conditions are now Again we can deﬁne L = L o + L.19) r = r + r o and the moments as L = Lo + L M = Mo + M N = N + N o (8. X o = L o sin αo − Do cosαo + To cosαT = mgsin θo Z o = −L o cosαo − Do sin αo − To sin αT = −mgcos θo and X Z = (L o cosαo + Do sin αo ) α + sin αo L − cosαo D + cos αT T = (L o sin αo − Do cosαo ) α − cosαo L − sin αo D − sin αT T (8. q and r. In the next section.2 Linearized Angular Acceleration Equations According to equations (7. we proceed to formulate the linearized equations of motion corresponding to the angular velocity components p.

. Equation (8.2. one needs to express in details the terms involved in M. after neglecting all the high-order terms.23) In summary. LINEARIZED ANGULAR ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 89 Notice that for a steady level climb condition. • About the O z direction: I zz r − (I xx − I yy ) p q − I xy ( p2 − ˙ or.33)-(7. I xx Note that in general I xz = 0. The vehicle attitudes are described using the Euler’s angles.35) and retaining only the ﬁrst-order terms in p.25) To complete these equations. Substituting equations (8. L and N as a function of the vehicle motion variables and their perturbations. q and r.19) into equations (7. after neglecting all the high-order terms.21) p 2 ) − I xy ( p − ˙ q r) − I yz ( r − ˙ p q) = M Assuming further that the airplane has a symmetry about the O xz plane then we have I xy = I yz = 0. I yy q − I xy ˙ p − I yz r = ˙ ˙ M (8. we obtain • About the O y direction: I yy q − (Izz − I xx ) r p − Izx ( r 2 − ˙ or. In the next section. after neglecting all the high-order terms. equations that describe the vehicle attitudes for small perturbation angles are developed.21) now simpliﬁes greatly to I yy q = ˙ • About the O x direction: I xx p − (I yy − I zz ) q r − I yz ( q 2 − ˙ r 2 ) − I xz ( r + ˙ q p) − I xy ( q − ˙ r p) = L M (Pitching equation) (8. the equations describing the angular accelerations of the vehicle are given by I yy 0 0 0 I xx −Izx 0 −I xz Izz q ˙ p = ˙ r ˙ M L N (8. Izz r − Izx ˙ p= ˙ N (Yawing equation) (8.8.22) or. po = qo = ro = 0 and L o = Mo = No = 0.24) q 2 ) − I yz ( q + ˙ r p) − I zx ( p − ˙ q r) = N p − Ixz r = ˙ ˙ L (Rolling equation) (8.

29) 8.40)-(7.90 CHAPTER 8.27). Let’s deﬁne the following dimensionless motion related variables. similarly. LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION 8. ignoring the high-order terms. for moments about the vehicle axes. drag and propulsion forces are expressed in terms of the motion variables and their perturbations.28) ˙ ψ(sin θo + cosθo θ ) = p 1 r cos θo ˙ φ− (Yaw angle equation) (8.26) ˙ ψsin (θo + θ) = p Using equation (8.4 Forces and Moments in terms of their Coefﬁcient Derivatives In this section.11). then q (Pitch angle equation) (8. ˙ ˙ φ − sin θo ψ = ˙ φ= p (Bank angle equation) (8. p = pb/(2Vo ) ¯ q = qc/(2Vo ) ¯ r = rb /(2V ) ¯ o ¯ V = V/ Vo ¯ α = αc/(2V ) ˙ ˙ o ¯ ˙ ˙ (8.27) r θ )cos φ − ˙ θ sin φ = r ˙ ψcos(θo + θ)sin φ = q ˙ ψsin φ ≈ 0. .42).3 Linearized Euler’s Angle Equations From equations (7. the lift. Results are represented in terms of the vehicle stability derivatives.30) β = βb/(2Vo ) Equations describing forces due to aerodynamics and propulsion are given below.we have • For the pitch angle θ: Since cos φ ≈ 1 and ˙ θ cos φ + ˙ θ= • For the yaw (heading) angle ψ: ˙ ψcos(θo + or ˙ ψ(cosθo − sin θo θ ) = Further simpliﬁcation yields ˙ ψ= • For the bank angle φ: or ˙ φ− Again. the above equation simpliﬁes to p + tan θo r (8. and assuming the trim conditions as deﬁned in equations (8.8)-(8.

34) +C L δe δe + C L δsp δsp + C L δa δa + C L δr δr + · · · Thecoefﬁcients C L α (andlikewise C L β˙ comeaboutfromthefactthattheinﬂuenceofdownwash(orsidewash) ¯ ¯ ˙ on the tail angle of attack (or sideslip) is not felt until it has been propagated from the wing (where it was generated) to the tail location traveling at a velocity Vo .37) Thus.31) in terms of L = ρo Vo SC L trim 1 V + ρo Vo2 S C L 2 Now we can express C L in terms of the vehicle lift coefﬁcient derivatives. CL = CL M +C L p ¯ +C L α ¯ ˙ M + CL h h + CLα α + CLβ β p + C L q q + C Lr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α +C ˙ β Lβ ¯ ˙ (8.31) 1 2 ρo Vo SC L trim 2 V and (8. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES 91 8. the coefﬁcient C L α is obtained from ¯ ˙ L t (s) = ηt qS t at αt (s) or L t (s) = ηt qS t at (α(s) − (s)) Substituting equations (8.38) − ∂ −lt s/Vo e α(s) ∂α ..36) ∂β Noting that the exponential function e−lt s/Vo can be expanded into e −l t s Vo ≈1− lt s 1 lt s + Vo 2 Vo 2 + . we have L= L o = L trim = And the perturbation in lift L (8. This means that the downwash (or sidewash) can be expressed in terms of the wing angle of attack α (or sideslip β) through a time-delay function e −τs where l τ = Vto . Namely (8.8.35) ∂α and ∂ −lt s/Vo = o+ e β (8..35) and (8. ∂ −lt s/Vo = o+ e α (8.4.1 Lift Force L 1 ρV 2 SC L = L o + 2 where C L is the total lift coefﬁcient.4.33) L is given by expanding equation (8. we otain L t (s) = ηt qS t at α(s) − o (8.32) C L . At trim. Namely.38).37) into equation (8. (8.

**92 or L t (s) = ηt qS t at α(s) − Or re-written in time domain, we have L t (t) = ηt qS t at α(t ) −
**

o

**CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION
**

2

o−

∂ lt s 1 lt s 1− + ∂α Vo 2 Vo

+ ... α(s)

−

∂ lt 1 α(t) − α(t) + ˙ ∂α Vo 2

lt Vo

2

α(t) + ... ¨

(8.39)

From the above equation (8.39), we can deduce that C L t,α = ηt Similarly, St ∂ lt at S ∂α Vo and for a better approximation one can also include terms involving α, ¨ C L t,α = ηt ˙ C L t,α = −ηt ¨

3

St ∂ at 1 − S ∂α

(8.40)

(8.41)

St ∂ 1 at S ∂α 2

lt Vo

2

(8.42)

or higher-order time derivatives in α, such as d α etc... dt 3 ¯ we have In terms of the nondimensional variable α, ˙ C L α = C L t,α ¯ ˙ ˙ 2Vo St ∂ 2lt = ηt at c S ∂α c (8.43)

The same procedure could be applied to the calculation of C L β˙ and terms involving derivatives with ¯ ˙ respect to β and higher time derivatives in sideslip β. However, in most circumstances, the effects of sideslip on lift are considered insigniﬁcant and can be neglected. Note that we make use of the following relationship to convert between Mach number M and velocity V derivatives, ∂C L ∂C L dM 1 ∂C L = = (8.44) ∂V ∂ M dV a ∂M and a is the speed of sound.

8.4.2 Drag Force D

1 ρV 2 SC D = Do + 2 where C D is the total drag coefﬁcient. At trim, we have D= Do = Dtrim = And the perturbation in drag D (8.45)

1 2 ρo Vo SC Dtrim 2 V and

(8.46) C D . Namely (8.47)

D is given by expanding equation (8.45) in terms of D = ρo Vo SC Dtrim 1 V + ρo Vo2 S C D 2

8.4. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES Now we can express C D in terms of the vehicle drag coefﬁcient derivatives, C D = C DM +C D p ¯ +C Dα ¯ ˙ M + C Dh h + C Dα α + C Dβ β p + C Dq¯ q + C Dr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α +C ˙ β

Dβ ¯ ˙

93

(8.48) δr + · · ·

+C Dδe δe + C Dδsp

δsp + C Dδa δa + C Dδr

8.4.3 Side-Force Y

Y = 1 2 ρV SC Y = Yo + 2 Y (8.49) Y is given by expanding

where CY is the total side-force coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in side force equation (8.49) in terms of V and CY . Namely Y = ρo Vo SC Ytrim 1 1 V + ρo Vo2 S CY = ρo Vo2 S C Y 2 2

(8.50)

Sinceintrim, Ytrim = 0 or CYtrim = 0. Now wecanexpress C Y intermsofthevehicleside-force coefﬁcient derivatives, CY = CYM M + CYh h + CYα α + C Yβ β +CY p ¯ +CYα ¯ ˙ p + CYq q + CYr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α+C ˙ β

Yβ ¯ ˙

(8.51) δr + · · ·

+CYδe δe + CYδsp

δsp + CYδa δa + C Yδr

8.4.4 Thrust Force T

T = 1 ρV 2 SC T 2 (8.52) T is given by expanding equation

where C T is the total thrust coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in thrust (8.52) in terms of V and C T . Namely T = ρo Vo SC Ttrim Now we can express 1 V + ρo Vo2 S C T 2

(8.53)

C T in terms of the thrust coefﬁcient derivatives, CT ¯ = C TV¯ V + C Tα α + C Tδth ¯ δth + C Tα α + · · · ˙ ¯ ˙ (8.54)

Similarly, the moments due to the aerodynamic and propulsion forces are given below. However, for simplicity, we assume that the thrust force is assumed to apply at the airplane center of gravity. Hence it has no effects on the vehicle pitching, rolling and yawing moments.

94

CHAPTER 8. LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION

8.4.5 Pitching Moment M

1 ρV 2 ScC M (8.55) 2 where C M is the total pitchingmoment coefﬁcient. And the perturbation inpitching moment M isgiven by expanding equation (8.55) in terms of V and C M . Note that for a vehicle in trim, Mtrim = C Mtrim = 0. Namely 1 1 M = ρo Vo ScC Mtrim V + ρo Vo2 Sc C M = ρo Vo2 Sc C M (8.56) 2 2 Now we can express C M in terms of the vehicle pitching moment coefﬁcient derivatives, M= CM = C MM +C M p ¯ +C Mα ¯ ˙ M + C Mh h + C Mα α + C Mβ β p + C Mq¯ q + C Mr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α+C ˙ β

Mβ ¯ ˙

(8.57) δr + · · ·

+C Mδe δe + C Mδsp

δsp + C Mδa δa + C Mδr

As in the calculation of C L α , we can use the same approach to obtain C Mα . Namely, ¯ ¯ ˙ ˙ Mt = − L t l t Thus or C Mα = −ηt VH at ˙ ¯ In terms of the nondimensional variable α, we have ˙ C Mα = C Mα ¯ ˙ ˙ 2Vo ∂ 2lt = −ηt VH at c ∂α c (8.60) lt C Mα = − C L α ˙ c ˙ ∂ lt ∂α Vo (8.59) (8.58)

8.4.6 Yawing Moment N

1 ρV 2 SbC N (8.61) 2 where C N is the total yawing moment coefﬁcient. And the perturbation in yawing moment N is given by expanding equation (8.61) in terms of V and C N . Note that for a vehicle in trim, Ntrim = C Ntrim = 0. Namely 1 1 2 N = ρo Vo SbC Ntrim V + ρo Vo2 Sb C N = ρo Vo Sb C N (8.62) 2 2 Now we can express C N in terms of the vehicle yawing moment coefﬁcient derivatives, N= CN = CNM +C N p ¯ +C Nα ¯ ˙ M + C Nh h + C Nα α + C Nβ β p + C Nq¯ q + C Nr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α+C ˙ β

Nβ ¯ ˙

(8.63) δr + · · ·

+C Nδe δe + C Nδsp

δsp + C Nδa δa + C Nδr

q. α.66) +C L δe δe + C L δsp δsp + C L δa δa + C L δr δr + · · · In the most general cases.64) 2 where C L is the total rolling moment coefﬁcient. φ. r. β.4. φ. This usually leads to the separation of the the basic equations of motion of an airplane into two distinct sets: one set corresponds to the longitudinal motion for the variables { V. θ. φ. . L trim = C L trim = 0. dynamics of a ﬂight vehicle are fully described by 9 highly coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations governing the motion variables {V.65) 2 2 Now we can express C L in terms of the vehicle rolling moment coefﬁcient derivatives. p. ψ}. CL = CL M +C L p ¯ +C L α ¯ ˙ M + CL h h + CLα α + CLβ β p + C L q q + C Lr¯ r ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˙ α +C ˙ β Lβ ¯ ˙ (8. θ }. When further simpliﬁcation can be achieved by taking into considerationthe airplane symmetry and the decoupled effects in aerodynamic forces and moments. ψ}. p. θ. And the perturbation in rolling moment L is given by expanding equation (8. r. q. q. Namely 1 1 L = ρo Vo SbC L trim V + ρo Vo2 Sb C L = ρo Vo2 Sb C L (8. r. Note that for a vehicle in trim. and the other set to the lateral motion for the variables { β.4. α. α. p. FORCES AND MOMENTS IN TERMS OF THEIR COEFFICIENT DERIVATIVES 95 8.64) in terms of V and C L . β. ψ}. Linearization about a trim condition reduces them to a set of 9 highly coupled (but) linear ordinary differential equations for the perturbed variables { V.8.7 Rolling Moment L 1 L = ρV 2 SbC L (8.

LINEARIZED EQUATIONS OF MOTION .96 CHAPTER 8.

Vo . Of course. α. L o and Do are determined from the trim conditions involving usually the solutions of a set of nonlinear algebraic equations.18). Criticaldesign parameters affecting these responses are delineated. Flying qualities of the vehicle are subsequently deﬁned in terms of these fundamental response characteristics.25) and (8. we examine the ﬂight dynamics characteristics associated with motion in the longitudinal axis. in the model linearization.33).46).1) The variables θo . Thus. Do . wealso assume that the motion of the vehicle is undergoing small changes in the variables V .26). The assumptions made in the analysis are that the effects of lateral motion on the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments associated with the lift L. αo . θ }. Using expressions for L o .Chapter 9 Linearized Longitudinal Equations of Motion In this chapter. Timeresponsesofthe vehicle motion inthe longitudinalaxis arealsodevelopedillustratingthe effectiveness ofthecontrols. q.32). ˙ V α ˙ q ˙ ˙ θ 1 = −gcos (θo − αo ) θ − L o α − m D + cos(αT + αo ) T m m g Do α − 1 = q − sin (θo − αo ) θ − L − sin (αT + αo ) T Vo mV o mV o mV o = 1 M I yy = q (9. in general. D and T as derived in equations (8. Following the linearization performed in Chapter 8. drag D and thrust T forces are negligeable.47) and 97 . q and θ along with small inputs in the controls δe . the equations of motion governing the longitudinal dynamics are for the motion variables { V. (8. L. (8. α. Simple approximation models for the longitudinal dynamics are developed that provide further insights intothefrequency separationbetween thephugoidandtheshort-periodmodes. δsp and δth . (8. (8. it is described by a set of 4 linear ordinary differential equations obtained from equations (8. Namely.

equations (9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION (8. Usingthedeﬁnition ofthenondimensionalvariables ¯ ¯ V .98 CHAPTER 9.1) become ˙ V 1 1 = −gcos (θo − αo ) θ − m 1 ρo Vo2 SC L(trim ) α − m ρo Vo SC D(trim ) V + 1 ρo Vo2 S 2 2 C DM a ¯ V + C Dh h + C Dα α + C Dq¯ q + C Dα α + C Dδe δe + C Dδsp ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙ δth δsp ¯ + cos(αT + αo ) 1 ρo Vo2 S C TV¯ V + C Tα α + C Tδth m 2 α ˙ = g 1 1 q − V sin (θo − αo ) θ − mV 1 ρo Vo2 SC D(trim ) α − mV ρo Vo SC L(trim ) V o o2 o + 1 ρo Vo2 S 2 +C L δsp δsp CLM a ¯ V + C L h h + C L α α + C L q¯ q + C L α α + C L δe δe ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙ δth (9. we obtain ¯ ˙ ρo Vo Sc ¯ ˙ 4m C Dα 0 1 + ρo Sc C ¯ ˙ 4m L α ρo Vo Sc 2 0 − ¯ ˙ 4I yy C Mα 0 0 1 ρo Vo S ˙ − 2m 2C D + C D M M − C TV¯ cos(αT + αo ) V 0 0 α − ρo S 2C L + C L M M + C TV¯ sin(αT + αo ) ˙ 2m = q ˙ ρo Vo Sc 1 0 2I yy C M M M ˙ θ 0 0 1 0 0 2 ρo Vo S C L − C Dα + C Tα cos(αT + αo ) 2m ρo Vo S − 2m C D + C L α + C Tα sin(αT + αo ) ρo Vo2 Sc 2I yy C Mα 0 ρo Vo Sc C Dq¯ 4m ρo Sc 1 − 4m C L q¯ ρo Vo Sc 2 ¯ 4I yy C Mq 1 −g cos(θo − αo ) V g − V sin(θo − αo ) α o q + 0 θ 0 ρ Vo2 S − o2m C Dδe ρo Vo S − 2m C L δe 2 ρo Vo Sc C Mδe 2I yy 0 ρ Vo2 S − o2m C Dδsp ρ V S − o o C L δsp 2m 2 ρo Vo Sc 2I yy C Mδsp 0 2 ρo Vo S C Tδth cos(αT + αo ) 2m δe ρo Vo S − 2m C Tδth sin(αT + αo ) δsp ρo Vo2 Sc δth 2I yy C Mδth 0 (9. q and α in equations (8.3) . wehave h = 0.53).2) ¯ − sin (αT + αo ) 1 ρo Vo2 S C TV¯ V + C Tα α + C Tδth mV o 2 ¯ V + C Mh h + C Mα α + C Mq¯ q + C Mα α ¯ ˙ ¯ ˙ δsp q ˙ = CMM 1 1 2 a I yy 2 ρo Vo Sc +C Mδe δe + C Mδsp ˙ θ = q Foranairplanetrimmedatlevelﬂight.30).

6) 4mI yy Thus. however when the airplane isstatically stable.4) (9.99 ˙ We can solve for { V . In this case. . in another words. we actually do not calculate the characteristic equation explicitly.wehave C M M = 0andforlevelﬂight γo = θo −αo = 0.29559. clearly if the aircraft is statically stable then E will be positive. A MATLAB-mﬁle toformulatethe longitudinal equationsof motion isgiven below for thedesign model described in Section 11. 0 0 0 1 −1 ρo Vo S 2C D + C DM M − C TV¯ cos(αT + αo ) − 2m 0 − ρo S 2C L + C L M M + C TV¯ sin(αT + αo ) 2m ρo Vo Sc 0 2I yy C M M M ρo Vo Sc ¯ ˙ ˙ 1 4m C Dα V 0 1 + ρo Sc C α ¯ ˙ 4m L α ˙ = q ˙ ρo Vo Sc 2 0 − ¯ ˙ ˙ 4I yy C Mα θ 0 0 0 1 0 2 ρo Vo S 2m C L − C Dα + C Tα cos(αT + αo ) ρ V S − o o C D + C L α + C Tα sin(αT + αo ) 2m ρo Vo2 Sc 2I yy C Mα 0 Dδe ρo Vo Sc 4m C Dq¯ ρo Sc 1 − 4m C L q¯ ρo Vo Sc 2 ¯ 4I yy C Mq 1 Tδth In abbreviated notation. Inmostsituations. a necessary condition for the quartic characteristic equation to have stable roots is for the coefﬁcient E to be positive. C Mα ≥ 0) then E is negative and we know with certainty that the aircraft is dynamically unstable.e. we cannot tell whether it isdynamically stable until we solve for the roots of the quartic characteristic equation. rather we develop the corresponding system matrix F (deﬁned above) and solve for its eigenvalues (They are then exactly the roots of the characteristic equation).00230990. ˙ ˙ θ} as follows.5) where the matrices F and G can be deduced from the above equation directly. In most problems. we write the above equation in the following form ˙ V α ˙ = F q ˙ ˙ θ 2m ρo Vo S − 2m C L δe 2 ρo Vo Sc C Mδe 2I yy ρ V 2S − o o C ρ V 2S − o o C 0 2m ρo Vo S − 2m C L δsp ρo Vo2 Sc 2I yy C Mδsp 0 Dδsp 2m δe ρo Vo S − 2m C Tδth sin(αT + αo ) δsp 2 ρo Vo Sc δth C Mδth 2I yy 0 V δe α + G δsp q δth θ ρo Vo2 S C −g cos(θo − αo ) V g − V sin(θo − αo ) α o q + 0 θ 0 cos(αT + αo ) (9.1. thenthecharacteristicequation forthelongitudinalequationisa4 th -orderpolynomialin s ofthefollowingform s 4 + Bs 3 +Cs 2 + Ds + E = 0 where ρ 2 S 2 Vo2 c E=− o 2C L + C L M M + C TV¯ sin (αT + αo ) gC Mα (9. ˙ q. rho=0. This situation illustrates the fact that a statically unstable airplane is dynamicallyunstable. Vo=556. α. if the aircraft is statically unstable (i.

CTalpha=0.37257.20709. 0.5.2322. 0.2322. CMalpha=-0.Iyz=0. CLM=7. . Weight=45000.18105*pi/180.1+rho*S*c*CLalphadot/4/m.38308e-2.45058e-6.8706.0. %Pitch Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives CMq=3.887. alphaT=0.0.m=Weight/g.100 CHAPTER 9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION S=608. Izz=187900.1].0. CMalphadot=-11. CDelev=4. CDalpha=0. -rho*S/2/m*(2*CL+CLM*M+CTv*sin(alphaT+alphao)). CL=0. %Lift Coefﬁcient Derivatives CLq=-17. CD=0. %Drag Coefﬁcient Derivatives CDq=0.168819. b=42.-rho*Vo*S*c^2*CMalphadot/4/Iyy.01468. c=15. g=32. M=0. Ixy=0.0. CDM=0.05586e-6. Iyy=165100. B1=[-rho*Vo*S/2/m*(2*CD+CDM*M-CTv*cos(alphaT+alphao)). CLalphadot=17.1.rho*Vo*S*c*CDalphadot/4/m.572957. thetao=alphao.0. Ixx=28700. CMelev=-0. CDalphadot=0. %Trim angle of attack alphao=0. %Matrix A A=[1.695281.0. CLelev=0. %Thrust Coefﬁcient Derivatives CTv=0.17095. CLalpha=4. 0.0. Izx=-520. CMM=-7.8953.95.8.

plot(t1.u.xo).t1. rho*Vo*S*c^2*CMq/4/Iyy. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Pitch Attitude (deg)') subplot(222). y2=lsim(F. y1=lsim(F.1)).180*y2(:. 1-rho*S*c*CLq/4/m.1). 1].zeros(4.y1(:.eye(4).t2.G. t1=[0:.101 rho*Vo*S*c*CMM*M/2/Iyy. clg. 0]. t2=[0:.B2.180*y1(:. %Longitudinal equations of motion F=inv(A)*B. rho*Vo^2*S*c*CMelev/2/Iyy. %Phugoid and Short-Period modes eigx(F). B3=[rho*Vo*S*c*CDq/4/m. 0]. -rho*Vo*S/2/m*(CD+CLalpha+CTalpha*sin(alphaT+alphao)).0]. grid.xo). C=[-rho*Vo^2*S*CDelev/2/m.G. subplot(221). B4=[-g*cos(thetao-alphao).u.01:10]. 0. u=zeros(t2).2)/pi). u=zeros(t1). B2=[rho*Vo^2*S/2/m*(CL-CDalpha+CTalpha*cos(alphaT+alphao)). . grid. rho*Vo^2*S*c*CMalpha/2/Iyy. -g/Vo*sin(thetao-alphao). 0]. -rho*Vo*S*CLelev/2/m.1). plot(t1. plot(t2. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Velocity (ft/sec)') subplot(223).eye(4). B=[B1.B4].B3.4)/pi).zeros(4. %Elevator pulse inputs xo=G*pi/180.5:100]. G=inv(A)*C.

2763e+00 1. subplot(211). LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION grid.eye(2).xo).2171e+01 0 0 0 . t1=[0:.4052e+00 1.1).180*y2(:.3)/pi). u=zeros(t1).Gsp.2)/pi). xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Pitch Rate (deg/sec)') pause %Phugoid approximation freqphg=g/Vo*sqrt(2) Running this MATLAB m-ﬁle generates the following longitudinal models: ˙ V V α α ˙ = F q + G δe q ˙ ˙ θ θ (9.u.102 CHAPTER 9. plot(t1.0000e+00 -3.01:10]. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Angle of Attack (deg)') subplot(224). xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Angle of Attack (deg)') subplot(212).7) where the matrices F and G are given by F = -8. plot(t1.t1.2:3).9573e-04 0 -2.1994e-03 -1. Gsp=G(2:3. damp(Fsp).5708e+01 -1. grid.0218e+00 0 0 1.y1(:.1). plot(t2. grid. %Elevator pulse inputs xo=Gsp*pi/180.1)).9451e-04 6.0000e+00 -2.180*y1(:. y1=lsim(Fsp. clg.zeros(2. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Pitch Rate (deg/sec)') pause %Short-period approximation: Delete the velocity and theta equations Fsp=F(2:3. grid.

e. Note that the period of the velocity V and pitch attitude q responses is roughly equal to the period of the phugoid mode determined from the approximation √ √ T phugoid = 2π Vo /g = 2π 556.1 Phugoid-Mode Approximation The phugoid frequency ω phugoid in a level-ﬂight trim condition (i.0037 0i Damping 0. In most longitudinal aircraft motion.e. Damping of the phugoid mode is predominantly governed by the drag coefﬁcient C D and its derivative C D M in the equation for V . Furthermore.e. we assume C TV¯ = 0 and C Tα = 0 and for a ﬁxed elevator δe = 0. More precisely. 9. this mode is relatively well damped (if not. This can be calculated using the MATLAB function damp(F).68348 (Short-Period mode) 3. γo = θo − αo = 0) can be estimated from the speed and pitch attitude equations where we neglect the variation in α (i.012 0.0037 (Short-Period mode) where the damping ratio ζ of a complex root (s = σ + jω) is deﬁned as follows −σ ζ=√ σ 2 + ω2 Notice that −1 ≤ ζ ≤ 1.8094e+00 -1.1 .4968e-01 -1. the short-period mode) only.1.9. Theshort-period mode is usuallyidentiﬁed by a pair of complex roots.8(sec) as discussed in Section 9. α = 0) and the drag effects.1. 9. The phugoid mode is the one that has the longest time constant and is usually lightly damped.012 1.1).4061e+01 0 103 Characteristic roots of the longitudinal model are given by the eigenvalues of the system matrix F.17095 = 76.000 Frequency(rad/sec) 0. The short-period mode is displayed in the motion of the airplane angle of attack α and pitch rate q (Fig. Eigenvalues -0. In most situation. 9.10392i -0. In some control design problems. one would like to obtain a simpliﬁed second-order dynamic model for the longitudinal aircraft motion that captures the fast motion (i. then one must provide stabilization of thismodes using feedback control for ﬂight safety since the pilot cannot control this mode). A negative damping ratio means that the motion is dynamically unstable.10392 (Phugoid mode) 0. In this case.10392 (Phugoid mode) 0.29559/32. PHUGOID-MODE APPROXIMATION G = -6.0012693 0. There is very little response seen in the angle of attack α when the aircraft is excited in the phugoid mode.000 1. but in some ﬂight conditions it can be in terms of two real roots as seen in the above example problem where s3 = −0. the term (2C D + C D M M) or (2C D + C DV Vo ) is the damping factor in the speed equation.68 rad/sec and s4 = −3. we can distinguish two basic modes: the phugoid mode and the short-period mode.0 rad/sec. the .10392i -0. Responses of the aircraft that are signiﬁcantly affected by the phugoid mode are the velocity and the pitch attitude as seen in Fig.0012693 -0. It has a relatively short time constant (hence the name short-period).68348 0i -3.

0818rad/secwithaperiodof T phugoid = 2π/ω phugoid = 76.2 = ± j 2g/ Vo which correspondtosinusoidal motions inthe aircraftvelocity √ and pitch attitude.9) ˙ = ρo SC L θ θ 0 m Characteristic equation of the above equation is simply equal to s g ρo gSC L g2 = s2 + = s2 + 2 2 = 0 (9.10) ρo SC L m − m s Vo √ with characteristicroots at s1.1: Longitudinal Aircraft Responses to a 1-deg Elevator Impulsive Input motion of the airplane is governed entirely by the exchange of kinetic and potential energies. The motion exhibited in the phugoid mode typiﬁes the exchange of potential and kinetic energies of the aircraft.104 CHAPTER 9. Applyingtothegivennumericalexample.8 sec. wehave ω phugoid = 0. And we have ˙ V = −g θ ρ SC α = 0 = q − om L V ˙ (9. Recall that when the airplane is treated as a point mass m. Thus. Another interpretation of the phugoid oscillation is as follows.11) . the total energy is given by det 1 mV 2 + mgh = constant 2 (9. LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION Velocity (ft/sec) 50 Angle of Attack (deg) 2 0 -2 -4 0 5 Time (sec) 10 0 -50 0 50 Time (sec) 100 10 Pitch Rate (deg/sec) Pitch Attitude (deg) 10 0 -10 -20 0 5 Time (sec) 10 0 -10 0 50 Time (sec) 100 Figure 9. the phugoid mode frequency should be roughly equal to ω phugoid = 2g/Vo (rad/sec).8) ρo SC L ˙ θ= q= m V or ˙ 0 −g V V (9.

we obtain L−W 1 ¨ V = −g γ = −g ˙ = −g mV m(Vo + 1 ρo (Vo + V) 2 1 V )2 SC L − ρo Vo2 SC L 2 V ˙ h = −gγ V 105 (9.13) (9.14) or 1 g 1 ¨ = V ∼ −g 2 ρo Vo2 SC L (ρo Vo V SC L ) = − 2 mV o mV o 2 g ¨ = V ∼ −2 2 V Vo 2 (9. ω phugoid = 0.9).e. That is. the perturbed velocity (rad/sec). e.2 Short-Period Approximation A short-period approximation model is developed based on the following observations: • There is a signiﬁcant frequency separation between the phugoid and short-period modes. ρ Sc 1 + o CLα ¯ ˙ α ˙ ρ V4m 2C = o o Sc Mα ¯ ˙ q ˙ − 4I yy −1 ρo Vo S + C Lα + C T α sin(αT + αo )) − 2m (C D ρo Vo2 Sc 1 C 0 2I yy Mα 1 − ρo Sc C L q ¯ 4m ρo Vo Sc 2 C Mq¯ 4I yy α + q . • Thevelocityoftheaircrafthasnosigniﬁcantcomponentsintheshort-periodmode.1 rad/sec and ωshortperiod = 3 rad/sec. Usually an order of magnitude difference in frequency between the phugoid and short-period modes.the velocitycan be assumed nearlyconstant when theairplane responds toan excitationinthe short-period mode. Thus. Inanotherword.12) (9. we obtain ˙ ˙ mV V + mg h = 0 or ˙ V = −g Recall from (way back!) equation (1.15) √ 2g/Vo Thus. V has a second-order harmonic motion with frequency ωo = 9.2. we have mV γ = L − W ˙ where L is the total lift given by 1 L = ρo V 2 SC L (trim ) 2 and 1 W = mg = ρo Vo2 SC L(trim ) 2 Then for small velocity perturbations V in V = Vo + V . we obtain a set of equations involving only α and q.9. Namely. deleting the variables V and θ ) in the original equations. the longitudinal equations of motion can be simpliﬁed by simply removing (i.g. SHORT-PERIOD APPROXIMATION Differentiating this equation with respect to time.

LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION ρ V S ρ V S ρ V S δe − o o C L δe − o o C L δsp − o o C T δth cos(αT + αo ) 2m 2m 2m δsp ρo Vo2 Sc ρo Vo2 Sc ρo Vo2 Sc C Mδe C Mδsp C Mδth δth 2I yy 2I yy 2I yy For the above problem.18) .17) where α.106 CHAPTER 9.e. we obtain the following short-period approximation model (9.9985 Damping 1. 4th -order) ρo ScC L q ¯ longitudinal model.000 Frequency(rad/sec) 0.68299 -2. They are almost the same as those obtained in the full (4th -order) longitudinal model. δe are in radians and q in radians/sec.0218 −2.68299 2. In general.1497 + q −14. Note that these responses of α and q match closely those obtained for the full (i.0611 δe (9.2763 1 = q ˙ 1. Characteristic roots of the short-period model are given below. C Tα ≈ 0 and << 1. Eigenvalues -0.2 shows the responses of the short-period approximation model to a 1-deg elevator impulse input. C L α >> C D .000 1.16) α ˙ −1.9985 Figure 9. then the above short-period 4m approximation has the following characteristic equation s2 + ρo Vo Sc 2 2I yy 2 I yy C L α 1 ρo Vo Sc CM ρ Sc − C Mq s + CLα − α − C Mq ¯ 2 mc 2 2I yy CLα 4m =0 (9.4052 α(rad ) −0.

2.2: Short-Period Approximation Model to a 1-deg Elevator Impulse Input 6 7 8 9 10 .9. SHORT-PERIOD APPROXIMATION 107 Angle of Attack (deg) 0 -2 -4 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (sec) 6 7 8 9 10 Pitch Rate (deg/sec) 0 -5 -10 -15 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (sec) Figure 9.

LINEARIZED LONGITUDINAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION .108 CHAPTER 9.

28). Namely. r.Chapter 10 Linearized Lateral Equations of Motion In this chapter. ¯ ˙ p + CYr¯ r + CYβ˙ β+CYδa δa + C Yδr δr ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 b g ˙ CYβ˙ β = sin αo p − cos αo r + cos θo φ ¯ mV o 2Vo Vo 1 1 + ρo Vo2 S C Yβ β + C Y p p + C Yr¯ r + CYδa δa + C Yδr δr ¯ ¯ ¯ mV o 2 Dividing by (1 − b 2 CYβ˙ ). r and φ along with small inputs in the controls δa and δr . p.1) = −I zx I zz r ˙ N ˙ φ = p + tan θo r Using equations (8. Hence. and retaining only the contributions due to φ. we examine the ﬂight dynamics characteristics associated with motion in the lateral axis.62) for lateral motion variables. Hence. we obtain • Sideslip equation for β: ˙ β = sin αo p − cos αo r + + or 1 1 ρo Vo2 S CYβ β + CY p ¯ mV o 2 1− g cos θo φ Vo (10. (8. drag D and thrust T forces are negligeable. g 1 ˙ Y β = sin αo p − cos αo r + V cos θo φ + mV o o I xx −Ixz p ˙ L (10.65) and (8. Equationsgoverningthelateralmotionofanaircraftareassociatedwiththemotionvariables β. the lateral dynamic model is described by a set of 4 linear ordinary differential equations as derived in equations (8. L and N .18).50). we obtain ¯ 2mV o ˙ β= 1 1 − b 2 C Yβ˙ ¯ 2mV o ρo Vo S ρo bS CYβ β + sin αo + CY p¯ 2m 4m p (10. we also assume that the motion of the vehicle is undergoing small changes in the variables β. the motion in the lateral axis is decoupled from the longitudinal dynamics.25) and (8.3) 109 . Of course. in any model linearization. p. (8. The assumptions made in the analysis are that the effects of longitudinal motion on the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments associated with the lift L.2) Y.

27). r+ g ρo Vo S ρo Vo S cos θo φ + C Yδa δa + C Yδr δr Vo 2m 2m (10. 1 ˙ ψ= r (10.weobtainasetof4linearordinarydifferentialequationsin as follows. . we write the above equation in the following form ˙ β β p ˙= F p+G r r ˙ ˙ φ φ (10.5) (10.6) r. p.1 are given below.9) cos θo A MATLAB-mﬁle to formulatethe lateral equationsof motion for the designmodel described inSection 11.8) where the matrices F and G can be deduced from the above equation directly. φ} Re-arrangingtheaboveequations. −1 ρo Vo S CYβ ˙ 1− b C 0 0 0 Y¯ 2m β 2 2mV o2 β˙ ρo Vo Sb p ˙ C Lβ 0 I xx −I xz 0 2 r= ρ V 2 Sb ˙ o o 0 −I xz Izz 0 C Nβ ˙ φ 2 0 0 0 1 0 g ρo bS ρo bS sin αo + 4m CY p − cos αo + 4m CYr¯ V cos θo ¯ o β ρo Vo Sb 2 ρo Vo Sb 2 p CL p C L r¯ 0 ¯ 4 4 r + 2 2 ρo Vo Sb ρo Vo Sb CNp C Nr¯ 0 ¯ φ 4 4 1 tan θo 0 ρo Vo S ρo Vo S C Yδa CYδr 2m 2m 2 ρo Vo Sb ρo Vo2 Sb δa C L δa C L δr 2 2 ρ V 2 Sb 2 Sb δr ρo Vo o o C Nδa C Nδr 2 2 0 0 In abbreviated notation. Note that we have added an additional equation for the heading variable ψ as given in equation (8.4) p and CLβ 1 ρo Vo2 Sb 2 C Nβ • Kinematic equation for φ: (10. Namely. LINEARIZED LATERAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION ρo bS CYr¯ 4m r: I xx −I xz p ˙ = −I zx Izz r ˙ b b β + C L p 2V p + C L r¯ 2V r + C L δa δa + C L δr δr ¯ o o b b β + C N p 2V p + C Nr¯ 2V r + C Nδa δa + C Nδr δr ¯ o o ˙ φ= p + tan θo r { β.7) δa δr (10.110 + − cos αo + • Angular velocities CHAPTER 10.

5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLbeta. CYail=-1.clear. g=32.9763e-2.17095. %Yawing Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives CNp=-3.29559.13345. Ixy=0.2996e-1. CNail=2. Izx=-520. CLail=2. CLbeta=-0. Iyy=165100.Iyz=0.-Izx.20709.0471e-1. Vo=556. . b=42.0. Weight=45000.1]. CYbetadot=0. %Rolling Moment Coefﬁcient Derivatives CLp=-0. S=608.8.0 0. CL=0. c=15.1516e-3. 0.6356e-2. CLrud=-2.0. CNr=-4. %Matrix A A=[1-b*CYbetadot/(2*m*Vo^2). rho=0.18105*pi/180. CYbeta=-0.0 0.0. M=0.Ixx.5041e-1. CYrud=-1.5.2. %Trim angle of attack alphao=0. CD=0.3721e-2.0 0.15099. Izz=187900.97403. B1=[rho*Vo*S*CYbeta/2/m.Izz. CLr=0.01468.0.m=Weight/g. CYr=0.-Izx.1917e-3.3859e-3. Ixx=28700. CNbeta=1. %Side Force Coefﬁcient Derivatives CYp=0.00230990. thetao=alphao.95.111 clg. CNrud=-6.

u.0]].zeros(4.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CLp. 1].Gx(:.zeros(5. rho*Vo*S*CYrud/2/m. %Lateral equations of motion F=inv(A)*B.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CLr. C=[rho*Vo*S*CYail/2/m.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNrud.1). B2=[sin(alphao)+rho*b*S*CYp/4/m.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CNr. 0.B4]. plot(t1. Gx=[G. eigx(Fx).[0. G=inv(A)*C.25*rho*Vo*S*b^2*CNp. 0.B2. 0. 0]. u=zeros(t1).112 CHAPTER 10.1)*pi/180.180*y1(:. 0.0. grid.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLail.[0.1)/pi).180*y1(:.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNbeta. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Roll Rate (deg/sec)') subplot(222). %Dutch roll.5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CNail. %Aileron pulse inputs xo=-Gx(:. y1=lsim(Fx.B3.2)/pi).0]. 0.0]]. xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Sideslip (deg)') title('Aileron 1-deg Pulse Input') subplot(223). LINEARIZED LATERAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION 0. %Add the heading equation Fx=[[F. grid. B4=[g/Vo*cos(thetao). subplot(221). 0. clg. plot(t1. 0.0. 0.1:30]. %Switch sign for + right aileron down t1=[0:.eye(5).1/cos(thetao).0]. B=[B1.1)]. 0. B3=[-cos(alphao)+rho*b*S*CYr/4/m.t1. tan(thetao)]. . 0.1). 0.xo).5*rho*Vo^2*S*b*CLrud. spiral and roll modes eigx(F).

113

plot(t1,180*y1(:,3)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Yaw Rate (deg/sec)') subplot(224); plot(t1,180*y1(:,4)/pi,t1,180*y1(:,5)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Roll/Heading Angles (deg)') pause %Rudder pulse inputs xo=Gx(:,2)*pi/180; t1=[0:.1:30]; u=zeros(t1); y1=lsim(Fx,Gx(:,2),eye(5),zeros(5,1),u,t1,xo); clg; subplot(221); plot(t1,180*y1(:,1)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Sideslip (deg)') title('Rudder 1-deg Pulse Input') subplot(223); plot(t1,180*y1(:,2)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Roll Rate (deg/sec)') subplot(222); plot(t1,180*y1(:,3)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Yaw Rate (deg/sec)') subplot(224); plot(t1,180*y1(:,4)/pi,t1,180*y1(:,5)/pi); grid; xlabel('Time (sec)') ylabel('Roll/Heading Angles (deg)')

**Running this MATLAB m-ﬁle generates the following linearized lateral dynamic model:
**

˙ β β p p ˙ = Fp r + G p r ˙ φ ˙ φ ˙ ψ ψ

δa δr

(10.10)

where the matrices Fp and G p are given by

114

Fp = -2.7202e-01 -4.3366e+01 6.5529e+00 0 0 Gp = -3.2161e-04 8.5397e+00 8.4854e-02 0 0

CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION

3.1599e-03 -2.4923e+00 -5.7313e-02 1.0000e+00 0 -4.2005e-02 -7.1067e-01 -3.4512e+00 0 0

-1.0000e+00 1.8964e+00 -7.7588e-01 3.1599e-03 1.0000e+00

5.7830e-02 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Characteristic roots of the lateral model are given by the eigenvalues of the system matrix Fp . This can be calculated using the MATLAB function damp(F).

Eigenvalues 0.00000e+00 0.00000e+00i -5.71628e-02 0.00000e+00i -3.27498e-01 2.73177e+00i -3.27498e-01 -2.73177e+00i -2.82802e+00 0.00000e+00i Damping 1.000 1.000 0.119 0.119 1.000 Frequency(rad/sec) 0.00000e+00 (Heading mode) 5.71628e-02 (Spiral mode) 2.75133e+00 (Dutch-roll mode) 2.75133e+00 (Dutch-roll mode) 2.82802e+00 (Roll mode)

There are 4 basic modes associated with the lateral motion: • The heading mode corresponds to a root at the origin (s = 0). This mode is simply associated with the integral of yaw rate for the heading angle ψ. • The spiral mode (s = −0.05716 rad/sec) is a slow mode that is associated with a real root depicting predominantly motion in the roll attitude φ. Its value is signiﬁcantly affected by the damping in roll from the term C L p (i.e. rolling moment due to roll rate). At some ﬂight condition, this mode may even be unstable; since it is a slow mode, the pilot can interact and correct satisfactorily for the spiral instability. • The Dutch-roll mode (s = −0.327498 ± j2.73177 rad/sec) is an oscillatory mode with signiﬁcant components in the yaw r and the roll φ variables. This mode did not have adequate damping (ζ = 0.12), and in general ﬂying qualities may dictate the need of a lateral stability augmentation system to improve the Dutch-roll damnping via a yaw-damper feedback control design. • The roll mode (s = −2.82802 rad/sec) is usually associated with a real root which is located far to the left, i.e. very stable. The motion is predominantly in roll rate p and settles down quite quickly. ShowninFigures(10.1)and(10.2)aretimeresponsesinthelateralmotiontoaseparatelyappliedimpulse input at the aileron and rudder control surfaces respectively.

115

0.05 Sideslip (deg)

Aileron 1-deg Pulse Input Yaw Rate (deg/sec) 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30

0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3

0

-0.05

-0.1

0

10 20 Time (sec)

30

5 Roll Rate (deg/sec)

Roll/Heading Angles (deg) 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30

0

0

-1

-5

-2

-10

-3

0

10 20 Time (sec)

30

Figure 10.1: Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Aileron Impulse Input

2: Lateral Responses to a 1-deg Rudder Impulse Input .5 -1 Rudder 1-deg Pulse Input Yaw Rate (deg/sec) 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30 2 0 -2 -4 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30 Roll/Heading Angles (deg) 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30 10 Roll Rate (deg/sec) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 10 20 Time (sec) 30 Figure 10.5 0 -0.116 CHAPTER 10. LINEARIZED LATERAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION 1 Sideslip (deg) 0.

000 -520.59123 32.20709 0.29559 324.00013 357.00000 = = (LBS) = (LBS) = (FT) = = (FT/SEC) = (KTS) = (FT/SEC) = (FT/SEC**2) = (G-S) = = (LBS/FT**2) = (SLUG/FT**3) = (LBS) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (FT/SEC) = (DEG) = (DEG/SEC) = (DEG/SEC) = 117 .000 42.000 165100.00000 0.00000 0.1 Generic F-15 Model Data (Subsonic) WING AREA WING SPAN MEAN CHORD VEHICLE WEIGHT IXX IYY IZZ IXZ IXY IYZ COEFFICIENT OF LIFT COEFFICIENT OF DRAG LIFT DRAG ALTITUDE MACH VELOCITY EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED SPEED OF SOUND GRAVITATIONAL ACCEL NORMAL ACCELERATION LOAD FACTOR DYNAMIC PRESSURE DENSITY WEIGHT (@ALTITUDE) BETA ALPHA PHI THETA ALTITUDE RATE GAMMA ROLL RATE PITCH RATE 608.000 0.00230990 44995.16917 1000.000 187900.000 (FT**2) (FT) (FT) (LB) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) 0. 0.17095 1.18105 0.18105 0.950 45000.01468 45001.00026 1.41711 0.60706 1112.Chapter 11 Flight Vehicle Models 11.000 28700.800 15.75037 3190.00000 0.00000 0.73786 0.00000 0.50000 556.000 0.

FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS 0.00000 .00000 3188.00000 0.00000 0.06643 0.118 YAW RATE THRUST CONTROL VARIABLES ELEVATOR THROTTLE SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL (DEG/SEC) (LBS) = = CHAPTER 11.05994 0.00000 0.85962 = = = = = = 0.

00000D+00 -9.1.00000D+00 (RAD) (RAD) (FT) ELEVATOR SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL .00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.74913D-02 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.15160D-03 -7.00000D+00 1.38308D-02 6.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.57360D-01 0.00000D+00 0.50410D-01 -1.72322D+01 0.00000D+00 4.11.00000D+00 0.08760D-02 0.00000D+00 0.72322D+01 0. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUBSONIC) NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES SIDE FORCE ________ 2.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 3.00000D+00 7.00000D+00 LIFT ________ 1.49346D-02 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.72570D-01 0.87060D+00 0.12070D-18 0.45058D-06 4.00000D+00 -1.74030D-01 0.72957D-01 3.93150D-02 119 DRAG ________ ZERO COEFFICIENTS ROLL RATE PITCH RATE YAW RATE MACH NUMBER ALPHA BETA ALTITUDE ALPHA DOT BETA DOT 1.00000D+00 5.

19170D-03 3.32475D-12 0.17500D-01 0.63560D-02 4.00000D+00 -6.5% MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD STABLE .00000D-01 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -7.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.29960D-01 0.00000D+00 3.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.95281D-01 -4.00000D+00 YAWING MOMENT ________ -6.00000D+00 0. FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES ROLLING MOMENT ________ ZERO COEFFICIENTS ROLL RATE PITCH RATE YAW RATE MACH NUMBER ALPHA BETA ALTITUDE ALPHA DOT BETA DOT -2.05310D-02 (RAD) (RAD) (FT) ELEVATOR SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL VEHICLE STATIC MARGIN IS 3.01070D-02 PITCHING MOMENT ________ 4.37210D-02 0.00000D+00 0.05586D-06 -1.00000D+00 1.00000D+00 -6.04710D-01 2.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.22040D-02 0.00000D+00 0.80788D-20 -3.59775D-13 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.97630D-02 2.89530D+00 0.75542D-20 -2.00000D+00 1.33450D-01 0.68819D-01 0.38590D-03 2.50990D-01 2.00000D+00 -1.00000D+00 -2.18870D+01 0.00000D+00 -4.120 CHAPTER 11.

92440 32.00000 -1.2 Generic F-15 Model Data (Supersonic) WING AREA WING SPAN MEAN CHORD VEHICLE WEIGHT IXX IYY IZZ IXZ IXY IYZ COEFFICIENT OF LIFT COEFFICIENT OF DRAG LIFT DRAG ALTITUDE MACH VELOCITY EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED SPEED OF SOUND GRAVITATIONAL ACCEL NORMAL ACCELERATION LOAD FACTOR DYNAMIC PRESSURE DENSITY WEIGHT (@ALTITUDE) BETA ALPHA PHI THETA ALTITUDE RATE GAMMA ROLL RATE PITCH RATE YAW RATE THRUST CONTROL VARIABLES ELEVATOR THROTTLE SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL 608.00172 1335.40000 1451.00000 0.04685 2498.950 45000.65589 0.000 (FT**2) (FT) (FT) (LB) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) (SLUG-FT**2) 0.2.000 -520.00126774 44914.000 0.81524 20000.11294 0.00000 .000 28700.000 42.000 165100.11.69421 627. 1.44214 = = (LBS) = (LBS) = (FT) = = (FT/SEC) = (KTS) = (FT/SEC) = (FT/SEC**2) = (G-S) = = (LBS/FT**2) = (SLUG/FT**3) = (LBS) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (DEG) = (FT/SEC) = (DEG) = (DEG/SEC) = (DEG/SEC) = (DEG/SEC) = (LBS) = = = = = = = 0.83203 0.00000 0.00000 -1.65589 0.00308 44992.54694 1036.00000 0.00000 0.99780 1.05540 0.800 15.00000 0.06772 0.000 0.60527 0.00000 0.000 187900. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUPERSONIC) 121 11.00000 0.05207 0.00000 2499.

00000D+00 .49351D-02 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 4.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 3.00000D+00 6.12070D-18 0.00000D+00 0.57360D-01 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0. FLIGHT VEHICLE MODELS NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES SIDE FORCE ________ 2.50410D-01 -1.08760D-02 0.74913D-02 0.38310D-02 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.87060D+00 0.00000D+00 0.15160D-03 -7.72959D-01 0.72320D+01 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 3.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -1.00000D+00 0.122 CHAPTER 11.00000D+00 -1.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 1.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.72320D+01 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 LIFT ________ 1.00000D+00 5.00000D+00 4.72570D-01 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -9.93150D-02 ZERO COEFFICIENTS ROLL RATE (RAD/SEC) PITCH RATE (RAD/SEC) YAW RATE (RAD/SEC) VELOCITY (FT/SEC) MACH NUMBER ALPHA (RAD) BETA (RAD) ALTITUDE (FT) ALPHA DOT (RAD/SEC) BETA DOT (RAD/SEC) ELEVATOR THROTTLE SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL DRAG ________ 1.74030D-01 0.

00000D+00 3.00000D+00 -1.37210D-02 0.17500D-01 0.55618D-14 0.89530D+00 0.00000D+00 YAWING MOMENT ________ -1.18870D+01 0.22040D-02 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 -4.00000D+00 -2.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.06986D-16 3.00000D+00 1.33450D-01 0.00000D+00 -1.63560D-02 4.77192D-19 -2.00000D+00 0.5% MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD STABLE .19570D-07 -1.01070D-02 PITCHING MOMENT ________ 4.19170D-03 3.04710D-01 3.29960D-01 0.18322D-13 0.00000D+00 0.00000D-01 0.00000D+00 1.00000D+00 0.38590D-03 2.00000D+00 -6.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.00000D+00 0.74198D-19 -3.95279D-01 0.00000D+00 0.15312D-10 -1.68819D-01 0.05310D-02 3.00000D+00 -4.50990D-01 3. GENERIC F-15 MODEL DATA(SUPERSONIC) NON-DIMENSIONAL STABILITY AND CONTROL DERIVATIVES 123 ZERO COEFFICIENTS ROLL RATE (RAD/SEC) PITCH RATE (RAD/SEC) YAW RATE (RAD/SEC) VELOCITY (FT/SEC) MACH NUMBER ALPHA (RAD) BETA (RAD) ALTITUDE (FT) ALPHA DOT (RAD/SEC) BETA DOT (RAD/SEC) ELEVATOR THROTTLE SPEED BRAKE RUDDER AILERON DIFFERENTIAL TAIL VEHICLE STATIC MARGIN IS ROLLING MOMENT ________ 2.00000D+00 0.11.00000D+00 -6.00000D+00 -1.00000D+00 0.2.00000D+00 0.42955D-17 3.97630D-02 2.

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