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M.. Raghupathi
Formerly, Professor Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute oJ'Technology Delhi t, "
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Tata ~cCraw~Hill Publishing Company Limited
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NEW DEBHI
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, rytcGraw Hill Offices
New;Ddht New York St Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Guatemala Hamburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal Panama Paris San Juan Sao Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
means \ ISBN 0074623524 Limited.. A6/l Mayapuri phaseI. Tata No part of without the prior written . T!ta McGrawHiH Publishing Company Limited L~~~~~~~~~~~~.© 1995.. New Delhi 110 002. typeset at Replika Press Pvt Ltd and printed at Print Perfect.=====_~ . New Delhi ] 10 064 RQDLRRQSRCDDZ . " This ~d{tion can be exported from India only by the publishers. Published by Tara McGrawHill Publishing Company 4!l2 Asaf Ali Road.
Most of the foreign books are based on their respective specifications" Also. etc . M RAGHUPATHI .. DeIhL Also.. This book is an invaluable addition to the existing text on the subject. analysis. structural behaviour.PREFACE Although a number of foreign and Indian books on this subject are available in the market. It also includes a chapter on timber structures for comprehensive coverage . The author would greatly appreciate the readers' remarks. I express my sincere gratitude to the authors of the books in this field who have been an inspiration in developing this book. Hence. book writing is an art and books never satisfy the civil engineering community . in India these books are not easily accessible in all parts of the country. problems in connections and fabrication. current research. Finally. various design codes. 'no book can include or cover all aspects of this field. Practically. This book is an attempt based on my 20 years of teaching and consultancy experience at the Indian Institute of Technology. industrial and other structures. The entire text is in SI units and is based on the latest Indian codes . young faculty and practising designers. and thus our engineers arc devoid of the opportunity to derive their benefit Moreover. This book elucidates the necessary information. new books keep coming into the market. suggestions and critical comments for further improving the book. I . buckling theory... this subject requires a thorough knowledge and appreciation of materials.. basic principles and various design formulae . they do not satisfy fully the requirements of our students.
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• Introduction ...3 1.4 2.8 2. 7 2.5 Standards.2 14 Introduction 14 Constructional Steels 15 Mechanical Properties 16 Design Concepts 18 Behaviour under Multiaxial States of Stress Fatigue Behaviour 21 Brittle Fracture 21 Corrosion 22 Fire Protection 23 Testing 24 Structural Steel Products 2.6 1..2 1.CONTENTS Preface v 1 1 Introduction 1.1 1. 6 Steel Structures I Structural Design 1 Design Aids .......10 2. 6 2.11 2..31 Bolts 31 Black Bolts 33 Failure Modes of a Joint 33 Pitch Requirements of Bolts 40 Allowable Stresses 44 High Strength Bolts 45 Rivets 50 31 . 9 2. 5 2.5 6 2 Steel 2 .1 3.. Codes and Specifications Type of Members and Connections Supplementary Information 7 Problems 12 .13 19 28 3 Bolted Connections 3.8 .5 1. 3 2.2 33 SA 3.1 2.5 1.12 2.5 Minimum Thickness of Structural Members Aluminium Structures 29 2.7 3...4 1.
..4 6..9 3.10 3.2 5.6 6.. 6 5...8 Introduction 156 Shear Lag 156 Net Area 158 Stiffness 162 Lug Angles 162 Tension Rods 163 Combined Tension and Bending Design Requirements 165 Problems 170 156 163 6 Compression Members 6.3 4.5 5.1 6..4 5...11 3..4 4.3 6.3 5.9 4..7 4.7 5.viii Contents 3<..10 4 .6 4.8 4. 2 6.7 6..2 4. 8 6...11 5 Tension Members 5....1 5..5 Introduction 104 Welding Processes 104 Advantages of Welding 108 Welds 108 Types of Welded Joints 114 Y/ eld Specifications 114 Allowable Stresses 118 Weld Symbols and Notation 118 Simple Joints 119 Moment Resistant Joints 128 Tubular Connections 144 Problems 152 104 4.1 4..12 Joint Behaviour 51 Simple Connections 53 Moment Resistant Connections Semirigid Connections lOa Problems 101 80 4 Welded Connections 4.5 6.... 9 Introduction 172 Plate Buckling 172 Column Buckling 174" Ideal Column (Eular Column) 177 Real Column J 78 Limiting Slenderness Ratios 186 Limiting Deflections 188 Width to Thickness Ratios of Plates in Compression Approximate Radii of Gyration J 89 172 188 .
.3 8.2 9.) I" 7..2 8......5 . . I 375 Dead Loads 375 Live Loads 375 Impact Loads 375 Wind Loads 376 Show Loads 382 10..1 370 9.1 7.13 Column Splice 217 6.2 .10 Angle Struts 192 6.5 . 7 7..1 10.6 8.4 240 Introduction 240 Laterally Supported Beams Built up Beams 260 24 J 7" .1 1 Built up Columns 199 6.6 7.14 Column Bases 223 Problems 239 7 Beams and Girders 7.9 8 Castellated Beams 264 Latticed Beams 265 Lateral Buckling of Beams Grillage Beams 289 Plate Girder 292 Crane Girders 332 Problems 347 270 BeamColumns and Torsion Members 8. 7 9 Introduction 348 Behaviour of Beamcolumns 348 Interaction Formulae 352 Design of Beamcolumns 353 Triangular Bracket Plates 359 Behaviour of Torsion Members 364 Torsional Shear Stress 365 Problems 369 Behaviour of Lightgauge Steel Members 9.Contents ix 6. ....1 348 8.3 10..4 370 Post Buckling Strength of plates Design Effective Width 373 Indroduction 371 .8 7. 8.3 10 Loads 10.2 10.12 Cased Columns 216 6.4 8.J 7.
.. Settlement and Erection Loads Examples 387 386 11 Industrial Buildings 11.: __ ~~ Columns auu Uo".. ~Vl 11111...» 1 ~.:) LJlU"".8 12.9 Introduction 431 Economical Span 432 Loads 434 Allowable Stresses 437 General..1 132 133 13A 501 503 135 Introduction 503 Lattice Towers 503 Design of Lattice Towers 505 Transmission Line Towers 510 Design of Tansmission Line Towers 51J 14 Steel Tanks and Chimneys 14.. J<l""\nt'noc . I " . Arrangement 438 Design Requirements 452 Decktype Railway Girder Bridges Decktype Truss Bridges 454 Design Examples 454 453 Problems 13 Towers 13.6 12..7 12.x Contents 10. Bracing Systems 425 11 ~ North Light Roof 428 12 Steel Bridges 12. 6 10...L 390 11.~rI LiIO ~1 all!..2 113 llA Introduction 390 Structural Framing Scheme 390 Roof and Side Cladding Materials 391 Purlins.2 431 123 12A 12...1 12.. 1 '7 1.£ VVUH6'" l s: .. Girts and Sag Rods 393 Roof Trusses 401 r=..I..~.7 10....1 142 143 14A 145 \ 526 Steel Tanks 526 Standpipes 527 Suspended Bottom Tanks 528 Pressed Steel Tanks 538 Steel Chimneys 55J Problems 580 .8 Earthquake Loads 382 Temperature..1 11.U .5 11 11.5 12..
8 15.596 Widththickness Limitations .. 7 Inroduction 623 Species of Structural Timber 624 Grading of Timber 624 Permissible Stresses 628 Modification Factors for Permissible Stresses Design of Members 634 Nail Joints in Timber Construction 640 Problems 665 623 631 References Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Index 1: Al the Indian Standards and Specifications 2: 3: 4: Structural Formulae A3 Loading Data A4 Sectional Properties 667 669 672 680 705 725 ... 7 15...6 16.3 16.Contents xi 15 Plastic Design 15. 9 15.4 15..598 Lateral Bracings .1 16. 16. .598 Connections 600 Deformation 603 Design of Members Pfoblems 620 581 16 Timber Structures 16..593 Factors Affecting Plastic Moment .. 5 15.4 ~".... 6 15...5 10.2 16.10 Introduction 581 Plastic Hinge Concept 582 Combined Mechanism Method 586 Distributed Loads .2 153 15..1 15.
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. 5. c.1 1:.. Industrialisation of construction... 4...UI.2 Structural Design Any wen designed structure is expected to satisfy the following requirements during its life time: . hangers. etc" Hence steel is an important civil engineering material. radio and TV towers. These are prevented by taking appropriate measures..1"'\_ I~U. thus increasing the effective life of the structure. _ . transmission towers...1 Steel Structures Steel as a construction material is commonly used in structures like power houses. " 1. exhibition pavilions.'1114ULlll15 __ . workshops._ .. tanks. such as buildings (enclosure of space)..': VI U~l1IVllUVU auu . The main drawbacks of steel are its susceptibility to corrosion and its loss of strength at high temperature. tanks (storage of liquids). The principal factors which influence the use of steel are as follows: 1" 2..l! . bridges (provision of access). 1!_. silos and bunkers (storage of material). v..... __ ._ High strength resulting in the reduction of dead weight Gas and water tightness due to high density of steel. steel mill buildings. warehouses.. Adaptability of the structure to changing requirements by structural modifications. tQwers (~mmunications). etc" Based on the construction material used.. bunkers.. ease of fabrication and erection..I •. silos. . masts.11 INTRODUCTION Structures are mainly categorised on the basis of their usage. __ +_ . "'C'_ ..:'~ . steel. . reliability and durability..... Assured quality.' L4~~ VI .. bridges. timber or masonry structures. structures are also known as reinforced concrete. Ease of strengthening existing structures.. VI llJa~vllal. 3. domes...f._ . . multi storey buildings..... factories.1 : 7. offshore structures. roofs... 1.
!. interior and exterior appearances.y design Structural analysis Design of members and connections Final review Preparation of structural drawings Execution of the structure . claddings and structural members need to be selected. the important phases of work involved are: Functional planning Material selection .Hll 1.2 Design of Steel Structures 1. other possible alternative schemes should be examined for overall feasibility and economy. 1. the user and the owner. limina . material properties and their behaviour in structural members. It should be appealing from aesthetic considerations .. economics .. considering the orientation of the structure for proper lighting and ventilation. lifts..U . using design aids. n ·. J. To obtain the best solution. In arriving at a suitable structure.V !... walls. handbooks. number of storeys.(. The layout plan and structural form of the building have to be developed to suit the site requirements. Before a final scheme is chosen. 3. corridors. floors. 2.. latest codes. It should give satisfactory service throughout its life with no excessive deformations or vibrations and no discomfort io the user. design and construction practices. 4.... head room clearances.1 FUnctionsl Planning This aspect of design is the most difficult part and calls for a highly skilled. stairways.. imaginative and experienced designer. location of expansion joints. methods of structural analysis..2. It should be as inexpensive as possible and use a minimum amount of material... arrangement of floor areas.!. standards and specifications. etc. It should be strong. stable and safe enough to carry the loads under any possible combination. This phase of work is generally done by an architect in consultation with the structural engineer. 152. considering the local availability of materials.2 Material Selection Suitable materials for roofings. clear floor space requirements for present and future needs. necessary exits. determining design loads. . it is imperative to have a knowledge of planning for functional requirements.
4 Preliminary Design In indeterminate structures. Other information needed for design is the materia! density and the mechanical and thermal properties. Alsh. They should be estimated realistically. moving loads.2. The stresses and deflections in members should be within the permissible stresses specified for the material . in placeof using exact methods of analysis in design computations. The member sizes are assumed based on estimated loads. weight of snow on roofs and loose materials in bins and bunkers.. experience. In determinate structures. cranes. Highly indeterminatestructures are analysed through digital computers. furniture.2.liaql~. traffic on bridges..5 Structural Analysis The primary objective of structural analysis is to determine the internal forces and deformations in a structure whose configuration and member sizes are known. " . To ensure quality. advanced techniques of analysis are used. goods. as they cause stresses and deformations. to obtain the design forces in members by using simplified analytical procedures .6 .. settlement of foundations and handling of members during erection. An these loads are generally classified as dead loads. and Connections The assumed ine*r sizes are checked for their adequacy in resisting the design forces obtained from structural analysis.2.3 Estimation of Loads These loads include the self weight of the structure. There can be a variatioaof around 10% in estimated loads. the materials should conform to the relevant material specifications. live loads. tables. for use in design computations ."'. . an experienced ~designer makes certain assumptions based on the structural behaviour.. 1. Desi!i!oF. For some structures. for complex structures. where buckling 01' vibrational characteristics are important.. earthquake loads and other miscellaneous loads. judgement 01' by using simplified analytical procedures. impact loads. . Also.". member sizes are suitably chosen based on the expected member forces. There are other effects due to wind. 1. water waves.. wind loads. to take care of which. temperature variation. when avtl. design charts. _: . 1. ~ '.. snow loads. handbooks or codes are generally used. equipment. the preliminary design is carried out through modal studies. earthquake.Introduction 3 and stiuctural needs. 1.2. people. These are also termed loads. the member forces cannot be obtained unless member sizes are known beforehand.
the safety of provision of hum the within a the work approach \ . reanalysis and redesign can be avoided . 1. Structural drawings are primarily required to work out the quantity of materials to fabricate members or assemblies. where the member forces are dependent on the preliminary sizing of members. size and location of holes. where the details for a large number of members are similar in nature.8 Preparation of Structural Drawings The structural drawings are drawn to a suitable scale to show the controlling dimensions of structural members. else there can be large variations in design forces . type.. and to give direction in construction and erection.2. 1.. position of splices. If there are deviations in member sizes affecting the sectional properties and structural behaviour substantially.. number. The job involves site organisation.4 Design of Steel Structures and the limiting deflections. If one is careful in choosing proper member sizes at the preliminary design stage. The drawings are the means by which the intentions of the design engineer are conveyed to the fabricator or construction engineer. They are also complemented by writing special notes of specifications for quality of material and workmanship on the drawings. etc. Wherever two or more members meet at a joint. size and length of welds. connection details.2. 1. Otherwise.7 Final Review This phase of work is not necessary for determinate structures" But in indeterminate structures. they are conveniently put in the form of tables or schedules. Further. Care must be taken while preparing the drawings to provide all the information necessary for fabrication and execution of work. the structure the drawings.9 Execution of the Structure It is the job of the construction engineer to execute precise measurements of structural details given in specified time. The designer should satisfy himself that the conditions assumed in structural analysis.. respectively .2. the required sizes chosen in design are to be compared with those assumed in the preliminary design stage. different parts of steel sections. brittle or local failure of the members . He has to set certain guidelines for force at the site. There shouiu not be any fatigue. It is the responsibility of the civil or structural engineer to check and approve the drawings prepared from the given structural sketches or design details. connections are to be designed to transfer the forces safely through them. unnecessary delays in execution are caused. will really exist in the actual structure. the analysis and design are carried out again. grades of steel.
tables. because of the process involved in pooling the information from technical literature and its careful review and approval by a body of experts. the words standards. There is always a time gap of several years between a research discovery and the revision of codes. ordering of material. British Standard Institute. The designer is advised to use the latest codes and specifications and be in touch with the new literature on the subject to produce a competent design. and knowledge gained from failure of structures. codes arid specifications are used synonymously. like books. 1. there are standards such as loading standards. For uniform application. and Indian Standard Institute. etc. To provide him a guide in the design procedure. industry and academe. manuals and codes. 1. resulting in the elimination of involved and tedious calculations. Specifications are generally meant for the quality of materials and workmanship. are given in the form of stress and moment coefficients. determining the member forces and deformations. assessed and approved by a body of experts drawn from the consulting field. and selecting suitable sections for design forces.3 Design Aids The structural engineer is mostly involved in computing the sectional properties.4 Standards. and hence a saving of time and effort. behaviour of existing structures. but a distinction can be made between them. charts. is collected from the research findings. Codes and Specifications There is no designer who is an expert in all subjects pertaining to a particular design work. These codes and specifications are revised and updated periodically to incorporate the latest research findings and to delete obsolete clauses. These aids simplify the work of a designer. fabrication of components. This information is critically examined. painting the fabricated' elements and erection of the structure" It is the primary job of the construction engineer to use various processes optimally in a sequential manner to complete the execution of the structure in the shortest possible period. It is then finally prepared and published in the form of codes. stocking of raw materials and finished goods at stock yards. past design practice and experience. specifications and standards by National Institutes like the American Standard Institute. formulae. Engineering specifications can be written for a class of 'York by any individual 01' group with good . comparison and acceptance. Generally. nomograms. testing standards and safety standards. The various design aids. procurement of liftingmachinery and weiding equipment. information .Introduction 5 ways.
Some Indian Standard codes and specifications are listed in Appendix AI. The size. these moments and shear's induce bending compressive stress and diagonal compression respectively. Depending on the load intensity. these members may be fabricated using single or multiple structural sections..walled steel members. the entire member. bending moments and torsional moments are termed as tension members. compression members. they are not so restrictive as to inhibit individual initiative and thought It may be pointed out that judicious use of codes and specifications in the design of a structure ensures safety and economy. Though these codes are written in a detailed and precise manner. For designing the member one has to know the effective area or net area of section.beam section is subject to bending moment and shear' due to loads. beams. depending on the nature of the forces" Tension members These members are subjected to axial tensile force only. These thin . Whenever a member with a thin wall is subjected to a compressive force. But the word code has an official sanction and is treated as a legal document. the length of the member. shear forces. The walls being thin. If any provision of code is violated. residual stresses and end conditions influence the buckling. there may be local or overall buckiing in beams under the compressive stresses due to moments or shears. or torsional members. 1~5 Type of Members and Connections All structural members in steel structures ale thinwalled sections. bending . or a part of it may fail. and the effect of shear lag and fatigue on the members. material. For the design of column members one has to know the effective area and buckling behaviour of compression members" Compression members Though the. beamcolumns. The crosssectional shape. Beams Beamcolumns A beamcolumn is subjected to axial compression. so as to be clear to the user. by buckling. which are subjected to internal axial forces. Under concentrated loads 01' reactions the web may fail locally" Buckling becomes important in this case and the student or designer should be familiar with the behaviour of a beam.6 Design of Steei Structures design and field experience. arrangement of holes and nature of connection influence the load carrying capacity of the member. it has to be substantiated by standard technical literature.
It is likely to have ali problems pertaining to columns and beams. known as eccentrically loaded connections. there may be eccentric loads on joints" One has to be familiar with the behaviour of all connections using bolts or welds under various type of forces. roofing sheet dimensions and location of purlins. rigid connections. using the familiar Bow's notation. arrangement and nature of fasteners. like the method of sections or the method of joints may not be feasible" Hence. Further. and the accumulated enol' in drawing might give wrong results unless the force in one of the critical members. and stress coefficients of commonly used fink trusses are given ~elow" 1. only pure torsion is included in this book. is verified with that obtained from any analytical method" The member forces are found by drawing force diagrams for the truss under load.. one has to resort to a truss analysis program through digital computers" The graphical method provides a means for obtaining solutions to such trusses. It is common practice to use letter symbols for denoting applied loads and number or letternumber symbols for denoting member forces. warping torsion or mixed torsion" The torsional behaviour being complex. The graphical method of analysing trusses and kneebraced frames.. Analysis of such trusses by standard methods. the unknown member forces arc found . He is also required to refer to various structural formulae while analysing the structures . they should be connected.Introduction 7 moment and shear. or friction type connections . bearing type connections.6. the structural formulae. these connections are treated as flexible connections.1 Graphical Method of Analysis The configurations of many steel trusses may differ. the applied torsion is resisted by the member in pure torsion. If the unknown forces are two and their directions are known at any joint of the truss. Torsion members Depending on the length. because of the varying pitch of the trusses'. to transfer the member forces" Depending on the connecting plates. crosssectional shape and end fixities of the member.6 Supplementary Information in steel design. The force vectors drawn to scale may have some errors. obtained by graphical method. number. The designer should be familiar with the theory of beamcolumns. 1. Connections When two or more members meet at a joint. the designer very often uses the graphical method to analyse different shapes of pin jointed trusses and kneebraced frames.
a
Design of Steel Structures
by drawing a force diagram. But in some determinate trusses, it may not be easy to draw the force diagram at certain joints, as the number of unknown forces exceeds two. In such cases some members are replaced by a single fictitious member, so that the truss is stable and at load points the support conditions are not altered by the modification" The force diagram is drawn with the presence of the fictitious member, and the force in a member away from its location, where the force is not affected by the modification, is found and made use of in drawing the force diagram for the actual truss case, as shown in Figs 1.1 and 1.2.,
10 ~ 10
K \(a) Truss configuration (Fink)
a
c
d
7
.,._......:I__ .....,..r:;..._ __
.....,~
__
....,...~~
e k
Scale 1mm ;:; 1kN (b) Force diagram for half truss due to symmetry
Fig. 1.1 Graphical solution
Introduction
9
Mi
Span Note: Members 5.6 and 6,,7 are replaced by member x  y
..
Fig. 1.2 Another truss configuration (Fink) In Fig. 1.1(b) to start with the x, y points are located in the force diagram, and then point 7 is located. The member force K·· which is not affected 7, by replacing members 45 and 56 by member XY in the truss under loading, is determined, Knowing points 7 and 3 in the force diagram, points 4, 5, 6 can easily. be located. This way all forces are known. Similarly all determinate trusses are solved by the graphical method"
1.6.2 Analysis of Kneebraced Frames
In factories and workshops, it is a normal practice to support roof trusses by columns. In such situations kneebraces are mostly used to stiffen the structures under lateral loads. In addition, columns are subjected to axial force, shear and moments, whereas other members are subjected to direct forces only .. Based on how the columns are connected to the base, the statical determinacy varies for the indeterminate structure. Analysis of such commonly occurring kneebraced frames is time consuming for a structural engineer. A simplified graphical method is presented, with the assumptions based on their structural behaviour.. 1.. The inflection points are at mid height of columns .. 2. The net horizontal force above the inflection points is resisted equally by columnshears. With these assumptions, it becomes easier to determine the internal forces at inflection points. Since the columns are subjected to axial forces, shears and moments, the; effect of columns on trusses is introduced in the form of equivalent forces and the truss is analysed graphically. Then, the bending moment diagram for the column is determined by considering the column as a free body diagram under known forces.
.,
10
Design of Steel Structures
The deformed kneebraced frames under lateral wind load are shown in Fig" 1_;3.The kneebraced frame above the inflection points is transformed . into a simple truss with equivalent forces, as shown in Fig" 1.4" The procedure for obtaining the equivalent forces on trusses due to columns is schematically shown in Fig. 1.5..The free body diagrams of' a column, shown in Fig, 1.,6, are used to find the moments and forces on columns for design,
Deformed shape Wind Col.
~p.,..__'____"~~ I I
moment
direction
c:::;>
,
I
A
A
Bottom hinged Bottom fixed
Fig. 1.3 Kneebracedframes
Wind
direction
c<> ~~~
__~~~
(a) Knee braced frame above inflection points
(b) Truss ,:,ith end equivalent reactions
.
Fig. 1.4
1.6.3 Structural Formulae
Some useful formulae have been furnished in Appendix A2 ..
1.6.4 Stress Coegicients of Fink Truss
The stress coefficients of the members of commonly used fink trusses for gravity and wind loads are furnished in Tables A2.1 and A2.2 in Appendix A2.
.._.. II C') 11 a: a: ..Introduction 'TI ~ .:::.....c .. 2 ~ o ro !]) C Q) a: a: . + Q) . ... w "3'~ II II W 0" UJ UJ :J WL:.... u'f"'" • ro o e lIt) ...... t c . 0 .. N + W II ..._~_ t+ w L!') "'0 +' o °cu ..... 0'" 0 U) W C\I W C\I > .• o . :. 11 ro c: (f) (f) '0 o c o m. 9 . C\I 0 w2 := 0 Wo (...(l) C 0 :. t :.. > ._ o Q) w en <tI ~ ec OJ ~N ro ..~ S (/) .0 "'0 C CO :...::t LO e .Q (/J a:u.....) o ..J I ......oc a: .) E r'~~'\ U) ~ ~ ....o "'0 CO cG U) Q) (... o ro Q) e a: a: . CO Q) > C\I .0 ro >(') _> + :J s: C U) _\"'0 U) .. "'0 III U) U) cG ~ . .... C? I I I':.. o o t co a: ill _ !U +' Q) 0 cD rn .:: 0 c 0. W II C\l > . > ~~ ~.C\l a:. ~ :J t5 .:: C ::l Q> C ~g . _ (j) ...:Q) c 0 :J 2E o :::J (]) '0 (/)c == w .. cD ro W =:t Q) o~ I I ... 0 T'"" ro OC .....
Problems L Determine the forces in members (1). P1.1.12 Design of Steel Structures Wind load c:::t> Note ~Wi nd loads above inflection point is conve r1ed into loads W41 Ws and Wa I Fig. using the stress coefficients given in Appendix A2" W G = W G = 1. (3) and (4) of the fink truss in Fig. A2. 1.I. trusses with different support conditions are grouped into foul' cases.QkN 10kN 't/ \ I W G ~I w q ~I w I· 12m "'1 Fig. (2).1 . Pl.6 Free body diagram of column For wind loads. as shown in Fig. stress coefficients are given for them.
2 by the graphical method. 5m . P1. compute the buss reactions to be used for graphical analysis. P1.3 .5m 1 !~ 1 1 5m $" r. PI.. If this frame is to be analysed using the graphical method.. 6m 1. Pl. Wind t:=. Load in kN 8 4m 4 4 / .3 is to be analysed for lateral wind load...2 3. A kneebraced frame in Fig.Introduction 13 2. __ 0m t"~1 Fig. . Upper chord r 6m I . I 5m is equally divided Fig... Analyse the truss chosen by a designer in Fig...:> 4kwml ~: .
certain alloying elements (chromium. Ironcarbon alloys containing up to 2% carbon are called carbon steels. without additional heat treatment Engineering steels These are used for the manufacture of components of I Low alloy steels Medium alloy steels ' Higb alloy steels \ Total alloy content < 5. nickel. Carbon Steels 2. a space lattice is obtained" Some metals exist in two or more stable crystalline structures under different temperatures. In order to increase the tensile strength and retain desirable ductility. steels may be classified on the basis of their usage. while those having more than 2% are caUed cast irons" As the percentage of carbon is increased. the tensile strength and hardness of steel increase but the ductility of steel fans.70% > Carbon content 1. as follows" Constructional steels These are used for structural members in steel structures" They possess good weldability. Hence.STEEL 2.0% ... steels are either carbon steels or alloy steels" These are further subdivided as follows" 0. molybdenum.) are added in small quantities to iron and carbon. and satisfactory mechanical properties in the asreceived condition.0% > 10.0% 5.. and how closely they are packed. etc.70% 1~~~:=b~. The behaviour of metals under load depends on the shape of the space lattices.010.~~eIS0.25% r Low carbon steels 0250. forming alloy steels. vanadium. Alloy Steels Further.1 Introduction An metals and their alloys are crystalline solids in which atoms are held in position in a definite and orderly manner by interatomic forces" If the centres of the atoms are connected by straight lines.
Steel
15
industrial equipment They should have high strength under static and dynamic loads and good fabrication properties. Most engineering steels undergo heat treatment These are intended for the manufacture of cutting and measuring tools, as well as dies. They must have high hardness and wear resistance, with more than 0,,7% of carbon.
Tool steels
These have certain desired physical properties to suit their application" They include magnetic and nonmagnetic steels, stainless steels, heat resistant steels, corrosion resistant steels and acid resistant steels" Constructional steels « 0..25% C) and engineering steels « 0.7% C) are ""n""....:.11,,, lrnnuln :l gCO cot"'1U'tl1"'gj cot""""lco g .n...... v y.•• . In the .t' "I'OCPCOS ofmanufacture ........ stE'P1 lC;! P¥noc;!pd to air at hi 00 .....temperatures zh ._...... """..._" "'*''''''''' , .."' ........ y ..... ..............& forming oxides with undesirable effects on its characteristics. To reduce the formation of oxides, steel is deoxidised by adding silicon or manganese .. According to the degree of deoxidation, steels are also classified as killed, semikilled, or rimmed steels .. Sulphur and phosphorus invariably exist in steels as impurities, affecting its mechanical properties .. Depending on the level of these impurities, steels are sometimes classified as ordinary quality, standard quality and high quality steels ..
Special steels
'".lU .. ".1. UJ.J..
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OIL.I. U""LU~
LLl_
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...... J
...
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.&vu,
2.2 Constructional Steels
Some of the grades of steel that are manufactured members are as follows. Fe 41~O Fe 410S Fe 410W as per IS 19771975 IS 2261975 IS 20621984 in India for structural (ordinary quality) (standard quality) (weldable quality)
(hloh tpm:.ilp. tlllHlitv) '·'·0·· ~.... "'1_._J,I
Fe 570HT
Fe 540WHT Fe 540HTB
IS 9611975
IS 9611975 IS 85001977
(weldablehigh tensile quality) (high tensile weldable B grade steel)
Where Fe stands for steel, and the number after Fe is the tensile strength in
N/mm ..
2
I
Similarly, the steel used for welding consumables, bolts, nuts and other materials used should conform to appropriate Indian standards ..The stressstrain (CT  e) relationship of the constructional steels obtained in the laboratory from a uniaxial tension test gives a better understanding of the behaviour of steel to a structural engineer. The typical os curves of some steels are shown
16
Design of Steel Structures
in Fig. 2.1. In the curve (Fig. 2.1a), the stress is linearly proportional to strain from 0 to A. The CUIve (1) has a sharpknee at A, indicating an elastic range from 0 to A, then a horizontal portion AB which is normally known as the plastic plateau, then the strain hardening range Be, indicating that the strain increases gradually at a faster rate than the stress from B to C, and finally the necking range CD, showing that the stress falls as strain increases till fracture takes place. The curve (2) (Fig" 2.1 b) passes smoothly from the linear' to the curved portion without any kink or plastic plateau. For the purposes of analysis and design, the actual ae curve is assumed as a bilinear curve, as shown in Fig. 2" 1c, having only the elastic part OA and plastic part AA'. This idealised curve becomes the basis for working stress and plastic design or limit state design methods"
2.3 Mechanical Properties
All s~uctures in useare
Fu~ C
subjected to external forces which cause stresses
Curve (1) Fu C Curve (2)
t
Fy
A
'I
CJ) CJ) (l)
Fy
.__
(J)
+'
Ij
Strain ~ (a)
o fy
Strain __. ...(b)
(/J (/J +'
<D ~
(J)
OAA'_· Elasto plasnc curve (Design curve)
\
o
Strain (c) Fig. 2.1
..
Stressstrain curve
Steei
17
and deformations. To keep these stresses within permissible limits, it is necessary to get the strength characteristics through some tests conducted on standard specimens" These tests include mechanical tests like tension tests, impact tests, fatigue tests and hardness tests, and fabrication tests like weld tests, bend tests, pipeflange expanding tests, and flattening tests, The mechanical and other properties which are most important in structural design are the following" In the sharpkneed stressstrain diagram, the stress at sharpknee level is called yield stress, Fy• In curves having no kink (Fig. 2"1b) the stress at which the steel shows a specified limiting plastic strain; usually 02% of the strain, is known as proof stress" This is considered equivalent to the yield stress for such steels. It is determined by drawing a line parallel to the linear portion of the curve (Fig. 2"1b) to intersect the G£ CUIve..The point of intersection is taken as the proof stress or yield stress. This stress (also known as yield strength) becomes the basis for working stress design method or elastic design method. The yield stress values are less in thick plates than in thin plates, for the same steel.
Yield stresses (Fy)
.. "., ~ ~ II
It is the stress obtained from dividing the maximum load observed in a uniaxial tension test, by the undeformed area of the test specimen ..It is also called the ultimate tensile stress or strength, Gu• The ultimate tensile stress is generally not less than 1.20'y where O'y is yield stress.
Tensile strength
It is the ability of steel to deform continuously without fracture. It is measured either by reduction of area of crosssection or elongation of
Ductility
the gauge length on the specimen in the tension test. The gauge length is usually specified as 5.65.JAo, where Ao is the undeformed crosssectional
area of the specimen. The percentage of elongation of low carbon steels is around 20% and the exact value is specified in material standards. This property is made use of in plastic or limit state design. It is the ability of steel to resist brittle fracture, or arrest cracks initiated at the notches. This property is important in case of steel members subjected to loads at low temperatures, where steel behaves like a brittle material, though at room temperature it may be ductile. Material standards specify a minimum energy absorption in joules at a specified temperature, such as 27°,0°,  20°,  30°, or  40° (centrigrade units) from charpy Vnotch tests to avoid brittle fracture of steel.
Notch ductility
It is the capacity of a material to be welded, to form sound and crackfree joints without impairing the mechanical properties at the joints .. Weldability depends on the carbon content and the presence of other alloying elements. Good weldability is achieved by limiting the carbon content in
Weldability
But due to geometric discontinuities. but decreases the ductility of steel. Malleability It is the ability of materials to be machined by cutting tools" This property is improved by heat treatment. E and v is Shear modulus (G) Poisson's ratio (v1 G= Fatigue strength E 2 (1 + u) It is the ability of steel to withstand a repeated number of pulsating stress cycles without fracture" This strength at an unlimited number of cycles (usually 2 X 106 cycles) is known as fatigue limit or endurance limit It depends on the nature of the stress 'cycles or the number of load cycles. Tne relationship between G. The plastic behaviour of steel is also used to make some assumptions in the working stress method. Also. It is the ratio of stress to strain in the elastic range of the (J€ curve. whereas in alloy steels it achieved by baving equivalent carbon content (which takes into account of all alloying elements and carbon). An increase of cold plastic deformation increases tensile strength and hardness. to be bent or pressed to form different shapes without fracture. Its value is more or less constant for all steels" Modulus of elasticity (El This is the ratio of transverse to longitudinal strain under longitudinal load. there will be stI~ss concentrations and the material may yield. The properties listed above are influenced by the chemical composition. . Hence. Machinability 2. which simplify the design computations. or exist as impurities.5 in the plastic range for steels. presence of holes and sudden load changes.4 times E. The various elements which are added. It is the ability of materials. the stress at any point of the material in the structure is not allowed to exceed the permissible stress (yield stress/factor of safety).4 Design Concepts \ In the working stress method. This influences the deformation behaviour of members or structures. as in cold deformed steel bars or sections. It is usually taken as 03 in the elastic range and 0. This is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain and is generally taken as 039 or 0. and joint details.18 Design of Steel 5tf'Jctures lowcarbon steels. size and surface finish of the member. both in cold and hot states. the mechanical properties are affected when steel is subjected to cold plastic deformation. and the type of converters used in the manufacture of steel have a considerable effect on these properties.
ax) 2' + 6 (O. The bending stress distribution across a rectangular crosssection. 2.The strength limit states (generally yielding. though only the elastic part of the stressstrain curve is used for the design" The factor of safety varies from 1.2 to 3 or even 4. also known as distortionenergy theory. corrosion and durability) are the ones generally specified in this design. and transformation into a mechanism).) Possibility of overloading Approximations and uncertainties in structural analysis Presence of residual stresses and stress concentrations Under run of mechanical and physical properties of material Under run of geometric dimensions of members Quality of workmanship and other uncertainties .)2 + (O'z .O'y)2 + (cr.Steel 19 ductility plays an important role even in working stress design.. rupture.xJ (2 ..5 Behaviour under Multiaxial States of Stress' The material yields at different multiaxial states of stress . buckling.2 based on material behaviour either in the elastic range or plastic range" The factor of safety in the working stress method and the load factor in plastic design or limit states design are intended to account for the following factors which influence the margin of safety: (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) v (. . due to the formation of plastic hinges which form a collapse mechanism" There are some limits imposed in limit state design. and to find a criterion to predict yielding or failure . according to the working stress method and plastic design or limit state design is shown in Fig.z + O'.. The service load is multiplied by a load factor to give a collapse load" At this load the structure becomes partly or fully unstable.There are many failure theories which define yield conditions under a multi axial stress system .y + (1. stability limit states (overturning and sway) and serviceability limit states (deflection. In the plastic design method the ductility behaviour is fully made use of in the stress distribution across the section . which gives unaxial yield stress 'in terms of three dimensional stresses.. vibration.1) ..The most commonly accepted theory is the MisesHencky strength theory. The problem is to predict under what state of stress the material yields. that is Fe2 = ~ [(ax . the nature of load and its behaviour.. depending on the importance of the member. 2. beyond which the structure is assumed to be unfit for use . This method is similar to plastic design.0'...
i\ 1\ (j) ~ ~ E 0) m ~ .....:: 0 n "C C as as VI ~ ~ ~ ~ c: 0 N u:: .1.... ." .. (j)!. o ::J ~...20 Design of Steel Structures (. (f) (j) Q} to UJ c: CD E 0 E 0 :..)' •I >.o . c: ':0:. "0 ....!a . c cD E o E c: .
it becomes brittle at temperatures below some critical temperature. If Fe > Fy. The resistance of the material to cyclic stresses is called fatigue strength. pressure vessels. size. The process of formation and propagation of cracks in materials under cyclic stress is called fatigue of the material. stacks. C. ratio of minimum to maximum stress. weld defects. From this equation for pure shear case the shear yield stress. The maximum periodically varying stress which the material is able to resist for an unlimited period of time is the fatigue limit 01' endurance limit. All design details are classified as class A. F~y is given by F. and geometric and metallurgical discontinuties. which are generally the case in steel structures. etc. 6 x 105. fabrication flaws and high triaxial stresses..0 to . surface finish. The magnitude of the transition temperature ~ . tanks. F and 0.Steei 21 where o"x. These allowable stresses are used for fatigue design" 2. 107. Though steel is ductile at normal temperatures.1. leading to failure.. thickness. shape. ships. Brittle fractures generally take place in bridges.0 at intervals of 0. .10 (IS 1024). B. which combine to inhibit ductility locally. y. and Gz are normalstresses and O"xy.. For a structure. O:vz and o"zx are shear' stresses. the material yields . The factors influencing the fatigue strength are maximum stress level. D. the structural steel is so chosen that the low service temperature of the structure is more than the transition . E.7 Brittle Fracture Brittle fracture is characterised by sudden failure of the material at a stress well below its yield strength. residual stresses.depends.y = Fy . and 108 cycles for stress ratios from 1.3 Il (2. residual stresses. 2 X 106. O"y. industrial structures and other structures under repeated moving loads or vibrating loads are subjected to pulsating stress cycles and cracks may develop in the members at points of maximum stress concentration. and allowable fatigue stresses are given for 105. with respect to the x.. number of stress cycles.2) ~~6 FatigueBehaviour Steel members of bridge structures. This equation can be reduced to biaxial or uniaxial stress systems. z coordinate system and Fe is the equivale':lt uniaxial yield stress compared with the yield stress Fy obtained from a uniaxial tension test.on the material composition. known as the transition temperature. strain rate.
2. Chemical corrosion causes the surface of the metal to oxidise in dIY air. For example. temperature and amount of aggressive substances in the atmosphere. 2.3 Lamellar tearing Charpy vnotch energy curve In thick sections near highly restrained welded joints. 2~8 Corrosion Corrosion is the deterioration or loss of material due to chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environments. Corrosion is more when the relative hbmidity is greater than 70%. Painting should be done .3). This is another fOIID of brittle fracture. in humid areas where all' is saturated with industrial effluents. the corrosion rate of low carbon steel is nearly)oo times as great as in dry localities.The material standards specify the minimum charpy vnotch impact test values at specified low temperatures" The service temperature should be above the specified low temperature of steel and the vnotch impact value more than the specified ones. Brittle.. to prevent brittle failure. called lamellar tearing. so that weld shrinkage occurs in the rolling directions. W C .. 0> W Temperature .. failure occurs as a separation of base material. old paint.. resulting in thin layers of oxides (rust) which prevent further contact with the environment and thus stop further corrosion in the majority of cases" Electrochemical corrosion is the dissolution of material due to local electrolysis when the surface is wet.. after it is cleaned of scale. Steel work is protected against corrosion by painting the surface. grease and dirt.. fracture Ductile fracture 1 >.22 Design of Steel Structures temperature of the steel (Fig. The use of very thick sections should be avoided and weld details should be made. The rate of con os ion depends on the relative humidity.. Fig.. rust.
. The total thickness of paint on a steel surface (priming plus finishing coats) should be as follows.9 Fire Protection i / 40 Fig: 2..lVIJ.. J..I..V'U.."""..."U'L". p.I. In addition to these preventive measures...n t""..'V" . ro:)UpplvS~lvll 1 .I. LJ. .....I.I...J. buried pipe lines.. This method is used for ship hulls. t."""""l. codes recommend some extra thickness over and above the thickness required by design considerations...4 60 80 100 20 Relative humidity ..I.Steel 23 in dry weather and at temperatures between + 5°C and + 50°C.V.u 260 Jl 220 Jl th... . 130 Jl 160.A nnthpr' nlPthnri a... irnnu/n . "". ''~...... 4." ~4=. etc. as shown in Fig..n..". co co'...""'IL.a..I y...... Although steel is an incombustible material. ..~ ... sheet piles. in corrosion prone areas like in water or wet soils... storage tanks.. VI corrosion currents to minimise corrosion by introducing a counter current from an external anode source into corrosion circuits... The structural engineer has to pay attention to the possible high temperature to which the structure is .5.I... (]) 0 t c ""0 C/J (/) ~ "w 0 0 .. . .. .'1I...'\...... 2.U. For interior unclad steel work with ordinary humidity conditions in industrial atmosphere in marine atmospheres in aggressive atmospheres where Jl = micron (106 m) .I. n1'... ·0 . its strength rapidly reduces at elevated temperatures..I..& ULl' 'JOe''''JOthnrii._ _J 0 0 o L 0 2.. The influence of the relative humidity of air on corrosion is shown in Fig" 204" .
Temperature (degrees C) Fig. ''.. ... provision of hydrants.. weldability and good workmanship. asbestos cement or gypsum plaster to prevent the spread of fire as well as excessive warping or collapse of steel frame" It may be noted that steel components can withstand temperatures up to 450°C without reduction in strength. "'. 5 c Ol 6001 4001 Q) .24 Design of Steel Structures exposed during its lifetime.=. ductility. These inspection procedures are laid down to ensure the quality of material supplied in bulk. '4 ..200 I I 400 600.I. To ensure the quality of steel. load. tests become essential. certain laboratory tests need to be canied out as per testing standards. Beyond 450°1' the stability of the structure under fire load becomes imnortant . 2. the testing of steel according to standardised procedures becomes a necessity.. To ensure fabrication properties. U) 11) (f) 1: C 11): o . .. Access for the fire brigade. Measures for structural fire protection need to be effective only for a limited length of time. emergency exits.5 2. as per the codes. dimensional accuracy and workmanship. during which people in the building can come out and the load bearing components remain functional during rescue and fire fighting operations. These tests include the stiffness test for serviceability and the strength test for the safety of the building.. tensile strengths. escape routes.10 Testing For the satisfactory performance of steel structures the designer relies on yield strengths. When bad workmanship in construction or the integrity of an old building are suspected.... and protection of steel structural Components are to be considered at the time of functional planning" The steel members are protected by covering with concrete.
. These are also called the Indian Standard sections or British Standard sections or American sections ifthey are produced as per their standard dimensions . column sections.. During cooling. moments and shears or a combination of these forces" In order to use steel readily and economically in these members different crosssectional shapes are chosen. stresses are present in the material. angle sections. . plates.For the convenience of the designer all sectional properties such as area of Too . Hetrclled sections HotroBed sections are produced in steel mills II'Om steel billets by passing them tru'Ough a series of rolls. these sections are classified into hotrolled sections and coldrolled or coldformed sections" 1. Under loads. 2... however. rods... Depending on the manufacturing process. Fig" 2"6. Rod o Tube \tZUUZZZZZU1ZLI " Plate Fig.along in with others due to loading.6 Flat . the members are straight and connected at the joints in all steel skeletal structures. tubular sections.. Steel manufacturers produce a wide variety of structural products in different shapes. strips and flat sections. the members are subjected to direct forces.11 Structural Steel Products Generally.. to enable a designer to select suitable sections individually or in combinations to suit the design requirement. channel sections.. These stresses. .Steel 25 2. Hot rolled sections . thin parts cool faster than thicker parts because of which residual stresses or locked .Indian sections are given it. influence the behaviour of the material in members" The various sections which are manufactured are beam sections. tee sections.
Je. Angles are designated by the letter A followed by leg sizes and the thickness of the leg in mm. Rods are denoted as round bar (RO) or square bar (SQ).. light. MB. thickness and length in rom" The nomenclature for the sections is as follows .. Plates.For a given weight with a particular depth.. Similarly.. Beam Series ill LB WB HB SC xxx xxx xxx . LC and Me. WB and }JR followed by the depth in mm . radii of gyration. steel plants produce only medium beam and channels. short legged. medium and heavy tubes (LTb. followed by the width. followed by the depth in mm. moment of inertia and radius of gyration depend on the distribution of steel between the flanges and web for a given depth of the section.c MB xxx 75600 100600 150600 150450 \ Column Series xxx xxx XXX 100250 100200 75400 75400 Je Channel Series Me LC xxx .JV4_k.Jight and medium channels.. light. For a given modulus of section. Currently in India...J "...m.. moments of inertia. SC series for columns and other rolled sections. HTb) followed by the nominal bore in mm. Sections having a wider flange width offering higher resistance to lateral buckling are called wide flanged beam sections . L. Tees are designated as junior. Wand H stand for junior. The letters JT. xxx'" Depths (mm) available 1cn J. LB. medium. Such sections are called light beam sections. ST and NT ~re followed by the depth of the section inmm . Tubular sections are denoted as light. normal and heavy tees .. while other sections with a lesser or greater weight are called junior or medium beam sections. followed by the diameter in rom. sections having a larger minimum radius of' gyration are called heavy beam sections. the weight of the section is least for a specified depth. M. and other dimensional details for fabrication purposes are listed in Appendix A4 . wide flanged and heavy respectively ..Here the letters J. channels are designated as junior. These are used as columns . Sectional properties like section modulus..26 Design of Steel Structures crosssections. modulus of sections.Hence beam sections are designated by letters as . strips and flats are designated as PL. MTb. ST and FL.
Steel 27 Tsections (Depth of section available in mm)
IT
LT ST NT
xxx xxx
xxx
xxx
75112,.5 50100 100250
20150
HT xxx where xxx = depth in mm
Angle Sections
75150
Leg size available
A (leg size x leg size x thickness) in
For example, A 60606 A 75508 where A stands for equal angle leg sizes" Tubular Sections LTb xx MIb xx HTb xx
01'
1 ill
20200
unequal angle based on equal or different Nominal bore in mm
50225 50225 50225
(I>ianaetel' in mm)
where xx stands for nominal bore diameter in mm. Rods RO xx
5~200
(Side width in mm)
SQ xx
Plates PL (width X thickness _, length) in nun Width Thickness Length Strips ST (width x thickness x length) in nun Thickness Width " Flats Fl (width x thickness x length) in nun Thickness Width
5100
....... ,...1'\. "~nn. ~UVL.JVU
663
up to 12500
1.610 1001550
340
10400
28
Design of Steel Structures
Although different categories of sections among beam and channel series are given here, steel plants in India produce only medium weight beams and channels; as such, the appendix gives sectional properties only for products being manufactured .. Thin plates can be formed into a wide range of sections by cold rolling or press brakes .. Steel undergoes a plastic deformation during the cold forming process, causing an increase in yield strength and reduction in ductility. Further, the wall thickness is small in these sections, rendering them prone to buckling.. Hence their design considerations are different. Although these sections are widely used in Cal bodies, railway coaches, storage racks, grain bins but in steel structures, they are limited to purlins, girts, roof sheeting and cladding. They are economical for light loads and moderate spans, and are useful where load carrying members provide useful surfaces like roof decks, floor panels, wall panels, etc. (Fig. 2.7) for light gauge sections.
2. Coldformed or light gauge sections
[ n l 1 11
J
Channel
Upped
channel
Z.section
Upped _.. z
Hat section
r~'_'__v~~V,
Corrugated
sections Coldformed sections
Fig. 2.7
2.12
Minimum Thickness of Structural Members
The minimum thickness requirement fer structural members hom the point of corrosion of steel depends on: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Exposure of steel to weather Accessibility of steel for cleaning and painting Hotrolled 01' coldrolled steel Sealed box sections
Steel
\J
fV\
29
Special provision against corrosion (vi) Primary or secondary members in structures .. (vii) Importance of the structural member like bridge girders, crane girders for heavy duty cranes, etc" But, the above mentioned factors do not apply to the webs of rolled steel joints, beams and channels, or packings. The minimum thicknesses for various structural members from hotrolled steel shouldnot be less than the following: Steel when directly exposed to weather and accessible for cleaning and painting Steel not directly exposed to weather but not accessible for cleaning and painting Steel not directly exposed to weather and accessible for cleaning and painting Steel in secondary members not directly exposed to weather and painted regularly Steel in secondary members exposed to weather and painted regularly Tubular steel painted and maintained regularly, and exposed to weather Tubular sled painted regularly and not exposed directly to weather Steel in webs of plate girders, bridge girders, crane girders, etc .. not exposed to weather Steel in contact with water or soil or subjected to wetting and drying, an additional thickness is added to designed or minimum thickness required t:6mm 1:8 mm
{:6 rom
t4.5 nun
{:5 mm
1:4 rom
{:3.2 rom
"1:8 mm
1,,5 mm
corrosion a reduction of thickness by 1 or 2 mm depending on degree of atmospheric pollution is allowed. The reader is advised not to bother if certain terms are not clear or well understood, but after going through book, he will understand the meaning of those terms.
.•
2.13
Aluminium Structures
Although the behaviour of aluminium in structures is in a way similar to that of steel structures, aluminium products are increasingly being used in aircraft structures as aluminium has greater strength to unit weight ratio and
its elastic modulus is nearly onethird of the modulus of steel resulting in less stiffness and more susceptibility to buckling. The reader is' advised to refer "code of practice for use of aluminium alloys in structures (1581471976) for design of aluminium structures" The structural civil engineers. 0. • .30 Design of Steel Structures is resistant to corrosion in comparison to steeL Though the density of aluminium is nearly onethird of that steel.. are seldom required to design structures using aluminium products. its coefficient of thermal expansion also doubles that of steel. Since the material properties differ from those of steel and the design concepts fire similar to those of steel.2% of proof stress is used. all design codal provisions are different for both" In place of yield stress of aluminium. .
angles.. as in some machinery. past performance and the ductile behaviour of steel. lolled beams or channels" The various components of these members need to be connected by means of fasteners so as to enable them to behave. hexagonal black bolts 9I' high strength bolts are generally . such as local effects. In steel structures. complicated geometry. they need to be joined for transferring forces and moments from one member to the other. made of plates.. and nonlinear loaddeformation characteristics. (IS: (IS: (IS: (IS: 13641967) 13641967) 13631984) 37571985) Precision and semiprecision bolts (also known as close tolerance bolts) are used where no slippage is permitted between the connected parts.1 Introduction Most members in steel structures are builtup members.2 Bolts The usual types of bolts that are used in connections are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Precision bolts or A grade bolts Semiprecision bolts or B grade bolts Black bolts or C grade bolts High strength bolts . rivets and welds. Hence their behaviour and design are much more complicated and involved than those of the members. for connecting columns to footings and for joining two parts of a structure during erection. many approximations and assumptions are made in the design of bolted. These connections are made by bolts. measuring equipment or in certain steel structures under dynamic loads. The behaviour of joints is very complex due to the various factors which influence them. as single composite units" Where two or more members meet at a joint. Connections are also required for extending the lengths of members. Based on test results.BOLTED CONNECTIONS 3. riveted and welded connections" 3. with some factors being highly indeterminate .
. are called high strength friction grip (HSFG) bolts" In steel construction black bolts are used for bearing type connections. and the figure 6 indicates that the yield stress is 60 per cent of the ultimate tensile strength. and the ratio of yield to tensile strength is 60%.6. These high strength bolts.. 8 and 10 (IS: 136l1980)" For bolts of property class 4. for bolts of property class R.1 1f) L<V._ respectively. and high strength bolts are used for friction type connections.8.15 nun or 0.6. . all connections where the bearing takes place due to slip in a joint are known as bearing type connections.. . With the advent of high strength bolts in clearance holes. . high strength bolts are used in bearing type connections too" The advantages of bolted connections are: t 0 0 .9 are generally used.5 mm or 2 mm and by tightening them by nuts.0. yield strength and the percentage of yield to ultimate strength can be obtained for other grades of steel. with a specified initial tension.7 . Slip occurs in these connections and transfer of load from one member to the other takes place through bearing between the bolts and the plates" Hence.. Sometimes to prevent excessive slip. initial tension in bolts is introduced by tightening the nuts to the desired level so that the load is transferred by friction without any slip at the joint This type of joint is known as friction type or nonslip connection.. In property class 6 4. The percentages of elongation f or bolts 0 property Class 4..~" n . The most commonly used nuts are those of property classes 4... . close tolerance bolts are placed in holes 0. This small clearance causes difficulty in alignment of holes and delays the progress of work.2 nun over size. nuts of property class 4 are used. 5.. 0.. bolts of property class 4 .0 anu IV •n are ')2.... the nominal tensile strength is 400 N/mm2.32 Design of Steel Structures used.. In steel construction. 'j() 1') an_ ~ '...6 8.. For a bolt of property class 4..6. the nominal yield strength is 240 Nzmrrr'. the ultimate strength. the number 4 indicates 1JI00th the nominal tensile strength in N/mm2. These are grouped under different property classes or grades. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Use of unskilled workers Noiceless fabrication Fast progress of work Immediate resistance of bolts after placement. The product of the first figure and the second figure indicates 1110th of the yield stress in Nzmnr'.0. The tension induced in the bolt by tightening the nut is not sufficient to develop frictional forces between the contact surfaces to prevent a slip in a joint. If a smaller number of bolts is needed due to a restriction on joint length.8 and 10. nuts of property class 8 or 10 are used" Most of the connections are made with black bolts by inserting them in clearance holes enlarged by 1. Similarly. :). 0 ts of . These bolts are made from low or medium carbon steels with or without additives" They are then quenched and tempered.
tOO (O~ _L ..3 Black Bolts The dimensions of black bolts should conform to IS: 1363" Generally. 3.. .65D between 6 corners. where D is the diameter of the bolt (Fig . To reduce the length of connection or the number of bolts in a joint..1). 2..Thread Nut .5. the usual sizes used are M16.. Bolt head ~Length o .Bolted Connections 33 3. 5D and the size is 1. M24 and M30.....78 (IS: 1367 (Part III)1979) but in design calculations this is taken as 0 .. bolts of property class 4 ..65D (O.. They are designated as bolts from M5 to M36. In steelwork.5 mm for 16.... ~~.. are used in steel construction. 3....65D) Figures in brackets are for high strenqh bolts and nuts Fig.. . O. the joint can fail either through failure of bolts or plate failure . 5 or 0 .. The ratio of net area to gross area is 0. The 7 8 thickness of the bolt head is around 0 . .The dimensions are so chosen that the bolt head does not fail unless the shank fails .. 3 and 3..1 Hexagonal head black bolt and nut 3. 00 LOO) . These are produced in 6 metric sizes from 536 mm. bolts of a higher property class or of larger size are used. M20..3. 24 and 30 mm diameter bolts respectively. 20....: co .2) can be distinguished as follows. The bolts used in steelwork have a coarse pitch of 2. (0 Shear failure of bolt (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Bearing failure of bolt or plate Tension failure of plate Failure of plateend Tension failure of bolt . The failure modes (Fig...4 Failure Modes of a Joint In bearing type connections.... __. Ishank.
Bolt (c) Tension failure otlPlate Sheared piate piece (d) Plate end shear failure . the force is transferred from one member to the other through shear in .34 Design of Steel Structures (a) Shear failure of bolt shank Plate crushed Hole intact (b) Bearing faiiure Bolt intact Hole elongated .4..2 3.. after bearing contact has taken place through slip. 3..1 Shear Failure of Bolt In bearing type connections. (e) Tension failure of boit Fig.
.Bolted Connections 35 bolts in one shear plane or multiple shear planes. . depending on the type of connections. and N stands for Newtons" Let R. N Bolt strength is double shear. or multiple shear. To simplify design computations. n. the bolt is deemed to have failed in shear. 3. the bolts are subjected to not only shear but also bending action due to the eccentricity of loads on bolts" The shear distribution is nonuniform over the crosssection of the bolt and the shear load per bolt varies in a joint according to elastic theory" To simplify the design computation.2 Bearing Failure of Bolt . This may be due to single. If the applied shear on the bolt is more than the bolt strength in shear. and the width of plastification of material at the point of contact. Fs := allowable shear stress in N/rrun2. R" = ('r 0) :2J F.• At the point of contact the load is transferred from the member to the bolt through bearing stress. The maximum load that can be transferred through shear is p ~ n (Bolt strength in shear) = nR r wheren is the number of bolts used to transfer the load. m = number of effective shear planes. N (3 . the following assumptions are made: Bending effect on bolt is negligible (U) Shear stress distribution is uniform (iii) Load is shared equally by all bolts. the following assumptions al'e made. F. double shear and multiple The shear is calculated knowing the allowable shear stress.1) where d = uominal diameter of holt in nun. Rds = 2( 41 Fs ~. With these assumptions. In lap or butt joints. double. be the strength of the bolt in shear.4. . =m l1r: J / 2 '\ F.. The distribution of bearing stress is very difficult to assess because of different curvatures of the bolt and the hole. for the bolt Bolt strength in single shear. the shear strength of each bolt in a joint will be the SfuTAe" shear strength of bolt in single shear. Kd2\ ) N Bolt strength in mnltiple shear.
_"_~._ ... ·r_~ __~~.r. . _ r... ~~ n_ •• "_..:: thickness of plate in nun. angles..._.failure 'take '"':. _... It is common practice to call the minimum of Rpb and Rpp the bearing strength of the boit... Rp is Rp = dt Fp (3 .. ..h~JLI~le!!y£ tpjg!c!)esses" One has to be"cimtlOiiS in using the thickness. If high strength bolts (where the bolt yield strength is higher than that of the plate) are used.. t thickness of plate at contact under consideration in mm. one could imagine that the bearing contact area is supported by larger areas available in the shank of the bolt or plate for stress dispersal and the allowable stress is multiplied by a factor greater than unity.' ..36 Design of Steel Structures (i) Bearing stress distribution is uniform (ii) The contact area is equal to dt.._"'.~.::Fy (yield stress of the plate). which includes the effect of strain hardening..••• ~ "..depgldiDgQn__t.~..~_'.. which would give these larger values._ _ . Rpp is given by (3...• ".. the bolt fails in bearing . If the plate strength is higher. ~.2) where d bolt diameter in rum. The student may wonder why in the working stress method the allowable stress in bearing for plates and fasteners is taken to be equal to or more than the yield stress of the material.place ffi···lliemaIii" bearing .: .:'"' . . q •• _ •• = = _._c __ '"' . __ ... bearing failure can take place either in a bolt or in a plate. t.._.. '. ... hereafter denoted as Rp" Therefore the bearing strength of the bolt._... ~_.2). and Fpp :. t in Eq.  . The bearing strength of the bolt.3) where d = bolt diameter inmm.' __ " Bearing failure of plate Depending on the relative strength of the bolt material and plate material..can __ _. In butt connections and beamtocolumn conneCtionst._"". where d is the bolt diameter and the thickness of the plate (iii) The plate is dgid and strong. then plate failure is to be expected..._"".. ) 4 where Fp is the minimum of Fpb and FppThe strength of the bolt (R) is the minimum of bolt strength in shear (Rs) and bolt strength in bearing (Rp). _ .. Alternatively._' . These values are given based on the failure strength of the bolt or plate in bearing. Rpb' the bolt is deemed to have failed in bearing..••• ..plates.. > . in Nrrnrrr'._or weD~.._. If the allowable bearing stress in a plate is Fpp' the bearing strength of the plate. Rpb Rpb t is in terms of Newtons is Fpb = dt (3... (3. •• _ •. If the load on the bolt in beating is more than the bolt strength in bearing.. and Fpb = allowable bearing stress for bolt. " . ••• ~.
6 and 3.najf (3. tension IS tue product or An ano JI't. All possible failure paths (straight as well as zigzag. n = number of holes in the zigzag failure path. and t = thickness of plate" Based on experimental evidence. which in turn depends on the arrangement of holes. t ~3. or in staggered rows so that the number of holes across the width are fewer. depending on the pattern of holes .BoltedConnections 37 (3.. s staggered pitch in mm.3 Tension Failure of Plate The plate fails in tension through the weakest section on account of holes. The load canying capacity of the plate depends on the net area of the section.Since the allowable stress in tension for the plate is Ft. so that the number of holes is equal the number of rows across the width.7. the net area is given for the case of a staggered rows of holes as An = ( b ~ nd + L " J m S2) 4. the strength of plate in • • 1. The failure path may be straight at right angles to the load or in a zigzag path. the net area.. the plate fails in tension through rupture. In the case of an unstaggered rows of holes.4. d = diameter of hole.. d are as before.. The holes may be arranged in rows in the longitudinal direction of the plate. • The failure path and the net area computation are shown in Fig. say. t. 3. _J ~I . ) 8 If the tensile load on the plate is more than its tensile strength. .4 Shear Failure at Plateend The plate may fail at the end near the extreme fastener due to shear when sufficient end distance is not available.6) where b = width of plate. whereas in the second case failure takes place in a zigzag pattern. n = number of holes in b perpendicular to the load direction.  = = Tensile strength of plate = AnFt (3. Am is computed as An = (b .i numbers) are to be tried and the corresponding net areas. ) 5 3. The end distance is the distance from the end of the plate to the centre of nearest hole measured in the .. / where b.7) _. The minimum is the net area for the plate with holes .. m = number of staggered pitches or gauges along failure path.3. g gauge distance in mm. 3... In the first case plate failure occurs across the weakest section. Anj are to be computed as per Eqs 3.4.
. (a) Chain of holes in rows A 0 .'_ Failure path Fig.. 3.3 direction of load. = (bnd)t II ' . (b) Staggered holes .4(a). longitudinally. Average shear stress Bearing strength of bolt (3.9) . and '{t is found by equating the bearing strength of the bolt to the shear strength of the end piece \CiS (2elt) Shear area Then end distance. ..2 r. i. el (045Fy ~ J = 2d dt Fpb = dt 1.e. If the end distance is taken as e) in Fig. 3. ' ._0 0 0 IA 0 0 0 0 I 0 j 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 e I 9 9 9 e I 0 0 % A. .38 Design 9t Ste~1Structures .
the plate fails at the end.2d. 3.. the British code suggests lAd and the Indian code recommends Zd.5d.5d for the end distance. maximum shear stress.. The Canadian code suggests 1.5 Tension Failure of Bolt If the bolt is subjected to tensile force in a joint because of its location. and d = diameter of hole.. When threaded bolts are . 0. Fpb = 1..4. the allowable bearing stress is reduced proportionately according to Indian code IS: 800 as follows.2 Fy (allowable bearing stress in bolt). Shear planes at failure (b) After f allure Fig. If el < 2d.45 F. it fails in tension as soon as its capacity is exceeded. Though it has been proved analytically that el is equal to 2d. as shown in Fig. Some codes recommend a value of l.Bolted Connections 39 c o d Plate end (a) Before failure . Fy yield stress of steel. If the end distance is less than 2d.1 0) where e)= end distance. = = F pb  F pb (e] prOVided) 2d (3.4 where d = diameter of hole. 3A(b). ... due to strain hardening of material the failure takes place around l . 3.
= ( 1f:2) 0.5 mm unless specified otherwise . the distance should not be mote than a maximum distance to avoid corrosion and buckling of outside thin plates between bolts. Bolthole The distance between centres of bolts should not be less than 2. The diameter of the bolthole should be larger than the diameter of the bolt by 1.5 times the diameter of bolt or nominal diameter of rivet Minimum Pitch Maximum Pitch (a) Transverse pitch The distance between the centres of any two adjacent . and on the pitch along the nearest row of holes from the side edge for the same reasons.. The area at the root depth should be taken as the stress area.. Generally the longitudinal pitch is kept as 3d or 4d and the gauge is anywhere from 75250 mm. Tensile strength of' bolt in tension. Also.. R. 5 or 0. = allowable stress in tension . to ensure easy insertion. (3.40 Design of Steel Structures .Holes are generally made larger than the diameter of the bolts. i. The pitch in the direction of load is called longitudinal pitch and the one transverse (normal) to the load direction is called transverse pitch or gauge distance. The tensile strength of the bolt is the 7 product of the net area and allowable stress in tension . The net area of the bolt is taken as 0. there is a minimum and maximum limit for the end distance in the direction of load. Similarly.. 1) 1 where d ... prevent COllusion and have tight joints.e. 3. The pitch requirements of bolts ~ie as follows.. fracture takes place at the root of the thread. The distances from centre to centre of the holes should be decided taking fabrication and strength considerations into account.. in tension.. olt diameter.... When chains of holes are staggered. the pitch is called staggered pitch . and F. b When the tensile load on the bolt exceeds the tensile strength of the bolt.Also. there are limitations on the side edge distance.. the bolt is not strong enough to resist the load and it fails in tension through rupture.:. The distance between the centres of adjacent holes is cal1ed the pitch and it should not be less than the minimum distance required for operation of tools during fabrication .8 times the gross area . to avoid end failure of plates. and to realise tight and effective joints..5 Pitch Requirements of Bolts Holes for accommodating fasteners at joints should invariably be made in members and in connecting plates called gusset plates .75 F.
.A . .0 25 29 32 32 38 44 51 57 57 .l.5 32..£.1..5 17. _ ....... .'LI ... Edge distances Minimum edge distance:' The distance from the centre of any hole to the edge of a plate should not be less than those given in Table 3" 1.r\ J / 22 25 29 29 32 38 44 51 51 29. whichever is less . whichever is less. .... ..5 times the width of the member ....~. LI.....1 . ~..0 35. ... where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate.5 235 25. TOUBAO LIMITE ECC Conetructton Group P....1 '1.& Jl.1>' 1fJ!inimum Edge Distance of Holes :' Diameter of hole (mm) Sheared or hand flame cut edge (mm) 19 Rolled. machine flame cut. . in !:'IIinp !:'IIrli!). {liil For' rnw np~r' ~it1p Pt1O'P_'T'hp y .V However. Where transfer of force through butting faces takes place... the pitch should not exceed 12t or 200 mm.... "' the side edge of al1 outside plate should not exceed (100 mm + 4t) or 200 mm. .. the pitch in (i) to (iii) may be increased by 50% when bolts are regularly staggered" \.0.I.. .s.. I.. Table 3.5 19.l . the pitch should not exceed 16t or 200 mm... (iv) Staggered pitchWhen the gauge distance is not more than 75 mm..5 21..~J'IAo'"".Bolted Connections 41 bolts in the transverse direction (perpendicular to load direction) should not exceed 32t 01' 300 mm..il. the pitch should not exceed 45 times the bolt diameter for a distance from the abutting faces equal to 1. where t is the thickness of the thinner outside plate .. "" ... I 135 and below 15.0 \\\'1 \\ \ Maximum edge distance: The distance from the edge of the plate to the nearest line of bolts or rivets ~ "here LARSEN..B.1.iJ . . sawn or planned edge (mm) 17 .6 .I.a"'" .... whichever is less.. (b) Longitudinal pitch (i) For tension membersIn load direction..&. whichever is less. _V "".....pnt <:lnrl parallel tro nitrh. No.... (ii) For compression membersIn load direction.. the pitch is not to exceed 32 tor 300 mm. "' . whichever is less.r'IIAO _Ilnn _~_~&~_~ MOUNT POONAMALLEE ROAD nRQ . l .. 979 &r"I....~ ..&J ..
the pitch should not exceed 1000 mm. if the grip length exceeds 6 times the diameter of the hole. where d is the effective diameter of the bolt or rivet. The reduced shear' strength of bolt is flPproximately obtained by multiplying the shear strength of bolt by a factor which is equal to Long joints 5500 . The end distance should not be less than the minimum edge distance.q atarfoftillli~ • vsMdu . the allowable bearing stress in the bolt is reduced in the ratio of the actual end distance to 2d. The . 35. If not exposed to weather. the bolt is subjected to bending action. When two or more plates are held by bolts.maximum pitch for tack bolts should not exceed 32t or 300 mm.Lj 5000 where Lj = length of joint in mm (BS . whichever is lower. If tack bolts are used for sticking the components of a tension member. the number of bolts required by normal calculation should be increased by not less than 1% for each additional 1. If the end distance is less than 2d. 3. this may be increased to 121" The distance from the end of the plate to the centre of the nearest hole in the direction of stress should not be less than 2d.75d for sheared or flame cut edges.6. End distance Tack boits Tack bolts are additional bolts used. the minimum edge requirement is normally satisfied.7) and the extreme bolts are subjected to maximum forces. and the staggered pitch is shown in Fig" 3. whereas for the compression member it should not exceed 600 rnm.I OAaUOT • M!laAAJ quolD noltoUlfenoO 003 g. whichever is smaller. but does not exceed 8 times the diameter of the hole.o!1B. the share of the load by bolts in long joints is nonuniform (Fig.. besides those required by strength considerations.5d for planed edges and 1.42 t Design of Steel Structures is the thickness of the thinner outside plate in mm.5 mm of grip" Various pitches are shown in Fig. the inner distance from the bolt head to the nut is called the grip" If the grip is too long.. Where exposed to weather..Q. it should not exceed 161 or 200 mm.. to satisfy the maximum pitch requirements. The bolt strength in shear is reduced (or extra bolts are provided) if the length of the joint is more than 500 mm to account for nonuniform bolt loads along the joint.. Long grip bolts ~ If the bolt and plate materials are considered elastic. 03TIMI. i If the edge distance is kept equal to 1. To account for this action.
P? 1 f f 0 0 It 0 0 0 0 g1 0 0 / . L where I9 I I I I t..Bolted Connections 43 r ( t.6 . edge pitch e end distance g = gauge distance = Fig.+c +0 0 0 0 0 0 I I ~ 0 ~ 0 I 0 0 A_ ~L 0 I i I +_j e L . g3 gauge distances e1 = end distance e2 = edge distance = Fig._ O __ ~__ O I where !P21 o__ o~I_'_ ~1 U___ T 9 1 e f P1 = longitudinal pitch or pitch s = staggered pitch P2 = side. o 0 • ~1~'_o • ~ o 0 ..5 Pitch requirements o o o o o o 0 ~1. 3.P10 Pi . 3.._ P101 . 1 \) P1 = longitudinal pitch P2 = side edge pitch g11g2...
Allowable Stresses 6 The calculated stress in a mild steel rivet or in a bolt of property class 4. The allowable stress should be increased by 12% in comparison to mild steel rivets.6 ..n . This is valid for bolts in bearin_gtype connections. or 0. Table 3.7 Bolt forces in a long joint 3. 3..... L....44 Design of ~te~1Structures I ~ I 10 I I I o o f"\ ( 81 1 I I 2 3 4 I 5 6 J _. MPa (2) 100 (4) . 86 Ai 8j = Force in bolt j Fig.. Bolt of property class higher than 4. whichever is 6 Jesser. \ High tensile rivets The allowable stresses in Table 32 may be multiplied by the ratio of the yield or proof stress of the bolt of property class higher than 4..2..6 should not exceed the allowable stresses given in Table 3.. to 235 MPa..7 times its tensile stress.2 Type of fastener Maximum Allowable Stress in Rivets and Bolts Axial tension MPa (1) Ft Shear stress Fs MPa (3) Bearing stress r.JV Power driven rivets Hand driven rivets Bolts 100 "n 300 80 120 ~v 80 250 Note For field rivets the allowable stresses should be reduced by 10%.
3. 3"8.0 1.... + S t .8 and 10.4 r ~=LO Fs / (. The approximate of .Bolted Connections 45 The calculated bearing stress for bolts or hand driven rivets in clearance holes.8 1. Bolt in shear and tension The present practice is to ignore the bearing stress which might be present while considering the bolt under shear and tension" Tests on bolts under shear and tension showed elliptical interaction curves for the ultimate strength of bolts" Using appropriate factors of safety a design interaction curve for working stress design is shown in Fig.13) 3.9 are very commonly used in steel construction and they should conform to IS: 3757.s)' (..1)" = 1.. and for connected parts. This has been approximated by three linear lines which are adopted by the Indiansteel code" The interaction curve is (3. t Bearing stress 1.12) also approximated as and (3.0 o 1t Ft Fig.4 Interaction curve for bolt . shall not exceed the value of F.7 High Strength Bolts High strength bolts property class 8.
and R = bolt strength. External tension. the maximum external tension on a bolt is limited to 0.8 and lOS for 10. there is no slip in the joints. Special techniques are used for tightening the nuts to induce a specified initial tension in the bolts. its tendency is to reduce the friction.1. R .1 Strength of HSFG Bolt The load that can be transferred through friction by a bolt depends on the proof load.5 times the proof load for dynamic loading. 3. It is assumed that the applied load is shared equally by all bolts in a group. This friction is made use of in the design.14) where. T < cP . HSFG bolt strength under tension When an external tension acts on a bolt.I. such as 8S for 8.:>ru UVI _L: .7. Therefore. P = total load on joint. R.'''''' bolt ..2 when combined with wind).9 are shown on the heads of these bolts. The design condition is (3.t bearing type connection. = slip factor. M24 and M30. there must always be some friction between the faying surfaces to make the friction type connection effective.46 Design of Steel Structures bolt dimensions rue shown in Fig.l Pn (FS) (1. M36 are available. the slip factor and the number of effective friction surfaces.. These bolts with initial tension are known as High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts. Hence. Although the sizes of bolts from M16.. and FS = factor of safety (1. Hence the load that can be safely transferred by friction is called the strength of the bolt. Due to friction. Identification marks.15) where. It ceases to be a friction type connection. hence connections with HSFG bolts are called friction type or nonslip connections" The initial tension in the bolt is known as the proof load of the bolt and the coefficient of' friction is known as the slip factor. m = number of bolts. J.. 3. P = proof load in N. High strength nuts and washers should be used with these bolts. given by ~tr otreng th or HC'T... If the applied load is more than this load. the friction type connection reduces to 'c. J.. which causes sufficient friction between the faying faces.. M20. by preventing any slip. If friction becomes zero. n = number of effective surfaces.4 for normal loading and 1. the commonly used sizes are M16. slip occurs and the load is not transferred from one part to the other by friction.6 times the proof load for static loading and 0.
n ::::number of effective faying surfaces..l(P . allowing for tension is given by Strength• 0 f HSF G bolt R = ::==:J. and P = Proof 0.35 The Indian Code (IS: 4000) recommends a slip factor of . for dynamic loading.. the stress is always less than the yield stress. depending on the situation.. Table 3. 3 7.6 for static loading and 0. It depends on the nature of the faying surfaces..25 0. R becomes zero. .3 Slip Factors Surface condition (1) Weathered. When T is equal to cP.. thus making the joint ineffective for design purpose.L = slip factor. at stresses less han the yield stress for bolts of property class 8. This ensures that in the presence of external tension.45 0.3. c :::: for static loading and 0. 5 FS = factor of safety (1.0.16) where. J. (FS) (3.40 0. The slip factors to be used in the design of friction type connections aJ'e given in Table 3.4 for normal loading and 1..Bolted Connections 47 where.35 0.8 and 10.4.50 0.6 load. clear of mill scale and loose rust Blasted with shot or grit and loose rust removed Sprayed with aluminium Sprayed with zinc Treated with zincsalient paints Treated with etch primer Galvanised Dry mill scale Slip factor (2) 0. . Slip Factors 72 The coefficient of friction between the faying surfaces is called the slip factor.Tlc)n . 0 5 0.5 for fatigue condition..45 for steel construction.16 0.3 Proof Loads for HSFG Bo/ts .2 when combined with wind). The modified strength of the bolt. but it leaves scope for the design engineer to use an increased or decreased value at his discretion. P = proof load. c = 0.. 3.9 respectively. T = external tension. The proof loads to be used in design for various sizes of bolts are given in Table 3. In HSFG bolts an initial tension is indu~ed by a special tightening procedure.
and gap closure method. It is the simplest and most common method. by making the nuts snugtight by full effort of the worker using an ordinary spud.9 with nut of grade 12 Bolts of grade 10. 18 20 22 24 27 30 275. Each nut is tighted "by a specified turn from the snugtighr (a) Part tum method .48 Design of Steel Structures Table 3. as given below.0 586. All the bolts and nuts are tightened to bring the joint surfaces into close contact.0 466. torque control method.0 416~O 490. The initial tension.0 337.0 .8 10.0 212. .0 147.The part turn and torque control methods are less accurate.4 Proof Loads of High Strength Bolts in kN Proof load in kN Nominal diameter of bolt in mm 16 Property class of bolt 8.0 159. as the design of connections is based on this proof load.9 94. has to be ensured in each bolt. In this position permanent marks are made on each nut and protruding threads of the bolt.0 678.0 381.0 182. These methods are used depending on the grade of bolts and nuts.5 115.9 (waisted shank bolts) with nut of grade 12 Tightening method PaI~ turn or torque control method Torque control or gap closure method Gap closure method . up to proof load.0 293. In the gap closure method. Grades of bolts and nuts Bolts of grade 8.. The part turn 'method is also known as the turn of nut method. The three methods of tightening used are: part turn method.. wrench.8 Bolts of grade 10.4 Bolt Tightening Methods 7 The reliability of HSFG bolts in connections depends on the method of tightening of 'the individual bolt.0 130.0 810. because they can be influenced by the pitch of the threads and friction on bolt threads.0 570.0 33 36 39 3. the specified proof load is induced in the bolt by the use of a load indicator device..0 252.0 203.
y kod (3 . the corresponding initial tension is known. p = proof load. ~When using a gap closure method in an HSFG bolt group. This relationship may be expressed as (b) Torque control method Ts: .15 for highly lubricated bolts. size and grade are changed .. Turn of nut 3 1 i 3 2 1 .17) where T applied torque. and is inserted so that the projections touch the underside of the bolt head or nut. which gives the direct tension in the bolt. 0. by an amount depending on the magnitude of initial tension.. d = bolt shank diameter.. working from the centre of joint outwards. Calibration is done whenever bolt length. They should be calibrated before . Hand torque wrenches or impact wrenches are used to apply the predetermined torque. By measuring the gap.. A specified gap corresponds to a specified initial tension. to give the precise setting value. 'Vote Bolt length is measured from the underside of the head to the extreme end: of the shank. It generally takes 2 1/2 turns from the snug position to the fracture of the bolt" The recommended nut rotation from the snug tight position is as follows . They are designed such that they are unable to apply any torque greater than the present value. It is like a washer with protruding projections on one side.. Bolt length < 4d 4d to 8d or 200 mm 1 :> 8d or 200 mm where d = bolt diameter . use. 0..BoitedConnections 49 position. the experienced operator will be able to judge the COITectsetting by the feel of the wrench in operation. When the bolt head or nut is tightened the gap between the bolt head and load indicator device is reduced. This method is based on the linear relationship between the initial tension in the bolt and the torque necessary to turn the nut or bolt head.25 for lusty bolts .. This is done by tightening a sample bolt against the load cell. depending on the length of bolt. Many structures have been erected using this procedure successfully .. " = In this method a load indicator device is used. k = torque coefficient. (c) Gap closure method . the bolts should be tightened in a staggered manner. Where there are more than four bolts in the group. The torque wrenches are adjusted to produce a value 10% higher than the proof load..
30 and 36rnm .20. LUt_..ss... is called the driven head.05% respectively. made at site. 1 _l_ + 0.9).These are ~1so known as nominal diameters.. Grip length Shank O. 3. The carbon.433do o. The tensile strength of steel is 410 MPa (IS: 1148) and 460 MPa (IS: 1149) . . 3. This head is also called a manufacturer's head and the head at the other end. due to limitations of clearances.05 and 0.. Sometimes..do = (d) Hot forged rivet connecting Fig. The COll1IDon diameters that are used in steel construction are 16...9 Rivet details .These are made with a desired length of shank and a round head at one end .95d o ""_O. 0.23. r 1 \ Shank length ..8 Rivets The hot rolled mild and high tensile steel rivet bars conforming to IS: 1148 and 1149 are used for manufacturing rivets . The ductility is around 23%. sulphur and phosphorus contents are limited in rivet steel to 0.. since the actual diameters in joints are different Countersunk head .50 Design of Steel Structures 3. the heads are made flat or counter sunk (Fig .24..95do (b) Flat head rivet (c) Flat countersunk head rivet (a) Round head rivet t t Protruding portion of T:_J Forged head \ shank do ::: Nominal dia of rivet d Dia of hole Clearance two: plates = d .
9 Joint Behaviour joints present in structures have short structural sections. while moulding one of the heads.. research workers at Lehigh University and the Steel Structures Research Committee of Great Britain have studied commonly used usual beamcolumn connections.Bo/tedConnections 51 The rivets are heated to cherry red colour (1000 °C) and are inserted in aligned holes in the members to be joined. etc. The behaviour of bolted connections is assumed to be similar' to that of riveted connections. Hence. The manufacturer's head (preformed head) is pressed against the plate by a bucking bar and the protruding shank is converted into a head at the other end by the wiving action of the pneumatic hammer. the intial tension vades from 6090% of the yield strength of the rivet. forces the heated shank to expand laterally. and are connected by fasteners arranged as per the desired requirement. the use of the welds and HSFG bolt systems in connections has rendered the use of rivets obsolete.. It is not possible to treat deformations and forces in joints analytically.This initial tension is ignored in the design . causing tension in the rivet.. tees. and nature of contact surfaces . mm or 2 mm larger than the nominal diameter of the rivet. partially restrained joints or hinged joints. However. angles. are shown in Fig. 1. But the connected parts resist the lengthwise contraction. Depending on the thickness of the connecting angles or tees and the arrangement of the fasteners.. The force of riveting. based on this experimental study. This initial tension in the rivets makes the joint tight. fining the hole . In most hot driven rivets.10 for riveted and welded connections. When the hot rivet starts cooling it tries to contract in all directions. It has been observed that shop power driven rivets have 10% higher strength than field power driven rivets. If we superimpose the momentrotation curve of a beam end on that for connections. like plates. joints in structures behave like rigid joints. With the advent of welding and high strength boIting. In some rivets. except that the diameter of the rivet is taken as the diameter of the hole in place of the nominal diameter. to understand joint performance better. the rivet design is similar to bolt design in a bearing type connection. it is almost zero since it depends on the method of driving. Momentrotation relationships. The heads are forged in fabrication shops by continuous action of a pressure riveter. 3.Although the hot rivet heats the connectedparts. grip length.. they do not become as hot as the rivet. in this book riveted connections are not covered extensively. similar to 5 the clearance holes in bolted connections.Hence. . The diameter of the hole is made 1. and hand driven rivets have 20% less than shop power driven rivets" The difference in strength is taken into account in the allowable stresses given in codes .
..0 0 I I I • II c ':...:t .::: ..... ~ luawolAJ u...._ ('[) . a: > Q) c:p :. ~ v ....::t (1') I f c 0 '~ !D C C o u <D c c:t> <:D 0 0 o v u Q) 0 I as !D . <:D <:D or c 0 J Q) a: ('[) 0 0 (/J o 0 C C v o 'U 'U Q) Q) c:t> . :! v ('I') u:: . ~uewoV'J 2 :......Q en .! .. c Q) C") E . . . ~ :.. II as 0 c (/J . .: u..52 Design of Steel Structures T"" II Lll l:J! v ro Q) '¢ ...=.n 0 ~ .: c:D T'" .... ..=......a E .
. M it is considered flexible. In lap . the ratio M/Mpvaries from one to zero. The simple or flexible connections found in steel structures are as follows.structural members. . and for type 4 connection.10.. Therefore all joints are broadly categorised as simple or flexible. 3 and 4. the moment due to eccentricity is ignored. M4 and 04 are obtained from the intersection of curves 5 and 4. < 0.3.Bolted Connections 53 the intersection points furnish the moment and rotation of the connections under consideration" These can be compared with the known values of the ends of beam for fixed and hinged cases. Depending on the connection. tee stubs or plates. giving the M . The behaviour of the M .. Ml and 81 are obtained flUID the intersection of curves 1 and 5. and if M. 2. the rotation 60 is WP/24 EI and the moment is zero. F it is generally considered rigid. In practice. Using elastic theory for beams under uniformly distributed load for the fixed case. and semirigid connections.1 Lap and Butt Connections All truss connections are generally lap or butt connections (Fig. it should not adversely affect the connections or. If Mi > O.85 . whereMi is any value fromMl toM4. depending on i. since it is small.Ung the relationship between MF and 60 is linear. although there is always some eccentricity. For example..and butt joints (ii) Truss joint connections (iii) Connections at beam columnjunction (a) Seat angle connection (b) Web angle connection . the fixed moment M F is Wz2112 and (J is zero. If M. the moment and rotation for type 1 connection. (i) Lap . (c) Stiffened seat angle connection (d) End plate connections (iv) Tension and flange splices . 2. This way. lies between 0. 3 and 4.10 shows curves 1. a straight line 5 (also known as beamline) can be superimposed over curves 1. rigid or moment resistant. causing either shear or direct 'forces in the bolts.25 M.. For the hinged case.25 MF and 0. 8 relationship for four types of riveted and welded connections using web angles.85 MF it is considered semirigid. Assu. 3.10 Simple Connections In these connections it is assumed that the resultant of the applied loads on the joint passes through the centroid of the fasteners.(} curve of a connection is nonlinear. flange angles.12). 3. the connection can be judged whether it belongs to rigid or hinged case" Figure 3.
Since lap connections are used for small forces or in small sections. The number of bolts in a joint should not be less than 2. The clearance between members is usually kept at 2 or . (ii) parent plate is safe. The minimum lap should not be less than 5t (where t is the thicknessc~X the plate). The minimum thickness of the plate when exposed to weather should not be less than 6 mm if it is accessible for cleaning and painting. and 8 mrn if it is not accessible" The connections are deemed to be adequate and safe if (i) all bolts are safe. the flexural action is negligible.54 Design of Steel Structures " A~ (a) Flanqe tension and Compression splice (b) Section AA Section 88 (c) Tension splice Fig.3 mm. so as to avoid tenslollinlJOItS=:Qr welds.~aI thicKneSS of Cover pla~es should be 5% m~ than the thickness of the parent plate. and \ (iii) connecting plates (gussets) are safe . The allowable tensile stress for parent material is 0.11 connections a bending moment is introduced due to eccentricity of load..6 Fy• Example 3.f. 3. The efficiency of the joint is the ratio of the ~ength of the Jomt to the strength of the parentplate without holes ..e1!~Qj!l__buttiojntS:t. Double cover plates are n()_!!!lallyptt.1 Determine the tensile capacity of the bearing type connection .9_JlliSUre symmetry.
j ~.s Discontinuous (c) Truss connection Fig....13 and the efficiency of the joint if (a) bolt threads ale outside the shear plane..Bolted Connections 55 ..t' II .12 in Fig ...__....19 kN . the allowable tensile stress for the plate being 150 MPa" Solution (a) Threads excluded from shear plane Plate Strength: Ag 16 x 150 2400 mm? = = An = [150 ....5)]16 = 1584 mrrr' T = 150 Bolt Strength: Rsy X An X 103 = 237. (b) bolt threads are inside the shear plane" Use M24 bolts of property class 4._j '_t) =4D>  T' =t:: J t·t!i t· ~ ti.I' ~ ...... t ......II../~!~I a t: • ..j. . Cover plates """T""""" Parent plate (a) Lap joint .. or 3mm (b) Butt joint 2L.. 3.6 leN = ( nx 4 242) 80 X 10 3 = 39..._ ~.t~!'II' =.6 with plates 150 x 16 nun.2(24 + 1.....3. ! ...2 f.
14) = 235.15 x 1 = ..1 kN (Effective area is taken as 80% of gross area) Tensile capacity.) Tensile capacity (minimum of 237..56 Design of Steel Structures 12 150x T .. 235. T " I 70 " Fig.5 x (24 + 1..19 = 31. 70 ..8 = 52.2% .5) = 38.19 x 6 = 235 . ~ +..00 kN Allowable beating stress for bolt and plate = 250 N/mm2 R = 39.14 kN .3 x 0..35 kN = 188.14 00 65 301. (b) Threads in shear plane Rss • = 0. Efficiency 0 f' .25 nun Lap length provided> 5 x 16 mm (O..13 Rp = 24 x 16 x 250 x 103 = 96. Jomt = 2400 x 0. 24 = 48 mm Minimum pitch = 2. 16mm !elT I T .5 x 24 = 60 mm Minimum edge distance = 1..19 kN or 6R 39.8 x 39. rM24 l/ .f" J •  1 I +i.6 and 235..K. 14 kN (For six bolts) = Minimum end distance =2x . 3. 6R Efficiency of joint = 65.
4 3.05kN .._ Fig.14.5 Bolt M20 .Bolted Connections 57 Example 3~2 For the joint shown in Fig. = 20 x 10 x (250 RA = 25. are used and F._. Bolts 8 PL 250x8 Failure path 1t 2. 3.13 kN x 2 x 20. for the parent material is 6 150 MPa. (ii) check the pitch and end distance requirements.!3kN s.14 Solution (i) M20 bolts: Bolt A: Rss = (1r202) 4 X 80 "X 103 = 25. determine (0 determine the maximum load the joint can cany..e. and (iii) determine the efficiency of the joint if M20 bolts of property class 4. 30 ) X 103 = 37. 3.
.' = 3339 x 0.2 kN T2 = 495.58 Design of Steel Structures Bolt B: Rd~ = 25.15 + 2 x 25.26 leN 16 x x 250 x 103 = 80.5)16 1. := 3312 x 0 . X An3 .x 4x '\ 50) 18 = ..5)16 = 3312 21.85 kN Ag = 250 AnI X = (250 = ("51'\ L..26 kN Strength of A type and B type bolts = 2 x 25.14) and on making use of earlier calculation. 3. mm 0 8 (O... kN 8 = ~4n2x 0.26 kN (Ans for cover plate is 3465) Maximum load on joint = 452..5)(10 + 8) = 3339 mrrr' = A.34 leN (Minimum of the underlined loads) .3465 mm"2 TC4 Tension load carrying capacity of cover plates Main plate.. mrrr' 2 An2 = (250 .= . . 70 Capacity: = 40 + 30) Tg = 4000 X 0.) Provided = 18 rum An4 ~ = (250 .c....46 leN For zigzag failure in main plate through holes of B type bolts (failure path 6 not shown in Fig...15 = 600 kN x 0.15 = 577.34 kN 1.K.15 + 2RA = 2968 T3 = 3848 x 0....15 = 496 . ')1"..0 kN X RB = 50...n5 l ( I"IC:f\ ~JV  oJ .3 x 21.13 Rp = 20 x 2 = 50.3 = X 2968 mnr' '16 3848 rom 2 4 70 50) . 502 + .13 T... 5 = 16.. (Here.15 = 500... V 16 = 4000 mm? X X 2 21. . l  J C:"'~21.26 = 452.13 + 8 Cover plates: Total thickness required = 16 X 50.13 = 512.1 .. To = 3465 X !~ 0.. .L4 A..c v .15\+ 2 X X 25.
56 64. 12 X 300 X 103 = 72 kN R = 64.. (iii) A_j J EffilC!ency 01 joint .. =: 452..17 kN Number of bolts.x 8) = 69 mm Maximum pitch along side edgerow = (100 + 4 x 8) = 132 rum All dimensions are O. Arrange the bolts to obtain maximum efficiency. N/mm2 (Property class 5..Bolted Connections 59 (ii) Pitch requirements: Minimum pitch = 2..7 Use 8 nos or more.K... ~'.21...6 x 300 x 103 = 540 kN An = (250 .17 = 7.34 x 1 = . .3 Design a butt joint using baits M20 of property class 5.6 X 300 X 103 = 493. Draw neat sketches to show the details . Efficiency is maximum for a single hole. Minimum end distance for no reduction in bearing stress = 2 x 20 = 40 mm Maximum side edge distance = (37 + 4 .6) 300 Beating stress in bolt = 300 x ~~~ or 300 = 300 Nzrnm? Bearing stress in plate = 300 N/mm2 Rp = 20 x... say 8 nun (it should be more than 6 mm)... Rd. X 0. 300 mm .5) 12 = 2742 mm2 T = 2742 Bolt strength. Ag = 3000 mnr' Tg = 3000 x 0.56 kN X 103 X 2 = ( 1I"!02) X 80 x ~~ = 64.. n = 493.39~ ~OO I::> . '10 600 Example 3.. (allowed) g] = 32 x 8 = 256 rom = 256 mm Hence = 256 mm or =.5 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 16t or 200 mm = 16 x 8 = 128 mm Maximum gauge distance. if 6 the main plate is 250 x 12 mm with a yield stress of 300 MPa. Use 2 cover plates 250 x 8 nun. Solution Thickness of cover plate.17 kN Yield stress of bolt material .
3 kN (O. II Fig. nos or more 64. I ~I L250xa Zigzag failure load .6 x 03 = 463.5 + 4 X 60 ) 12 4 x 50 x 0. then T = (250 ..15. we need a number.5) 12 x 0.. Efficiency of joint = ~~~2 x 100 = 82...7' i.15 .6 x 300 x 103 = 447.5 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 16 x 8 Gauge 200 = 128 mm 300 :.• 2 = ( 250 . . 250x12  I I :I x . 7.60 Design of Steel Structures If 2 holes are at the section. ) Cover plate may be cut to satisfy the minimum and maximum edge distances . say = 8 Minimum pitch = 2. 3.12 = 6.12 kN n = 447.e.:: 56 nun 2 = 32 01' X8 or End distance = 2 x 20 = 40 mm Maximum side edge distance := 37 + 4 x 8 = 69 mm Arrange the 8 boits as in Fig.5 21.2 x 21.17 Hence. 3.8% .K .9..
the hnttnrn 'IJ'_ ."n ...."" ..4 Design a connection at a truss joint (Fig..1..0 ..75... maximum force in the support diagonal of the truss. va vu....\. Ulv lUI1UW 1110 llln ........1..." ' ~........ but the determination of gusset thickness is not so.n . 3..Bolted Connections 61 3~ O~2 Trussjoint Connections 1 In an pinjointed trusses the members meeting at the nodes are subjected to direct forces .J. 3._a... rl....:L "llI' .  members with the gusset if the member is continuous......c....48 kN 8 25'0 X 103 = 32 kN R = 32 kN Bolts for 120 kN. based on the stress distribution ~n angle of 30°...UU.~~..~Jdt1. (a) Sketch the details if the bottom member is discontinuous.....!_ k_ of the gusset }n the figure resists the furce.. The design of a fastener is straight forward...o..5 Rp = 16 (Assumed 8 mm gusset) X 2 ) 80 X X 2 X 103 = 38... ..tlno. '.. .. nntnh"'f' nf ho1t~ f'Pf1111r'pn fnT' r.'Ir ...""L1 U. To avoid eccentricity of the load at a joint all axes having bolts should meet at the node. a . !~ ..17) using M16 black bolts of property class 4.. 'J'~ .. The . gussets.U...ni"'tt.6 .1 . to resist forces.. The latter is not amenable to analytical study because of its odd shape and the introduction of forces through the fasteners discretely..I .....J''.o.. ~~~_'...llv~~ l VI. In the absenceof ~!l_y_goIllPJltatio~for..o The clearance between members is usually kept at 2 or 3 mm. . VU LU.U..l.a..ar. .. has proved satisfactory (Fig.16). . An empirical method of finding the effective ~th of the gusset.. nl = 1~~ = 3. (a) M16 bolt: Rds = (1rl...nt tn pn~ut'p s!lfptv ""'""'J.:I.nnnp:r.... The same thickness is adopted throughout the truss.. th"..& ""' LI " A ..LlII"""'~ W'L ~. U U~~ OU~~~l~ l~ ~vVll11J._ :1_. 1. Ih"\ Wh!lt U1nnlt1 h".. Thickness of l'russ Gussets Maximum design force in diagonals in kN Thickness of gusset in mm up to 200 8 200 to 450 10 450 to 750 12 750 to 1650 16 1650 to 2250 18 Another thumb rule is to use a thickness a step higher than the thickness nf' the angles IJC'Por1 ~t thPo in'.1. ..n..&"¥ !114 Example 3.. "'"" ". These members are connected to gusset plates by bolts or welds using lap or butt joints depending on whether one or two angles are used for a member.. .I'." .. say 4 nos . ased on ..
. n2 :.. ~ . . r:'h'" B .62 Design of Steel Structures ) ~ 1 _l b r . say 7 nos n3 :.::2.::80 32 :. 80 kN. ..  . = 3000 e 8 = 30° Fig... 3. say 3 nos ' Use gusset thickness e 8 mm ..5.......::625..16 200 kN. I .:: 200 ..• 32 :...
3.. say 4" 120 . 3.18 (b) The net force on bottom member = 120 kN No.3 Seat AiJgle Connection The seat angle connection (Fig.75. as it acts as a seat for the beam. 3.18" 120kN " = 45mm (uniform) 35mm 120kN / 200 2Ls 75x75x6. 3. However. 2Ls 75x75x6 . p e Exact gusset shape depends upon scale = Fig.19) is quite useful during the erection of a beam.lL. of bolts = 32 = 3.Bolted Connections 120kN 63 .10.JL 80kN 200kN Fig. at the top of the beam a clip angle of minimum size is always used without design to provide a lateral support to the compression flange .• 3.17 Structural details satisfying the pitch requirements are shown in Fig. .
3. 3. Suppose R = reaction in N. Example 3. the buckling strength of web in rolled sections is normally more and hence the web is not checked for buckling.7S Fy w· b "3 k (1. the web fails in crippling. Usually a length of stiff beating (based on a conservatively assumed 45° angle of stress distribution) is available. using M20 bolts of property class 4.5 As a rough guide.4t (Fig. If 4M20 boIts of grade 4. 80 leN..2 in Fig.. The minimum width of beating to prevent web crippling is given by Eq. The clearance between the end of the beam and the flanges of the column should be minimal (2 mm) so that maximum bearing length is available..19(b) sf)t1uld be more than the reaction.64 Design of Steel Structures The load carrying. Then R b = O. W ~ web thickness? and Fy = yield stress of steel in beam. Although beamweb is susceptible to buckling due to concentrated reaction provided by seat angle. the load may be limited to 150 kN though there is no restriction.When the calculated beating stress in the web at the fillet line due to reaction is more than O.5. underneath the beam flange.75 Fy. the load is limited to 226 leN. A large amount of the reaction directly passes from the stiff bearing area to the connecting leg. k = depth of fillet. b = minimum bearing length required. The number of bolts is found by dividing the reaction of the beam by the bolt strength" The strength of the angle at Section 2. a bolt size of d can be accommodated' leg size of 4d east y. 3. l. then the web needs to be strengthened by providing bearing stiffeners.18 . thus causing no bending moment on the bolt group.5 .75 Fy < R. i. 3. for a seated angle connection.. Hence.6. is distributed into the web of the beam at an angle of 30° (IS: 800) up to the fillet line of the beam (Fig.e..19)..75Fy. It is approximately equal to 2.18) » 25 mm (b should not be negative) If (b + " 3 k) 0.6 are used in the seated angle connection the load is limited to tOO kN . where t is the thickness of the angle. 19(b»). For 4M30 bolts of the same grade.:J:he pressure at the suport. The bearing stress at the fillet line is limited to 0. Take Fy = 250 MPa. ') In order to know the size and number of bolts which can be aeeoinmodated in the legs of the angle. Design a seat angle connection between a beam MB300 and a column SC 200 for a reaction of beam. hen the leg SIze is _e)~_!hani_: one should ensure its acceptability for proViding mimmumgatlge and edgedistances as given fn Table 3.capacity of the seated angle connection is limited by the number of bolts to be accommodated by the connected leg. the gauge distances for the legs of angles are given in Table 3.
BoltedConnection~ 65 Column Fillet line hole "Connected leg (a) Seat Angle (b) Detailed at A Beam J o.293t 0110 OliO II Sealed angles t Fillet positions c:' (d) 8eam (c) Bearing width ~':::::=~)r L J1J h2 .19 Solution M20 bolt: .1 IJ (e) Front view of seated angle connection II IJ Column flange Fig.0. 3.
I 0 co 0 II') '.. • ... .q \0 10 V'l s: .I V') ...!! V') 0 00 C'I V') .I I/') (T') ...q 0 10 I/') V') \0 0 ~ ~ .. ..r'I 10 10 V) II') r II') '¢ 10 .. CD ~ 0 V') b II") 00 ~ J2 is :::I CIS o rn r Sf Sf V') c: r~ ~ iii 10 0 Q) C) C""'l II') o (I) as C""'l U'! ('I') 0 lV') . ....I N ..a as ...q Sf V') ('f') C'I C'I 0'1 ._....I 0 ('f') I/') r.... 0"1 U) c: <C ~ CD c....66 Design of Steei Structures 8 ~ 0 II') 10 0 ~ 0 r II') r oo \0 10 II') II') 10 II') C'I 11') 8 0 .......l . e e r~ ~D v bO~ :l ~ L eo eo N bI..
< O.45.. Clearance between beam and column = 2 mm Provide top clip angle: L60 x 60 x 6 .Bolted Connections 67 2 (. mm 2 Widt..7 ..K . .5d) 0 Rp = 20 x 8 x 250 x 1.69.4.K.. k = 29.40 = 35 mm Beating strength for seat angle = 140 x 8 x 0.14872 Nt mm 2 p .25 nun.140 mm long End distance on 150 mm leg = 150 . kN 0 R = 25 .5.2. of bolts. K Stiff bearing length.4t = 2. Details are shown in Fig . of bolts = 4 . grade M16 bolts ..TJJ.8 Slip factor  Proof load 147 kN9 (see Table 1.5) O.75 x 250 x 103 = 210 kN > 80 kN O . · .. No ..20.Bw .80 10 Beanng stress In we. and Clip angle: L 60 x 60 x 6 .M20 bolts. and (ii) the size of the seat angle... = 0. + AJ3(29.140 with M16 bolts. .5 x 103 = 30 . Column. b = 2.b F. in place of bolts M20 of grade 4.6.. Web does not need bearing stiffener at support.25) B ::: 69. O<. . M300. Flange width = 140 mm.75Ft (187. 3. 6 Recommended Seat angle: L 150 x 75 x 8 .1.140 with 4 .4)9 Effective surface 1. Seat angle: For the beam.55 .. are 8 used with an initial tension as recommended in the IS code.. L150 x 75 x 8 . SC 200: flange width = 200 nun Try angle. and Factor of safety = 1.86 2 3 1l1". Example 3.4 x 8 = 19. and Web thickness w =: 7.6 In Example 3..13 kN Beam reaction = 80 leN No.. Solution HSFG boltM20 of grade 8. rnm and end distance. Fillet depth. say 4 .: t = 8. n = 2g0 3 = 3.7 mm ..65 = 30 nun End distance on 75 mm leg = 75 . determine (i) the number of bolts.86X x 7.R ..140. = .. if high strength bolts M20 of grade 8. assumed = 1.h of web at fillet in beam = 19.
3. and the maximum length is the c ear . 3. No.140 mm long (acceptable) (8 mrn angle was checked in Example 3.member. 2 for 6 beam) Flange width 140mm II I I~==r==:::::i 55 ~15mm MB300 300 of Fig. 6 L·1S0x'75x8 140rnm 0.21) either to the column flange or to tije column web. These a~ usually connected in the compression zone of the beam. However. say 2 Leg size = 4 x 20 = 80 rom. kN .5 and found to be O. so as to provide lateral support to the . L75 x 75 x 8 ..) Recommended  Seat angle: L75 x 75 x 8 .20 n= 1\  ···13. the len th of web angles is enerall s than 0. The clearance between the beam and the column is kept at 2 mm to provide sufficient end distance in the web. The length of web angles is decided based on the number of bolts and the pitch lIowever.~5 = 1.K...45 x 1_47 _ lA  A'7 "T "5 I.4 Web Angle Connection ~ The end shear of the beam is transferred through web angles (Fig.8. try angle.140 nun long and bolts: 2M20 of grade 8.140 mm SC200 4M16 Flange width 200mm of grade 4 .10. n = 4~. which may be takenas _'approximately~th the depth of the. of bolts.epth of the web of the beam between fillets.68 Design of Steel Structures Clip angie 60 x 60 x 6 .1mm· grade 4. 3.6 times the de tot e beam.. (2 for column..69.
~ ~ + '\ \_ r Web angles ') ..21) on the column flange as large as possible. g. thereby making the joint inflexible. g _ (Lt)1I2 8 where.~+ + . The joint is made more flexible by making the gauge distance (Fig. The thickness of the web angle should be 8 mm up to a beam depth of 450 mm and 10 mm for larger beams" If the thickness is more. it may not be flexible and the end rotation of the beam is restrained. An empirical formula suggested by the American Railway Engineers Association (AREA) is used for the gauge distance. 3..Bolted Connections 69 . L = beam span. f___J (b) (a) (c) Fig. 3.. and t = thickness of web angle. The bolt group may then be subjected to the end restraining moment. .I I9. ii = rn I.21 Web angle connection compression flange.
Use web angle thickness = 8 mm Bolts between beam and angles Rds = l'" 4..17 .6.70 Design of Steel Structures normally kept 140 rom or 100 mm on columns.7. Use 2LI10 x 110 Then X 8. The gauge is angle connection the applied force angle connection Example 3. Adopt g = 140 mm.7 Design and detail a web angle connection between a beam MB350 and column Se250 for a load of 150 kN using bolts M20 of grade 5.1 kN 2Rp = 20 x 8 x 0... either by a seated angle or by a web singly .50 kN No. say 4 Bolts between column and angles R s . Solution Black boltM20 of grade 5. (O. = 4.) ( 11'102\ 102..3~OO =: 102. and hence symmetry of bolts is preferred..13 MPa Fp = 25°2. 0 5 150 x 250 x 103 = 4050 kN R = 40.13 x 2 x 10~3 = 64. of bolts nl = 3. say 8 Uneven number causes torsion on bolts. F.67.K.6 Yield strength of bait steel = 5 x 6 x 10 = 300 N/mIn2 Allowable stress. = 80 .1 kN No. 1) = 319.3'2 ..15 MPa or 250 MPa of plate steel and Beam web thickness = 8.) g = 65 x 2 + 8 = 138 .5300 .25 = 40 kN R = 32.140 .1 = 40 . Assume yield stress of plate steel = 250 MPa.64.. The web can be in conjunction with a seat angle connection when cannot be catered for.17 kr~ Rp = 20 X 8. of bolts n2 = 32J 150 '..1 rnm ..
... of bolts because of the leg.22.....22 3.__~ 30 to (0 y0 T LO .6 x 350 = 210 mm Maximum length =. nj = 4.75 x 350 = 2625 mm Design details are shown in Fig.Bolted Connections 71 Minimum pitch = 25 x 20 = 50 mm Maximum pitch = 12 x 8 = 96 mm or 200 End distance = 2 x 21..23). e = 45. II h28 Fig.. The total load of the seat angle is assumed to be supported fully by stiffeners and then transferred to the column through angles and bolts. 30 SC250 MB350 'V to 1_ _j_ ~1"140" 1 . ts = thickness of one stiffener angle. = bearing length available after accounting . h..5 = 43 Use p = 55.. or when the combined strength of the seat angle arid web angles is not adequate. 3.. the seat angle is stiffened (Fig. 3. bs = leg size of stiffener angle (outstanding)...10. 0. 3.5 Stillened Seat Angle Connection ~250t When the seat angle (unstiffened) is unable to resist the beam reaction due to a limitation on the number.. II 'J . Length of angle = 3 x 55 + 2 x 45 = 255 mm Minimum length = 0. The crosssectional area of stiffners at the point of bearing is obtained by dividing the load by the allowable bearing stress. r j_ I • <D .(\j U) n @ M U) lO' tOl ~ T 2L 110 x 110 x 8 LO Ji ++ +t I . rr I ' . n2 =: 8 (total). FpFor example if...6 1'. Bolts M20 of grade 5.
The local buckling of the stiffener leg is avoided by limiting the widththickness ratio to 16.20)/2 mm . ao =at =at 4 x (bolt diameter) mm (B . the leg sizes and thickness of bearing stiffener (two angles one on either side of the beam web) are given by Connected leg size.s II~ Fillet line I 1 Packing . The number of bolts is given by dividing the load by the bolt value or strength ofthe bolt. Fp allowable bearing stress. P = load on the stiffened seat angle connection. plate f' ~~ '.23 . for fillet of angle. A packing plate is introduced to fill up the gap between the flange of the column and the stiffener. In this case also.72 Design of Steel Structures  . Normally the strength of the web of the beam against web crippling or web buckling is less than the load taken by stiffened seat angle. Further the web buckling strength is always more than the web crippling strength at stiffened seated angle connection. = and Then (for two stiffened angles) The length and size of angle is selected based on number and size of rivets used for connection. bearing stiffener is required near the connection and is to be designed for the entire load when rolled beams are used.tw . Outstanding leg size.. a clip angle is provided at the top flange of the beam. Hence it is sufficient to check for web crippling strength. In case.. a. 3..Bearing width Tack bolts ' Stiffener  Fig. The length of stiffener is chosen based on the number of bolts and the pitch requirement..
13 = 9.13 leN Assuming minimum edge distance 1. web buckling and bearing stiffeners are given in Chapter 7.6. It is to be connected between beam MB400 and SC200 and yield stress is F. being small.0. Angle leg = 66.3 mm Assume Is = 10 Assume fillet radius =.g mea . t s =. 2 RSS' = 1r20 (4 J 80 := X 103 = 25.667 mm . 10 x 90 x 8 .7 + 10 = 76.7.1{b).J8(a» where B = flange width of beam is mm tw = thickness of web in mm P = load on stiffened seat angle in N The detailed explanation of web crippling. say 10 bolts Use stiffened seat angle.L 90 X x 4 = 80 nun 80 x.5d.25) 150 p nun (3. s. Angle . say 80 Stiffener connected leg = 20 Use stiffeners 2Ls 80 . . = 250 ·MPa lor' stiffeners. = 20 x 8 x 250 R = 25. In these connections.6. the eccentricity of load on the bolt group.160 . Solution M20 bolts of grade 4.Boited Connections 73 thickness of stiffener.75 x 250 ._ 250 x 103 _ 2 Beann.7 +\10 + 8 = 84.11.1333. . is usually ignored and some extra bolts are provided to cater for the moment Otherwise the group may be checked as per the principle explained for eccentrically loaded connections in 3.13kN 250 x ~:~ x 103 = 30 kN on minimum 8 mm plate n = 25.95. and Is 13333 bs = 2 x 10 . (2ao .7. Example 3.8 Design a stiffened seat angle for a load of 250 kN using M20 bolts of grade 4. say 90 Use L90 x 90 x 8 Stiffener outstanding leg = 66.
6 nun Thickness of angle for 2L . B = 85 + 30~3 ::: 137 mm Web thickness.20)/2 = 55. of bolts required = 2 X2~~.) No.33mm (O"K. 3.90 x 60 x 10mm Thickness provided = 2 x 10 mm > 19.18(a) Connected leg size..33 mm = 19.3 = 85 mm (Thickness of seat angle = 8 nun. llo= (140 . This end plate is in turn connected to the column flange by bolts to transfer ..24 for details.9 . tw = R.75 x 0.6 c End Plates Connection An end plate is connected to the web of the beam at the beam end by welds.340 Angle: L90 x 90 x 8 .75 D) Width of dispersal.90 255 nun Thickness of packing = 8 mm and Width of packing = 160 nun = = Use tack bolts M 16 @ (12 x 10) spacing Stiffeners . 3. Total length = 50 0} 40 + 45 + 3 x 55 + 45 = 345 mm Stiffener length = 345 .6 kN < 250 leN x 0.8 = 337 rom.97 say 8 nos.160 Packing plate = 255 x 160 x 8 Clearance of packing plate = 3 rom Bolts = 10 .9 nun Flange width for MB400 = 140 mm Web crippling strength = 137 x 8. clearance = 3 mm) Fillet depth for MB400 ~ 30 nun (~ 0.10.13 = 4.M20 Tack bolts = 3 M16 bolts @ 120 .25 Hence bearing stiffener is required Using Eqs 3.74 Design of Steel Structures Check for local strength of beam web: Assume stiff bearing length = 80 + 8 .bearing stiffener = (2 x 5~~~5)150 Use beating stiffener: 4L .9 = 228. Refer Fig.8. Use pitch = 55 tnm. and end distance = 45 mm.2Ls 80 x 80 x·l0 . say 340 mm Packing length 345 . ac = 4 X 20 =: 80 mm Outstanding leg size.
If the leg size is s.0 o en . the length of the cut out portion may be limited to iOt to prevent buckling of the web. depending on whether the depth of the beam is 450 rnrn or more.19) ... If P is the load. The gauge distance on the column flange is similar to the web angles . 3. the strength of a 1 mm long weld is Rw = 76s. where t is the thickness of the end plate.Its behaviour is similar to the legs of web angles connected to the column flange.The end plate is so arranged that the bottom flange of the beam does not bear on the column The length a in Fig.. The permissible shear stress in the fillet weld on a critical throat plane is 108 N/mm2• Since the weld is always referred to by its leg size.::6mm (3..80 x 80 x Fig.25) ..q . The flexure of the end plate permits the rotation of the beam end about its bottom edge (Fig. M16'bolts x o <D o T'"' o (j') x o <. where t is the thickness of the web._ co en I x o {j) o:::t x (J) o en 15 M20 bolts 2Ls . to prevent contact. If the top flange of the beam is to be cut on account of fabrication difficulties. 3. then p s= LR w .24 the reaction of the beam ...I/} j.Bolted Connections __ ~'_iO 75 angle 60 x 60 x'6 .J X X i :. which means that me strength of a minimum size 6 mm weld is 6 x 76 = 456 N. the weld strength of a 1 rnrn long and 1 mm leg size weld is 76 N.. The thickness of the end plate is taken as 8rnm or 10 mm..J . L the length of weld and s the size of weld. 3.25 is less than or equal to 30t.
3.6.25 Example 3. and thickness of column flange = 14 nun . F+ i" (a) Beam to column joint End plate deforms (b) Beam to beam joint Cut lenqth 20t L 1CL~r~ J ~I j t~ 1 ~~. ~ I t (thickness of ..9 Design an end plate connection to transfer a reaction of 100 leN from a beam MB350 to a column Se180 using bolts M20 of property class 4. end plate) (d) Notched end (c) Beam end rotation Fig. Bolts: R" = ( 7r ~02) 80 Rp .13 kN = 16 x 8 x 250 X 103 = 32 kN R = 25. Solution Thickness of end plate = 8 nun (assumed).76 Design of Steei Structures = Iof. .13 kN .• X 103 = 25.
10. dependingon the number of plates to be connected or extended. because the symmetry of shear planes prevents the bending action on fasteners" In shingle joints the discontinuity of plates is staggered. in small tension members.26b) are designed to carry a tensile load of 295 kN.26. Recommended End plate: 180 x 150 x 8 rom. .Bolted Connections 77 n = 100 25.7 Tension and Flange Splices In flanges of beams the longitudinal stress is assumed to be uniform. Length of plate = pitch + 2 (end distance) = 60 + 2 X 45 = 150 nun a < 30 x 8 = 240 rnm.98.6 are used and the yield stress of plates is 250 N/mm2• . 1 Example 3. 3. Check whether the design is correct if M20 bolts of property class 5. Therefore. unlike in butt joints. but in all other members butt joints ate preferred. where it is all in one place (Fig.26A).10 A shingle joint and a butt joint (Fig" 3. 3. 20 x 350 !p~rn 20 x 350 x 8 g =[ 8J1I2 = 83.7mm r Provide 100 rom Structural details ate shown in Fig. . whereas in butt joints the area of cover plates is always more than that of the main plates" This is demonstrated by the example given below. butt joints or shingle joints are often adopted. 3. In these splices.1 depth of beam) = 30 nun Length of beam (say) :::t. In shingle connections the area of cover plates may be less than the area of parent plates. This is because the variation of the stress through the flanges is negligible. though the bending stress varies across the section.13 = 3.6. the behaviour of these tension and flange splices is similar. say 150 mm Fillet depth of beam (!::. Lap joints are used. and Boits: 4 Nos .M20 of grade 4..: 0. say 4 bolts End plate: . The pitch and edge distances are chosen to satisfy codal requirements and to prevent zigzag failure.
. . : "I .' .. 14~ . .6: Yield stress of bolt = 5 x 6 x 10 = 300 N/mm2 Allowable shear stress = 80 x ~~ = 102. ( ·~:·tH*+HH II ~ ! II ~ ! : 'I .26 . . Fig.r0 LO .L.+H' t .180~ 1200~ Fig.26 A. H.t :.. +ll. t .ftt· t t:: t t t . MB 350i 4 Bolts M20 End plate 180 x 150 x 8 mm 45i...:t. + ·1 .. 3..12 N/mm2 01 (\II o~ 0: CJ) 45il 60: 1 . .... I l \ I . 3...::+... . L.78 Design of Steel stnscturee Solution M20 bolts of grade 5. .
Bolted Connections 79 Bmm . 3..1 I 1:1 Fig. 3 I 1:1 2 I 1"1 3 I (6) 1. ( ( 1 I  I: 0 0 0 0 o If II 0 0 o II II II 0 0 0 0110 r.26. _j I \ (a) Shingle connection '•6 bolts y (b) Butt connection 2 .. :1 II 0 0 O!: 0 o ji II 0 I· 0 0 0 0 o )1 0 II II I I 200 _..8 ..
the end connections of member's of the frame should have sufficient rigidity to prevent rotations. = 2710.3 = 51 kN 2 = 2168 2 Effective area of plates: For main plates. = 1626 nun 2 8 8 Anc2 = 2168 x 10.15 = 406.15 + 3Rs = 339. Therefore.12 x 103 = 32 kN = 32 x 2 = 64 kN X Rp = 20 x 8 x 319. these connections are capable of resisting moments.11 Moment Resistant Connections As the name implies.(2) ::::2168 x 150 x 103 = 325 k.80 Design of Steel Btructures Allowable bearing stress = 250 X ~~ Bolt Strength R.(1) = 9Rs = 9 x 32 = 288 kN (Fig. The assumption made in framed structures is .4% (25% is allowed).26B(c» Main plates hili in (2) . plates in butt joint.(3) = 1626 x 0.9 kN Less by 295 295 288 X 100 = 2.15 N/mm 2 2' J 102.5 kN Design is safe" Note 1.~ Cover plates in (3) .. mm? Maximum load the joint can carry in Shingle joint if only Bolts fail along (1) . 1 3. More thickness of cover . 3. Further.. = 11:\20 ( Rd1i = 319.3 6 mm cover plates 10 nun cover plates 2L5) 8 X 1I1l1l Anc1 = 2168 .6 kN (Min required) Main plates fail = 2168 x 0. Butt joint: Bolts fail = 6Rds = 6 x 51 = 30. More bolts for shingle joint 2. An = (200 .2. the design is adequate. x .15 = 325 kN Cover plates fail = 2710 x 0.15 X 10.
.y components of P. 7 the bracket plate 2 is connected to the column flange. ey)' The shear forces on a bolt in directions . Here.Bolted Connections 81 that the joints are rigid. and hence the connection should also be rigid" The theory of elastic or plastic analysis gives the forces and moments on the joints. the force P is resolved into two components (Px. Pyare . and a load Py on the bolt group of the connection at the centroid. whereas the bending moment and shear cause tension and shear in a bolt.y directions are FP = Px. Shear forces due to Px and P y on each bolt in the x and .20) Twisting moment. a load P. Py) with eccentricities (ex. x " n F=. depending on how the bolts are placed in a connection resisting the eccentric load The eccentncload effectis statically equivalent to a twisting moment or a bending moment. The twisting moment and shear force _ on a bolt group cause only shear forces along two directions in a bolt. 3. so that the load P on the bracket produces a twisting moment.27(b) are denoted BI to B4 . which is equal to the product of the load and its eccentricity plus a concentric load. The procedure is shown below .. n is number of bolts in a group.x and . and Py are obtained individually.27. it causes either a twisting or a bending moment. to test for its adequacy. ex + Pyey Assuming that the shear force F due to the twisting moment on each bolt . 3. 3. eXt eyare eccentricities of P. The extreme bolts in Fig. In Fig.n y p Py (3.. and the maximum resultant shear force on an extreme critical bolt is computed and compared with its bolt strength. Hence.11"1 Eccentrically Loaded Connections When a load acts at an eccentricity from the centroid of a bolt group.T = P. and a shear force on the bolt group. and Pyt and P~. 3. these effects in bolts are treated separately as follows" u (a) Eccentric load causing twisting moment 'In Fig. ex + Pyey) and due to loads P.x and y due to the twisting moment (P. or the eccentricity of loads from the centroid of the fastener group will cause forces and moments on the joints" The connections that occur frequently in practice are the following" (i) Eccentrically loaded connections (ii) Tee stub connections (iii) Flange angle connections..
:' + rn2) . T F] = ~ " .2 I K_I_&~  L r/ (Xi _ TTl 2 ' L (X. .. The critical bolt is one of the extreme ones. FR.37) and is normal Foer F1 K.27d) on a critical bolt is . as shown in Fig."P b 'F 2 K... Kr n where K = proportionality constant .82 Design of Steel St!1Jctures flUID is proportional to its distance r to distance r.R F= v: + x • I F.. F2. n = 1\.' or T=KLr.. .2)1I2 Y The design condition (3.y directions due to Tare P'T1y _ Trl cos (J _ Tx] (x'f + y?) .21) Therefore fOI' any bolt the shear forces in the' x and .. act normal to the radius vector.which ismaximum (Fig" 3. 3.y directions are P R = Fx + F1 x x (3.. etc" These shear forces FJ. The shear force components in the x. the centroid (Fig..27. etc.kJ + Yi ) F2 = TTl L (Xi + Yi ) '2 '2 .. depending on the nature of the loads. T = Pi'i + F2 T=K rz + "" + Fn Tn (r? + r:} + .. 2) 2 The resultant force.23) where R = strength of bolt.(xl + y?) (3.' 2 ". + yl) 2' . 3.
• y 'If t t (c) C=Centroid (d) Critical bolt Fig. 3.6. (ii) 8. = P cos 60° = 0.27 Example 3.11 Determine the maximum load P the joint in Fig. Solution (i) Load components: P... if the joint is considered a slip joint and nonslip joint respectively.8.. 328 can carry using bolts M16 of grade (i) 4.T.Bolted Connections 83 n = 8 Bracket  Column flange (a) T=Pe+Pe x x y y (b) r .5P "V .
866P) (440) .28 P.54P x 125 ~ 0..84 Design of Steel Structures p 350 ...r I I M16 of grade 4.6 or 8. = P sin6q° = O. 3. II II II 1 ~180~ Fig.(0. II II I i o 30 l T !.n :: tr__.1373P .8. 11+1 Ii ~ II .866P ex = 125 +}O = 155 rom ey = 90 + 350 = 440 mrn T = (0. P = 36.8.. 30 o l j 120 2 Nosbrackets t++?+'~ . 4P (clockwise) 5 Critical bolt is at the bottom right side of the bolt group n = 24 bolts F: = 0...08 X 103 P \ Xc = 65 and Yc = 155 L (xl + y?) x = 2 x 12 X 652 + 2 X 4(252 276400 + 752 + 125 2 ) = 276400 pT = 303..5P) 155 = 303 ..
1 kN 0. Section 3.Bolted Connections 85 pT = 303. and Py are found on the same bolt Thus..5 kN R =: O. .54 P x 65 = O. P is replaced by x and y components P x and P y at eccentricities ex and eY" The tensile force on a critical bolt due to the bending moment (P.0714P y 276400 F~ =: 0.24) where is. (3.r=: =: ( J 80 x 10 =: 10.1 L 1(a).08 (ii) Bolt M16 of property class 8. ' 94 ..4 =: 30. 3.0714P == OJ0748P FR Ru =: (F} + F/)1I2 1t' 16 4 2 =: 0. and Fs' FI = allowable stresses in shear and in tension..it = calculated shear stress and tensile stress respectively. In Fig...In connections where brackets are placed in the plane of the column web (Fig. P.. 1.1912 OJ912P = 16..1912 P 3.02083 P + 0. ex + Pyey)..29.1912 = 158. = load component in . n = number of bolts for the group.03608P + 0.. the load.. As in the previous case. = OJ58lP Fy =: O.d'\.08 kN R p = 16 R =: x 12 x 0.9 kN (b) Eccentric load causing bending moment . and shears and direct forces due to P. the eccentric load on the bolt is considered equivalent to a bending moment and the loads Px and P.25 48 k_N 16.29).1373 P .. 8 kN 0 or p = 16. a bolt is subjected to shear and tension and its strength under this combination is adequate if the following interaction formula in terms of stresses is satisfied..08 = 84. The bending moment acts about the major neutral axis of the bolt group.x "' 1.... at the centroid on the bolt group of the column..375 kN p: 30375 0.8 Proof load = 94..
29 . If this condition is satisfied.1M t :n For bolt. the bolt group is adequate since the critical bolt is safe. and e of the bolt under consideration from neutral axis. . ey = eccentricity of Py. f r tx = . In this type of connection. (3. and allowable tensile stress FI. allowable shear stress = F. M .Y = t s A FP t. The forces on a bolt and ex = eccentricity of Px..tt' P = FxPIA M and j' sy = . is maximum) is given by Eq.:... A = bolt area. 3.24). = Z = A1: y. f' t f' tP = distance +. P. • A ""~ c  ! I Fig. the bending moment is entirely resisted by . Interaction formula for extreme critical bolt (for whichj. Yi = Y coordinate of bolt W"Lt centroid. = load component in ydirection. I" ·A • Bolts A Bol1s B = 12 Nos 6 Nos = xdirection.2 M Me (Assumed moment is resisted by bolts only) where. and M = Pxex + Pyey.86 Design of Steel Structures  ..
c: Q) c: N 0) .Bolted Connections 87 bolts if they are subjected to the initial tension .0 c: o Fig.c: c: II) I .. Then the exact position of the neutral axis can be found by normal computations . If the approximate position of the neutral axis (NA) is known. o .. where the bolts do not have initial tension. Otherwise.. 'II.. 3. or the actual width of the angles in the bearing... zone of the connection (Fig . the exact position of the neutral axis must be founded all over again" However. whichever It 1111 n=6 t+ ± 1111 + l. but it depends on the width of the plate in the bearing. It is assumed that the neutral axis lies at approximately 1/6th times the length of the connection.J _~o r c:: Q) c:: Q) A j en en l..29A) .. 3..t#= Ab/p I ~_j_ .. tI A Inp a. Plate in bearing (b) 'Bolts and plates reSisting moments (bolts in bearing type connections) EN o o 0..In bearing type connections. . Q (/) (a) Bolts reSisting moments (HSFG bolts) i . the moment is resisted by the bolts in the tension zone and the plate in the bearing in the compression .29 A . the approximate position of NA can be used for computing lor z values without appreciable error if the bearing width of the plate is 6 times the bolt diameter for each column of bolts.. it is possible to identify the bolts in the tension zone. The bolts in the tension zone should agree with those found by the' assumed approximate position of NA.
In case of HSFG bolts. the number of bolts is usually estimated on the basis of moments only.6.A greater number of bolts are needed to resist the beriding or twisting moment because of the linear force distribution.. pthe pitch of bolts. 9a). which ale less stressed due to the moment. n the number of bolts for each column of bolts.88 Design of Steel Structures is less..e. =P cos 60° = O. If the moment is resisted by bolts and the plate in the beating. in slip connection. the equation is valid for the case of a twisting moment also.connection.12 Determine the maximum load the joint in Fig. 6T n > (mpR )1/2 (3 . can resist more shear force" Hence. An example is given below to show the procedure invol ved . 6) 2 where n the number of bolts per column of bolts and m is the number of columns of bolts.5P kN . with initial tension Solution (i) BoltsA (grade 4. the bolts nearer the neutral axis.9 in nonslip connection. M the bending moment and t* the equivalent thickness of a column of bolts (Fig" 3 . In the above equations the twisting moment T replaces the bending moment.. without initial tension (ii) M16 of grade 10.. the design condition for the extreme bolt is 2 or (3. the neutral axis lies at mid height of the .25) Since the stress distribution is linear. Ab the area of the bolt. Example 3. Further. whereas a smaller number is required to resist shear force because of equitable distribution. M.6): P. If m is the number of columns of' bolts. Rthe boltstrength.e. the number of bolts required may be less by around 20% than that required by assuming that only bolts resist the moment.30 can carry if the bolts used are " (i) M16 of grade 4. Estimation of bolts for design In designing connections the designer is required to estimate the number of bolts that are needed . 3. i. i.