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M.. Raghupathi
Formerly, Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute oJ'Technology Delhi t, "

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Tata ~cCraw~Hill Publishing Company Limited

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, rytcGraw- Hill Offices

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© 1995, Tata

No part of without the prior written



This ~d{tion can be exported from India only by the publishers, T!ta McGraw-HiH Publishing Company Limited

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Published by Tara McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 4!l2 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110 002, typeset at Replika Press Pvt Ltd and printed at Print Perfect, A6/l Mayapuri phase-I, New Delhi ] 10 064 RQDLRRQSRCDDZ


Although a number of foreign and Indian books on this subject are available in the market, they do not satisfy fully the requirements of our students, young faculty and practising designers. Most of the foreign books are based on their respective specifications" Also, in India these books are not easily accessible in all parts of the country; and thus our engineers arc devoid of the opportunity to derive their benefit Moreover, book writing is an art and books never satisfy the civil engineering community .. Hence, new books keep coming into the market. This book is an invaluable addition to the existing text on the subject. This book is an attempt based on my 20 years of teaching and consultancy experience at the Indian Institute of Technology, DeIhL Also, this subject requires a thorough knowledge and appreciation of materials, structural behaviour, analysis, buckling theory, problems in connections and fabrication, industrial and other structures, various design codes, current research, etc .. Practically, 'no book can include or cover all aspects of this field. This book elucidates the necessary information, basic principles and various design formulae .. It also includes a chapter on timber structures for comprehensive coverage .. The entire text is in SI units and is based on the latest Indian codes .. Finally, I express my sincere gratitude to the authors of the books in this field who have been an inspiration in developing this book. The author would greatly appreciate the readers' remarks, suggestions and critical comments for further improving the book. M




v 1

1..1 1.2
1.3 1,4

1.5 1.. 6

Steel Structures I Structural Design 1 Design Aids .5 Standards; Codes and Specifications Type of Members and Connections Supplementary Information 7 Problems 12


2 ..1 2.2

14 Introduction 14 Constructional Steels 15 Mechanical Properties 16 Design Concepts 18 Behaviour under Multiaxial States of Stress Fatigue Behaviour 21 Brittle Fracture 21 Corrosion 22 Fire Protection 23 Testing 24 Structural Steel Products 2.5 Minimum Thickness of Structural Members Aluminium Structures 29

2.. 3

2.. 5 2.. 6 2.. 7 2,,8 2.. 9 2..10 2..11 2.12 2..13



Bolted Connections
3.1 3..2


3.5 1.6 1.7


.• Introduction .31 Bolts 31 Black Bolts 33 Failure Modes of a Joint 33 Pitch Requirements of Bolts 40 Allowable Stresses 44 High Strength Bolts 45 Rivets 50




3<,9 3.,10 3..11 3..12

Joint Behaviour 51 Simple Connections 53 Moment Resistant Connections Semi-rigid Connections lOa Problems 101


Welded Connections
4.,1 4.,2 4..3 4,4 4,.5 Introduction 104 Welding Processes 104 Advantages of Welding 108 Welds 108 Types of Welded Joints 114 Y-/ eld Specifications 114 Allowable Stresses 118 Weld Symbols and Notation 118 Simple Joints 119 Moment Resistant Joints 128 Tubular Connections 144 Problems 152


4.,7 4,,8 4.,9 4,.10 4 ..11

Tension Members
5.1 5.2 5..3 5..4 5..5 5.. 6 5.,7 5.,8 Introduction 156 Shear Lag 156 Net Area 158 Stiffness 162 Lug Angles 162 Tension Rods 163 Combined Tension and Bending Design Requirements 165 Problems 170



Compression Members
6.1 6.. 2 6..3 6.4 6,5 6.6 6,7 6.. 8 6.. 9 Introduction 172 Plate Buckling 172 Column Buckling 174" Ideal Column (Eular Column) 177 Real Column J 78 Limiting Slenderness Ratios 186 Limiting Deflections 188 Width to Thickness Ratios of Plates in Compression Approximate Radii of Gyration J 89





6.10 Angle Struts 192 6.1 1 Built up Columns 199 6.,12 Cased Columns 216 6,13 Column Splice 217 6,14 Column Bases 223 Problems 239 7 Beams and Girders
7..1 7..2 ,.., ..) I" 7..4

Introduction 240 Laterally Supported Beams

Built up Beams 260

24 J

, .J


7.. 7 7.8


Castellated Beams 264 Latticed Beams 265 Lateral Buckling of Beams Grillage Beams 289 Plate Girder 292 Crane Girders 332 Problems 347


Beam-Columns and Torsion Members




8.5 .

8.. 7 9

Introduction 348 Behaviour of Beam-columns 348 Interaction Formulae 352 Design of Beam-columns 353 Triangular Bracket Plates 359 Behaviour of Torsion Members 364 Torsional Shear Stress 365 Problems 369

Behaviour of Light-gauge Steel Members



9.2 9..3 10 Loads 10.1 10.2

10.3 10.4

370 Post Buckling Strength of plates Design Effective Width 373




Dead Loads 375 Live Loads 375 Impact Loads 375 Wind Loads 376 Show Loads 382



10.. 6 10,,7 10,,8

Earthquake Loads 382 Temperature, Settlement and Erection Loads Examples 387



Industrial Buildings
11..1 11,2 113 llA Introduction 390 Structural Framing Scheme 390 Roof and Side Cladding Materials 391 Purlins, Girts and Sag Rods 393 Roof Trusses 401 r=.: __ ~~ Columns auu Uo",,,,, J<l""\nt'noc .-.~rI LiIO ~1 all!;;~, ~Vl
11111;:) LJlU"",





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1 '7 1, I
" ......

Bracing Systems


11 ~

North Light Roof



Steel Bridges
12.1 12,,2


12A 12,,5 12,6

12.7 12.8 12,9

Introduction 431 Economical Span 432 Loads 434 Allowable Stresses 437 General, Arrangement 438 Design Requirements 452 Deck-type Railway Girder Bridges Deck-type Truss Bridges 454 Design Examples 454


Problems 13 Towers
13.1 132 133

501 503


Introduction 503 Lattice Towers 503 Design of Lattice Towers 505 Transmission Line Towers 510 Design of Tansmission Line Towers



Steel Tanks and Chimneys

14,,1 142 143 14A 145


Steel Tanks 526 Standpipes 527 Suspended Bottom Tanks 528 Pressed Steel Tanks 538 Steel Chimneys 55J






Plastic Design
15..1 15..2 153 15,,4 15.. 5 15.. 6 15.. 7 15.. 8 15.. 9 15..10 Introduction 581 Plastic Hinge Concept 582 Combined Mechanism Method 586 Distributed Loads .593 Factors Affecting Plastic Moment .596 Width-thickness Limitations .598 Lateral Bracings .598 Connections 600 Deformation 603 Design of Members Pfoblems 620



Timber Structures
16.1 16.2 16.3 16..4 ~"..5 10. 16..6 16.. 7 Inroduction 623 Species of Structural Timber 624 Grading of Timber 624 Permissible Stresses 628 Modification Factors for Permissible Stresses Design of Members 634 Nail Joints in Timber Construction 640 Problems 665



References Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Index 1: Al the Indian Standards and Specifications 2: 3: 4: Structural Formulae A3 Loading Data A4 Sectional Properties



705 725



Structures are mainly categorised on the basis of their usage, such as buildings (enclosure of space), bridges (provision of access), tanks (storage of liquids), silos and bunkers (storage of material), tQwers (~mmunications), etc" Based on the construction material used, structures are also known as reinforced concrete, steel, timber or masonry structures.

1.1 Steel Structures

Steel as a construction material is commonly used in structures like power houses, steel mill buildings, factories, workshops, warehouses, bridges, multi storey buildings, exhibition pavilions, hangers, roofs, domes, radio and TV towers, masts, transmission towers, offshore structures, bunkers, silos, tanks, etc" Hence steel is an important civil engineering material. The principal factors which influence the use of steel are as follows: 1" 2. 3. 4. 5.

High strength resulting in the reduction of dead weight Gas and water tightness due to high density of steel.. Assured quality, reliability and durability, Industrialisation of construction, ease of fabrication and erection. Ease of strengthening existing structures.
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7. Adaptability of the structure to changing requirements by structural modifications, thus increasing the effective life of the structure. The main drawbacks of steel are its susceptibility to corrosion and its loss of strength at high temperature. These are prevented by taking appropriate measures. "


Structural Design

Any wen designed structure is expected to satisfy the following requirements during its life time:

Design of Steel Structures

1. It should give satisfactory service throughout its life with no excessive deformations or vibrations and no discomfort io the user. 2.. It should be strong, stable and safe enough to carry the loads under any possible combination. 3. It should be as inexpensive as possible and use a minimum amount of material. 4.. It should be appealing from aesthetic considerations .. In arriving at a suitable structure, the important phases of work involved are: Functional planning Material selection ..y design Structural analysis Design of members and connections Final review Preparation of structural drawings Execution of the structure
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To obtain the best solution, it is imperative to have a knowledge of planning for functional requirements, material properties and their behaviour in structural members, methods of structural analysis, determining design loads, design and construction practices, using design aids, handbooks, latest codes, standards and specifications.

1.2.1 FUnctionsl Planning

This aspect of design is the most difficult part and calls for a highly skilled, imaginative and experienced designer. The layout plan and structural form of the building have to be developed to suit the site requirements, considering the orientation of the structure for proper lighting and ventilation, clear floor space requirements for present and future needs, head room clearances, number of storeys, arrangement of floor areas, corridors, stairways, lifts, necessary exits, location of expansion joints, interior and exterior appearances, etc. Before a final scheme is chosen, other possible alternative schemes should be examined for overall feasibility and economy. This phase of work is generally done by an architect in consultation with the structural engineer, the user and the owner.

152.2 Material Selection

Suitable materials for roofings, floors, walls, claddings and structural members need to be selected, considering the local availability of materials, economics


and stiuctural needs. Other information needed for design is the materia! density and the mechanical and thermal properties, To ensure quality, the materials should conform to the relevant material specifications.

1.2.3 Estimation of Loads

These loads include the self weight of the structure, cranes, equipment, people, furniture, goods, traffic on bridges, weight of snow on roofs and loose materials in bins and bunkers. There are other effects due to wind, water waves, moving loads, temperature variation, earthquake, settlement of foundations and handling of members during erection, These are also termed loads, as they cause stresses and deformations. An these loads are generally classified as dead loads, live loads, impact loads, snow loads, wind loads, earthquake loads and other miscellaneous loads. They should be estimated realistically, for use in design computations .. 1.2.4 Preliminary Design

In indeterminate structures, the member forces cannot be obtained unless member sizes are known beforehand. The member sizes are assumed based on estimated loads, experience, judgement 01' by using simplified analytical procedures. Also, for complex structures, the preliminary design is carried out through modal studies. In determinate structures, member sizes are suitably chosen based on the expected member forces, 1.2.5 Structural Analysis

The primary objective of structural analysis is to determine the internal forces and deformations in a structure whose configuration and member sizes are known. For some structures, where buckling 01' vibrational characteristics are important, advanced techniques of analysis are used. Highly indeterminatestructures are analysed through digital computers, There can be a variatioaof around 10% in estimated loads, to take care of which, an experienced ~designer makes certain assumptions based on the structural behaviour, to obtain the design forces in members by using simplified analytical procedures .. Alsh,. design charts, tables, -handbooks or codes are generally used, when avtl;liaql~, in placeof using exact methods of analysis in design computations. , ~ '. " . _-: ...

1.2.6 ;


and Connections

The assumed ine*r sizes are checked for their adequacy in resisting the design forces obtained from structural analysis. The stresses and deflections in members should be within the permissible stresses specified for the material

Design of Steel Structures

and the limiting deflections, respectively .. There shouiu not be any fatigue. brittle or local failure of the members .. Wherever two or more members meet at a joint, connections are to be designed to transfer the forces safely through them. The designer should satisfy himself that the conditions assumed in structural analysis, will really exist in the actual structure, else there can be large variations in design forces ..

1.2.7 Final Review

This phase of work is not necessary for determinate structures" But in indeterminate structures, where the member forces are dependent on the preliminary sizing of members, the required sizes chosen in design are to be compared with those assumed in the preliminary design stage. If there are deviations in member sizes affecting the sectional properties and structural behaviour substantially, the analysis and design are carried out again, If one is careful in choosing proper member sizes at the preliminary design stage, reanalysis and redesign can be avoided ..

1.2.8 Preparation of Structural Drawings

The structural drawings are drawn to a suitable scale to show the controlling dimensions of structural members, grades of steel, different parts of steel sections, position of splices, number, size and location of holes. type, size and length of welds, connection details, etc. They are also complemented by writing special notes of specifications for quality of material and workmanship on the drawings. Further, where the details for a large number of members are similar in nature, they are conveniently put in the form of tables or schedules. Structural drawings are primarily required to work out the quantity of materials to fabricate members or assemblies, and to give direction in construction and erection, It is the responsibility of the civil or structural engineer to check and approve the drawings prepared from the given structural sketches or design details. The drawings are the means by which the intentions of the design engineer are conveyed to the fabricator or construction engineer. Care must be taken while preparing the drawings to provide all the information necessary for fabrication and execution of work. Otherwise, unnecessary delays in execution are caused,

1.2.9 Execution of the Structure

It is the job of the construction engineer to execute precise measurements of structural details given in specified time, He has to set certain guidelines for force at the site. The job involves site organisation, the structure the drawings, the safety of provision of hum the within a the work approach

Introduction 5 ways, ordering of material, procurement of lifting-machinery and weiding equipment, fabrication of components, stocking of raw materials and finished goods at stock yards, painting the fabricated' elements and erection of the structure" It is the primary job of the construction engineer to use various processes optimally in a sequential manner to complete the execution of the structure in the shortest possible period.

1.3 Design Aids The structural engineer is mostly involved in computing the sectional properties, determining the member forces and deformations, and selecting
suitable sections for design forces, The various design aids, like books, manuals and codes, are given in the form of stress and moment coefficients, formulae, charts, tables, nomograms, etc. These aids simplify the work of a designer, resulting in the elimination of involved and tedious calculations, and hence a saving of time and effort.

1.4 Standards, Codes and Specifications

There is no designer who is an expert in all subjects pertaining to a particular design work. To provide him a guide in the design procedure, information -, is collected from the research findings, past design practice and experience, behaviour of existing structures, and knowledge gained from failure of structures. This information is critically examined, assessed and approved by a body of experts drawn from the consulting field, industry and academe. It is then finally prepared and published in the form of codes, specifications and standards by National Institutes like the American Standard Institute, British Standard Institute, and Indian Standard Institute. These codes and specifications are revised and updated periodically to incorporate the latest research findings and to delete obsolete clauses. There is always a time gap of several years between a research discovery and the revision of codes, because of the process involved in pooling the information from technical literature and its careful review and approval by a body of experts. The designer is advised to use the latest codes and specifications and be in touch with the new literature on the subject to produce a competent -design. Generally, the words standards, codes arid specifications are used synonymously, but a distinction can be made between them. For uniform application, comparison and acceptance, there are standards such as loading standards, testing standards and safety standards. Specifications are generally meant for the quality of materials and workmanship. Engineering specifications can be written for a class of 'York by any individual 01' group with good

Design of Steei Structures

design and field experience. But the word code has an official sanction and is treated as a legal document. If any provision of code is violated, it has to be substantiated by standard technical literature. Though these codes are written in a detailed and precise manner, so as to be clear to the user, they are not so restrictive as to inhibit individual initiative and thought It may be pointed out that judicious use of codes and specifications in the design of a structure ensures safety and economy, Some Indian Standard codes and specifications are listed in Appendix

AI. 1~5 Type of Members and Connections

All structural members in steel structures ale thin-walled sections, These thin ..walled steel members, which are subjected to internal axial forces, shear forces, bending moments and torsional moments are termed as tension members, compression members, beams, beam-columns, or torsional members, depending on the nature of the forces" Tension members These members are subjected to axial tensile force only. Depending on the load intensity, these members may be fabricated using single or multiple structural sections. The size, arrangement of holes and nature of connection influence the load carrying capacity of the member. For designing the member one has to know the effective area or net area of section, and the effect of shear lag and fatigue on the members. Whenever a member with a thin wall is subjected to a compressive force, the entire member, or a part of it may fail, by buckling. The cross-sectional shape, the length of the member, material, residual stresses and end conditions influence the buckling, For the design of column members one has to know the effective area and buckling behaviour of compression members"
Compression members

Though the.beam section is subject to bending moment and shear' due to loads, these moments and shear's induce bending compressive stress and diagonal compression respectively. The walls being thin, there may be local or overall buckiing in beams under the compressive stresses due to moments or shears. Under concentrated loads 01' reactions the web may fail locally" Buckling becomes important in this case and the student or designer should be familiar with the behaviour of a beam.


A beam-column is subjected to axial compression, bending

Introduction 7

moment and shear. It is likely to have ali problems pertaining to columns and beams. The designer should be familiar with the theory of beam-columns, Torsion members Depending on the length, cross-sectional shape and end fixities of the member, the applied torsion is resisted by the member in pure torsion, warping torsion or mixed torsion" The torsional behaviour being complex, only pure torsion is included in this book. Connections When two or more members meet at a joint, they should be connected, to transfer the member forces" Depending on the connecting plates, number, arrangement and nature of fasteners, these connections are treated as flexible connections, rigid connections, bearing type connections, or friction type connections .. Further, there may be eccentric loads on joints" One has to be familiar with the behaviour of all connections using bolts or welds under various type of forces, known as eccentrically loaded connections,

1.6 Supplementary Information

in steel design, the designer very often uses the graphical method to analyse different shapes of pin jointed trusses and knee-braced frames, He is also required to refer to various structural formulae while analysing the structures .. The graphical method of analysing trusses and knee-braced frames, the structural formulae, and stress coefficients of commonly used fink trusses are given ~elow"

1.6.1 Graphical Method of Analysis The configurations of many steel trusses may differ, because of the varying
pitch of the trusses', roofing sheet dimensions and location of purlins. Analysis of such trusses by standard methods, like the method of sections or the method of joints may not be feasible" Hence, one has to resort to a truss analysis program through digital computers" The graphical method provides a means for obtaining solutions to such trusses. The force vectors drawn to scale may have some errors, and the accumulated enol' in drawing might give wrong results unless the force in one of the critical members, obtained by graphical method, is verified with that obtained from any analytical method" The member forces are found by drawing force diagrams for the truss under load, using the familiar Bow's notation, It is common practice to use letter symbols for denoting applied loads and number or letter-number symbols for denoting member forces. If the unknown forces are two and their directions are known at any joint of the truss, the unknown member forces arc found

Design of Steel Structures

by drawing a force diagram. But in some determinate trusses, it may not be easy to draw the force diagram at certain joints, as the number of unknown forces exceeds two. In such cases some members are replaced by a single fictitious member, so that the truss is stable and at load points the support conditions are not altered by the modification" The force diagram is drawn with the presence of the fictitious member, and the force in a member away from its location, where the force is not affected by the modification, is found and made use of in drawing the force diagram for the actual truss case, as shown in Figs 1.1 and 1.2.,
10 ~ 10

K \(a) Truss configuration (Fink)


.,._......-:I__ .....,..r:;..._ __




e k

Scale 1mm ;:; 1kN (b) Force diagram for half truss due to symmetry

Fig. 1.1 Graphical solution


Span Note: Members 5.6 and 6,,7 are replaced by member x - y


Fig. 1.2 Another truss configuration (Fink) In Fig. 1.1(b) to start with the x, y points are located in the force diagram, and then point 7 is located. The member force K·· which is not affected 7, by replacing members 4-5 and 5-6 by member X-Y in the truss under loading, is determined, Knowing points 7 and 3 in the force diagram, points 4, 5, 6 can easily. be located. This way all forces are known. Similarly all determinate trusses are solved by the graphical method"

1.6.2 Analysis of Knee-braced Frames

In factories and workshops, it is a normal practice to support roof trusses by columns. In such situations knee-braces are mostly used to stiffen the structures under lateral loads. In addition, columns are subjected to axial force, shear and moments, whereas other members are subjected to direct forces only .. Based on how the columns are connected to the base, the statical determinacy varies for the indeterminate structure. Analysis of such commonly occurring knee-braced frames is time consuming for a structural engineer. A simplified graphical method is presented, with the assumptions based on their structural behaviour.. 1.. The inflection points are at mid height of columns .. 2. The net horizontal force above the inflection points is resisted equally by column-shears. With these assumptions, it becomes easier to determine the internal forces at inflection points. Since the columns are subjected to axial forces, shears and moments, the; effect of columns on trusses is introduced in the form of equivalent forces and the truss is analysed graphically. Then, the bending moment diagram for the column is determined by considering the column as a free body diagram under known forces.



Design of Steel Structures

The deformed knee-braced frames under lateral wind load are shown in Fig" 1_;3.The knee-braced frame above the inflection points is transformed . into a simple truss with equivalent forces, as shown in Fig" 1.4" The procedure for obtaining the equivalent forces on trusses due to columns is schematically shown in Fig. 1.5..The free body diagrams of' a column, shown in Fig, 1.,6, are used to find the moments and forces on columns for design,
Deformed shape Wind Col.
~p.,..__'_-___"-~~ I I





Bottom hinged Bottom fixed

Fig. 1.3 Knee-bracedframes



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(a) Knee braced frame above inflection points

(b) Truss ,-:,ith end equivalent reactions

Fig. 1.4

1.6.3 Structural Formulae

Some useful formulae have been furnished in Appendix A2 ..

1.6.4 Stress Coegicients of Fink Truss

The stress coefficients of the members of commonly used fink trusses for gravity and wind loads are furnished in Tables A2.1 and A2.2 in Appendix A2.

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Design of Steel Structures

Wind load


Note ~Wi nd loads above inflection point is conve r1ed into loads W41 Ws and Wa

Fig. 1.6

Free body diagram of column

For wind loads, trusses with different support conditions are grouped into foul' cases, as shown in Fig. A2.1; stress coefficients are given for them.

L Determine the forces in members (1), (2), (3) and (4) of the fink truss in Fig, Pl.I, using the stress coefficients given in Appendix A2" W G

1,QkN 10kN








Fig. P1.1



2, Analyse the truss chosen by a designer in Fig, Pl.,2 by the graphical method. Load in kN 8




Upper chord


.. I


is equally divided Fig. P1.2

3.. A knee-braced frame in Fig, PI,3 is to be analysed for lateral wind load. If this frame is to be analysed using the graphical method, compute the buss reactions to be used for graphical analysis.



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1 5m


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2.1 Introduction
An metals and their alloys are crystalline solids in which atoms are held in position in a definite and orderly manner by inter-atomic forces" If the centres of the atoms are connected by straight lines, a space lattice is obtained" Some metals exist in two or more stable crystalline structures under different temperatures. The behaviour of metals under load depends on the shape of the space lattices, and how closely they are packed. Iron-carbon alloys containing up to 2% carbon are called carbon steels, while those having more than 2% are caUed cast irons" As the percentage of carbon is increased, the tensile strength and hardness of steel increase but the ductility of steel fans. In order to increase the tensile strength and retain desirable ductility, certain alloying elements (chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, etc.) are added in small quantities to iron and carbon, forming alloy steels. Hence, steels are either carbon steels or alloy steels" These are further subdivided as follows" 0.25% r Low carbon steels 025-0,,70% 1~~~:=b~;~~eIS0,70% > Carbon content

1. Carbon Steels

2. Alloy Steels

Further, steels may be classified on the basis of their usage, as follows" Constructional steels These are used for structural members in steel structures" They possess good weldability, and satisfactory mechanical properties in the as-received condition, without additional heat treatment Engineering steels These are used for the manufacture of components of

Low alloy steels Medium alloy steels ' Higb alloy steels

Total alloy content < 5,,0% 5.0-10,,0% > 10.0%



industrial equipment They should have high strength under static and dynamic loads and good fabrication properties. Most engineering steels undergo heat treatment These are intended for the manufacture of cutting and measuring tools, as well as dies. They must have high hardness and wear resistance, with more than 0,,7% of carbon.
Tool steels

These have certain desired physical properties to suit their application" They include magnetic and non-magnetic steels, stainless steels, heat resistant steels, corrosion resistant steels and acid resistant steels" Constructional steels « 0..25% C) and engineering steels « 0.7% C) are ""n""....:.11,,, lrnnuln :l gCO cot"'1U'tl1"'gj cot""""lco g .n...... v y.-•• . In the .t' "I'OCPCOS ofmanufacture ........ stE'P1 lC;! P¥noc;!pd to air at hi 00 .....temperatures zh ._...... """..._" "'*''''''''' , .."' ........ y ..... ..............& forming oxides with undesirable effects on its characteristics. To reduce the formation of oxides, steel is deoxidised by adding silicon or manganese .. According to the degree of deoxidation, steels are also classified as killed, semikilled, or rimmed steels .. Sulphur and phosphorus invariably exist in steels as impurities, affecting its mechanical properties .. Depending on the level of these impurities, steels are sometimes classified as ordinary quality, standard quality and high quality steels ..
Special steels
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2.2 Constructional Steels

Some of the grades of steel that are manufactured members are as follows. Fe 41~O Fe 410-S Fe 410-W as per IS 1977-1975 IS 226-1975 IS 2062-1984 in India for structural (ordinary quality) (standard quality) (weldable quality)
(hloh tpm:.ilp. tlllHlitv) '·'·0·· ~..-..- "'1-_._-J,I

Fe 570-HT
Fe 540-W-HT Fe 540-HTB

IS 961-1975
IS 961-1975 IS 8500-1977

(weldable-high tensile quality) (high tensile weldable B grade steel)

Where Fe stands for steel, and the number after Fe is the tensile strength in
N/mm ..

Similarly, the steel used for welding consumables, bolts, nuts and other materials used should conform to appropriate Indian standards ..The stressstrain (CT - e) relationship of the constructional steels obtained in the laboratory from a uniaxial tension test gives a better understanding of the behaviour of steel to a structural engineer. The typical o-s curves of some steels are shown


Design of Steel Structures

in Fig. 2.1. In the curve (Fig. 2.1a), the stress is linearly proportional to strain from 0 to A. The CUIve (1) has a sharp-knee at A, indicating an elastic range from 0 to A, then a horizontal portion AB which is normally known as the plastic plateau, then the strain hardening range Be, indicating that the strain increases gradually at a faster rate than the stress from B to C, and finally the necking range CD, showing that the stress falls as strain increases till fracture takes place. The curve (2) (Fig" 2.1 b) passes smoothly from the linear' to the curved portion without any kink or plastic plateau. For the purposes of analysis and design, the actual a-e curve is assumed as a bilinear curve, as shown in Fig. 2" 1c, having only the elastic part OA and plastic part AA'. This idealised curve becomes the basis for working stress and plastic design or limit state design methods"

2.3 Mechanical Properties

All s~uctures in useare
Fu~ C

subjected to external forces which cause stresses

Curve (1) Fu C Curve (2)


CJ) CJ) (l)





Strain -~ (a)

o fy
Strain -__. ...(b)

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Strain (c) Fig. 2.1


Stress-strain curve



and deformations. To keep these stresses within permissible limits, it is necessary to get the strength characteristics through some tests conducted on standard specimens" These tests include mechanical tests like tension tests, impact tests, fatigue tests and hardness tests, and fabrication tests like weld tests, bend tests, pipe-flange expanding tests, and flattening tests, The mechanical and other properties which are most important in structural design are the following" In the sharp-kneed stress-strain diagram, the stress at sharp-knee level is called yield stress, Fy• In curves having no kink (Fig. 2"1b) the stress at which the steel shows a specified limiting plastic strain; usually 02% of the strain, is known as proof stress" This is considered equivalent to the yield stress for such steels. It is determined by drawing a line parallel to the linear portion of the curve (Fig. 2"1b) to intersect the G-£ CUIve..The point of intersection is taken as the proof stress or yield stress. This stress (also known as yield strength) becomes the basis for working stress design method or elastic design method. The yield stress values are less in thick plates than in thin plates, for the same steel.
Yield stresses (Fy)
.. "., ~ ~ -II

It is the stress obtained from dividing the maximum load observed in a uniaxial tension test, by the undeformed area of the test specimen ..It is also called the ultimate tensile stress or strength, Gu• The ultimate tensile stress is generally not less than 1.20'y where O'y is yield stress.
Tensile strength

It is the ability of steel to deform continuously without fracture. It is measured either by reduction of area of cross-section or elongation of

the gauge length on the specimen in the tension test. The gauge length is usually specified as 5.65.JAo, where Ao is the undeformed cross-sectional
area of the specimen. The percentage of elongation of low carbon steels is around 20% and the exact value is specified in material standards. This property is made use of in plastic or limit state design. It is the ability of steel to resist brittle fracture, or arrest cracks initiated at the notches. This property is important in case of steel members subjected to loads at low temperatures, where steel behaves like a brittle material, though at room temperature it may be ductile. Material standards specify a minimum energy absorption in joules at a specified temperature, such as 27°,0°, - 20°, - 30°, or - 40° (centrigrade units) from charpy V-notch tests to avoid brittle fracture of steel.
Notch ductility

It is the capacity of a material to be welded, to form sound and crack-free joints without impairing the mechanical properties at the joints .. Weldability depends on the carbon content and the presence of other alloying elements. Good weldability is achieved by limiting the carbon content in

18 Design of Steel 5tf'Jctures low-carbon steels, whereas in alloy steels it achieved by baving equivalent carbon content (which takes into account of all alloying elements and carbon). It is the ratio of stress to strain in the elastic range of the (J-€ curve. This influences the deformation behaviour of members or structures. Its value is more or less constant for all steels"
Modulus of elasticity (El

This is the ratio of transverse to longitudinal strain under longitudinal load, It is usually taken as 03 in the elastic range and 0.5 in the plastic range for steels. This is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain and is generally taken as 039 or 0.4 times E. Tne relationship between G, E and v is
Shear modulus (G)

Poisson's ratio (v1

Fatigue strength

E 2 (1 + u)

It is the ability of steel to withstand a repeated number of pulsating stress cycles without fracture" This strength at an unlimited number of cycles (usually 2 X 106 cycles) is known as fatigue limit or endurance limit It depends on the nature of the stress 'cycles or the number of load cycles, size and surface finish of the member, and joint details. It is the ability of materials, both in cold and hot states, to be bent or pressed to form different shapes without fracture.

It is the ability of materials to be machined by cutting tools" This property is improved by heat treatment. The properties listed above are influenced by the chemical composition. The various elements which are added, or exist as impurities, and the type of converters used in the manufacture of steel have a considerable effect on these properties. Also, the mechanical properties are affected when steel is subjected to cold plastic deformation, as in cold deformed steel bars or sections. An increase of cold plastic deformation increases tensile strength and hardness, but decreases the ductility of steel.

2.4 Design Concepts


In the working stress method, the stress at any point of the material in the structure is not allowed to exceed the permissible stress (yield stress/factor of safety). But due to geometric discontinuities, presence of holes and sudden load changes, there will be stI~ss concentrations and the material may yield. The plastic behaviour of steel is also used to make some assumptions in the working stress method, which simplify the design computations. Hence,



ductility plays an important role even in working stress design, though only the elastic part of the stress-strain curve is used for the design" The factor of safety varies from 1.2 to 3 or even 4, depending on the importance of the member, the nature of load and its behaviour, In the plastic design method the ductility behaviour is fully made use of in the stress distribution across the section .. The service load is multiplied by a load factor to give a collapse load" At this load the structure becomes partly or fully unstable, due to the formation of plastic hinges which form a collapse mechanism" There are some limits imposed in limit state design, beyond which the structure is assumed to be unfit for use ..The strength limit states (generally yielding, rupture, buckling, and transformation into a mechanism), stability limit states (overturning and sway) and serviceability limit states (deflection, vibration; corrosion and durability) are the ones generally specified in this design. This method is similar to plastic design. The bending stress distribution across a rectangular cross-section, according to the working stress method and plastic design or limit state design is shown in Fig. 2.2 based on material behaviour either in the elastic range or plastic range" The factor of safety in the working stress method and the load factor in plastic design or limit states design are intended to account for the following factors which influence the margin of safety: (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

(;) Possibility of overloading

Approximations and uncertainties in structural analysis Presence of residual stresses and stress concentrations Under run of mechanical and physical properties of material Under run of geometric dimensions of members Quality of workmanship and other uncertainties ..


Behaviour under Multiaxial States of Stress'

The material yields at different multiaxial states of stress .. The problem is to predict under what state of stress the material yields, and to find a criterion to predict yielding or failure ..There are many failure theories which define yield conditions under a multi axial stress system ..The most commonly accepted theory is the Mises-Hencky strength theory, also known as distortion-energy theory, which gives unaxial yield stress 'in terms of three dimensional stresses, that is

Fe2 = ~ [(ax - O'y)2 + (cr, - 0',,)2 + (O'z - ax)


+ 6 (O-;y +

(1;z + O';xJ

(2 ..1)


Design of Steel Structures


•I >-,

i\ 1\


~ ~


~ .... (f)

(j) Q}




E 0 E


"C C



~ ~ ~ ~




..... c

E o E





~.o ....... (j)!;





where o"x, O"y, and Gz are normalstresses and O"xy, O:vz and o"zx are shear' stresses, with respect to the x, y, z coordinate system and Fe is the equivale':lt uniaxial yield stress compared with the yield stress Fy obtained from a uniaxial tension test. If Fe > Fy, the material yields .. This equation can be reduced to biaxial or uniaxial stress systems, which are generally the case in steel structures. From this equation for pure shear case the shear yield stress, F~y is given by

F,y =





~~6 FatigueBehaviour
Steel members of bridge structures, industrial structures and other structures under repeated moving loads or vibrating loads are subjected to pulsating stress cycles and cracks may develop in the members at points of maximum stress concentration, leading to failure. The process of formation and propagation of cracks in materials under cyclic stress is called fatigue of the material. The maximum periodically varying stress which the material is able to resist for an unlimited period of time is the fatigue limit 01' endurance limit. The resistance of the material to cyclic stresses is called fatigue strength. The factors influencing the fatigue strength are maximum stress level, ratio of minimum to maximum stress, number of stress cycles, residual stresses, weld defects, size, shape, surface finish, and geometric and metallurgical discontinuties. All design details are classified as class A, B, C, D, E, F and 0, and allowable fatigue stresses are given for 105, 6 x 105, 2 X 106, 107, and 108 cycles for stress ratios from 1.0 to - 1..0 at intervals of 0.10 (IS 1024). These allowable stresses are used for fatigue design"


Brittle Fracture

Brittle fracture is characterised by sudden failure of the material at a stress well below its yield strength. Though steel is ductile at normal temperatures, it becomes brittle at temperatures below some critical temperature, known as the transition temperature. The magnitude of the transition temperature ~ .depends.on the material composition, strain rate, thickness, residual stresses, . fabrication flaws and high triaxial stresses, which combine to inhibit ductility locally. Brittle fractures generally take place in bridges, ships, tanks, stacks, pressure vessels, etc. For a structure, the structural steel is so chosen that the low service temperature of the structure is more than the transition


Design of Steel Structures

temperature of the steel (Fig. 2..3).,The material standards specify the minimum charpy v-notch impact test values at specified low temperatures" The service temperature should be above the specified low temperature of steel and the v-notch impact value more than the specified ones, to prevent brittle failure,
Brittle, fracture Ductile fracture



0> W



Fig. 2.3
Lamellar tearing

Charpy v-notch energy curve

In thick sections near highly restrained welded joints, failure occurs as a separation of base material. This is another fOIID of brittle fracture, called lamellar tearing. The use of very thick sections should be avoided and weld details should be made, so that weld shrinkage occurs in the rolling directions.

2~8 Corrosion
Corrosion is the deterioration or loss of material due to chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environments. Chemical corrosion causes the surface of the metal to oxidise in dIY air, resulting in thin layers of oxides (rust) which prevent further contact with the environment and thus stop further corrosion in the majority of cases" Electrochemical corrosion is the dissolution of material due to local electrolysis when the surface is wet. Corrosion is more when the relative hbmidity is greater than 70%., The rate of con os ion depends on the relative humidity, temperature and amount of aggressive substances in the atmosphere. For example, in humid areas where all' is saturated with industrial effluents, the corrosion rate of low carbon steel is nearly)oo times as great as in dry localities, Steel work is protected against corrosion by painting the surface, after it is cleaned of scale, rust, old paint, grease and dirt, Painting should be done



in dry weather and at temperatures between + 5°C and + 50°C. The total thickness of paint on a steel surface (priming plus finishing coats) should be as follows. For interior unclad steel work with ordinary humidity conditions in industrial atmosphere in marine atmospheres in aggressive atmospheres where Jl = micron (10-6 m) .

130 Jl 160.u
260 Jl 220 Jl
th.... co co'.......... LJ..U.... ro:)UpplvS~lvll
1 ... ·0

.A nnthpr' nlPthnri a. ...I.'V" ..... ..I."""....

.I. ... .I.""'IL-.I.

... '-'~,

irnnu/n .J.'1I...I..I.'\.I



'JOe''-''JOthnrii.... p.a.V,"""""l..lVIJ, n1'....... t.n.n t""... "","U'L".V'U.I.,,",




corrosion currents to minimise corrosion by introducing a counter current from an external anode source into corrosion circuits. This method is used for ship hulls, buried pipe lines, sheet piles, storage tanks, etc. In addition to these preventive measures, codes recommend some extra thickness over and above the thickness required by design considerations, in corrosion prone areas like in water or wet soils. The influence of the relative humidity of air on corrosion is shown in Fig" 204"





0 0

..... ._


0 2.9 Fire Protection

Fig: 2.4
60 80 100


Relative humidity


Although steel is an incombustible material, its strength rapidly reduces at elevated temperatures, as shown in Fig. 2.5, The structural engineer has to pay attention to the possible high temperature to which the structure is


Design of Steel Structures

exposed during its lifetime, Measures for structural fire protection need to be effective only for a limited length of time, during which people in the building can come out and the load bearing components remain functional during rescue and fire fighting operations. Access for the fire brigade, provision of hydrants, escape routes, emergency exits, and protection of steel structural Components are to be considered at the time of functional planning" The steel members are protected by covering with concrete, asbestos cement or gypsum plaster to prevent the spread of fire as well as excessive warping or collapse of steel frame" It may be noted that steel components can withstand temperatures up to 450°C without reduction in strength. Beyond 450°1' the stability of the structure under fire load becomes imnortant
..... .=.,



.. "'.




Q) .....



C 11):

,200 I



Temperature (degrees C)

Fig. 2.5

2.10 Testing
For the satisfactory performance of steel structures the designer relies on yield strengths, tensile strengths, ductility, weldability and good workmanship. To ensure the quality of steel, dimensional accuracy and workmanship, the testing of steel according to standardised procedures becomes a necessity. When bad workmanship in construction or the integrity of an old building are suspected, load, tests become essential, as per the codes. These tests include the stiffness test for serviceability and the strength test for the safety of the building. To ensure fabrication properties, certain laboratory tests need to be canied out as per testing standards. These inspection procedures are laid down to ensure the quality of material supplied in bulk.



2.11 Structural Steel Products

Generally, the members are straight and connected at the joints in all steel skeletal structures. Under loads, however, the members are subjected to direct forces, moments and shears or a combination of these forces" In order to use steel readily and economically in these members different crosssectional shapes are chosen. Steel manufacturers produce a wide variety of structural products in different shapes, to enable a designer to select suitable sections individually or in combinations to suit the design requirement. Depending on the manufacturing process, these sections are classified into hot-rolled sections and cold-rolled or cold-formed sections" 1. Het-rclled sections Hot-roBed sections are produced in steel mills II'Om steel billets by passing them tru'Ough a series of rolls. During cooling, thin parts cool faster than thicker parts because of which residual stresses or locked ... stresses are present in the material. These stresses,along in with others due to loading, influence the behaviour of the material in members" The various sections which are manufactured are beam sections, column sections, channel sections, angle sections, tee sections, tubular sections, rods, plates, strips and flat sections. These are also called the Indian Standard sections or British Standard sections or American sections ifthey are produced as per their standard dimensions ..Indian sections are given it; Fig" 2"6,,For the convenience of the designer all sectional properties such as area of

Too ....

, ..,





Fig. 2.6

Flat ,
Hot rolled sections


Design of Steel Structures

cross-sections, moments of inertia, modulus of sections, radii of gyration. and other dimensional details for fabrication purposes are listed in Appendix

A4 ..
Sectional properties like section modulus, moment of inertia and radius of gyration depend on the distribution of steel between the flanges and web for a given depth of the section. For a given modulus of section, the weight of the section is least for a specified depth. Such sections are called light beam sections, while other sections with a lesser or greater weight are called junior or medium beam sections. Sections having a wider flange width offering higher resistance to lateral buckling are called wide flanged beam sections ..For a given weight with a particular depth, sections having a larger minimum radius of' gyration are called heavy beam sections. These are used as columns ..Hence beam sections are designated by letters as .m, LB, MB, WB and }JR followed by the depth in mm ..Here the letters J, L, M, Wand H stand for junior, light, medium, wide flanged and heavy respectively .. Similarly, channels are designated as junior.Jight and medium channels; Je, LC and Me, followed by the depth in mm. Currently in India, steel plants produce only medium beam and channels, SC series for columns and other rolled sections. Tees are designated as junior, light, short legged, normal and heavy tees .. The letters JT, ST and NT ~re followed by the depth of the section inmm .. Angles are designated by the letter A followed by leg sizes and the thickness of the leg in mm. Tubular sections are denoted as light, medium and heavy tubes (LTb, MTb, HTb) followed by the nominal bore in mm. Rods are denoted as round bar (RO) or square bar (SQ), followed by the diameter in rom. Plates, strips and flats are designated as PL, ST and FL, followed by the width, thickness and length in rom" The nomenclature for the sections is as follows ..

Beam Series


xxx xxx xxx

... xxx'"

Depths (mm) available



MB xxx

75-600 100-600 150-600 150-450


Column Series


100-200 75-400 75-400


Channel Series




Steel 27 T-sections (Depth of section available in mm)


xxx xxx


75-112,.5 50-100 100-250


HT xxx where xxx = depth in mm

Angle Sections


Leg size available

A (leg size x leg size x thickness) in

For example, A 60606 A 75508 where A stands for equal angle leg sizes" Tubular Sections LTb xx MIb xx HTb xx

1 ill


unequal angle based on equal or different Nominal bore in mm

50--225 50-225 50--225

(I>ianaetel' in mm)

where xx stands for nominal bore diameter in mm. Rods RO xx

(Side width in mm)

SQ xx
Plates PL (width X thickness _, length) in nun Width Thickness Length Strips ST (width x thickness x length) in nun Thickness Width " Flats Fl (width x thickness x length) in nun Thickness Width

....... ,...1'\. "~nn. ~UV-L.JVU

up to 12500

1.6-10 100--1550



Design of Steel Structures

Although different categories of sections among beam and channel series are given here, steel plants in India produce only medium weight beams and channels; as such, the appendix gives sectional properties only for products being manufactured .. Thin plates can be formed into a wide range of sections by cold rolling or press brakes .. Steel undergoes a plastic deformation during the cold forming process, causing an increase in yield strength and reduction in ductility. Further, the wall thickness is small in these sections, rendering them prone to buckling.. Hence their design considerations are different. Although these sections are widely used in Cal bodies, railway coaches, storage racks, grain bins but in steel structures, they are limited to purlins, girts, roof sheeting and cladding. They are economical for light loads and moderate spans, and are useful where load carrying members provide useful surfaces like roof decks, floor panels, wall panels, etc. (Fig. 2.7) for light gauge sections.
2. Cold-formed or light gauge sections

[ n l 1 11



Upped _.. z

Hat section



sections Cold-formed sections

Fig. 2.7


Minimum Thickness of Structural Members

The minimum thickness requirement fer structural members hom the point of corrosion of steel depends on: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Exposure of steel to weather Accessibility of steel for cleaning and painting Hot-rolled 01' cold-rolled steel Sealed box sections



Special provision against corrosion (vi) Primary or secondary members in structures .. (vii) Importance of the structural member like bridge girders, crane girders for heavy duty cranes, etc" But, the above mentioned factors do not apply to the webs of rolled steel joints, beams and channels, or packings. The minimum thicknesses for various structural members from hot-rolled steel should-not be less than the following: Steel when directly exposed to weather and accessible for cleaning and painting Steel not directly exposed to weather but not accessible for cleaning and painting Steel not directly exposed to weather and accessible for cleaning and painting Steel in secondary members not directly exposed to weather and painted regularly Steel in secondary members exposed to weather and painted regularly Tubular steel painted and maintained regularly, and exposed to weather Tubular sled painted regularly and not exposed directly to weather Steel in webs of plate girders, bridge girders, crane girders, etc .. not exposed to weather Steel in contact with water or soil or subjected to wetting and drying, an additional thickness is added to designed or minimum thickness required -t:6mm 1:8 mm
{:6 rom

-t4.5 nun

{:5 mm
1:4 rom

{:3.2 rom
"1:8 mm

1,,5 mm

corrosion a reduction of thickness by 1 or 2 mm depending on degree of atmospheric pollution is allowed. The reader is advised not to bother if certain terms are not clear or well understood, but after going through book, he will understand the meaning of those terms.



Aluminium Structures

Although the behaviour of aluminium in structures is in a way similar to that of steel structures, aluminium products are increasingly being used in aircraft structures as aluminium has greater strength to unit weight ratio and


Design of Steel Structures

is resistant to corrosion in comparison to steeL Though the density of aluminium is nearly one-third of that steel, its elastic modulus is nearly onethird of the modulus of steel resulting in less stiffness and more susceptibility to buckling, its coefficient of thermal expansion also doubles that of steel. Since the material properties differ from those of steel and the design concepts fire similar to those of steel, all design codal provisions are different for both" In place of yield stress of aluminium, 0..2% of proof stress is used, The reader is' advised to refer "code of practice for use of aluminium alloys in structures (158147-1976) for design of aluminium structures" The structural civil engineers, are seldom required to design structures using aluminium products.

, •


3.1 Introduction
Most members in steel structures are built-up members, made of plates, angles, lolled beams or channels" The various components of these members need to be connected by means of fasteners so as to enable them to behave, as single composite units" Where two or more members meet at a joint, they need to be joined for transferring forces and moments from one member to the other. Connections are also required for extending the lengths of members, for connecting columns to footings and for joining two parts of a structure during erection. These connections are made by bolts, rivets and welds. The behaviour of joints is very complex due to the various factors which influence them, such as local effects, complicated geometry, and non-linear load-deformation characteristics, with some factors being highly indeterminate .. Hence their behaviour and design are much more complicated and involved than those of the members. Based on test results, past performance and the ductile behaviour of steel, many approximations and assumptions are made in the design of bolted, riveted and welded connections"

3.2 Bolts
The usual types of bolts that are used in connections are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Precision bolts or A grade bolts Semi-precision bolts or B grade bolts Black bolts or C grade bolts High strength bolts ., (IS: (IS: (IS: (IS: 1364-1967) 1364--1967) 1363-1984) 3757-1985)

Precision and semi-precision bolts (also known as close tolerance bolts) are used where no slippage is permitted between the connected parts, as in some machinery, measuring equipment or in certain steel structures under dynamic loads. In steel structures, hexagonal black bolts 9I' high strength bolts are generally


Design of Steel Structures

used. These bolts are made from low or medium carbon steels with or without additives" They are then quenched and tempered. These are grouped under different property classes or grades. In steel construction, bolts of property class 4 .. , 5.6 8.,8 and 10.9 are generally used. In property class 6 4,,6, the number 4 indicates 1JI00th the nominal tensile strength in N/mm2, and the figure 6 indicates that the yield stress is 60 per cent of the ultimate tensile strength, The product of the first figure and the second figure indicates 1110th of the yield stress in Nzmnr', For a bolt of property class 4.,6, the nominal tensile strength is 400 N/mm2, the nominal yield strength is 240 Nzmrrr', and the ratio of yield to tensile strength is 60%., Similarly, the ultimate strength, yield strength and the percentage of yield to ultimate strength can be obtained for other grades of steel. The percentages of elongation f or bolts 0 property Class 4,,0, :),,0, 0.,0 anu IV •n are ')2- , 'j() 1') an_ ~ '.,~" n .... 0 ts of .7 ._ respectively. The most commonly used nuts are those of property classes 4, 8 and 10 (IS: 136l-1980)" For bolts of property class 4.6, nuts of property class 4 are used, for bolts of property class R,8, nuts of property class 8 or 10 are used" Most of the connections are made with black bolts by inserting them in clearance holes enlarged by 1,,5 mm or 2 mm and by tightening them by nuts. The tension induced in the bolt by tightening the nut is not sufficient to develop frictional forces between the contact surfaces to prevent a slip in a joint. Slip occurs in these connections and transfer of load from one member to the other takes place through bearing between the bolts and the plates" Hence, all connections where the bearing takes place due to slip in a joint are known as bearing type connections. Sometimes to prevent excessive slip, close tolerance bolts are placed in holes 0.15 nun or 0,,2 nun over size. This small clearance causes difficulty in alignment of holes and delays the progress of work. With the advent of high strength bolts in clearance holes, initial tension in bolts is introduced by tightening the nuts to the desired level so that the load is transferred by friction without any slip at the joint This type of joint is known as friction type or non-slip connection, These high strength bolts, with a specified initial tension, are called high strength friction grip (HSFG) bolts" In steel construction black bolts are used for bearing type connections, and high strength bolts are used for friction type connections, If a smaller number of bolts is needed due to a restriction on joint length, high strength bolts are used in bearing type connections too" The advantages of bolted connections are:
t 0 0 ,1 1f)
L<V, .. ,..

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Use of unskilled workers Noiceless fabrication Fast progress of work Immediate resistance of bolts after placement.

Bolted Connections


3.3 Black Bolts

The dimensions of black bolts should conform to IS: 1363" Generally, bolts of property class 4 .. are used in steel construction. These are produced in 6 metric sizes from 5-36 mm. They are designated as bolts from M5 to M36. In steelwork, the usual sizes used are M16, M20, M24 and M30. To reduce the length of connection or the number of bolts in a joint, bolts of a higher property class or of larger size are used. The bolts used in steelwork have a coarse pitch of 2, 2..5, 3 and 3.5 mm for 16, 20, 24 and 30 mm diameter bolts respectively, The ratio of net area to gross area is 0..78 (IS: 1367 (Part III)-1979) but in design calculations this is taken as 0 .. 5 or 0 .. .. The 7 8 thickness of the bolt head is around 0 .. 5D and the size is 1.65D between 6 corners, where D is the diameter of the bolt (Fig ..3..1)..The dimensions are so chosen that the bolt head does not fail unless the shank fails .. Bolt head ~Length

o --. tOO

_L ,





co ...... . ,..... __.

O.65D (O.,65D)

Figures in brackets are for high strenqh bolts and nuts Fig. 3.1 Hexagonal head black bolt and nut

3.4 Failure Modes of a Joint

In bearing type connections, the joint can fail either through failure of bolts or plate failure .. The failure modes (Fig. 3..2) can be distinguished as follows.

(0 Shear failure of bolt

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Bearing failure of bolt or plate Tension failure of plate Failure of plate-end Tension failure of bolt


Design of Steel Structures

(a) Shear failure of bolt shank

Plate crushed

Hole intact
(b) Bearing faiiure

Bolt intact Hole elongated

Bolt (c) Tension failure otlPlate Sheared piate piece (d) Plate end shear failure-

(e) Tension failure of boit

Fig. 3.2 3.4.1 Shear Failure of Bolt

In bearing type connections, after bearing contact has taken place through slip, the force is transferred from one member to the other through shear in

Bolted Connections


bolts in one shear plane or multiple shear planes, depending on the type of connections. In lap or butt joints, the bolts are subjected to not only shear but also bending action due to the eccentricity of loads on bolts" The shear distribution is non-uniform over the cross-section of the bolt and the shear load per bolt varies in a joint according to elastic theory" To simplify the design computation, the following assumptions are made: Bending effect on bolt is negligible (U) Shear stress distribution is uniform (iii) Load is shared equally by all bolts. With these assumptions, the shear strength of each bolt in a joint will be the SfuTAe" shear strength of bolt in single shear, double shear and multiple The shear is calculated knowing the allowable shear stress, F, for the bolt Bolt strength in single shear, R" = ('r



F, N

Bolt strength is double shear,



= 2( -4-1 Fs


Bolt strength in mnltiple shear,



l1r: J
/ -2 '\

F, N

(3 ..1)

where d = uominal diameter of holt in nun; Fs := allowable shear stress in N/rrun2; m = number of effective shear planes; and N stands for Newtons" Let R, be the strength of the bolt in shear, This may be due to single, double, or multiple shear. The maximum load that can be transferred through shear is

p ~ n (Bolt strength in shear) = nR r

wheren is the number of bolts used to transfer the load. If the applied shear on the bolt is more than the bolt strength in shear, the bolt is deemed to have failed in shear.


Bearing Failure of Bolt


At the point of contact the load is transferred from the member to the bolt through bearing stress. The distribution of bearing stress is very difficult to assess because of different curvatures of the bolt and the hole, and the width of plastification of material at the point of contact. To simplify design computations, the following assumptions al'e made.


Design of Steel Structures

(i) Bearing stress distribution is uniform (ii) The contact area is equal to dt, where d is the bolt diameter and the thickness of the plate (iii) The plate is dgid and strong, The bearing strength of the bolt,
Rpb Rpb


in terms of Newtons is

= dt


where d bolt diameter in rum, t thickness of plate at contact under consideration in mm; and Fpb = allowable bearing stress for bolt, in Nrrnrrr'. If the load on the bolt in beating is more than the bolt strength in bearing; Rpb' the bolt is deemed to have failed in bearing. In butt connections and beam-to-column conneCtionst, ·-r_~ __~~.--r.~, ~_._- can __ _._.~_'. -'.place ffi···llie-maIii" bearing ...failure 'take '"':- _ _ ----,:---'"' ... _ r---. -~.,-.plates; angles,_or weD~,depgldiDgQn__t.h~JLI~le!!y£ tpjg!c!)esses" One has to be"cimtlOiiS in using the thickness, t in Eq. (3.2), .._.
> ...
q •• _ ••

_._c __

'"' ..•••






, •• _ •.•••















•• "_.,..,_"_~,..-'



Bearing failure of plate Depending on the relative strength of the bolt material and plate material, bearing failure can take place either in a bolt or in a plate. If the plate strength is higher, the bolt fails in bearing .. If high strength bolts (where the bolt yield strength is higher than that of the plate) are used, then plate failure is to be expected, If the allowable bearing stress in a plate is Fpp' the bearing strength of the plate, Rpp is given by (3...3) where d = bolt diameter inmm; t;:: thickness of plate in nun; and Fpp :;::Fy (yield stress of the plate). The student may wonder why in the working stress method the allowable stress in bearing for plates and fasteners is taken to be equal to or more than the yield stress of the material.. These values are given based on the failure strength of the bolt or plate in bearing, which includes the effect of strain hardening. Alternatively, one could imagine that the bearing contact area is supported by larger areas available in the shank of the bolt or plate for stress dispersal and the allowable stress is multiplied by a factor greater than unity, which would give these larger values. It is common practice to call the minimum of Rpb and Rpp the bearing strength of the boit, hereafter denoted as Rp" Therefore the bearing strength of the bolt, Rp is
Rp = dt Fp (3 .. ) 4

where Fp is the minimum of Fpb and FppThe strength of the bolt (R) is the minimum of bolt strength in shear (Rs) and bolt strength in bearing (Rp).


37 (3.. ) 5


Tension Failure of Plate

The plate fails in tension through the weakest section on account of holes. The holes may be arranged in rows in the longitudinal direction of the plate, so that the number of holes is equal the number of rows across the width, or in staggered rows so that the number of holes across the width are fewer. In the first case plate failure occurs across the weakest section, whereas in the second case failure takes place in a zig-zag pattern. The load canying capacity of the plate depends on the net area of the section, which in turn depends on the arrangement of holes. In the case of an unstaggered rows of holes, the net area, Am is computed as


= (b

- najf


where b = width of plate; n = number of holes in b perpendicular to the load direction; d = diameter of hole, and t = thickness of plate" Based on experimental evidence, the net area is given for the case of a staggered rows of holes as

An = ( b ~ nd + L
" J

S2) 4;;


_. /

where b, t, d are as before, s staggered pitch in mm; g gauge distance in mm; n = number of holes in the zig-zag failure path; m = number of staggered pitches or gauges along failure path. All possible failure paths (straight as well as zig-zag, say.i numbers) are to be tried and the corresponding net areas, Anj are to be computed as per Eqs 3.6 and 3;7. The minimum is the net area for the plate with holes ..Since the allowable stress in tension for the plate is Ft, the strength of plate in • • 1.. tension IS tue product or An ano JI't.
~I ... .. -

Tensile strength of plate = AnFt

(3.. ) 8

If the tensile load on the plate is more than its tensile strength, the plate fails in tension through rupture. The failure path may be straight at right angles to the load or in a zig-zag path, depending on the pattern of holes . • The failure path and the net area computation are shown in Fig. 3.3.


Shear Failure at Plate-end

The plate may fail at the end near the extreme fastener due to shear when sufficient end distance is not available. The end distance is the distance from the end of the plate to the centre of nearest hole measured in the


Design 9t Ste~1Structures

0 0

0 0
0 0 I 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0

9 9 9

A. = (b-nd)t II ' . (a) Chain of holes in rows




(b) Staggered holes ---- -'_ Failure path

Fig. 3.3
direction of load, i.e. longitudinally. If the end distance is taken as e) in Fig. 3.4(a), and '{t is found by equating the bearing strength of the bolt to

the shear strength of the end piece \CiS (2elt)

Shear area Then end distance,

(045Fy ~

= 2d



= dt 1.2 r,

Average shear stress

Bearing strength of bolt


Bolted Connections


d Plate end

(a) Before failure

Shear planes at failure

(b) After f allure Fig. 3.4 where d = diameter of hole; Fpb = 1.2 Fy (allowable bearing stress in bolt); 0.45 F; maximum shear stress; Fy yield stress of steel. If el < 2d, the plate fails at the end, as shown in Fig. 3A(b).. Though it has been proved analytically that el is equal to 2d, due to strain hardening of material the failure takes place around l .,2d. Some codes recommend a value of l..5d for the end distance, The Canadian code suggests 1.5d, the British code suggests lAd and the Indian code recommends Zd. If the end distance is less than 2d, the allowable bearing stress is reduced proportionately according to Indian code IS: 800 as follows. .,

pb -






(3.1 0)

where e)= end distance, and d = diameter of hole.


Tension Failure of Bolt

If the bolt is subjected to tensile force in a joint because of its location, it fails in tension as soon as its capacity is exceeded. When threaded bolts are


Design of Steel Structures .

in tension, fracture takes place at the root of the thread. The area at the root depth should be taken as the stress area. The net area of the bolt is taken as 0.. 5 or 0.8 times the gross area .. The tensile strength of the bolt is the 7 product of the net area and allowable stress in tension .. i.e. Tensile strength of' bolt in tension, R, = (

1f:2) 0..75 F,

(3.. 1) 1

where d .:... olt diameter; and F, = allowable stress in tension .. b When the tensile load on the bolt exceeds the tensile strength of the bolt, the bolt is not strong enough to resist the load and it fails in tension through rupture.


Pitch Requirements of Bolts

Holes for accommodating fasteners at joints should invariably be made in members and in connecting plates called gusset plates ..Holes are generally made larger than the diameter of the bolts, to ensure easy insertion. The distances from centre to centre of the holes should be decided taking fabrication and strength considerations into account.. The diameter of the bolt-hole should be larger than the diameter of the bolt by 1.5 mm unless specified otherwise .. The distance between the centres of adjacent holes is cal1ed the pitch and it should not be less than the minimum distance required for operation of tools during fabrication ..Also, the distance should not be mote than a maximum distance to avoid corrosion and buckling of outside thin plates between bolts, and to realise tight and effective joints. Similarly, to avoid end failure of plates, prevent COllusion and have tight joints, there is a minimum and maximum limit for the end distance in the direction of load. Also, there are limitations on the side edge distance, and on the pitch along the nearest row of holes from the side edge for the same reasons. The pitch in the direction of load is called longitudinal pitch and the one transverse (normal) to the load direction is called transverse pitch or gauge distance. Generally the longitudinal pitch is kept as 3d or 4d and the gauge is anywhere from 75-250 mm. When chains of holes are staggered, the pitch is called staggered pitch .. The pitch requirements of bolts ~ie as follows.

The distance between centres of bolts should not be less than 2..5 times the diameter of bolt or nominal diameter of rivet
Minimum Pitch Maximum Pitch (a) Transverse pitch

The distance between the centres of any two adjacent

Bolted Connections 41 bolts in the transverse direction (perpendicular to load direction) should not exceed 32t 01' 300 mm, whichever is less, where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate ..
(b) Longitudinal pitch (i) For tension members-In

load direction, the pitch should not exceed 16t or 200 mm, whichever is less. (ii) For compression members-In load direction, the pitch should not exceed 12t or 200 mm, whichever is less. Where transfer of force through butting faces takes place, the pitch should not exceed 45 times the bolt diameter for a distance from the abutting faces equal to 1,.5 times the width of the member .. {liil For' rnw np~r' ~it1p Pt1O'P_'T'hp y ..... in !:'IIinp !:'IIrli!),£,pnt <:lnrl parallel tro nitrh...... l .a"'" .....~J'IAo'""......-s..l ... "' the side edge of al1 outside plate should not exceed (100 mm + 4t) or 200 mm, whichever is less .. (iv) Staggered pitch-When the gauge distance is not more than 75 mm, the pitch in (i) to (iii) may be increased by 50% when bolts are regularly staggered"
\. ..... ,&J ... _ ...... "" .... ...~-.iJ .. _V


.... ......




.I.~ ..


.I. "'


.1 ........1. .


However, the pitch is not to exceed 32 tor 300 mm, whichever is less, where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate.
Edge distances

Minimum edge distance:' The distance from the centre of any hole to the edge of a plate should not be less than those given in Table 3" 1,
Table 3.1>' 1fJ!inimum Edge Distance of Holes

Diameter of hole

Sheared or hand flame cut edge

(mm) 19

Rolled, machine flame cut. sawn or planned edge

17 .. I

135 and below 15.5 17.5 19.5

235 25.5 32,.0 35.0

25 29 32
32 38 44 51 57 57
, ,



29 32 38 44 51 51


\\\'1 \\ \

Maximum edge distance:

The distance from the edge of the plate to the nearest line of bolts or rivets ~ "here LARSEN. TOUBAO LIMITE

ECC Conetructton Group

P.B. No. 979
&r"I.r'IIAO _Ilnn






Design of Steel Structures

is the thickness of the thinner outside plate in mm. If not exposed to weather, this may be increased to 121" The distance from the end of the plate to the centre of the nearest hole in the direction of stress should not be less than 2d, where d is the effective diameter of the bolt or rivet. If the end distance is less than 2d, the allowable bearing stress in the bolt is reduced in the ratio of the actual end distance to 2d. The end distance should not be less than the minimum edge distance. i If the edge distance is kept equal to 1.5d for planed edges and 1..75d for sheared or flame cut edges, the minimum edge requirement is normally satisfied.
End distance

Tack boits Tack bolts are additional bolts used, besides those required by strength considerations, to satisfy the maximum pitch requirements. The - maximum pitch for tack bolts should not exceed 32t or 300 mm, whichever is lower, Where exposed to weather, it should not exceed 161 or 200 mm, whichever is smaller. If tack bolts are used for sticking the components of a tension member, the pitch should not exceed 1000 mm, whereas for the compression member it should not exceed 600 rnm. When two or more plates are held by bolts, the inner distance from the bolt head to the nut is called the grip" If the grip is too long, the bolt is subjected to bending action. To account for this action, if the grip length exceeds 6 times the diameter of the hole, but does not exceed 8 times the diameter of the hole, the number of bolts required by normal calculation should be increased by not less than 1% for each additional 1.5 mm of grip" Various pitches are shown in Fig. 35, and the staggered pitch is shown in Fig" 3.6.,
Long grip bolts

If the bolt and plate materials are considered elastic, the share of the load by bolts in long joints is non-uniform (Fig. 3,,7) and the extreme bolts are subjected to maximum forces. The bolt strength in shear is reduced (or extra bolts are provided) if the length of the joint is more than 500 mm to account for non-uniform bolt loads along the joint. The reduced shear' strength of bolt is flPproximately obtained by multiplying the shear strength of bolt by a factor which is equal to
Long joints 5500 - Lj 5000

where Lj = length of joint in mm (BS ...

03TIMI.I OAaUOT • M!laAAJ quolD noltoUlfenoO 003



• vsMdu

Bolted Connections


r (

t- P? -1
0 0

0 0 0 0




t- P10 Pi ._ P10-1 .+c +0 0 0

0 0 0





I i

+_j e L .


P1 = longitudinal pitch P2 = side edge pitch g11g2, g3 gauge distances e1 = end distance e2 = edge distance

Fig. 3.5

Pitch requirements

o o

o o o
0 ~1---;


• ~

0 ,..._

O __ ~__ O



o__ o~I_'_ ~1



P1 = longitudinal pitch or pitch s = staggered pitch P2 = side. edge pitch e end distance g = gauge distance

Fig. 3.6

44 Design of ~te~1Structures





2 3 4




Ai 8j

Force in bolt j

Fig. 3.7

Bolt forces in a long joint

3.. Allowable Stresses 6 The calculated stress in a mild steel rivet or in a bolt of property class 4.,6 should not exceed the allowable stresses given in Table 3..2..
Table 3.2
Type of fastener Maximum Allowable Stress in Rivets and Bolts Axial tension MPa
(1) Ft

Shear stress Fs MPa


Bearing stress



(2) 100

.....-n .

Power driven rivets Hand driven rivets Bolts








For field rivets the allowable stresses should be reduced by 10%.

The allowable stress should be increased by 12% in comparison to mild steel rivets. \
High tensile rivets

The allowable stresses in Table 32 may be multiplied by the ratio of the yield or proof stress of the bolt of property class higher than 4.. or 0.7 times its tensile stress, whichever is 6 Jesser, to 235 MPa. This is valid for bolts in bearin_gtype connections.

Bolt of property class higher than 4.6

Bolted Connections 45 The calculated bearing stress for bolts or hand driven rivets in clearance holes, and for connected parts, shall not exceed the value of F; Bolt in shear and tension The present practice is to ignore the bearing stress which might be present while considering the bolt under shear and tension" Tests on bolts under shear and tension showed elliptical interaction curves for the ultimate strength of bolts" Using appropriate factors of safety a design interaction curve for working stress design is shown in Fig. 3"8,,

Bearing stress



~=LO Fs

(;s)' (;1)" = 1.


1t Ft
Fig. 3.8



Interaction curve for bolt


This has been approximated by three linear lines which are adopted by the Indian-steel code" The interaction curve is (3,,12)

also approximated as
and (3.13)


High Strength Bolts

High strength bolts property class 8.8 and 10.9 are very commonly used in steel construction and they should conform to IS: 3757. The approximate



Design of Steel Structures

bolt dimensions rue shown in Fig. 3.1.. Although the sizes of bolts from M16, M36 are available, the commonly used sizes are M16, M20, M24 and M30. Identification marks, such as 8S for 8.8 and lOS for 10.9 are shown on the heads of these bolts. High strength nuts and washers should be used with these bolts. Special techniques are used for tightening the nuts to induce a specified initial tension in the bolts, which causes sufficient friction between the faying faces. This friction is made use of in the design. These bolts with initial tension are known as High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts. Due to friction, there is no slip in the joints, hence connections with HSFG bolts are called friction type or non-slip connections" The initial tension in the bolt is known as the proof load of the bolt and the coefficient of' friction is known as the slip factor,

3.7.1 Strength of HSFG Bolt

The load that can be transferred through friction by a bolt depends on the proof load, the slip factor and the number of effective friction surfaces. If the applied load is more than this load, slip occurs and the load is not transferred from one part to the other by friction, It ceases to be a friction type connection. Hence the load that can be safely transferred by friction is called the strength of the bolt, R, given by
~tr otreng th or HC'T.'''''' bolt ..:>ru UVI


J.l Pn (FS)


where, P = proof load in N; J..I. = slip factor; n = number of effective surfaces, and FS = factor of safety (1.4 for normal loading and 1.2 when combined with wind). It is assumed that the applied load is shared equally by all bolts in a group. The design condition is (3,15) where, P = total load on joint; m

= number

of bolts; and R = bolt strength.

HSFG bolt strength under tension When an external tension acts on a bolt, its tendency is to reduce the friction. If friction becomes zero, the friction type connection reduces to 'c;t bearing type connection. Therefore, there must always be some friction between the faying surfaces to make the friction type connection effective, by preventing any slip. Hence, the maximum external tension on a bolt is limited to 0.6 times the proof load for static loading and 0.5 times the proof load for dynamic loading. External tension, T < cP

Bolted Connections 47 where, c :::: for static loading and 0.5 for fatigue condition, and P = Proof 0.6 load. The modified strength of the bolt, allowing for tension is given by Strength•

f HSF G bolt R = ----:-:==:--J.l(P - Tlc)n , (FS)


where, J.L = slip factor; P = proof load; T = external tension; c = 0.6 for static loading and 0.. for dynamic loading; n ::::number of effective faying surfaces; 5 FS = factor of safety (1.4 for normal loading and 1.2 when combined with wind). When T is equal to cP, R becomes zero. thus making the joint ineffective for design purpose.

3.. .. Slip Factors 72 The coefficient of friction between the faying surfaces is called the slip
factor. It depends on the nature of the faying surfaces. The slip factors to be used in the design of friction type connections aJ'e given in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Slip Factors

Surface condition (1) Weathered, clear of mill scale and loose rust Blasted with shot or grit and loose rust removed Sprayed with aluminium Sprayed with zinc Treated with zinc-salient paints Treated with etch primer Galvanised Dry mill scale Slip factor (2) 0.45 0.,50 0.. 0 5 0.40 0.35 0.25


The Indian Code (IS: 4000) recommends a slip factor of .0.,45 for steel construction, but it leaves scope for the design engineer to use an increased or decreased value at his discretion, depending on the situation.

3 7.3 Proof Loads for HSFG Bo/ts ..

In HSFG bolts an initial tension is indu~ed by a special tightening procedure,
at stresses less han the yield stress for bolts of property class 8.8 and 10.9 respectively. This ensures that in the presence of external tension, the stress is always less than the yield stress. The proof loads to be used in design for various sizes of bolts are given in Table 3.4.


Design of Steel Structures

Table 3.4

Proof Loads of High Strength Bolts in kN

Proof load in kN

Nominal diameter of bolt in mm


Property class of bolt 8.8 10,,9 94.5 115.0 147.0 182.0 212.0 130,,0 159.0 203.0 252.0 293.0 381.0 466.0 570.0 678.0 810.0 ,

18 20


337.0 416~O 490.0 586.0

33 36


3.. .4 Bolt Tightening Methods 7

The reliability of HSFG bolts in connections depends on the method of tightening of 'the individual bolt. The initial tension, up to proof load, has to be ensured in each bolt, as the design of connections is based on this proof load. The three methods of tightening used are: part turn method, torque control method, and gap closure method. These methods are used depending on the grade of bolts and nuts, as given below,

Grades of bolts and nuts

Bolts of grade 8.8 Bolts of grade 10.9 with nut of grade 12 Bolts of grade 10.9 (waisted shank bolts) with nut of grade 12

Tightening method
PaI~ turn or torque control method Torque control or gap closure method Gap closure method

.The part turn and torque control methods are less accurate, because they can be influenced by the pitch of the threads and friction on bolt threads. In the gap closure method, the specified proof load is induced in the bolt by the use of a load indicator device. The part turn 'method is also known as the turn of nut method. It is the simplest and most common method. All the bolts and nuts are tightened to bring the joint surfaces into close contact, by making the nuts snugtight by full effort of the worker using an ordinary spud. wrench. In this position permanent marks are made on each nut and protruding threads of the bolt. Each nut is tighted "by a specified turn from the snugtighr

(a) Part tum method



position, depending on the length of bolt. It generally takes 2 1/2 turns from the snug position to the fracture of the bolt" The recommended nut rotation from the snug tight position is as follows ..

Bolt length < 4d 4d to 8d or 200 mm 1 :> 8d or 200 mm

where d = bolt diameter .

Turn of nut 3


.. 'Vote Bolt length is measured from the underside of the head to the extreme end: of the shank. This method is based on the linear relationship between the initial tension in the bolt and the torque necessary to turn the nut or bolt head. This relationship may be expressed as
(b) Torque control method
Ts: .... y


(3 ..17)

where T applied torque; p = proof load; d = bolt shank diameter; k = torque coefficient, 0.15 for highly lubricated bolts, 0.25 for lusty bolts .. Hand torque wrenches or impact wrenches are used to apply the predetermined torque. They are designed such that they are unable to apply any torque greater than the present value. They should be calibrated before . use, to give the precise setting value. This is done by tightening a sample bolt against the load cell, which gives the direct tension in the bolt. The torque wrenches are adjusted to produce a value 10% higher than the proof load. Calibration is done whenever bolt length, size and grade are changed .. Many structures have been erected using this procedure successfully ..

In this method a load indicator device is used. It is like a washer with protruding projections on one side, and is inserted so that the projections touch the underside of the bolt head or nut. When the bolt head or nut is tightened the gap between the bolt head and load indicator device is reduced, by an amount depending on the magnitude of initial tension. A specified gap corresponds to a specified initial tension. By measuring the gap, the corresponding initial tension is known. ~When using a gap closure method in an HSFG bolt group, the experienced operator will be able to judge the COITectsetting by the feel of the wrench in operation. Where there are more than four bolts in the group, the bolts should be tightened in a staggered manner, working from the centre of joint outwards.
(c) Gap closure method


Design of Steel Structures

3.8 Rivets
The hot rolled mild and high tensile steel rivet bars conforming to IS: 1148 and 1149 are used for manufacturing rivets ..These are made with a desired length of shank and a round head at one end .. This head is also called a manufacturer's head and the head at the other end, made at site, is called the driven head. Sometimes, due to limitations of clearances, the heads are made flat or counter sunk (Fig .. 3.9)., The carbon, sulphur and phosphorus contents are limited in rivet steel to 0.23, 0.,05 and 0,,05% respectively. The ductility is around 23%. The tensile strength of steel is 410 MPa (IS: 1148) and 460 MPa (IS: 1149) .. The COll1IDon diameters that are used in steel construction are 16,20,24,30 and 36rnm ..These are ~1so known as nominal diameters, since the actual diameters in joints are different
Countersunk head



1 \

Shank length


-1 _l_


Grip length



(b) Flat head rivet (c) Flat countersunk head rivet

(a) Round head rivet

Protruding portion



Forged head


do ::: Nominal dia of rivet

d Dia of hole Clearance two: plates

= d - do =
(d) Hot forged rivet connecting

Fig. 3.9

Rivet details



The rivets are heated to cherry red colour (1000 °C) and are inserted in aligned holes in the members to be joined. The diameter of the hole is made 1.. mm or 2 mm larger than the nominal diameter of the rivet, similar to 5 the clearance holes in bolted connections. The manufacturer's head (preformed head) is pressed against the plate by a bucking bar and the protruding shank is converted into a head at the other end by the wiving action of the pneumatic hammer. The heads are forged in fabrication shops by continuous action of a pressure riveter. It has been observed that shop power driven rivets have 10% higher strength than field power driven rivets, and hand driven rivets have 20% less than shop power driven rivets" The difference in strength is taken into account in the allowable stresses given in codes .. The force of riveting, while moulding one of the heads, forces the heated shank to expand laterally, fining the hole ..Although the hot rivet heats the connectedparts, they do not become as hot as the rivet. When the hot rivet starts cooling it tries to contract in all directions. But the connected parts resist the lengthwise contraction, causing tension in the rivet. This initial tension in the rivets makes the joint tight. In most hot driven rivets, the intial tension vades from 60-90% of the yield strength of the rivet. In some rivets, it is almost zero since it depends on the method of driving, grip length, and nature of contact surfaces ..This initial tension is ignored in the design ..Hence, the rivet design is similar to bolt design in a bearing type connection, except that the diameter of the rivet is taken as the diameter of the hole in place of the nominal diameter. With the advent of welding and high strength boIting, the use of the welds and HSFG bolt systems in connections has rendered the use of rivets obsolete. Hence, in this book riveted connections are not covered extensively.

3.9 Joint Behaviour

joints present in structures have short structural sections, like plates, angles, tees, etc. and are connected by fasteners arranged as per the desired requirement. Depending on the thickness of the connecting angles or tees and the arrangement of the fasteners, joints in structures behave like rigid joints, partially restrained joints or hinged joints. It is not possible to treat deformations and forces in joints analytically. However, research workers at Lehigh

University and the Steel Structures Research Committee of Great Britain

have studied commonly used usual beam-column connections, to understand joint performance better. Moment-rotation relationships, based on this experimental study, are shown in Fig. 1.10 for riveted and welded connections. The behaviour of bolted connections is assumed to be similar' to that of riveted connections. If we superimpose the moment-rotation curve of a beam end on that for connections,

52 Design of Steel Structures



Lll l:J!
v ro Q)

..... ....



.0 0

I •



... <:D <:D

0 J





'U 'U
Q) Q)
















(1') I


!D C C



-u Q)


as !D ..a











2 :.=;:


...... ~

Bolted Connections


the intersection points furnish the moment and rotation of the connections under consideration" These can be compared with the known values of the ends of beam for fixed and hinged cases. This way, the connection can be judged whether it belongs to rigid or hinged case" Figure 3.10 shows curves 1, 2, 3 and 4, giving the M -, 8 relationship for four types of riveted and welded connections using web angles, flange angles, tee stubs or plates, The behaviour of the M - (} curve of a connection is non-linear. Using elastic theory for beams under uniformly distributed load for the fixed case, the fixed moment M F is Wz2112 and (J is zero. For the hinged case, the rotation 60 is WP/24 EI and the moment is zero. Assu;Ung the relationship between MF and 60 is linear, a straight line 5 (also known as beam-line) can be superimposed over curves 1, 2, 3 and 4. For example, the moment and rotation for type 1 connection. Ml and 81 are obtained flUID the intersection of curves 1 and 5, and for type 4 connection, M4 and 04 are obtained from the intersection of curves 5 and 4. Depending on the connection, the ratio M/Mpvaries from one to zero, whereMi is any value fromMl toM4, depending on i. If Mi > O.85 .. F it is generally considered rigid, and if M; < 0.25 M; M it is considered flexible. If M, lies between 0.25 MF and 0..85 MF it is considered

Therefore all joints are broadly categorised as simple or flexible, rigid or moment resistant, and semi-rigid connections.


Simple Connections

In these connections it is assumed that the resultant of the applied loads on the joint passes through the centroid of the fasteners, causing either shear or direct 'forces in the bolts. In practice, although there is always some eccentricity, the moment due to eccentricity is ignored; since it is small, it should not adversely affect the connections or;structural members. The simple or flexible connections found in steel structures are as follows. (i) Lap .and butt joints (ii) Truss joint connections (iii) Connections at beam column-junction (a) Seat angle connection (b) Web angle connection .. (c) Stiffened seat angle connection (d) End plate connections (iv) Tension and flange splices .

.3.10.1 Lap and Butt Connections

All truss connections are generally lap or butt connections (Fig. 3,,12)., In lap


Design of Steel Structures


A~ (a) Flanqe tension and Compression splice

(b) Section A-A

Section 8-8 (c) Tension splice

Fig. 3.11 connections a bending moment is introduced due to eccentricity of load. Since lap connections are used for small forces or in small sections, the flexural action is negligible. The minimum lap should not be less than 5t (where t is the thicknessc~X the plate), so as to avoid tenslollin-lJOItS-=:Qr welds. Double cover plates are n()_!!!lallyp-tt;f-.e1!~Qj!l__buttiojntS:t.9_JlliSUre symmetry.-~aI thicKneSS of Cover pla~es should be 5% m~ than the thickness of the parent plate. The efficiency of the joint is the ratio of the ~ength of the Jomt to the strength of the parentplate without holes .. The minimum thickness of the plate when exposed to weather should not be less than 6 mm if it is accessible for cleaning and painting, and 8 mrn if it is not accessible" The connections are deemed to be adequate and safe if (i) all bolts are safe, (ii) parent plate is safe, and \ (iii) connecting plates (gussets) are safe .. The clearance between members is usually kept at 2 or .3 mm. The number of bolts in a joint should not be less than 2. The allowable tensile stress for parent material is 0.6 Fy•

Example 3.1

Determine the tensile capacity of the bearing type connection

Bolted Connections


....._ ~, -,--t~-!'-II--' -=--;_j --'--_--t)
=-4D> -

T' =t::

-t·-t-!i t·


a t:


----II ............

! .

Cover plates


Parent plate (a) Lap joint

-..II- 2

-f...__....;...-j ~;
or 3mm

(b) Butt joint


Discontinuous (c) Truss connection

Fig. 3.12 in Fig ..,3.13 and the efficiency of the joint if (a) bolt threads ale outside the shear plane, (b) bolt threads are inside the shear plane" Use M24 bolts of property class 4,,6 with plates 150 x 16 nun, the allowable tensile stress for the plate being 150 MPa" Solution (a) Threads excluded from shear plane Plate Strength: Ag 16 x 150 2400 mm?

An = [150 - 2(24 + 1.5)]16 = 1584 mrrr' T = 150

Bolt Strength:
Rsy X


10-3 = 237.6 leN

nx 4

242) 80



= 39.19 kN

56 Design of Steel Structures

12 -150x
T ..



T ...

~ +.-f-"
J • -



rM24 l/ . T



Fig. 3.13

Rp = 24 x 16 x 250 x 10-3 = 96.00 kN

Allowable beating stress for bolt and plate = 250 N/mm2

R = 39.19 kN


6R 39.19 x 6 = 235 . 14 kN (For six bolts)

Minimum end distance




= 48


Minimum pitch = 2.5 x 24 = 60 mm Minimum edge distance = 1.5 x (24 + 1.5) = 38,25 nun Lap length provided> 5 x 16 mm (O.K,.) Tensile capacity (minimum of 237.6 and 235.14) = 235..14 kN . Eff-iciency


. 235.14 00 65 301. Jomt = 2400 x 0.15 x 1 = ., 70


(b) Threads in shear plane


= 0.8

x 39.19

= 31..35 kN
188.1 kN

(Effective area is taken as 80% of gross area) Tensile capacity, 6R Efficiency of joint = 65.3 x 0.8 = 52,,2%

Bolted Connections 57

Example 3~2 For the joint shown in Fig. 3,.14, determine (0 determine the maximum load the joint can cany, (ii) check the pitch and end distance requirements, and (iii) determine the efficiency of the joint
if M20 bolts of property class 4.. are used and F, for the parent material is 6

150 MPa.


PL 250x8 Failure path 1t 2,4 3,5 Bolt -M20


Fig. 3.14
Solution (i) M20 bolts:

Bolt A:


= (1r202) 4

80 "X 10-3 = 25.!3kN

s, = 20 x 10 x (250
RA = 25.13 kN

x 20,

30 )

10-3 = 37.05kN


Design of Steel Structures

Bolt B:

Rd~ = 25.13 Rp = 20

x 2 = 50.26 leN


10-3 = 80.0 kN

RB = 50.26 kN Strength of A type and B type bolts = 2 x 25.13 + 8 Cover plates: Total thickness required = 16


= 452.34


1.. 5 = 16.. mm 0 8 (O.K.)

Provided = 18 rum

= (250 - 3 x 21.5)(10 + 8) = 3339 mrrr'



( I"IC:f\ ~JV




....... ...,

502 + .x 4x

'\ 50) 18 = .3465 mm"2


Tension load carrying capacity of cover plates Main plate;'

3339 x 0.15 = 500.85 kN

Ag = 250

= (250
= ("51'\ L. V

16 = 4000 mm?


21..5)16 = 3312 21.5)16

1. ...... -.



= (250 - 3


2968 mnr'
'16 3848 rom 2 4 70 50) - - = . X



(Here, 70 Capacity:

= 40 + 30)

= 4000 X 0.15 = 600 kN

x 0.15 + 2 x 25.13

T, := 3312 x 0 ..15 = 496 .. kN 8

= ~4n2x 0..15 + 2RA = 2968 T3 = 3848 x 0.15 = 577.2 kN


= 495.46


For zig-zag failure in main plate through holes of B type bolts (failure path 6 not shown in Fig. 3.14) and on making use of earlier calculation,

To = 3465

!~ 0.15\+ 2

25.13 = 512.26 kN

(Ans for cover plate is 3465)

Maximum load on joint = 452.34 leN

(Minimum of the underlined loads)

Bolted Connections


(ii) Pitch requirements: Minimum pitch = 2.5 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 16t or 200 mm = 16 x 8 = 128 mm Maximum gauge distance, (allowed) g] = 32 x 8 = 256 rom

= 256 mm Hence = 256 mm or =. 300 mm . Minimum end distance for no reduction in bearing stress = 2 x 20 = 40 mm Maximum side edge distance = (37 + 4 .x 8) = 69 mm Maximum pitch along side edge-row = (100 + 4 x 8) = 132 rum All dimensions are O.K.

EffilC!ency 01 joint . ~'..


452.34 x 1 = ,...-39~ ~OO I::> .., '10 600

Example 3.3 Design a butt joint using baits M20 of property class 5.. if 6 the main plate is 250 x 12 mm with a yield stress of 300 MPa., Arrange the bolts to obtain maximum efficiency. Draw neat sketches to show the details .. Solution Thickness of cover plate, say 8 nun (it should be more than 6 mm), Use 2 cover plates 250 x 8 nun. Efficiency is maximum for a single hole. Ag = 3000 mnr' Tg = 3000 x 0.6 x 300 x 10-3 = 540 kN

An = (250 - 21.5) 12 = 2742 mm2 T = 2742 Bolt strength, Rd,




10-3 = 493.56 kN
X 10-3 X 2

= ( 1I"!02)

X 80 x ~~

= 64.17 kN

Yield stress of bolt material ;;;;;; N/mm2 (Property class 5,6) 300
Beating stress in bolt = 300

x ~~~ or 300 = 300 Nzrnm?

Bearing stress in plate = 300 N/mm2 Rp = 20

x., 12 X 300

10-3 = 72 kN

R = 64.17 kN
Number of bolts, n = 493.56 64.17

= 7.7

Use 8 nos or more.

60 Design of Steel Structures If 2 holes are at the section, then T = (250 - 2 x 21.5) 12 x 0.6 x 300 x 10-3 = 447.12 kN

n = 447.12 = 6.9,7' i.e, 7. nos or more 64.17

Hence, we need a number, say = 8 Minimum pitch = 2.5 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 16 x 8 Gauge 200 = 128 mm 300 :;;:: 56 nun 2

= 32




End distance = 2 x 20 = 40 mm Maximum side edge distance


37 + 4 x 8 = 69 mm

Arrange the 8 boits as in Fig. 3.15.





Fig. 3.15

. I


Zig-zag failure load


= ( 250 - 5

21.5 + 4 X 60 ) 12 4 x 50


03 = 463.3 kN

(O.K .. )

Cover plate may be cut to satisfy the minimum and maximum edge distances .. Efficiency of joint = ~~~2 x 100 = 82,8%

Bolted Connections


3~ O~2 Truss-joint Connections 1

In an pin-jointed trusses the members meeting at the nodes are subjected to direct forces .. These members are connected to gusset plates by bolts or welds using lap or butt joints depending on whether one or two angles are used for a member, The design of a fastener is straight forward, but the determination of gusset thickness is not so. The latter is not amenable to analytical study because of its odd shape and the introduction of forces through the fasteners discretely. An empirical method of finding the effective ~th of the gusset, to resist forces, based on the stress distribution ~n angle of 30°, has proved satisfactory (Fig. 3.16). The .~Jdt1.!_ k_ of the gusset }n the figure resists the furce. In the absenceof ~!l_y_goIllPJltatio~for. gussets, !~ ... rl.o....-I ..... ased on .. .... . Ulv lUI1UW 1110 llln ..\.llv~~ l VI. U U~~ OU~~~l~ l~ ~vVll11J.l...,UU...,U, va vu. VU LU...,
~~~_-';~--~...... ,"n ..........,n..o...n . 1. '"'tt.. ....................... ..... a .ar.

maximum force in the support diagonal of the truss. The same thickness is adopted throughout the truss.

Thickness of l'russ Gussets

Maximum design force in diagonals in kN Thickness of gusset in mm up to 200 8 200 to 450

450 to 750 12

750 to 1650 16

1650 to 2250 18

Another thumb rule is to use a thickness a step higher than the thickness nf' the angles IJC'Por1 ~t thPo in';nt tn pn~ut'p s!lfptv ""'""'J.;o The clearance between members is usually kept at 2 or 3 mm. To avoid eccentricity of the load at a joint all axes having bolts should meet at the node.
'-J'~ ...1. .







...." '





Example 3.4 Design a connection at a truss joint (Fig. 3,.17) using M16 black bolts of property class 4.6 .. (a) Sketch the details if the bottom member is discontinuous.
Ih"\ Wh!lt U1nnlt1 h", th", nntnh"'f' nf ho1t~ f'Pf1111r'pn fnT' r.nnnp:r.tlno- the hnttnrn 'IJ'_ --._ ---:1_,0 - -------,..." ..- .. .1..& ""' LI " A .a._a. -----

members with the gusset if the member is continuous. (a) M16 bolt:

Rds = (1rl;.5 Rp = 16
(Assumed 8 mm gusset)

2 )


10-3 = 38.48 kN


10-3 = 32 kN

R = 32 kN
Bolts for 120 kN,


= 3.75, say 4 nos


Design of Steel Structures







, .., r-:'h-'"


8 = 30°

Fig. 3.16 200 kN, 80 kN,

n2 :;:: 200



:;::625, say 7 nos

n3 :;::80


:;::2.5, say 3 nos '

Use gusset thickness

8 mm

Bolted Connections 120kN


2Ls 75x75x6 .JL 80kN


Fig. 3.17 Structural details satisfying the pitch requirements are shown in Fig. 3.18"

45mm (uniform) 35mm



2Ls 75x75x6.lL. p e Exact gusset shape depends upon scale

Fig. 3.18
(b) The net force on bottom member = 120 kN

No. of bolts = 32 = 3.75, say 4"




Seat AiJgle Connection

The seat angle connection (Fig. 3.19) is quite useful during the erection of a beam, as it acts as a seat for the beam. However, at the top of the beam a clip angle of minimum size is always used without design to provide a lateral support to the compression flange ..


Design of Steel Structures

The load carrying.capacity of the seated angle connection is limited by the number of bolts to be accommodated by the connected leg. If 4-M20 boIts of grade 4.6 are used in the seated angle connection the load is limited to tOO kN .. For 4-M30 bolts of the same grade, the load is limited to 226 leN. Hence, for a seated angle connection, the load may be limited to 150 kN though there is no restriction, The clearance between the end of the beam and the flanges of the column should be minimal (2 mm) so that maximum bearing length is available. Usually a length of stiff beating (based on a conservatively assumed 45° angle of stress distribution) is available, It is approximately equal to 2.4t (Fig. 3.19), where t is the thickness of the angle. A large amount of the reaction directly passes from the stiff bearing area to the connecting leg, thus causing no bending moment on the bolt group. The number of bolts is found by dividing the reaction of the beam by the bolt strength" The strength of the angle at Section 2..2 in Fig, 3.19(b) sf)t1uld be more than the reaction. l.:J:he pressure at the suport, i.e. underneath the beam flange, is distributed into the web of the beam at an angle of 30° (IS: 800) up to the fillet line of the beam (Fig. 3. 19(b»)., The bearing stress at the fillet line is limited to 0.75 Fy- When the calculated beating stress in the web at the fillet line due to reaction is more than O.75Fy, the web fails in crippling. The minimum width of beating to prevent web crippling is given by Eq, 3,,18 .. Suppose R = reaction in N, b = minimum bearing length required, k = depth of fillet, W ~ web thickness? and Fy = yield stress of steel in beam. Then R b = O.7S Fy w· b



» 25 mm (b should not be negative)

If (b + " 3 k) 0.75 Fy < R, then the web needs to be strengthened by providing bearing stiffeners. Although beam-web is susceptible to buckling due to concentrated reaction provided by seat angle, the buckling strength of web in rolled sections is normally more and hence the web is not checked for buckling. ') In order to know the size and number of bolts which can be aeeoinmodated in the legs of the angle, the gauge distances for the legs of angles are given in Table 3.5 As a rough guide, a bolt size of d can be accommodated' leg size of 4d east y. hen the leg SIze is _e)~_!hani_: one should ensure its acceptability for proViding mimmum-gatlge and edge-distances as given fn Table 3.5. Design a seat angle connection between a beam MB300 and a column SC 200 for a reaction of beam, 80 leN, using M20 bolts of property class 4.6., Take Fy = 250 MPa.

Example 3.5

BoltedConnection~ 65

Fillet line




(a) Seat Angle

(b) Detailed at A



0110 OliO

Sealed angles

t Fillet positions

(d) 8eam (c) Bearing width

~':::::=~)r L J1J
.1 IJ (e) Front view of seated angle connection


Column flange

Fig. 3.19 Solution

M20 bolt:


Design of Steei Structures

8 ~



0 r-










....-I I/')

(T') ....-I



'.r'I 10 10








\0 0

~ ~ .....


\0 10 V'l

s: ....


c: <C









o rn


Sf Sf


r~ ~
iii 10

Q) C)








.a as



00 C'I


V') ('f')




0 ('f')

V') ....-I


e e

bO~ :l





Bolted Connections


2 (.: t = 8.. rnm and end distance, assumed = 1.5d) 0

Rp = 20

x 8 x 250 x 1.5 x 10-3 = 30 .. kN 0

R = 25 ..13 kN

Beam reaction = 80 leN No. of bolts, n = 2g0 3 = 3.2, say 4 ..1. Seat angle: For the beam, M300, Flange width = 140 mm, Fillet depth, k = 29.25 nun, and Web thickness w =: 7.7 mm .. Column, SC 200: flange width = 200 nun Try angle, L150 x 75 x 8 - 140 mm long End distance on 150 mm leg = 150 - 55 - 65 = 30 nun End distance on 75 mm leg = 75 - 40 = 35 mm Beating strength for seat angle = 140 x 8 x 0.75 x 250 x 10-3 = 210 kN > 80 kN O .. .. K Stiff bearing length, b = 2.4t = 2.4 x 8 = 19.. mm 2 Widt.h of web at fillet in beam = 19.. + AJ3(29.25) B ::: 69.86 2

O<.K ..

· . - R - 80 10 Beanng stress In we,b F. - Bw - 69.86X x 7.7 - 14872 Nt mm 2 p ..

< O.75Ft (187.5)


Web does not need bearing stiffener at support. Clearance between beam and column = 2 mm Provide top clip angle: L60 x 60 x 6 - 140 with 4 .. grade M16 bolts .. 6

Seat angle: L 150 x 75 x 8 - 140, No .. of bolts = 4 - M20 bolts, and Clip angle: L 60 x 60 x 6 - 140 with M16 bolts. Details are shown in Fig .. 3.20.

Example 3.6 In Example 3.5, if high strength bolts M20 of grade 8.. are 8
used with an initial tension as recommended in the IS code, in place of bolts M20 of grade 4.6, determine (i) the number of bolts, and (ii) the size of the seat angle.


HSFG bolt-M20 of grade 8.8

Slip factor

Proof load 147 kN9 (see Table 1.4)9 Effective surface 1, and Factor of safety = 1.4..

= 0.45,


Design of Steel Structures

Clip angie 60 x 60 x 6 -- 140 mm SC200 4-M16 Flange width 200mm of grade 4 .. (2 for column, 2 for 6 beam) Flange width 140mm

II I I~==r==:::::i




Fig. 3.20
n= 1\ -

···13.1mm· grade 4.. 6

L·-1S0x'75x8 -140rnm

0.45 x 1_47 _



"5 I....


No. of bolts, n = 4~.~5 = 1.69, say 2

Leg size = 4 x 20 = 80 rom, However, try angle, L75 x 75 x 8 - 140 mm long (acceptable) (8 mrn angle was checked in Example 3.5 and found to be O.K.)

Seat angle: L75 x 75 x 8 - 140 nun long and bolts: 2-M20 of grade 8.8. 3.10.4 Web Angle Connection

The end shear of the beam is transferred through web angles (Fig. 3.21) either to the column flange or to tije column web. The clearance between the beam and the column is kept at 2 mm to provide sufficient end distance in the web. The length of web angles is decided based on the number of bolts and the pitch lIowever, the len th of web angles is enerall s than 0.6 times the de tot e beam, and the maximum length is the c ear - epth of the web of the beam between fillets, which may be taken-as _'approximately~th the depth of the.member. -These a~ usually connected in the compression zone of the beam, so as to provide lateral support to the

Bolted Connections 69

- ~+ -+ - -~


\_ r Web angles



I- ..I




Fig. 3.21 Web angle connection

compression flange. The thickness of the web angle should be 8 mm up to a beam depth of 450 mm and 10 mm for larger beams" If the thickness is more, it may not be flexible and the end rotation of the beam is restrained. The bolt group may then be subjected to the end restraining moment, thereby making the joint inflexible. The joint is made more flexible by making the gauge distance (Fig.. 3.21) on the column flange as large as possible. An empirical formula suggested by the American Railway Engineers Association (AREA) is used for the gauge distance, g.

_ (Lt)1I2 8

where, L = beam span, and t = thickness of web angle,


Design of Steel Structures normally kept 140 rom or 100 mm on columns. The web can be in conjunction with a seat angle connection when cannot be catered for, either by a seated angle or by a web singly ..

The gauge is angle connection the applied force angle connection

Example 3.7 Design and detail a web angle connection between a beam MB350 and column Se250 for a load of 150 kN using bolts M20 of grade 5.,6., Assume yield stress of plate steel = 250 MPa. Solution Black bolt-M20 of grade 5,,6 Yield strength of bait steel = 5 x 6 x 10 = 300 N/mIn2 Allowable stress, F,

80 ;3~OO


102.13 MPa


. 1)

= 319.15

MPa or 250 MPa of plate steel and Beam web thickness = 8.,1 rnm ..

Use web angle thickness = 8 mm Bolts between beam and angles


l'" 4- )
( 11'102\

102.13 x 2 x 10~3 = 64.17 kr~


= 20 X 8.1
= 40 .. 0 5

x 250 x 10-3 = 4050 kN

R = 40.50 kN No. of bolts


= 3.7, say 4

Bolts between column and angles R s - 64.17 - 3'2 .1 kN 2Rp

= 20

x 8 x 0.25

= 40


R = 32.1 kN No. of bolts


= 32J


'; = 4.67, say 8

Uneven number causes torsion on bolts, and hence symmetry of bolts is preferred. Adopt g = 140 mm. Use 2LI10 x 110 Then


g = 65 x 2 + 8 = 138 - 140

Bolted Connections 71 Minimum pitch = 25 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 12 x 8 = 96 mm or 200 End distance = 2 x 21..5 = 43 Use p = 55, e = 45, nj = 4, n2

8 (total).

Length of angle = 3 x 55 + 2 x 45 = 255 mm Minimum length = 0,,6 x 350 = 210 mm Maximum length =. 0,,75 x 350 = 2625 mm Design details are shown in Fig. 3.22.









_j_ ~1"140" 1 .__~



LO ,(\j


lO' tOl

2L 110 x 110 x 8


++ +t


I •




Bolts M20 of grade 5.6

1'..... --II

Fig. 3.22 3.10.5 Stillened Seat Angle Connection


When the seat angle (unstiffened) is unable to resist the beam reaction due to a limitation on the number. of bolts because of the leg, or when the combined strength of the seat angle arid web angles is not adequate, the seat angle is stiffened (Fig. 3.23). The total load of the seat angle is assumed to be supported fully by stiffeners and then transferred to the column through angles and bolts. The cross-sectional area of stiffners at the point of bearing is obtained by dividing the load by the allowable bearing stress, FpFor example if, bs = leg size of stiffener angle (outstanding), ts = thickness of one stiffener angle, h; = bearing length available after accounting


Design of Steel Structures


Fillet line

Packing .... plate


'- Bearing width Tack bolts ' Stiffener

Fig. 3.23
, for fillet of angle, P = load on the stiffened seat angle connection, Fp allowable bearing stress,



(for two stiffened angles)

The length and size of angle is selected based on number and size of rivets used for connection, A packing plate is introduced to fill up the gap between the flange of the column and the stiffener. The local buckling of the stiffener leg is avoided by limiting the width-thickness ratio to 16. The length of stiffener is chosen based on the number of bolts and the pitch requirement. The number of bolts is given by dividing the load by the bolt value or strength ofthe bolt. In this case also, a clip angle is provided at the top flange of the beam. Normally the strength of the web of the beam against web crippling or web buckling is less than the load taken by stiffened seat angle. Further the web buckling strength is always more than the web crippling strength at stiffened seated angle connection. Hence it is sufficient to check for web crippling strength. In case, bearing stiffener is required near the connection and is to be designed for the entire load when rolled beams are used, the leg sizes and thickness of bearing stiffener (two angles one on either side of the beam web) are given by Connected leg size, a; Outstanding leg size, ao
=at =at

4 x (bolt diameter) mm (B - tw - 20)/2 mm

Boited Connections 73 thickness of stiffener, t s


(2ao - 25) 150



where B = flange width of beam is mm tw = thickness of web in mm P = load on stiffened seat angle in N The detailed explanation of web crippling, web buckling and bearing stiffeners are given in Chapter 7. In these connections, the eccentricity of load on the bolt group, being small, is usually ignored and some extra bolts are provided to cater for the moment Otherwise the group may be checked as per the principle explained for eccentrically loaded connections in 3.11.1{b).

Example 3.8 Design a stiffened seat angle for a load of 250 kN using
M20 bolts of grade 4.6. It is to be connected between beam MB400 and SC200 and yield stress is F; = 250 ·MPa lor' stiffeners.

M20 bolts of grade 4.6;


1r20 (4



= 25.13 leN

Assuming minimum edge distance


s, = 20 x 8 x 250
R = 25.13kN

x ~:~ x 10-3 = 30 kN on minimum 8 mm plate

n = 25.13 = 9.95, say 10 bolts

Use stiffened seat angle. . ,_ 250 x 103 _ 2 Beann,g mea - 0.75 x 250 - 1333.3 mm Assume Is = 10 Assume fillet radius


13333 bs = 2 x 10 - 667 mm .

Angle leg = 66.7 +\10 + 8 = 84.7, say 90 Use L90 x 90 x 8 Stiffener outstanding leg = 66.7 + 10 = 76.7, say 80 Stiffener connected leg = 20 Use stiffeners 2Ls 80 . Angle - L 90

x 4 = 80 nun

80 x. 10

x 90 x 8 - 160


Design of Steel Structures

Check for local strength of beam web: Assume stiff bearing length = 80 + 8 - 3 = 85 mm (Thickness of seat angle = 8 nun, clearance = 3 mm) Fillet depth for MB400 ~ 30 nun (~ 0.75 D) Width of dispersal, B = 85 + 30~3 ::: 137 mm Web thickness, tw = R,9 nun Flange width for MB400 = 140 mm Web crippling strength = 137 x 8.9 = 228.6 kN < 250 leN


x 0.25

Hence bearing stiffener is required Using Eqs 3.18(a) Connected leg size, ac = 4 X 20 =: 80 mm Outstanding leg size, llo= (140 - 8.9 - 20)/2 = 55.6 nun Thickness of angle for

2L - bearing stiffener = (2 x 5~~~5)150

Use beating stiffener: 4L - 90 x 60 x 10mm Thickness provided = 2 x 10 mm > 19.33 mm

= 19..33mm

No. of bolts required = 2 X2~~.13 = 4.97 say 8 nos. Use pitch = 55 tnm, and end distance = 45 mm, Total length = 50 0} 40 + 45 + 3 x 55 + 45 = 345 mm Stiffener length = 345 - 8 = 337 rom, say 340 mm Packing length 345 - 90 255 nun Thickness of packing = 8 mm and Width of packing = 160 nun

Use tack bolts M 16

(12 x 10) spacing

Stiffeners - 2Ls 80 x 80 x·l0 - 340 Angle: L90 x 90 x 8 - 160 Packing plate = 255 x 160 x 8 Clearance of packing plate = 3 rom Bolts = 10 -- M20 Tack bolts = 3 M16 bolts @ 120 .. Refer Fig. 3.24 for details.


End Plates Connection

An end plate is connected to the web of the beam at the beam end by welds. This end plate is in turn connected to the column flange by bolts to transfer

Bolted Connections
__ ~'_iO


angle 60 x 60 x'6 , M16'bolts

x o



o <.0 o en



--.._ co







M20 bolts

2Ls - 80 x 80 x

Fig. 3.24 the reaction of the beam ..Its behaviour is similar to the legs of web angles connected to the column flange. The flexure of the end plate permits the rotation of the beam end about its bottom edge (Fig, 3.25) ..The end plate is so arranged that the bottom flange of the beam does not bear on the column The length a in Fig. 3.25 is less than or equal to 30t, to prevent contact, where t is the thickness of the end plate. The thickness of the end plate is taken as 8rnm or 10 mm, depending on whether the depth of the beam is 450 rnrn or more. The gauge distance on the column flange is similar to the web angles .. If the top flange of the beam is to be cut on account of fabrication difficulties, the length of the cut out portion may be limited to iOt to prevent buckling of the web, where t is the thickness of the web. The permissible shear stress in the fillet weld on a critical throat plane is 108 N/mm2• Since the weld is always referred to by its leg size, the weld strength of a 1 rnrn long and 1 mm leg size weld is 76 N. If the leg size is s, the strength of a 1 mm long weld is Rw = 76s, which means that me strength of a minimum size 6 mm weld is 6 x 76 = 456 N. If P is the load, L the length of weld and s the size of weld, then

p s= LR w



Design of Steei Structures





(a) Beam to column joint End plate deforms

(b) Beam to beam joint Cut lenqth 20t

1CL~r-~ J ~I


t~ 1


~ I--

t (thickness of . end plate)

(d) Notched end

(c) Beam end rotation

Fig. 3.25 Example 3.9 Design an end plate connection to transfer a reaction of 100 leN from a beam MB350 to a column Se180 using bolts M20 of property class 4.6. Solution Thickness of end plate = 8 nun (assumed), and thickness of column flange = 14 nun

Bolts: R" = ( 7r ~02) 80



10-3 = 25.13 kN

= 16 x 8 x 250 X 10-3 = 32 kN

R = 25.13 kN

Bolted Connections


100 25..13

= 3.98, say 4 bolts

End plate:

Length of plate = pitch + 2 (end distance)

= 60 + 2

45 = 150 nun

a < 30 x 8 = 240 rnm, say 150 mm

Fillet depth of beam (!::.: 0.1 depth of beam) = 30 nun Length of beam (say)

20 x 350 !p~rn 20 x 350 x 8

g =[


= 83.7mm

Provide 100 rom Structural details ate shown in Fig. 3.26. Recommended End plate: 180 x 150 x 8 rom, and Boits: 4 Nos - M20 of grade 4.6.

3.10.7 Tension and Flange Splices

In flanges of beams the longitudinal stress is assumed to be uniform, though the bending stress varies across the section. This is because the variation of the stress through the flanges is negligible. Therefore, the behaviour of these tension and flange splices is similar, In these splices, butt joints or shingle joints are often adopted, dependingon the number of plates to be connected or extended. Lap joints are used, in small tension members, but in all other members butt joints ate preferred, because the symmetry of shear planes prevents the bending action on fasteners" In shingle joints the discontinuity of plates is staggered, unlike in butt joints, where it is all in one place (Fig. 3.26A). In shingle connections the area of cover plates may be less than the area of parent plates, whereas in butt joints the area of cover plates is always more than that of the main plates" This is demonstrated by the example given below. ,

Example 3.10 A shingle joint and a butt joint (Fig" 3.26b) are designed to carry a tensile load of 295 kN. The pitch and edge distances are chosen to satisfy codal requirements and to prevent zig-zag failure. Check whether the design is correct if M20 bolts of property class 5.6 are used and the yield stress of plates is 250 N/mm2• .


Design of Steel stnscturee

Solution M20 bolts of grade 5.6: Yield stress of bolt = 5 x 6 x 10 = 300 N/mm2
Allowable shear stress = 80 x ~~

= 102.12 N/mm2





., I

\ I ,
MB 350i

4 Bolts M20 End plate 180 x 150 x 8 mm

45i..r0 LO




Fig. 3.26


·~:·t-H*-+HH II ~
! II ~
! : 'I .
: "I ,

H,,-ftt· t t:: t t t ,:t, .


.t :- +H' t .::+. ,. +ll; +



Fig. 3.26 A,'

Bolted Connections


1 I



0 0

If II 0


II 0




O!: 0
o ji



)1 0





(a) Shingle connection

'------•6 bolts

(b) Butt connection






Fig. 3.26,8


Design of Steel Btructures

Allowable bearing stress = 250 X ~~ Bolt Strength R, = 11:\20


= 319.15 N/mm


102.12 x 10-3 = 32 kN

= 32 x

2 = 64 kN

Rp = 20

x 8 x 319.15

10.-3 = 51 kN 2 = 2168

Effective area of plates: For main plates, An = (200 - 3 6 mm cover plates 10 nun cover plates

2L5) 8



= 2168

.2. = 1626 nun 2



= 2168 x 10. = 2710. mm?

Maximum load the joint can carry in Shingle joint if only Bolts fail along (1) - (1) = 9Rs = 9 x 32 = 288 kN (Fig. 3.26B(c» Main plates hili in (2) - (2) ::::2168 x 150 x 10-3

325 k.~

Cover plates in (3) - (3) = 1626 x 0.15 + 3Rs = 339,,9 kN Less by 295



100 = 2.4% (2-5% is allowed),

Therefore, the design is adequate. Butt joint: Bolts fail = 6Rds = 6 x 51 = 30.6 kN (Min required) Main plates fail = 2168 x 0.,15 = 325 kN Cover plates fail = 2710 x 0.15 = 406.5 kN Design is safe" Note 1. More bolts for shingle joint 2. More thickness of cover , plates in butt joint.


Moment Resistant Connections

As the name implies, these connections are capable of resisting moments. Further, the end connections of member's of the frame should have sufficient rigidity to prevent rotations. The assumption made in framed structures is

Bolted Connections


that the joints are rigid, and hence the connection should also be rigid" The theory of elastic or plastic analysis gives the forces and moments on the joints, or the eccentricity of loads from the centroid of the fastener group will cause forces and moments on the joints" The connections that occur frequently in practice are the following" (i) Eccentrically loaded connections (ii) Tee stub connections (iii) Flange angle connections. 3..11"1


Loaded Connections

When a load acts at an eccentricity from the centroid of a bolt group, it causes either a twisting or a bending moment, and a shear force on the bolt group, depending on how the bolts are placed in a connection resisting the eccentric load The eccentncload effect-is statically equivalent to a twisting moment or a bending moment, which is equal to the product of the load and its eccentricity plus a concentric load. The twisting moment and shear force _ on a bolt group cause only shear forces along two directions in a bolt, whereas the bending moment and shear cause tension and shear in a bolt. Hence, these effects in bolts are treated separately as follows"

(a) Eccentric load causing twisting moment 'In Fig. 3.. 7 the bracket plate 2 is connected to the column flange, so that the load P on the bracket produces a twisting moment, a load P, and a load Py on the bolt group of the connection at the centroid. Here, the force P is resolved into two components (Px, Py) with eccentricities (ex, ey)' The shear forces on a bolt in directions .x and y due to the twisting moment (P, ex + Pyey) and due to loads P, and Py are obtained individually, and the maximum resultant shear force on an extreme critical bolt is computed and compared with its bolt strength, to test for its adequacy. The extreme bolts in Fig. 3.27(b) are denoted BI to B4 .. The procedure is shown below .. In Fig. 3.27, n is number of bolts in a group, eXt eyare eccentricities of P, and Pyt and P~, Pyare .x and .y components of P. Shear forces due to Px and P y on each bolt in the x and .y directions are

FP = Px,
x "

F=- n y



Twisting moment,T = P; ex + Pyey Assuming that the shear force F due to the twisting moment on each bolt


Design of Steel St!1Jctures


is proportional to its distance r to distance r,

the centroid (Fig. 3.37) and is normal

Foer F1 -K,"P b
'F 2 -K,' 2 "...., n = 1\..

Kr n

where K = proportionality constant .. T = Pi'i + F2


rz + "" + Fn Tn (r? + r:} + .:' + rn2) .,,'



K-_I_&~ -

L r/

2 '

L (X; + yl)
2' ;

F] = ~ "

+ Yi )

F2 =


L (Xi + Yi )




These shear forces FJ, F2, etc. act normal to the radius vector, as shown in Fig. 3.27. The shear force components in the x, .y directions due to Tare

P'T1y _

Trl cos (J _


(x'f + y?) - (xl + y?)


Therefore fOI' any bolt the shear forces in the' x and .y directions are
P R = Fx + F1 x x

(3.. 2) 2

The resultant force, FR,which ismaximum (Fig" 3.27d) on a critical bolt is



v: +
x •

F.2)1I2 Y

The design condition


where R = strength of bolt.. The critical bolt is one of the extreme ones, depending on the nature of the loads.

Bolted Connections


8 Bracket

Column flange (a)







(d) Critical bolt

Fig. 3.27 Example 3.11 Determine the maximum load P the joint in Fig. 328 can carry using bolts M16 of grade (i) 4.6, (ii) 8.8, if the joint is considered a slip joint and non-slip joint respectively. Solution (i) Load components:

= P cos 60° = 0.5P


84 Design of Steel Structures



, 30 o

120 2 Nos-brackets

t-+--+?--+--'--~ ,



. II


I i







M16 of grade 4.,6 or 8,.8.


~180~ Fig. 3.28

P; = P sin6q° = O.866P ex = 125 +}O = 155 rom ey = 90 + 350 = 440 mrn T = (0,,866P) (440) - (0.5P) 155 = 303 .. 4P (clockwise) 5 Critical bolt is at the bottom right side of the bolt group
n = 24 bolts

F: = 0.8;; P = 36.08 X 10-3 P

\ Xc

= 65


Yc = 155

L (xl + y?)

= 2 x 12 X 652 + 2 X 4(252

+ 752 + 125

= 276400

pT = 303;54P x 125 ~ 0.1373P

Bolted Connections


pT = 303.54 P x 65 = O.0714P


F~ =: 0.,02083 P + 0.1373 P ...

= OJ58lP

Fy =: O.03608P + 0,,0714P == OJ0748P FR


(F} + F/)1I2
1t' 16 4 2


0.1912 P


J 80 x 10

10.08 kN

R p = 16 R

x 12 x 0.25

48 k_N

16.. 8 kN 0 or p = 16.08 = 84.1 kN 0.1912

OJ912P = 16.08

(ii) Bolt M16 of property class 8.8 Proof load = 94.5 kN


O..... ' 94 ..... .d'\,x "'



30.375 kN

p: 30375


= 158.9 kN

(b) Eccentric load causing bending moment ,In connections where brackets are placed in the plane of the column web (Fig. 3,,29), the eccentric load on the bolt is considered equivalent to a bending moment and the loads Px and P; at the centroid on the bolt group of the column. The bending moment acts about the major neutral axis of the bolt group, As in the previous case, Section 3.1 L 1(a), the load, P is replaced by x and y components P x and P y at eccentricities ex and eY" The tensile force on a critical bolt due to the bending moment (P; ex + Pyey), and shears and direct forces due to P; and Py are found on the same bolt Thus, a bolt is subjected to shear and tension and its strength under this combination is adequate if the following interaction formula in terms of stresses is satisfied.

where is,it = calculated shear stress and tensile stress respectively; and Fs' FI = allowable stresses in shear and in tension. In Fig. 1,29, n = number of bolts for the group, P, = load component in


Design of Steel Structures


• A



Fig. 3.29


I" ·A

Bolts A Bol1s B

12 Nos 6 Nos

x-direction, P; = load component in y-direction, ey = eccentricity of Py, and M = Pxex + Pyey, The forces on a bolt

ex = eccentricity of Px,

f r tx

= ,tt' P = FxPIA


j' sy = - Y = t s


t, = Z = A1: y,.2


(Assumed moment is resisted by bolts only)

where, A = bolt area, Yi = Y coordinate of bolt W"Lt centroid, and e of the bolt under consideration from neutral axis.
f' t -f' tP

= distance

+,1M t

For bolt, allowable shear stress = F, and allowable tensile stress


Interaction formula for extreme critical bolt (for whichj, is maximum) is given by Eq. (3.24). If this condition is satisfied, the bolt group is adequate since the critical bolt is safe. In this type of connection, the bending moment is entirely resisted by

Bolted Connections 87 bolts if they are subjected to the initial tension ..In bearing type connections, where the bolts do not have initial tension, the moment is resisted by the bolts in the tension zone and the plate in the bearing in the compression , zone of the connection (Fig .. 3.29A) .. It is assumed that the neutral axis lies at approximately 1/6th times the length of the connection, but it depends on the width of the plate in the bearing. If the approximate position of the neutral axis (NA) is known, it is possible to identify the bolts in the tension zone. Then the exact position of the neutral axis can be found by normal computations .. The bolts in the tension zone should agree with those found by the' assumed approximate position of NA., Otherwise, the exact position of the neutral axis must be founded all over again" However, the approximate position of NA can be used for computing lor z values without appreciable error if the bearing width of the plate is -6 times the bolt diameter for each column of bolts, or the actual width of the angles in the bearing, whichever

It 1111


+ l. .



a... 'II- t#= Ab/p


.. Q

(a) Bolts reSisting moments (HSFG bolts)














en en


Plate in bearing (b) 'Bolts and plates reSisting moments (bolts in bearing type connections)

EN o o



Fig. 3.29 A


Design of Steel Structures

is less. In case of HSFG bolts, the neutral axis lies at mid height of the .connection. If the moment is resisted by bolts and the plate in the beating, the number of bolts required may be less by around 20% than that required by assuming that only bolts resist the moment. Estimation of bolts for design In designing connections the designer is required to estimate the number of bolts that are needed ..A greater number of bolts are needed to resist the beriding or twisting moment because of the linear force distribution, whereas a smaller number is required to resist shear force because of equitable distribution. Further, the bolts nearer the neutral axis, which ale less stressed due to the moment; can resist more shear force" Hence, the number of bolts is usually estimated on the basis of moments only. If m is the number of columns of' bolts, n the number of bolts for each column of bolts, Ab the area of the bolt, pthe pitch of bolts, Rthe boltstrength, M the bending moment and t* the equivalent thickness of a column of bolts (Fig" 3 .. 9a), the design condition for the extreme bolt is 2 or

(3.25) Since the stress distribution is linear, the equation is valid for the case of a twisting moment also, In the above equations the twisting moment T replaces the bending moment, M.

6T n > (mpR


(3 .. 6) 2

where n the number of bolts per column of bolts and m is the number of columns of bolts. An example is given below to show the procedure invol ved .. Example 3.12 Determine the maximum load the joint in Fig. 3.30 can carry if the bolts used are " (i) M16 of grade 4.6. in slip connection, i.e. without initial tension (ii) M16 of grade 10.9 in non-slip connection, i.e. with initial tension Solution (i) Bolts-A (grade 4.6):



cos 60°

= O.5P