ALL-·RIGHTS RESERVED

Name of the Book: The Crown ofa Believer

First Edition: December 2002

. ~

Second Edition (Revised): October 2003

Compiled by: Moulana Husain Kadodia

Published by:

Zam Zam Publishers Urdu Bazar Karachi-Pakistan

Ph : 021~7760374

Tel/Fax: 021-7725673

Email: zamzamOl@cyber.net.pk

: zamzam@rt-;ilet. pk

I I

'~

AvailabJe from:

Husain Kadodia 65 Mountbatten Drive, Reservoir Hills,

Durban,

4091~

Ph. 27 + 31 + 2623941

Email: hkadodia@yahootcom

\ 1 1

The Crown of a Believer

5

Contents

A ck no 'v led gem en t s .111111 1aI 11 III 111 •• 1 111.111 •••• 1 'l1li11111 8

~1r~f!l(:E!.III ••••••••• 'IIII •••• III.I.I •• ~ ••••••••• III ••••••••• I •••••••• IIII~ ••• ~ ••••••••• I.I.' ••••••••••••• I •• ~.I.5) JE?()1r~~()Jr<l"'~ ••• I'IIII •••••••• I ••• I~.III ••••••••••••• ~ ••• I •••••• 1II •• 1 ••••• 1 •••• 1II ••••••••• 1 ••• , ••••••••••• 1~

In tro d uction I III." •••••• I •••• III •• I I.I 111 •••••••• 11111111 •• 1.1 •••••••• 14

The Sunnah of covering the head .••.• 1 1.1 111 1 ••••••••••• 15

The authenticity of the narrations in this book.i., •• I nl I 17

The different types of na rra tlons.i.. III II nu.u ••••• 1II.18

The num ber of narrations in this book .•• III.n I.u 20

Th e to pi .•..•. I I1' II I11 •••• " I11 ••• ~.I •••••• III".1 •• ,1.1III1 ••••• 1111 ••••••• 1~.1 ••••••••• 1II1II21

Wha t is a to pi? II ~ ••• II •• I111I11 I I ••••••• I111 I.III •••••••• 1.11 'l1li 21

The history of the to pi " •• 1 •••••••• 111 ••••• 1 111 1 1.1 111 •••••• 22

The significance of the topi .,.,1 1.1 •••••••• 111' •••• 1.1 .,.111 •••• 1 •• 1 •• ,.27

Why should we wear the topi? lu .. u n33

Wearing a topi without a turban luu II.U U.U.III 11.135

,

The colo ur of the to pi ..•.. 'IIIIIII.'IIII .. IIII(II" .1'1 ~ •••• , •••• 1 1, •••••• 111138

A. White 11 j t .. t t.t t ~t3 8

B. Black I t' ~ ! t , t t~ t .. 41

C.. Green It • j t t . t ~ + ••••••• ~ t .. t t • t ! • til. t 43

D . Li gh t Y el low t •••••••••••• ft II t 011 4 5

J'"

~

E ~ Bro WIl. ......• ~ .• . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . " t t t t , t t ••••••••••• 45

F.. Red t t .. t ••••• j ••••••••• t.t t.oII t .. t t .. t •••• 011 •••• • t .. t ,46

True love for the Sunnah n ~ ••• III II U.~.III 47

A.. The Kumrnah (A small, flat and round topi) ot u.50

B. Topis which cling to the head t+ll UU ot •• ~t+tollt .. t52

c. High topis t f t t. t t t II f 54

D. A topi with earflaps., II t.lI.t t.fII .. ht 58

E. A Tartur j •• 11 ! tf. tt~ .011 , ~ •••• t .. ttoll t. t59

6 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

7

D... Wllen cohabiting ~ t t t t t •• t • 100

E. Wb.en out in ba ttl e 4 •• I" t t t t t •• t • ~ • t 4 t ••• t • t t .. 1 0 1

F.. When imparting knowledge., nu .. 4 .. ' .. 41 41 n.H .... n.103

G. Wh en s eeki ng kno wl edge t 4 •• I I 4 • U •••••••.•••••••••••• I 04

H. When ruling and passing judgements 4.u ••••• 4 .. 4 .. 4 •• 4.u.105

Taqa nnu "\ 4II •••••••••••••• ~.i I 1 111 I 1 1.!tIltli 108

CODel usion ' .. 111 ••• l1li 1111.111 111 111 11: 11 0

~,~, J _JJt+tO ..1\ 1 1 111 111 111 l1li 111

~,j~ ~J~ ':1\ 12 0

F. The Double-panelled topi 44 __ 4 j 60

G. The Dann.iyah - .. - -. - ~ . _ 4 •••• ~ •• j ••••••• 61

H. The Burnus 4 - 4 + + ••• 4 •• 4 t • • • • • • • • •• 62

The number .of panels in the topi __ . _ <04 _ •• w , •• 41 ~ • r 68

The material of the topl., " ,.. " 4! •• jI"~ " 't1ll 71

A W.QO.I 44 •••• 4 •• I •••••••• ~.4 ••• 4 4 •••••• 4 ••••••• 4~.4 •••••••••••• 4.4 •• 4 •• 71

B~ Green .. striped Yemenl material t u4l .. t Itt ". u. Ut. u, .-"l"tI'l U Ii •• 72

C~ Khaz- A blend of silk and wool 4 41 n.- 73

D. A leather topi 4 t • j ••• t 4 ••• 4 •••••••••••• t •••••• 4 •••••••••••••• 4 •• 4 ••• 74

E. A Shfuni (Syrian) topl u.1i 4 •••••• ".t 1.41 41 .. II 74

F. A Fox-ski n top i . It • 4 •••••• 4 ••••••• , '" •••••••• 4 ••• 4 ••• 4 ••• , •• 4 •••••• 4 •• 4 •• 4 • • • • • • .. •• 7 5

O. A Misri (Egyptian) top! 11 h ••••••••••••••••• H •• 41 t4.U .1. u. 75

H. A Tm ki sh top i. : 4 ••• 4 ••• 4 ••••••••• t ••• 4 •• 4 ••• 4 •••• j ••• j ••••• 4 •• 4 •••••• 4 • 77

I. A thick double-layered topi with padding in-between 78

J. K. M .. N. o.

P.

A buttoned topl .. ,". , j .4 .•••.•..•.•••..•• j •• ~ ••••••••••••• 4 .•• 4.. . •• I •••••••• 79

Th in T 0 pi S t ~ ••• 4 •• 4 •••• 4 4 4 4 j t •• ~ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• 80

Embroidered tapis 4 -II ••• ~ r. 4 4 •• 4 ••• 4 81

The T ~i)i){ ah . 4 •• 4 ••••••• t , •• I ••••• 4 •• 4 •••••• 4 ••• 4 ••• 4 4 ••• 4 ••••• 4 4 ••• 4 • • .. • •• 8 1

A top~f felt 82

A topl with holes , ~ 44 ~4 ••• 4 •• 4 •••••• 4 •••••••• 83

I

I

/

Q. Hard topis tt j ••••• 4 t4 ••• 4 •••••• 4 •• 4 ••••••• , ••••• t 1 ••••• 1 84

Tbe 1.{halifa h 's tolera nce nu UIIII •• "" " •• n tII l1li 86

When should the topi be worn? It .. ullllla u "nu· 88

A. When performing salah , u ••• ~ 41 .. 41 .. 4 4 .. II.tI 4+ n 88

The Fatwa of Shaikh Rashid Ridhci h ••••••••••••••••• 41 90

The Fatwa of' Allamah Kowthari.. h II •• u.u 4 .. 41· •••• U 92

A few doubts cleared. H4 .. n ••••• 4 4 U j._ q •• u .. 94

B. When entering the toilet 41 ••••• 41.4 41 97

C . When eat ing , j ••••• j •• 4 ••••••••• 4 •••••• 4 •• 4 ••• 4 • L •• t •••• t t 99

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The Crown of a Believer

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- • - - ... _ I~' ~-; :. -

The Crown of a Believer .

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Preface

A~JmOwfedgements

• _. .... .: .. _. 'I

. --. -.'

The way we conduct ourselves speaks much of the values we ho~d.. Likewise, the way we dress reflects our cultural heritage, religious values, and speaks a language of its own. A religiously dressed person portrays piety and a definite set of values,

.AjJ·pmiSe'and gratitude is to Allah, Our Creator and Sustainer. ·!r.··is::~_'.~1hrough His benevolence that this humble work was c:;~,~-,dming my final year of studies at Madrasah Arabia J sI2IJJ"i'·~'~Ai.adville~

I ~-'ji ..

..

I' • I " I ~.-. •

• '.,.1' _ • .,I ... .:. -, ~.~. = ........

Islam is not merely a belief structure, but a complete code of life. Not only does it provide guidelines for every aspect of life, but it further endeavours to reconcile the inner with the outer, the mundane with the spiritual and the metaphysical with the realistic. It is possessed of a harmonious and moderate outlook and emphasises that whatever is within should be reflected with~utfailure to do so tends to lead to either fanaticism or liberalism.

I ~::~ . indebted to all my beloved teachers without whose ~~:~ effort I would not be able to even pick up a pen or a

• _. • I

.' .. I'

. . '.-

S~·.'.~nks must be given to my respected mentor, Hadhrat bf~:, Fazlur Rahman Azml (May Allah bless us with his ~~:pfesence) who is a great source of inspiration to us all ~ .. ~ 10 whom we can always turn to for help and counsel.

I I.:' p'. I •• : _.' r ~ .. ' •

.. • - I.

i ~·~1.0 show my appreciation to the following individuals: ~fl~:·~mad Seedat, Imtiaz Kathrada and Obeid Salehjee for ~~ ., ding; Abubakr Rawat for designing the cover and ML ~. ,~~ I :-~Muhammad and ML Abdullah Dhabelia for their time

. . '

s!~:ll~~rtinvaluable advice,

. ~~ - l

':ft·Y~ Ismail deserves a special word of thanks for the many ~ws.:~'his valuable time spent in checking up all the references lD(lhis~k::and certifying them as correct.

Our attitude towards the Islamic attire should be likewise understood, The Islamic headgear too is fashioned in a particular way and. f~r a particular purpose, It represents the noble qualities of submission, humility, and discipline. Whatever the design, the headgear reflects Islam and one's attitude towards Divinity.

. !ndeed) the headgear is not unique to Islam, It was also prevalent In other customs, and also reflected a certain ethos. The first ref~rence of head-dress is found in the pre-historic rock paintings which were created by hunter-gatherers some ten to thirty rhousand years ago. In the Indian rock art sites of Kumaun and Bhimbetka or in Rock art sites in Kerala one can find enormous reference of visual records that depict people wearing the headgear. During the Byzantine civilization in the -I 1 th century head-dress became a regular feature which was later passed onto the European world, whereas Indian society was sporting headdress as a regular costume by 10 000 B,CtE.

~~-:~y;,:beloved parents deserve the credit for whatever work .AJ~ ... ~; from me) for were it not for them and their ~$.: support I would not have been able to achieve

2lij~q.

~~~w. J;;afbjia

.. - .. - .

As part of the requirements of the oath, most of the nations of Europe demanded (and. some still demand) that the Jews swear with their heads covered. A law of Hungary . issued in 1517,

10 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer 11

demands that a Jew should swear "Pileum Judaicum in capite habens". Similar are the laws of Saxony, Nov. 22, 1838; May 13, 1839; and May 30, 1840; of Schaumburg-Lippe, March 19, 1842~ of Denmark) 1843; of Brunswick, Jan. 14, 1845; and of Austria, 18464 In a trial at a police court ill London, a Jew swore with

uncovered head, and the attorney for his opponent objected to the oath, because the Jews did not consider such an oath valid; and the judge sustained the objection (uJe\vish Chronicle," Aug. 9,1901.

p. 17). Jewish custom has for ages required Inen to cover the head in order to show their humility and reverence before God. .

~lah Ta'aJa reward him for his efforts in highlighting th~ importance of the Islamic headgear. He has described the Sunnah headgear in a most scholarly and commendable manner. In an era when one sees more hair than headgears, outside and even in the Masjid, a book of this nature is most welcome. Indeed, wearing the headgear is not ritualistic at all, and it should form part of our overall efforts of reviving the Sunnah and the spirit of Islam.

We pray that our love tor Islam be increasingly reflected in our dressing and attire - Amin.

Yet, headgears are not a simple head ... cover, but it has a mystic socio-religious semblance and has served as a customary symbol in man's socio-cultural endeavour. Behind every size, shape or colour there is a meaning which signifies the origin of wearer, his dialect, religion, caste and as well as his profession.

Mawlana AshrafDockrat

Dar al-Salam Islamic Research Centre, Pretoria Friday 15th NOV4 2002 II 1 ath Ramadan t 423

It is not insignificant then that describing the dress of the Muslim populace Captain Burton in his account of Zanzibar (1 ~382) says:

II The Arab's head-dress is a kummeh or kofiyyah (red fez), a Surat calotte (afi~ah) or a white sku)! cap worn under a turban (kilemba), u ~n Islam, the rule of identification holds relevant. The historian anji hadith master, al- ~urtushi) reJates. in his boo~ Siraj al-muluk-tiis: 'Abd al .. Rahman ibn Ghanam said: lIWJ1en U}11ar ibn al-Khattab (RA) made peace with the Christians of Syria.: we look upon ourselves an oath that .. t [among other conditions] we shall not attempt to imitate tile Musl ims ill their dress, whether w ith the qal GJ1SUl-Va, t he imama, the sandals, or parting tile hair. n This amplifies the need for Muslims to be distinct from other religions and cultures in dress just as they are distinct from them in belief in all times. Above all, the Muslim mode of dressing is deemed necessary for the fear of Allah to manifest itself in man's

general bearing. ~

..

Maulana Husain Kadodia has taken great pains to establish the headgear in the light of the sunnah and other reliable sources. May

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The Crown ofa Believer 13

• ~,' I. ~.- .. I •

• I ." ,',...... •

circumstances. Not only does it succinctly succeed in proving beyond doubt. the relevance of the topi, but it also sounds out a clear and explicit message:

UIn every era Allah will use his chosen ones to defend and uphold the true way of life of Rasulullah fi regardless of the plots and ways of the enemies of Isldm.'

, The truth will prevail and it is clearly accessible for those who seek it. To this end we express our sincere gratitude to MI. Husain Kadodia for this excellent Khidmah (service) of din and we make du' a that Allah Ta' ala keeps him firm on Iman and takes much more work from him,

.. . .. ' .. -

nie'~tlls.um Ummah at large is passing through a very trying and ~~Dt period, Muslims everywhere and the practices of Islam h2~ become the targets of ridicule, cynicism and often misguided Oi" JDnfo·nned mistrust, No stone has been left unturned to

- • I • •

~e Islamic beliefs and practices. These times have indeed

beOOme reminiscent of the period referred 10 by our beloved Prupb.~! .e, where he equated the difticulty of practising upon true Islam \vi!t; holding onto a blazing coal of fire,

Extremely distressing is the observation that the attack on Islam has also taken on an ideological form. "Scholars' and modern .. day "enlightened thinkers" having donned the garb of religious clerics andjurists, deviously question the authenticity of accepted Islamic cractices, thereby sowing the seeds of doubt in the minds of the ~H-inionned masses. Even those practices upon which the very identity of a Muslim hinges and which were meticulously upheld and adhered to throughout the glorious centuries of Islam by our pious predecessors, are targeted.

A classical example is the ludicrous and shocking claim that the topi and turban are not part of the Sunnah and strict adherence to this noble practice will in fact constitute bid' ah (religious lrmovatiOn:r~sad and telling testimony as to how low the general level of Is him If. lmo~Iedge is. especial!y among the youth •. is the manner in-which this baseless assertion has taken root In the Muslim masses. What is more worrying is that such a callous disregard for the beliefs and practices of our pious predecessors (Sahabah, Tabi'In, Aimmah Mujtahidin etc) means that very difficult times lie ahead for us. If we are no longer going to regard as sacred the knowledge and practices of our piOUs elders, then .. Allah only knO\VS what ot" true Islam will be left in us) now that this cancer has taken root

One cannot possibly overstate how important and relevant a piece of work this book (The crown of a believer) is, under the present

Moulana Ahmed SuJeman Khatani

Bishr Hafi: If a topt had to fall from the sky, it would/all onto the head of one who doesn '1 want it! (Hilyatul Awliyd Vol.B Pg~355)

-- .. - . .,._ ...... -----------------~~

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Introduction

The Sunnah of covering the head

Following the Sunnah of Rasulullah ~ is the only source of glory and success, for Allah has commanded us to follow him and has guaranteed us guidance if we do S04

Those who understood this command best were the Sahabah ~the illustrious companions of Nabi .a. We therefore find them clinging to every aspect of the life of Nabi fi, The classification of his actions into sunanul hudd- practices carried out as an act of worship- and sunanuz zawdid- practices carried out more as a habit- was unknown to them. The mere fact that it is a SUIUlah of Rasulullah e was sufficient for them to realise that we have to follow it.

All praise is due to Allah who granted us clothing to cover our bodies and beautify them, Peace and salutations be upon His messenger, Muhammad 8. From amongst the noble SUDan (practices) of Rasulullah • is that he covered his head at all times, He generally adopted the turban for this purpose, but would, at times, wear only a topi (Islamic headgear). This practice was adopted by the Sahabah ~ and has remained the practice of the 'Ummah from then onwards,

On account of the great importance attached by the Sahabah ~ to following the Sunnah, the Sahabah ~ have also become role models of the SUJU1ah. We hav~ therefore been ordered, in both the Qur' an and Ahadith, to follow these great flag .. bearers of the Sunnah. From amongst these great. sunnats, is the Sunnah of keeping the head covered at all times,

It is onJy recently that a group arose, claiming that covering the head has no place in Islam; instead they have relegated it to the place of a ritual or custom,

To backup their ridiculous claims, they assert that there exist no ah§.dith (narrations of Rasulullah ft,) proving that Nabi .a wore a topi, conveniently sidestepping the issue of the turban, as it is proven from many authentic ahadlth,

This book is a collection of narrations, as well as statements of 'ulama concerning the Sunnah of the topi (Islamic headgear). 1 Special attention was given to discussing the significance of the topi and the importance of covering the head when in salah,

May Allah accept this humble effort:

A '"

Amln

In this book I intend to show that this claim of theirs is baseless; rather there. are dozens of ahadith discussing the topi ofNabi ~;t in addition to hundreds of other narrations showing the topl of the

'\

Sahabah 4;b and the Tabi'in .iU1 ~ J and the great importance they

attached to it.

I have also quoted extensively from the great scholars of the past, who testified to the lofty position held by the topi in Islam.

My secondary aim is to show that, as many different types of top is .are proven from ahadtth, one may adopt any material, style or colour oftopi with the assurance that he is following the Surmah.

1 "I'opi' is an urdu word for the hat worn by MusHms. We have used it throughout this book on account ofjts widespread usage.

Great efforts were made to ensure the authenticity of every narration quoted; I have therefore devoted a special chapter to outlining the authenticity of the narrations in this book.

16

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17

While I have tried my utmost to ensure that the book is free of errors, I am only human and thus prone to err,

I would greatly appreciate being informed of errors of any type in this book, so that they could be rectified in future editions.

The authenticity of the narrations in this book

I would also like to extend a request to all .. Ulama and scholars of din to please forward to me any other narrations they come across concerning the topi, as well as any suggestions they have concerning this book.

When discussing the viability of a hadith as proof, we divided the narrations into three categories:

'"

1? .&, rS'.rr-

6_'>}~~' ) JJ)J' tJ ~, ~ J

I. Strong- this includes 'sahih' and 'hasan' narrations, as well as 'hasan Ii ghairihi' i.e. those weak narrations that are classified as' strong on the basis of their being supported by other narrations.

II. Weak- by these we mean such narrations that have slight weaknesses in them. This may be used ~~ to show the desirability of a certain act or to back up other narrations.

Ill. Very weak- these are such narrations that may only be quoted if their weakness is mentioned at the same time. No law at all may be extracted from such narrations.

Moulana Husain Kadodia 65 Mountbatten Drive, Reservoir Hills,

Durban,

4091.

Ph. 27 + 31 + 2623941

Email: hkadodia@yahoo~com

In this book we used the first group as our main source, taking support from the second group when the need arose, The status of the chain of narrators of each hadith is clearly mentioned in the footnote accompanying it; however we kept· it in the Arabic language, .as the terms used are quite intricate and generally only understood by those familiar with Arabic. However, if an extremely weak narration was quoted, then this was pointed out in the English text as well,

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The different types of narrations

The narrations in this book are of two types:

I, Marfti ~- The statements of Rasululldh $ concerning covering the head or narrations concerning the topl of Rasulullah 9.

II. Mauqiif- The narrations concerning the topi of the Sahabah

. ,

.:jg" the Tabi'In '»1 ~ ~ or those after them.

'\

Ibn Abi Hatim Razi, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Asakir, As-Sam \ ani dl ~ J

and many others.

When quoting narrations from the first category, we endeavoured our utmost to find judgements of the leading muhadithin (scholars of hadith) concerning the strength of each narration. An in-depth study was conducted into every narration, to such an extent that, at times, hundreds of books were referred to resulting in over a week being spent on one hadith. The summary of each study can be found in the footnote under the respective hadith,

The majority of the narrations in this book were taken from such books of hadith and history that mention a chain of transmission with each narration, thus each narration was checked to determine its strength. Many narrations were however, taken from the reliable books of history which either do not mention the chain of narrators or if they do mention them, then the need was not felt to check up these narrations on the basis of the reliability and authenticity ;)f these books eg. Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah of Ibn Kathir, Tarikhut Tabari, Siyaru A ~ }amin Nubala of Az-Zhahabi etc. 2

When checking the narrations of the second group, the difficulty we encountered was that very few muhadithin have ever discussed the condition of these narrations. We thus had to check up each narrator individually, to ascertain his reliability, This was quite a daunting task, as the narrations of this type, in this book, number over 100. Each narration has a chain of transmission containing 4 to 10 narrators. Thus over 500 narrators had to be scrutinised according to the standards laid down by the leading scholars of

hadlth. ,

Errors have undoubtedly occurred, but we tried to keep them to a minimum by double-checking everything and by relying on the accepted and trusted books of 'J arh wat Ta' dil'.. the field of ascertaining the 'strengths and weaknesses of narrators.

:.Lz.:1 :1

rl)\ J y\:.S\:Jl ~~ ~; an ri.J ~ JJ~' pl)1 ~, .--;-£J, tS.Y-l Jl J; ... n ~ •

We relied to a great extent on the books of Ibn Hajr Asqalant, Shamsudin Azh-Zhahabi, Yusuf Mizzi and Khatlb-Baghdadi. Great support was a1so taken from the works of Imam Bukharl,

+

~r~l ;':; ~ ~..ul.' ~J ~ iJuJ1

a) ~ J\ ~J-~~.~.n ~ tS JJ .a ~ ~1J) ~{ .. ~ ... ~I Ju. J 41t.- J" w ~ :.')' •

20

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21

The number of narrations in this book

The topi

What is a topi?

..

The total number of narrations that we could find concerning the topi is over 250.

40 of these are Marfu" (concerning Nabi $)~ while the remainder are Mauqaf (concerning the Sahabah ~ and others). The overwhelming majority of these narrations are strong while there are weak ones as well.

We inserted these narrations into their relevant chapters where possible 'and mentioned all the Marro' narrations as well as a swnmarized discussion of their strength} in Arabic at the end of the book.

The word 'topl' is an Urdu word; however it will be used "throughout this book because of its widespread usage.

~~

The Arabic equivalent is OJ ~.lU 'qalansuwah'. This is the word used

for ,the topl in most of the ahadith as well as in the books of history.

The definition of the qalansuwah is: 'f.A covering for the head which

o is black, white or any other colour,

o generally has both an inner and outer-lining but sometimes

only has one lining,

o is found both with earflaps and without them,

o is made of fabric or leather, but generally of fabric arid a a turban is generally worn over it" 1

Many other words are also used for the topi in the Arabic language. These will be discussed in detail in the chapter concerning the different types of topis .. l-Iere we have sufficed on just listing some of them:

...

/"

1 J ,:l}ll t _ .. U.U ~~ cP L? ~ l. v- 4.tl&-JJ1 ~ 0 t Al \ J ~ )1 jJtr J! JJ'"P)I J~ ) .? J.,-J\ ~

.~1 ~ ~ 'J jJ\-.!:JJ c.~

?',.

-

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23

The histo ry of th e to pi

Many different types of topis were worn in the time of Nabi $) including the burnus (a hooded garment), however it seems that the burnus came into vogue well before tIlis time, as it was very popular

with the Christian monks of that time.

~ItS have mentioned very little concerning the origin of tIle ro~_~~~·f:he different phases it passed through.

\

Imam Malik .,:u, ~ J was asked concerning the origin of tile topi. He

answered, "It was found in the time of Rasfllullah ar. and in my opinion it was found before that as well. U 5

"'

~~~b Ibn Ja' far Al-Kattanl ~\.. r J mentioned that \ve could

_. ,

- "

ga;~~~,b:tw, long the topi has been in vogue" from the narration of

Tiiuti;ti in which mention is made of the topi of Mus a ~. 2

..

Hafiz Jalaluddin Suyuti .:\ll.f r) has written that the first person to

wear a (very). high topi was Hisharn Ibn Abdul Malik (the famous Umayyad Khalifah who ruled from 105 AtH~ until 125 A.H.).6

. ..

"·AUit'J~ ~Az1zi ':»1.. ;-.; has written that tapis were very common

. -

~~.theA.rabs, from the time when Nabl a was sent to them.'

Historians agree that the person responsible for the widespread wearing of extremely high tapis is the Khalifah AI-MansUr4 In the year 153 A.H. he ordered the public to wear very high, black topis as a result of which topis about 40 em high were made, with bamboo inside propping them up ..

..

Ahr~ Qi!~m Al-Baihaqi 4il' AJ'-..J has mentioned that the first person to

adapt tbe to pi 'vas Shith, the son of Adam ~.4

1be.:·great scholar, Shaikh Abiibakr Ibn l Arabi ~,~ ~ J has, in his r-Am~ry of 'I'irmizhi, "Arldhatul Ahwazi' (Vol. 7 Pg. 242), cJa.S$ified the topi as part of the attire of the Prophets ~ and of those pitU!S ones who tread the path towards Allah.

, Abu Dulamah, a famous poet and one of those forced to wear this topi, composed the following poem concerning this incident:

~~I tj ~...:'l' rtA~' .l') • O)~j rL.1 ~ ~; t.S"" J ·~I.r.1"4 ,;_ H:. .) *- .)lj.l • U ~ Jt>.--)' r~ ~ ~1;

.,.J ~ltlJ).j o-» ~_,.....:Jj .:,.tf; JJ r~ ~ 01$' ~~J ~JJ..I J t~ ~ ~ls..u1 J ¥ =J~ ~v ~ Jli ~u.u ~1 ~ YAV/V ~T_;.J~ r~~ ~t;.1 .J ~.J, P\ ~1JJ lot: t.;.:..

J~ ~.J.tj y.~ (\, \/, ')fLs;" ~J) J o\i'y-li cr ~~_lU e:ll' ~ I~l ~y 4r.f.J r (~ .s: y Js- .ulS"" Jl.i ~ ~ ~ J;..f' \ A ~ Iv "'; . ., ... J _i ... .;. ~{ Lf!1 -: ~ I L. ~ tJ J.#.y ;y-illj J re cr 1J',.j) J ~;.r ~ ;~I ~

'T rill, .. 1l.:.iJ [\.-U 1 ~;6:d\ J;l!.... ~ ~ ~1 ~I~~j ~ JAJ ry t ~ JL-)\ ~~ 4

~"We were hoping to get an increase from the Khalifah, instead he increased the height of our topis,

You would see them on the heads of men,

t "\ ~ 4... t.t;..ul cj LiS" ~ U,}' cr J I:~"l\ 5 At / JnJ~q ~ p J Jl..-.,Jl 6

24 - The Crown of a Believer

as ii they were earthenware jugs of the Jews, draped in becded-cloaks. H 7

u is narrated that Abu Dulamah, on another occasion, visited Al~lansQr while dressed in the uniform that Al-Mansflr had ordered them to adopt i.e, wearing a tall, black topi; a cloak with the following ayah engraved on the back:

Khalifah Al-Musta'In passed a law ordering people to reduce the height of their tapis. 9

'\

'Allamah Kowthari .5!1 ~J has written that the high topi was

generally worn at official functions (during the \ Abbasid reign)."

~

'Allamah Tabar! -:U\ ~J has recorded that in the year 235 A.H~ the

Khallfah Al-Mutawakkil ordered all Non-Muslims living WIder Muslim rule to adopt clothing different from that worn by the Muslims. Those of them who wore tapis had to wear topis a different colour from that worn by the Muslims and had to sew two buttons to them, as a distinguishing symbol, I!

"Allah is sufficient for you against them. He is tile All-seeing,

the All-knowledgeable. "

and with his sword hanging from His waist. (The normal practice of the Arabs was to hang the sword around the neck). The following conversation then ensued:

~ ~

Shaikh Arif Hifnl ~l J '?-J writes, in his commentary of Jami'us

Saghir, that (in his time) the topi was very common in Hijaz (the region wherein Makkah and Madinah are situated). 12

Al-Mansur: How are you? 0 AbO. Dulamahl

Abu Dularnah: Not well at all, 0 Amirul Mu'mininl A1-MansUr: Why is that?

Abu Dulamah: What do you expect from a person whose face is in the middle of his attire (because of the high topt), whose sword is in his posterior and who has thrown the Qur' an behind his back? Al-Mansur was greatly amused at this retort and immediately ordered

that this uniform be changed. I -

Yazid ibn Khalid says: I saw Abul Umaitir (who was declared the Khallfah in 195 A.H) with 500 of his supporters walking in front of him, all wearing tall Syrian tapis. 13

,

Shaikh YaqCtt AI-Hamawi (626 A.H) ~I L....A"tt-.J writes concerning the

people of .Jli.!.r (Bulgaria), that all of them would wear a topi, l4

It seems that these high tapis caught the fancy of many, thus they became popular to such an extent that in the year 250 A.H. the

'\" I/r '~\)1 r~l, r~,/~ ~.lll tuli ~" vIA ~'pbH Cul; • '\, ~ /0 .,,*'J1 .)J'J J-~I 7 \tr/Y ~_;l1~8

A, r..T JIJ \tl 4i ~ Jl JL- )1 J t I "-/ ,"UJJ..\ tfJU 9 A ..r ~~lll .jj.~ .J{ r1,..~1 ~l:,.. J; '.$}.PJl ~t; .. l.j 10 \ 0 '1./ \ , ~phJ\ ~j\.j 11 t . ..f ~\.e.J.U ] 2 r r It r ~~ f::!.J\; 13 .lAA/' vW)i ~ 14

The Crown ofa Believer

The Crown of a Believer

27

-

The significance of the topi

He·21so authored the tollowing interesting article concerning Sijistan.

,"' "."

It will bec~me clear to us from the coming narrations that the topi fanned an Integral part of the dressing of the beloved Rasul of Allah tti\ and his illustrious companions, the Sahabah ~, and has remained part of the dressing of the Muslims right up to these times,

'Allamah Ibn Qayyim Al-Jauzlyah, 'Allamah Suyutl, Ibnul Haj, Mirak, 'Allamah Barizi and Shaikh Muhib At-Tabari.~1 \1 , ... ; have

all written: .

"Nab} $. would normally wear a turban with a topi underneath. He would sometimes wear only a topi and at times only a turban." 1

~~men all wear two or three turbans at once, whose colours are ~lly white, green, red and yellow. These are then tied around a imge.Cllp-shaped topi, in such a manner that all the different colours

i!Je:diSplayed~

~ ··of them tallow the Hanafi mazhab and (because of strict

2ribereoce ·to the laws of hijab) no woman ever leaves her home. If she bas 10 visit her family, then this is done after nightfall." IS

. . -

\VeC!i1 thus conclude that wearing the topi was the practice of the PJ~ ~ and has remained the practice of the Muslims for

hmldteds of years.

, .

. . .

'Allamah Tibi ~J .. ;-.; (743 A.H.), the first commentator of

Mis~iitu1 Masabih (a famous book of hadith), mentioned that the weanng of a topi alone (i.e. without a turban) is (also) SUIUlah as is

the practice of many. 1 •

A.fa) ... Ailiih grant us the ability 10 follow their blessed footsteps.

... .

J - . .. ~

The great scholar, Shaikh Abubakr Ibn ~ Arabi ~\ ~ J has} in his com~entary of ,.Tinni?hi. 'A.ridhatul Ahwazi (Vol. 7 Pg. 242), c~asslfied the topr as part of the attire of the Prophets i$ and of those piOUS ones w)1o tread the path towards Allah ~.

He also mentioned that it protects the head, stabilizes the turban and (most importantly) it is sunnah.

'Allamah Ibn Jawzl ~, ce- J has also classified the topi as Sunnah, 3

1 r ,_,. LIs-JJI I A rl \ lSJ~l I' ro/ \ .)w., .l~j ] l' \ 01 h .;;-JI cJlli.,.... ~ ~ \S::)I 2 'r • ,/, JH.~ . ..w~ Jr ~Jl!1\ cr. J

28

The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

29

~

Sulaiman Ibn Abi 'Abdullah ~, ~ .... .) mentions that he found the senior

Muhdjirin ;iJ;, tying turbans on their topis.'

There can be no doubt in the fact that donning the top! was the practice of the Sahabah ~ and their successors, In addition to the abovementioned narrations, the following great persona1ities are all reported to have mentioned that it was the practice of the Sahabah .$ to wear the topt,

So much importance was given to covering the head by our Salafvs Sdlihin (pious predecessors i.e, the Sahabah ~ and those after them) that we find them always wearing turbans. This fact is undeniable in the light of the hundreds of narrations concerning the turban of Nabl $, the Sahabah ~~ and those succeeding them,

Rukanah ~'r~ports that Rasiilullah ~ said:

1. Hasan Basri 1 5. Wail Ibn Hujr ~ IJ
"2. Imam Malik 8 6. Faltan Ibn ~ Asim ~ J'l
3. Abu Kabshah Sl 7. Ibrahim An-Nakha't "
-
4. ~ Abdullah Ibn 8. Mahmfidlbn
Abubakr ~ 10 Labid ~ 14 "My followers will remain on the fitrah (the Sunnah of the Prophets $ or the original path set down by AIJah) as long as they wear their turbans on topis." 5

Note: fVe lvere unable to trace some of tile narrators of this hadith; therefore we could not verify its authenticity .

The books of history also show very clearly that it was always the practice of the Muslims to wear the topl,

..

1111a1l1 Malik ~, .a.r J mentions that it was the practice of the

Sahabah ~ to wear tOPiS46

,

_,.,. J .tuL"~ -J. ~~ ')1~"" ,\\ J~.J .u~ J J tA)" 4.:-."': ~t ~ ~ ~;'. 1\\) AI\ 'T I r ~;'\J Vi J6-."l ..c_., 4 J~ ~ .;s-l r u.\...t- J ~ .. ~)\J Y J o..rl 0 V-J:._;JI .1!.-... ~ ~A\.O\JJ S .~t 1l J . .J,,1 ..... JL.;-~~ _;'A r J \" ._.,P t..~..Jjj .j y1.:$J~ e}'"~ J .~!;

'T '1. \ J, t ..l~\ ~

II ~ y.1 ~t d.p J ":Ju\J.! JU J.- ;., i.J..!. c) .) _,.,.__it ..."tt - 0',-" u.J..; ~.Jl .. ~~!\ 7 ~'.Z .t.It.... J J \ 1 vi 0' ~I.(~I'-T • ~ I fo.. ~..b- ,:u., :Ju ) (\ VAY) Y' .. It. .., r;.l..;J\ "9 YVrJl · lS)L)! c? J r II ,/y \ ~.JliJl ~ 10 (V'rA) \ t tJ~ ,)j~~ JI~ .'JJ J J~ .. Jol;....] ~~ Jti J 'Trrl, i(y-:.,uI' n !)~~ J ,r\/l' ~~l ~J\j ...) ~ Jlr ) (' ort) ola.~.~ ~ ~I,i ~t 12 ';'_,Ar".. ,J~J :(YYY') ~I ~ ~ J~ J~' ~ ~ ;~ J\.:at,. J ~\:J.,. J J t t ,,, Ulj) J+ l3

«S ja1' cj J~ ya J 'i J.i\)\ )'1 ~ill .J b.. J ) V 0 I, ~ Jl\)J y;jla.U H

.. 'I ••••

. ..

30, :., ~ The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer 31

. . ,

1h: ~ historian, · Allarnah Ibn J arir At - Tabarl liJl .o.._J&. .) has ~ in

miI!Ji.:~ of his book, Tdrikhul U,,.IGJ11 wal Muluk, discussed the d~~_::~f the ~uslims and has ~entioned that the topi of the ~"',~fa certain era was of a particular type. (E.g. Vol. 11

pg:$.~.~ .. ~g. 156)

- • :. .~ - p _~ I •

can be gauged by the fact that in every era there lived a group of . people whose sole occupation was the sewing of top is.

If it was not the practice of the people to wear topis then for whom were they making the tapis?

b.ric ~e strain we find that another famous historian; Muhammad

. ~ ,

fus. Sz·q ~ ~ J , when discussing the topi of DawOd At .. Tal ~~ '__;"'),

~. that his to pi was similar to the topl worn by the nJ~Jlen of that time."

... p.. ..

T'l!16 it·was the habit of the businessmen as well, to adhere to the

S!_~~;l of the topi. +

The following incident concerning a topi .. maker is mentioned by

.... '\

Hafiz Ibn Kathir ~l U'-- J :

...

-.~~ Ibn Taymiyah ~, ...... J has also highlighted the importance

of ~ ropl It is mentioned in his Maj'mit ~ Fauiwa (Vol. 11 Pg. ~93) m~ir·:i:!e:."''3s asked regarding a group of Muslims who engaged in a \arie!y of weird actions viz. carrying snakes, keeping dishevelled jb,nOC~ leaving their heads uncovered etc.

.& answered that actions such as leaving the head uncovered etc. are ucilhar the distinguishing characteristics of the Pious nor of the Sat.-&ibah ~ or the Tabi'In and was not found amongst the 'Ulama of ~ ~s in the previous or latter times, therefore they have opposed the path of the Muslims, have abandoned the realities of our din (religion) and have strayed off the path of the servants of Allah,

~

Tnis strong rebuke by . 'Allamah Ibn Taymiyah ~1.l ~ J speaks

vohnnes of the importance attached by him to the topi,

..

Qddhl Abu 'Umar ~, ... r; (320 AH) was a great scholar who was

known for his beautifu1 character and fair dealings. On one occasion when many of his associates were gathered around him, a roll of expensive material was placed before him to purchase, The associates of the Qadhl greatly admired the rich cloth, so the Qadht purchased it for 50 dinars (gold coins) and then ordered a topi-maker to make topis from this material for all those present, J 8

"-

The famous Mufassir 'Ikrarnah ..1l1..t ~J" who was a Tabi'j (one who

met the Sahabah 4;t.), explained that the verse:

~, Jl. ly..;Z 'J J

"Don't even come close to the wealth of an orphan".

means: "Don't even take a topi from him". 19 .

We thus learn that the topi was part of their wardrobe, as well,

The historians have mentioned that there was a certain family who lived from about 100 A.H. who were known as the 'Dowraqi' family

Anyone who peruses through the books of history will realize that me topi was always a latent feature of the lives of the Muslims. This

-

,vr I, l ~L;jl J ~'J"U 18 ~I <Jr ,:r r II tIl' JPI )J.l1 J 0,\ ",If t$;hJ1 '" . .;~ 19

32 The Crown of a Believer

~

on account of them wearing a type of high topi known as ...,_~ ~;;~):u\

.,.

"

The Crown of a Believer

33

'The Dowraqiyyah' 420

From this we can understand how particular the Muslims were regarding the wearing of the topi.

Why should we wear the topi?

Another proof that the topi was worn in the time of the Sahabah • and those after them are the many narrations mentioning the discussions of the Mufassirin (commentators of the Quran) of those times, concerning whether giving someone a topi will be classified as clothing him and thus suffice as kaffarah (atonement) of a broken vow, as A11§.h Ta'iila has ordered us saying:

u~j:S J{u

~

"or clothe them. 11

A doubt lurking in the heart of many people is that the topi was worn by Rasulullah $ as a habit not-as an act of worship; there is therefore no need for us to emulate Rasiilullah"$ in this regard as there will be no reward in practising upon that which is not an act of worship.

.To clarify this doubt, the following should be borne in mind:

Firstly, when the intention is to attain the pleasure of J\lliih then one will be rewarded for .any action performed, This is derived from the hadith: "Actions are judged by the intention. n22

Hadhrat ' Im ran Ibn Husain Ji;D answered this question in the following manner, "If a delegation visits your leader and he gives each one of them a topl, will you say that he has clothed them? No." 2J

Secondly, we have been ordered by Allah a to emulate Rasulullah ~. No 'distinction was made between emulating him in those actions done out of habit and those done as an act of worship. Allah Ta~ala ordered Nabi .. to announce, "If you love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you." (Surah Alu 'Imran Verse 31)

This also shows that the topi was one of the items of clothing worn in those glorious days.

~ Allamah Ibn Kathir ~I I..r J stated in the commentary of this verse; 'this verse classifies as a liar any person who claims to love Allah yet does not follow the pattern of Rasulullah &&. This (classification as a liar) win continue until he follows Nabi Jj, in all his statements, actions and conditions."

After studying all these narrations, we can only arrive at one conclusion and that is that the topi fonns an integral part of the dressing of every Muslim and there can be no doubt in the topi forming part of our religion.

'\ t o} 0 ulr- ~ ~ ~U!l~ j 0" t/y v1 •• til yL..;~~ 20 .

J ..I;,jLJ..1 Jli J fb.. I.)i ~ J .J'w'1 ,)II J ~ .)I ~ Lr '0 t/ r )_,::1\ .J..lli 21 ~ .. -.JJ .t1~l val« p.!~'

,

Thirdly, the practice of the Sahabah, Tabi'in and those afte~ them has always been to emulate Rasulullah £i even in the minutest details. Dozens of narrations in Hayatus Sahabah and other books testify to this. By us claiming that these things are baseless, we are

34 The Crown of a Believer

refuting something that has remained the practice of this Urnmah from its very inception and are in fact claiming that no one properly understood Din until today, Allah forbidl

The Crown of a Believer

35

Wearing a topi without a turban

Lastly, the topi has today become a distinguishing characteristic of the Muslims. As soon as we see someone wearing a topi, re_gardless of which part of the world we are in, we identify him as a Muslim. It is thus necessary for us to hold fast to our Muslim identity and strive to distinguish ourselves from the disbelievers.

There exists a difference of opinion amongst the muhadithin as to whether it is Sunnah to wear the topi alone, or does it have to be worn with the turban,

This difference of opinion is based on the following hadith. Rukanah * quotes Rasulullah &;. as having said:

"The difference between us and the polytheists is that we tie our turbans on topis" 23

This Hadith has been interpreted in two ways:

l. We wear turbans and topis while the polytheists only wear topis, In this case the differentiating factor would be the turban.

A large group of muhadithin has preferred this explanation. From amongst them are:

...

~

.

. v ~ J tOT I T' ,5"LJ..\ J (t ~ V A) 0' t ,_,. 3-,;U )If tlJJ J

.1 .~ ~ r • ~ t. l.r "-' fi ~ J.JiS'f .~~\ tt: lor. " I \ ~J'G -.J. t$ ;b;."Jt Jl.i 01 \ 0 y J V ~.i..pl y.ll - tJ Jl~ :a.i\S"'.J VI ,J.J.. ~~ ~~ - 1I~"u.. ~ ~ ~ :~jJ\ J-; J \ v t/r J\~\'\ ~ J t t \ I , )~I J.lt );';1 J~ J~\ )\.:.,... )11l..u. l} J

2. We wear topis and turbans, while the polytheists only wear turbans, without tcpis. In this case, the distinguishing factor

would be the topi and not the turban 4 •

An equally large number of 'Ularna have preferred this view. They are:

.'Allamah Tibi, Muhib Tabari, Mirak, IbnulQayyim, Ibnul Haj, Halbi, Ibn Hajr Al-Haitami, As .. SuyUti, Ibnul Malik, Jassus, Abdul Haq Dehlawi, Moulana Rashid Ahmad

~

Gangohi and Moulana Khalil Alunad SaharanpG.ri ~I ~ J .

_ Tbe_Cro'NIl of a Believer 37

Secondly, no clear-cut ruling may be passed based on this hadtth, because of the great difference of opinion concerning its purport.

Thirdly, there lire a number of strong narrations that show that wearing a topi alone was also a Sunnah of Nabi i&, even though adopting the turban is far more rewarding and beneficial.

36 __ _ I~e Crown of 3 Believer

'Allamah Ibn" Arabi) Munawi, ~ Azlzi, J azrl, ~ Arif'Billah

Al-Hifni, Zurqaru, Baij uri, Kattani, Mulla ~ Ali Qan and

\

Moulana 'Abdul Hay Al-Lucknowi ~1 ~ J ·

Even it" we do assume that this hadith is sound and that sufficing on the topi was from the characteristics of the polytheists, then too it would be completely permissible to wear only a topi in these times as the topi is not a characteristic of the polytheists anymore. Yes, adopting the yarmulke of the Jews would be impermissible as it is a salient feature of Judaism.

..

'AIIWnah Ibnul J a' far Al-Kattani .:u1.l ¥ ;:.. J has mentioned that the

explanation given by the first group is more suitable to the hadlth i.e, the turban is the distinguishing characteristic.

This is supported by a number of other, albeit weak, narrations that show that the turban is the distinguishing mark of the Muslims. l.f

Based on this commentary of the hadith, - some .. ulams claim that it is makriih (reprehensible) to suffice on wearing a topf and not adopting the turban. However, the following important points should be borne

in mind:

..

Firstly, this hadith is extremely weak, thus no laws may be deduced from it.

38

The Cro\VI1 of a Be] iever

~nn "

.... ---

The Crown of a Believer

39

The colour of the topl

34 Abu Hurairah ~ 4

4. Farrqad lj;, ,

5. Anas ~6

A. White

The colour greatly liked by Nabi f3 was white and therefore he normally wore a white topl,

Nab! .. has also ordered us to wear white saying:

""

~1.a. .. ! ~~ ~ $ .:il' J~ J ~!5: ~_,.s. ~,~

"Wear white clothing, for it is amongst the best of clothing and enshroud your dead in it." 1

Ibn ' Umar narrates that Rasulullah ~ would wear a white topl. 1

We should thus endeavour to wear white clothing and topis as often as possible, as we would be carrying out the command of Rasulullah 8 and be following the pattern set down by him,

Similar narrations have been narrated by', 1. Ibn 'Abbas ~ 2

A

2~ 'Aishah ~ J

It was also the practice of the Sahabah ~the companions of Nabi Ji,) and the Tabi"in (Successors) to don white topis.

~

JJ.r ;.t ~\ -¥- Y ~ T \ \/ 0: ~ :, ~ Jli J p$Jl .j ~I#I I

I ~\£ "'~ J ~ J W~l J~ ~ J ~, \.L":; Ju J -.:J~ J! .u!)

. .:r> • ~ I.;_i : \ \ r I t pa\ [. \_rJ\.J \$' _ft.rJ\ J u :rv~J r.Ju.....~i ~..:r ~I J J\~1 J\i ., · t..,rt ~I d~i J c_.!.a~r 2 tJ ~p ~\ Ju \,.r. L.t J 4' g.,~ ~\s. ~)t ifj; ~ ~1 ~ ~..uJ~._j .. ':" ci ~ J.fA ya J ~~ ~ -JI ~ jA ..,.. j~~ J~IJ .ll:,.....l : t '1\ ..t' ; .;Pl ~\J->" ~I .JJ'Jj ~J-W ~j ~~~u·l>~ ~ ~ ~t.,L ~t ~ -.!ll1\ ¥ _JA ~~j_,J\;"'J ~ ~

. u..,~'. J.J.t .I~r--'U r It. t! v ~..u, Jr-- ~ J .'-:-f:~\ ~ \-S" r~)~ .J

Jl.i ~.lJ1 ci~1 IJJj:Jl ~ J ~j)J1 ~~ ;"J ~ls 4: J \ ~ rJ t ?w. JI J tJ ~J t, rl , ~J.s..:;'1 ~~\ _)i;1 J · t"'~ .;jJ~ ~..tr" ,y~~ ~ >",:~.ih

• Uw, '!l ,,~ • _,_ill ~ W lS"'1I Ji.i4 (V' "\ V) fl J..i!! ~

,~ \!._,.. :; ~ ~ r""' ..;J~1JJ -J.1, ·i ~JJ,..! J

+

--

'\AI \ ~ ~~ ~W~t"'~ ~ r) \ ~ 1 .r ~\ J~( ~ ~I)li 4 ~~''p 'J rv\/\ »");1\ -j .;..~ JI Jl.i ~ u. ~.j ~..u.IJ tS~' J,- ~ ~\..!J~ ._?j .vJ-\ y- r"'_ ~ ~ ~ ~~\ ~ ~1~'" .~ ~. <- J Y t V I 0 ~ ~ ~ I ,J .lai IJ. \ JAi J y" t/ v

1 Vv-- ~~I J ~J • Y hoi V ($.u., ~ J' \"(/ t ";';;1;.J ~ ~16

... ' .\1 1

~ ~ ~.J.>.:J\j J (a. ~ t) c$~ r~

40 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer 41

It should be borne in mind that just as Nabi $ and the Sahabah $ wore white tapis, they also wore tapis of many other colours. From amongst these colours are:

We find the practice of the following mentioned in the hadith:

1. Anas Ibn Malik ~ a 2~ ~ Uthman ~ 9

3. 'All ~ JtJ

4. Ibn' Abdus Salam JJ

5. 'Ali Ibn Husain 12

6. Qasim Ibn Muhammad lJ 7. Sufyan Ath- Thawrl J4

..

8, Salim Ibn 'Abdullah"

9~ "Ubaidullah Ibn \ Abdullah" lOt Hammad Ibn Zayd ]7

11. Said Ibn Jubayr 18

12. ~ Umar ibn ~ Abdul 'Azlz 19 ] 3, Abu Umarnah ~ J9

14. Abu Ruhm ~ )9

..

B. Black

~ Abdur Rahman Ibn Ziyiid t.t~ narrates that Nabi if, wore

..

~~, ):z ·...Ji ,y 0 ~

.#' ...

a black woollen topi."

+

A black topi was also worn by:

I. Abu Mfisa Ash" ari 4;;:. 21 2~ Ibn Abi AwIa ~ 22

3. Imam Abu Hanifah 23

4. Sa'Id Ibn Musayyab 24

s, Muhammad Ibn Talhah 'l,s

6. Dawiid At- Tai 26

7. Dawud Ibn ~jsa 27

~ j1)1 -.=,..~ 1.1.... ~ A'r I, ~ JI..:ill lJ JU- \ I \ , '\/, ~J.d\ J c.r.\ 9 ~ 4t~J YY/r ~ ~110

.... ... I • u l t

, I c.;:' 41~1 J~

\J ~ r ,J~ J J \,. AI 0 J.L.,. ~ I J rr j" ~.~ -J I .;.,t ~ '-ori· 1l1!:Z ~ .y ) ~ ~\ ~ .JJLa;. '=Ii ~ .J~ J6.- J ..lLo.-) J \ tv 10 JA.... ~! 1l .,- 'i , I y )'~ ~.Jt 14

-:A Y J ~ Y [ '" ..uk:. y~ e- ..... ...,.~ Ju..-..J ~b.- oJ J \ 0 \ '0 J.a- U. \ l' &J) Y J ~ Y~.Jt .JJb:. )'1 ~ ,~I J~J .J1.J J '0 '/0 ~ ~l J(j ~ d.~i Jl. J -4lb- J J 'f' ./v J.A- ~! ]7 'r Y ~, ~ ~;W1 t:J..Ju tl

rr tl 0 J tty I 'T yml J Jb.)rl 19

8. Aswad '28

9. Ibrahim An-Nakhai " lO~ Imam A\VZ4'i 30

11. AI-Mas~ iid13'

..

12~ Abu Qursafah 32-.», r¥J

." Ita vi V lS...u.\ ~ ~ LiS' I ~J!; ~ ~.)~"jJ\ "\JJ 10 'r 1 T"V vP ~ pWl Cl,Jl; 2 J , Y I{J \ ..))~ ~~ VI' t' .. tJ .uUo ~ J l "( '( i 'T It'_JJj\ ~ JUu..1 ~..: ~.J T "r"/ t .4- ~1 22 A ~~..iJJ ~ yl r~~~ ~~) rl\~/, ,~I r~l P""'" 2J ~ E~.i\ Jl:. J ..JG.-.J J \ ' 0/ 0 ~ VI' 24 ......... ..A..iJ\ tC.,t.o ,. ~ J TV 0 I r ,_5t:L\ .!1 JJ.:.,...... as

~ ,'1 J~ J ..Jb.- J J 'rt vl v J.,....., 011 26- \ , ,/r y rJ\ ":' b,.:. i ~ 27 ~ ,I, J\>r J 4ll~ J J l TV!,. ~ ~, y \ V 1\ ; ... ~ lJi ;;"'1 ~ ;/ -.1\ 21 UJJ...p ~ J y~1 ~I ~, ~l ~ .,11 JI.:..-J ...IkrJ J lAV/' .1&,., ~l 29 '\ r vP 4s-Jj ... 1 t:0ti lO

The Crown of a Bel i ever

The Crown of a Believer 43

42

--- ---- .-.

~ "

· Allamah Sham! .LUI 4 i'- J - the imminent Hanafi jurist- has also

mentioned the preferability of wearing black, J~

'\

Mulla 'Ali Qarl .:il' u-. J mentions:

c. Green

"It is Sunnah 10 wear black as this has been narrated in the ahadith.

""

~ Allamah Suyuti Jl, el .,... J has compiled a booklet concerning the

wearing of black. n 1]

..

~f. o;-JiJ ~_r2A ~t,a .. ! or-=J.i .~~ ~'j.; ~ ~I J~) \J\S' :~ d~ 0!~,y

eln. 0'~T ..:;,.; o~J ~p.>

The booklet is named u',}I.,_l1 ~ ~,)6-i "j lljlll ~ •• and is included in his book "Al-rlawi" [pg. 87J4

Ibn ~ Abbas ~ narrates that Rasulullal, tfA had 3 topis: A white, double-layered topi, a green-striped topi of Yemeni cloth and one with earflaps, J'

J~' _.o-J1 J./'; ~'4rJ \~~ ~~.t • .')l.,_J1 ~ ~J.j J

. ~

J:;Ui ~I_,_JI ~ ~i ~ J--4 ~J.>. r-'~\ y4 "

The green topi was also worn by; 1. Imam Malik 36

24 Qasim Ibn Muhammad 37 3. ~ Abdullah Ibn ' Awn 38

44 Sha'bl 3~

5. Hasan Ibnul Mus'ab ~o

..

'Allamah Zayla't ~I ~ J writes in his celebrated book on Hanafi fiqh,

"Tabyinul Haqaiq' [vol.6 pg.228J:

"It is mustahab (preferable) to wear black since Imam Muhammad has mentioned a hadith in "As .. Siyarul Kablr' indicating the

~

preference of wearing black. "

rr,/Y ~~ Jl r i> ,ft .J.,.. .... ~ JW1 32 Y • i/' jJL,..)~ ~ 33

v ~ 0/" ;W\ l J34 T ~J u~~1 ~t,~ :t r J ' • t / ~\ J)t,.:.~ ~ ~I Jli JS \ ,g/ 0" ,:>1(~1 L ..... ~ 36

~\ Jt-". J ,.J~ J J , t t /Q oM- ~\ 37 ~ ':'J.~ IJ"J~\ Jli ..lw.S- J J~ ~! ~~ ..ut,.. J J '''A/V ..l.!t.,.. ~\ U ~ 3B J~J .Ju-. J J "1 t/, ........., ~, J~

r, ./, ~J.A.:Jl J Cr.l 40

+

The Crown of a Bel i ever

The Crown of a Believer 43

42

--- ---- .-.

~ "

· Allamah Sham! .LUI 4 i'- J - the imminent Hanafi jurist- has also

mentioned the preferability of wearing black, J~

'\

Mulla 'Ali Qarl .:il' u-. J mentions:

c. Green

"It is Sunnah 10 wear black as this has been narrated in the ahadith.

""

~ Allamah Suyuti Jl, el .,... J has compiled a booklet concerning the

wearing of black. n 1]

..

~f. o;-JiJ ~_r2A ~t,a .. ! or-=J.i .~~ ~'j.; ~ ~I J~) \J\S' :~ d~ 0!~,y

eln. 0'~T ..:;,.; o~J ~p.>

The booklet is named u',}I.,_l1 ~ ~,)6-i "j lljlll ~ •• and is included in his book "Al-rlawi" [pg. 87J4

Ibn ~ Abbas ~ narrates that Rasulullal, tfA had 3 topis: A white, double-layered topi, a green-striped topi of Yemeni cloth and one with earflaps, J'

J~' _.o-J1 J./'; ~'4rJ \~~ ~~.t • .')l.,_J1 ~ ~J.j J

. ~

J:;Ui ~I_,_JI ~ ~i ~ J--4 ~J.>. r-'~\ y4 "

The green topi was also worn by; 1. Imam Malik 36

24 Qasim Ibn Muhammad 37 3. ~ Abdullah Ibn ' Awn 38

44 Sha'bl 3~

5. Hasan Ibnul Mus'ab ~o

..

'Allamah Zayla't ~I ~ J writes in his celebrated book on Hanafi fiqh,

"Tabyinul Haqaiq' [vol.6 pg.228J:

"It is mustahab (preferable) to wear black since Imam Muhammad has mentioned a hadith in "As .. Siyarul Kablr' indicating the

~

preference of wearing black. "

rr,/Y ~~ Jl r i> ,ft .J.,.. .... ~ JW1 32 Y • i/' jJL,..)~ ~ 33

v ~ 0/" ;W\ l J34 T ~J u~~1 ~t,~ :t r J ' • t / ~\ J)t,.:.~ ~ ~I Jli JS \ ,g/ 0" ,:>1(~1 L ..... ~ 36

~\ Jt-". J ,.J~ J J , t t /Q oM- ~\ 37 ~ ':'J.~ IJ"J~\ Jli ..lw.S- J J~ ~! ~~ ..ut,.. J J '''A/V ..l.!t.,.. ~\ U ~ 3B J~J .Ju-. J J "1 t/, ........., ~, J~

r, ./, ~J.A.:Jl J Cr.l 40

+

44 The Crown of a Believer

The wearing of green clothing was greatly liked by Rasulullah ~ to such an extent that Anas J;o says:

-----

......

The Crown of a Believer

4~

D. Light yellow

"

o ~\ !3 ~\ J~ J J! ~1}~1 ~{ .j1S

"Green was the colour most liked b): Rasulullah $."-11

A light yellow topi was worn by: 1~ Anas 44 ~

2. J undub Ibn ~ Abdullah 4~ ~

"

3. Habib Ibn" Abdullah 46 4h' ~ J

A number of narrations regarding Nab} !j, wearing green are mentioned in Subulul Huda War Rashad (vol.? pgt312)

+

.

E. Brown

....

~ Allamah Ibn Battal, Ibn Haj f and Munawi Jl\ (" 6 ~ J have all

mentioned that the clothing of the inhabitants of Jannah (Paradise)

wi11 be green." ·

This can be deduced from the ayah,

A brown topi was worn by: 1. Wabisah 47 ~

""

24 Qadhl Shuraih ~8 .&i U--.J

3. 'Abdullah Ibn Mudrik 49

,~ ~l.:! 0 rl.J

"The inhabitants of J annah will wear green clothing." (Verse 31 / Sarah J~{Jl)

'"

~ Allarnah Tabari ~1,4 '?-..J narrates that the Khalifah Al-Ma' mun and

his entire army wore green attire; to such an extent that even their topis were green. 4]

~~ ..J~ J :('f TV! 0 ~\) ~~ Ju J rt ,I, ) \ it ~ ~ J'J1 tJ ~\~\ "J) 41 \ .. 1:/'\ J~ ..:t.\ e,P J "fA ~/, • I.i;W1 c:i J <\0. ') fl~~ v'Y 42 ,./, , ~;1J~ t;:.)t; 43

,'" ,. ~ ~.rP"" ·4J; J.i :,h,;,u,., J'ti J (0''\ I f) 1\ 1 r vP U:W f$J~l .iJJ 44 l Y Y I, ~ !J;'Y\ & .tL ... y ... ~ .J' .J...., s \~ )u .,:,.J...,...

( , ,. ,,) "A '-'" rLJ. Cv'~~ .• ~.ll .. u sv t/ 0 J~I ~jJ. 46

Js. (;UJ.j ~ ~u ~ ..u-t ~I Ju J Y h"/'r r.S~\ ~I .j ~\ ~1 Ji- ~, :;)..:11 l} Ilr' 1("\ tA) ,r, ~ .) jb JI~ :t1J.J J 4 'J..". ~ ·:.t:....-l :JA! .a...t, ~ ~.J$.' t:rill ~;~ IJ' ~ d%l! Ju....J 4J ~.J J \ A '\/, J.....".. UI! oil

T' t/rr ~~ tf;'I: 49

\

46

The: Crown 0 f a Bel i ever

The Crown of a Believer

47

F. Red

A red topl was worn by:

1. Sa ~ id Ibnul Musayyab '0 ~, ~ J

2. Dawud Ibn' 1SB 'J

True love for theSunnah

There is a difference of opinion concerning the wearing of red garments by men. T~e most preferred view will be given below, as explained by MouJana Rashid Ahmad Ganghohi, Mufti Shafi'

'Uthrnani, etc ~I r+""" J

It is as follows:

• If it is dyed wi~h safflower or a dye containing impure substances, then It would not be permissible to wear such clothing.

• If dyed completely red, with permissible dye, then the wearing of such garments is Makruh Tanzlhi i.e, it is better not to wear it.

• If it i~ ~artly. red or contains red stripes then it is completely permissible, In fact Nabi ~ wore clothing of this type. "2

'II

'Allamah Muhammad Zahid Kowthari .»t ~ J mentions the following

incident concerning leaving the head exposed.

When the Russians conquered the Baltic Muslim States in

1280 A.Ht after decades of war, they forced the Muslims to expose their heads when entering the courts of their governors. Allah filled the heart of one of the 'Ulama with Islamic-patriotism and self respect to such a degree that he refused to accept this coercion and abasement and therefore approached the Ruler and said to him: "You promised us that you will not interfere in our religious matters, yet you force us to enter the courts of the governors bareheaded, when in fact this is not allowed in Islam."

The Ruler replied: "I will call a conference of your 'Ulama to see whether their viewpoints on this matter conform to yours.'

They were called, but did not lend him any support and were very shaky and indecisive, however this' Alim was firm on his stand.

The Ruler thensaid to him: "Put your proofs down on paper; 1 will send them to the Grand Mufti of the Empire". If he conforms to your view, I will then issue a decree exempting the Muslims of your region from this law in spite of you standing alone on this matt era However, if he also opposes your view, then you will have to bear the consequences of being so obstinate."

u~,.. ,JL..-; J , • % ~ ~1 sc

, , ~rJr yfil t..,. h,.:. .~ jJ

~~.J 45'Jt:.t J ~ VV/T (~\ ~1Jw..l) ~y.~ r j.J~ ;b ($Jw .s2 tVA ~ ( ~~)I ~~t~.u ~ tJ) .

'3 By "The Bmpire" is probably meant the Ottoman Empire which was existent at that time and was taken to be the authority on I s1 amrc affai rs.

The Crown of a Believer

49

48 The Crown of a Believer

The" Alim agreed and wrote the following: "

"The Muslims do not remove their tapis when entering the masjids and when in salah in front of Allah. If they remove it when entering your courts, it will be as if they are honouring you more than Allah and this is completely impermissible."

The ruler then sent it to the Grand Mufti who concurred with this

'"

staunch \ Alim, as a result of which all the Muslims of that state

where excused from this compulsion. ~~

The shape of the topi

Topis of many different shapes and sizes have" been narrated from Nabi t3 and the Sahabah ~.

This is intense zeal and fervour possessed by those whom AIJ(1h grants the true love of Islam and the Sunnah.

May Allah "Jake us from amongst them.

....

Amin.

'Allamah Munawi writes, " There is nothing wrong in wearing a topi :r that clings to the head, or

~ one that is high, or ,

;p a double-layered topi, or » a single layered topi,

These may be worn with or without a turban, because all these have been narrated; however it is better to wear a topi with a turban, J

Similar statements have .been mentioned by 'AIIBmah Ibn Hajr Al-

I

"

Haitami and \ Allamah Jassus Jl1 l. ...... J 1:2

The following are the different types of topis we found mention of in

the books of hadith and history, however we were unable to find an exact description of most of these topis.

\

(V' 'A) .... JJlI c..Ai • y, t/, JL...!J\ Js- tJJ~' c.~ 1 tt.r ~~12

50

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The Crown of a Believer

51

A~ Tb.,e ~ummah (A small, flat and round topi)

MusS. ~ is also reported to have worn a kummah.

~ All amah Tabrani mentions:

\

,~ ..s ~ t3 ~, JJ-'J ~15 ; ~.rS ~~;.r

'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud ~ narrates that Nabi ., said: "On the day MUsil iI spoke to Allah Ta'iila, he wore.; and a woollen kummah.'

Ibn 'Umar tI/o narrates that Rasulullah ~ would wear a white kummah".

In a weak narraion Abu Kabshah ~, ........ J mentions:

A kummah is a small round topi, which is flat and not raised. 4

. Nabi .'8 wearing a kummah has also been reported by: l~ 'Aishahs~

2. Anas" ~

"The kummahs (topis) of the Sahabah * were flat." a

Abu Umamah, 'Umar Ibn 'Abdul 'Aziz and Abu Ruhm 4Gb are all reported to have worn small, white topis. 9

It is mentioned in another narration that 'Umar ibn Abdul \ Aziz, MakhUl, Raja ibn Haywah and Maymfrn ibn Mahran were all seen wearing small Egyptian topis .. )0

'"

'-J. ~ ....... -'ct ~ ~ ("\ \ v \) .1...., J~' ~ l)\..JaJ\ .'JJ: (Y \ \ I 0 ~\) ~\ Ju 3

i.l ".; ~ ~ ~1;; I.fJ ~....,.J\ Jli I ~~lt ~ ,-I:-..; ""'J ~\)\ ~~ if ~ UI ~ J ,,, '(It ,J'w. ~1 ~ ..}\r=- UJ,1 ~ 0) J t;» ~ ~

t W '"' _,.l;i \ t .,.. cJ' e:.:J~ _,,' ..a;..:. »» ~ 1 \ t toll ); ~;IL .)~ C:*"" .J t t 011 ~~I J (' y • r),JII.uJ~ ~ 4

"A l/ v tS.a\ ~ ~ J TVA! "\ ~I)' ~ ~\.iJY\ c.,r. ~ LiS' t_;'lz..J.H '\JJ 5 . ~ '0" rl t j\ .. ,Ji..jt1 ~ J .. _;'~JlJ I~~ ;~It ~ ..w J

0.·~ .. .:.1.:...-1 : 1 v v". L~\ ..J y ~j Jij J \ ~ t! t ~~~ .J fW ~\ '\JJ 6

~ - 7

~ ~.l.i- ir ~l t;u ~ ~~ ~.,u.. \.."u.~J\j ) ( \ vrt) r- l vP IJJ... .;l\ II'J;

~ ... _.

.J.Ai r- F~ r..l.ii Jl. J .-\. . __ \....:- ~...,_ r : (r It) IJ ,j.I;.Jl J ti J .t.,. t~.r ~ i

t' .. ?~.u.. 1.u :J\i J (\ VAT) T '-,,~ (j.l..;J\ • rr t j 0 J t tTl y y~' J ~l,... '1' 9 l' fI j, fI ;':-':1 ~u 10

52

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The Crown of a Believer

53

The wearing of a topi, which clung to the head, was the practice of: i. 'Ali 13~

24 Wabisah 14~ 3. Anas J~ ~

;."

4. Abul ' Aliyah J6

5. '" Ali Ibn Husain I?

6. Ibrahlm An-Nakha'I lB

7. 'Umar Ibn 'Abdul 'Aziz 19

8. Hayydn Ibn Wabarah 20

9. Muhammad Ibnul Hanafiyyah 21

10. Sa'Id Ibn Jubayr 221»1 ~ J

B. TOl1is which cling to the head

"""

A narration of 'Aishah ~ states:

"Nabl $ used to wear a white topi which clung to his head. »n

~ Abdullah Ibn Busr ~ also narrates a similar hadith. !l

Note: Both these narrations are from amongst those narrations in this book which are extremely weak, however the coming narrations, which show that certain Sahdbah wore topis that clung to their heads, are very authent ic.

+

elf- ,it Ju.,. J .Jl"¥.J J Y T /r .u..... ~\ '3 I \~ ~ .o.)!;......} :?u ~ J,."'--1 ~\ J,.; J T AnI y ~ p:!\ ~\ .J ~1 101

~

.

..)j\) fJ~ ~ ... \, to_,,: \! ~~ ~ US' t(~ 1A) 'T" ~ ~jb J-'~ .l)))

or r~' f. 1jt:11 J )u-'1' ~ r-"'~ lJl ~l • .a;....l J IJj~)1 ~~I...L".:.r A r/' c$J\;llJ cSJLJ..1 rs

. or ~J I'~~~ y~11 cJ .r J \ a..r/t ~LJ~' 11

~J? Y' J rJ.JA's~ ~_)J' ~~ J+v U~~.~ y ~ \ I t ~ ~\..tf' 12

}

~~ Jl;,..; 4!~J J " I/y ~ ~~ c.JI)' 0~rri1\l J Ar/v ........, ~, LIS ~ ~ r- JLtw, J J \ "\A/o JA..... ~L J "r'f/, .,_.!o ~, ,jl 'j "_i' ,u 17 Ct'-"'"' .,.)\ Jb,. J .-..l'-'" J J T AV/1 ..u- V' J l \/, ~ y~ lJI'J ._.;. ,U 11 r\ tl 0 .J.....p ~l 19

-.JU: ~6. J J r, Au' ~JJ' u. Jj 'tll t:J..lJ 10 rf'/ot ~~ t..;U"11 Y Y \" ,,;JJ! C;ljlJ II

S4 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

S5

,

c. Higb topis

1. Imam Abu Hanlfah 27 2~ "Imam Malik 28

3. "Abdullah Ibn 'Awn 29 4t D§wfid at-Tal 30

5. Hammad Ibn Zayd J] 6,. \ Ali Ibn Attam ]2

7. Rabi'ah Ar .. R§J~ 33

84 Abu Dulamah 3'

9~ WathiqBillabJ'

lOt Abu Mushir 35

11. Ibrahim Ibnul Mahdi 37 12t Al-Mansur 38

13. Abul Hasan 39

14. Ibrahim lbnul Mahdi "

15. Al-Mas'udi .&1

16." Ahmad Il1n Ibrahim" 17~ 'Ali Ibn Sa'Id"

18. Sharik 44

19t Hammad Ibn Abi Sulaiman 4~ 20. Abu Taubah 46

21 t Al-Musta ~ in 47

22~ Laith Ibn Sa ~ d 4S

234 AI-Juzha~i 49

24~ 'Abdur Rahman Ibn' Uthman" 25. Ahmad Ibn Abil Hawari St

The o~ly explicit mention we were able to find of a high topi belonging to Nabi ~ is in a narration of 'Abdullah Ibn Busr 't~2J and in a narration of Abll Hurairah ~ l~, however these narrations are from amongst those few narrations mentioned in this book which are extremely weak.

It is, however, mentioned in a weak hadith from Ibn \ Abbas ~ that RasuluJlrih $ would sometimes put his topi in front of him (as a sutrah-bartier) when performing sal§.1125

It would only be possible for it to be a sutrah according to the Hanaft mazhab if it w~ more than a forearm in height (+-45cm). However the 'Ularna of the other mazhabs don't place any restrictions on the

..

Slze. _

The great mufti of'Deoband, Mufti Mahrmid Hasan ~'4 r. J writes, B The topi generally worn by Nabi $ was such that it clung to his head)' however the wearing of high topis has been narrated from some Sahabah ~." 26

~ Ita ~ ~ ~ ~~ r~'i' ~l:.,. -' r",/, ~~1 r~l ~ 21 \ 1." ~Ll' j't"Jt ~~ 2:11 Y u~ ~Jl4~ J\i J-j:. J. J~ )~l ~~ .J6rJ J '~I\fv J.A..., ~11' ~ ,n Jbr.J ~u.,. J J it vI, ~ 0t1lD

...

~ J1 J~ J ..Jt.. J .) " , t Iv .J.A..,.. ~lll

" ~U: cJk. J J '\, t 1\ r Jl.SJ\ ~jJ Jl

t \ '\ I A r ';Lot )~\ ~) 1; p' ~ ~ J l "( '11 A :'\.lit ~)\: JJ "r0,,/a.. ~jJ~ ~.Jl; \ t 'r/r ~}J\ ~ '( ., /"( ~y..l)\ r ~.\ 301

, t \)/, , ~plJ' ~JU' J'

t r t/-rr ~.) tf;U 36 T" rIA )1.u., ~Jt 37 Y ~ v I ~ ($ .~.~.u dJt; 3& \ · 0/' y ~lP.' J l.,l..-Jll9 ,v,l, y ~I"O

..:..-U; ~~.J J rr,/y ~I'U

High topis have been worn by a number of Tabi'In and Tab' ut Tdbi'in viz.

.!lJr .Yt .) ~~~~\ .._r;C]\ ~, ~ :J- .:J~ ~ f,~ Y J , .. t u-t 6 . ..:J~ _tti :23 '''\1\/ , ~ .J ~ ~u \ t:! b. ~ ~ J \ ! l ~ ~ J~t .j t. to 1\ fit 24 rV'./\ ~J~~ t.} ~~ ~I Ju W"" ~ ,...;:..;;. ~~~)

T t ,/ 0 ~.J.ill ~ ~ US" wi· .:ilLf ../ .r--Jt ..J r JJ ~\tJ)i J .,lw, y,1 ~~,.,; 2!J \ • t..,.. ~\ .JII J;,s.. ,_";" .uU ~ J ,t~1 (J" J:&.<.... u J..J.j. Jo'-ol t:f.J~ ;,r t_,,411 .j • ..b..1 t .:_.SJ J

, 1. oj t \.Jl.J) J~l J ~..,._cli ~ ~I)~ J;.s. ,.l ~w. r. y I, v (~Jl) 4i> ~ uJ\::J ~6

56

The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer 57

Certain latter-day scholars insist that it is necessary to wear a round topi which clings fast to the head, to such a degree that some of them classify high topis as mukruh or impermissible. They assert that wearing flat tapis was the sole practice of all the Sahabah ~, and present the hadith of Abu Kabshah as proof viz.

Secondly) even if it is accepted that the Sahabah ~ wore flat tapis,

it does not in any way mean that there is any reprehensibility in wearing high topis,

Thirdly, the large number of narrations concerning the Tabi~in who wore high tOPIs clearly show us that it was the practice in that era to wear high topis, so how can there be anything wrong in it when Nabi • has classified the people of that period from amongst the best of his followers."

"The tapis of the Sahabah ~ were flat." }2

Lastly, the following golden advice of Mufti Mahmild

Hasan 1»1 4r) should not be forgotten:

Firstly, this Hadith is so weak that no ruling of any kind may be deduced from it.

Furthermore, even the narrations showing that Nabi t!f, wore a flat topi are not free from weaknesses,

" A topl which is round, clings fast to the head and is not high, is proven from Ahadith, however this is from sunnanul ddiyah not from sunnanul hudd (ie, it was done more as a habit and daily ritual than as an explicit act of worship), Therefore whosoever follows this sunnah will be rewarded) however no-one has the right to insist that one wears this type of to pi or criticize him ifhe does not wear it," 54

The matter of the topi can be likened to that of the sandal. The exact description of the sandal ofRasOlulliih A is mentioned in the ahadlth, yet we don't know of anyone who is of the opinion that the sunnah

...

will only be 'fulfilled by wearing this type of sandal and that every

other type of sandal is contrary to the sunnah, It will definitely be better to wear a sandal identical to the sandal of Nabi ~, yet any other one will suffice.

In the same manner, it will be better to wear the identical topi worn by Nabi $. However, as Nab} $ never stuck to one particular type

r t \ I \ \ ~ LP ~ J ~ \..y\ o&J ~ ,1\ Jb,.J ~b.; ) C''''') , ' · ...r' ljb fil '" A ..r'~.w .C.:>- ..;{ (L.t¥' ~l:... ~ rJ) ~\ ~\ a)~ 4'

vv/r \ .-1\ jj 46

~-....., ~

~ ~ t:J/, , t.S;-6J! f'_j)t:; 41

lVA/' 1 ~~ t...Jli 48 r 0 ~/v ~\ s 't ..... / r J\..~ t::!Jt 49 \ • ~jro ~~ (:jJiJ so , T ./ t ~ ,_;.!..-.) ts;U jl

t

tl..~ ~.bo 1~ : Jli J (' VA~) r I n~ IJ..L... _;J\ }2

(T",o ~) 0 \ 0,f ~J~ ~ .1\ .5] , \ AI 0 4"J ~ U'J\:.i S~

58 The Crown of a Believer

but wore many different types of tapis, it will not be correct to insist that only one particular type of topi is sunnah.

The Crown of a Believer 59

Another narration of 'A.ishah • shows that this topi was worn - when onjourney."

It has been reported in the books of history that in the year 153 A.H. the Khalifah al-Mansur ordered the entire: army to wear extremely high black tapis (approximately .40cnl high) so much so that a bamboo had to be placed inside to enable it to stand upright."

It is on this basis that some Ularna j6 have asserted that high topis were not worn before this period. However the above-mentioned narrations contradict them. This apparent contradiction could be resolved by saying that while high tapis were worn from long before, the length was greatly extended by AI .. Mansur,

Ibn 'Abbas 4;. states that Rasillull3.h $ wouJd wear a topl with earflaps when in battle. ss

A weak narration of "Abdullah Ibn Busr ~ mentions that he saw Nabi ftil wearing a similar topi. 60

Another weak narration of \ Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas ~ shows that this topi was sometimes used by Nabi $ as a sutrah (barrier) when in

salaht61 .

This indicates how tall this topt must have been.

D. A t0lti~~th earflaps

Hadhrat Wabisah 4.; also wore a topi with earflaps, 62

There are many narrations that show that Nabi i\ had a topi that covered his ears. This was generally worn during war and when on

journey.

.J rI' •

E. A Tartur ()Y,J!,) .

The tartur is a type of high conical topi, which seems to have come into vogue long after the Sahabah .t;. and was generalJy worn by the Bedouins. 63

It was worn by 'Ali Ibn Abu Sa'Id (399A.H.) 64

'Aishah .:IJ;, n,\rrates that Nabi fj, would wear a topi that had earflaps. S7

... +

.J _YL... \l~ ) _,.....lJ :~.Lt)1 tP -j Jl_,.J1 Ju . , · ~ ~ ~~ u~ .. ,,:.i t.j t . ..:J! .tft _.\)) .5. ~1Jyl fJ~ }y~~ ~ J 'l;"/ v J~'jl ..J l.iS' .4!.H, ~ t .. dl )It ~\JJ L.- ~)l&l\ .1I~1)~1 ~\Jr' J..., 11~~\rl

Y" D "\1 '\ ~ .. 'H ~) IJ ~ "\ \ V f A ~ ~i ~; I; , "\ \ ~ lop ~ I -J.)~ ~ \)J~ S~ t. , ~I ~ ~;l; tj ~..u~ Jii S6

J\i J l' V ~ ..})J iJr~.i\ ,;\.r--)r\ J.H)j J tiS" ~I~ -'" r.j V:J\)~ j~.~n rUlI .Ji~ .hilJ..\ ,1).) S7 .. I t ~I I,.\~~ ~ ~, .Jt~ ~?'"t J t~ )UJ1j ~j..&. J.\ '0(:.5 ~~\ J.J. .j! ~~ Y' :Jr;s.e'- . .,_,_.:l\ ..,....J"": ~~ ~1S" ~li (~)')\) ~ ~, ~_,....; ;r rl- ~l :r> .. 31.:.-1 j

r r-i; 41~)J~" ~ ~ J -)~J)1 J ,J'W ~! J\JJ ,~ ~ ya J ~.r~' ~..-cJ\ ~\ ~ :_~ -J~ ~ l~ Y .J , t l ./ :_.:J\ ..ttl -60 y ~J 'I~~!n l} f J , t t ~ ~\ cJ~\ ~ t .. J.JI..tfl 61

.. ~4 • l~~ II • J ., · I ~ ~ _J G2

'r~.J ,.)1 ~ .. -;, .... \ r..u J \~ ~ ~ YAA 'r ~I

The. H nus W chr 0 i ctlonn rv • ~ \r. ~I ~!.:;.! t """ - t~ -jW (i;t

...... ~ r

60

...

n _.Jhe Crown Qf a BelieveL

..........

The crown of a Be1iever.

61

Note. The red tartur was the topi of the Jews at one time, therefore the former principal of Darul 'Ulum Deoband, Qari

...

Tayyib Sahib 4U~ ~ ~); classified the wearing of such a tarrtur as

impermissible,"

Some 'Ularna even went so far as to classify one who wears the tartur of the Jews as a murtad (one who has left the fold of Islam and turned renegade). 66

Mufti Kitayatullah and Mufti Mahmfid Hasan Gangohi also passed similar rulings. '68

+

This was a tall, pointed topi worn by judges and other senior members of society. It originates from Iraq, 69

F. :The Doub,l~ .. J}anelled topi (:L: J~ )

The following personages are narrated to have worn a danniyah:

It Anas. 70

2. Al-Juzha't 71

This is a topi consisting of two panels sewn together) faintly resembling the hull of a ship. It is very popular in India, especially amongst the "Ulama of'Deoband.

~

Hadhrat Mouldna Ashraf 'Al] Thanwi ~I -' r J mentioned regarding

this topi, H This is in reality not the topi of the Muslims, however as many of the Muslims in our country wear it and this has been the trend for quite a long time, therefore it cannot be criticized, as it is no longer considered a distinguishing characteristic of the kuffar."

I

rt"" ~lP\) 4.tl.l~n ~ . r Y vP L ~,.,n ~ rJ "j l.\:n i:.J.1 .j i.u J Y 'f \ ~ r""_' '1\ ~ ;"~.:H 6S

~

~JJJJ\ c.P ~ ~JL.1J! ~u.. 66

tA' ~ ~;l+ill tJ~j JI_}; 61

r, a./, v ~J yJ- tSJ1:j J \' q' goV( l 0 ~/4\ ~l ~u.< Cil Y • rl ~ ~JJ~\\ .z.\; J 'VV/\ ~_;;JJ C$Jlr' ~L.\'u c~ 69 y. AlA :.~ ~j\j 10

T't) .. /A ~, I."} lot~, J ~.~~ t.,.t:lJ., rJ J Y. ,Ir ~~ t!;t; 71

62 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

63

H. The Burnu.,!(.d.z?'}

The bumus (or burnoose) is an item of clothing that 118S a 1100d attached to it, be it a kurta.jubbah or any other item of clothing. 72

It is generally worn on top of the turban to protect one from sunlight and rain, however it is also used without a turban. 13

According to some .. Ulama the bumus is a tall topt. 74

Ibn 'Abbas ~ narrates that Nabi a:A said that \ LsD. ~.J will be wearing a bumus when he will descend, 77

Note: This narration is velY weak.

Abu Qursafah ~ had a humus that was given to him by Nabi iI who told him to wear it. 78

On account of the bumus being a type of topi ~ we have treated it as a topl throughout this book and have not differentiated between the narrations mentioning the bumus and those mentioned the qalansuwah.

Ya~la ibn 'Umayyah narrates that Nabi t3 wore a bumus. 79

HafIZ Ibn Hajr narrates that ~ Abdullah Ibn Abu Bakr ~ said, "Every

.....

'Alim (from amongst the Sahabah tJib) possessed a bumus which he

would wear in the morning, "80

Wearing a bumus is from among the sunnats of Rasulullah && and the Sahabah ~.

~ Allamah 'Aynt writes in his commentary on Sahih Bukhari, that

Wailq;. mentions:

, ,

~Ipll <J r-f.!~i ;;".; J. ~ r~ "I ~ of J 8 ..:ill J J-" J c: ~)~

"I performed salah with Rasulullah f3 and his Sahabah e; I saw them raising their hands for takbir inside their burnuses."

"-

Imam Malik ~i.. .... J said, "There is nothing wrong in wearing a

bumus. The Sahabah ~ were in the habit of wearing it.?"

A similar statement was made by Faltan Ibn \ Asim 4b. 76

II ~~\ '-rlj. -J ~~\ • YP ~L.J , ~r\£ll 72 t • ~ ~\s.J.H 7J

. b .... }i~' J C.~~)~ 74 (V" A) , t ~ ~ ljb .Ji( I\J; J ,~ .l\.:.....l :~ Ju J yrr!\ ~~ ~1 7' \ l t./, ~i'Jb .. J,.n.;!"~ I y ~ c. ~ J .)tpliJl} ,r, IT ~~} Cl;\; ~ ~ .ttl J (' u,.. t) ,,~ ~ ~!; ~, ")J 16 1J';;.r ~u...) :(l 'tY'> c-A1 .j ~\ Jl; J ~\ ,j

.,1(., .:.2J\ ~ ~t...'- ~ J fr~v\ -\) Jl-J\ F t g .. QI t v f~.;;\ 77

,

tlJ) ~ J l"ft/r u~k ~..L:A' ~~ ~ L.. .. ~~ J u.;J,yr 4Jt.... J J tV ~/Y y\!U J J6-~' 78

,

, .. I r ~i,J v~..JJ1

Y "\ vIr r:Ai .J~ ~ rt..)" C:"'"' LI ~ !Z.r~+ .. H J- .U 79 r to "/y \ 1$; Ul I ,i~ ;! YVY I, · lJ,JlJ~ c:-' 10 r. "\ I y, '-' )lil1 ;;.....s. .1 J

64 The Crown of a Believer

The wearing of the burnus has been narrated from the following Sahabah ~:

1. Anas ~83

2. Abu Umamah ~g~

3. Miqdam JJp 84

4. Ibn" Ulnar 4-h 8$

5. Jundub Ibn 'Abdullah ~86 6f Ibn Mas' ud $ B1

7~ Abu Musa Ash'ari 4e8B 8~ Suwayd Ibn Ghafalah ~89 9. "Umar ~ 9'0

..

lO~ Ibn Abi Awffi ~ 9J

..

1 I. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19 . 20.

The Crown of a Believer

65

Husain es "

Ibn Samurah 0 93

~ Abdullah Ibn .. Amr & 94 'Amr Ibn ,. Abdullah ~ 94 Wathilah Ibnul Asqah ~ 95 Hattan At- Taymi ~ PS

Abu Qursafah ~96

'Awf Ibn Malik ~97

Yazid Ibnul Aswad ~ga Al-Mugirah Ibn Shu'bah ;;J;:,99

The following Tabi'tn have been reported burnus:

1. Shurayh'"

2. Sa'Id Ibn Jubayr'"

3. Nafi'102

4. Mutarraf 103

s. 'Alqamah'" 6. Masruq'"

7.. Aswad'"

8. SaJim101

9. Sa'td Ibnul Musayyab'" lOt Musil Ibn Talhah!"

11 .. Muhammad Ibn Talhah 110

-

to have worn the

12. 'Abdullah Ibn \A\\1Il11!

13. Anas Ibn Sinn 111

14. 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yazld 112

15. 'Ubaidah Ibn 'Abdullah'!'

16. Muhammad Ibn ~AIt 114

17. Zubaid Al- Varni 115

18. Rabi' Ibn Khutaim I J6

19. 'Amir Ibn 'Abdullah'"

20. Abu Muslim AI .. Khowlani 118

21. Sa'Id Ibn Abul Hasan U9 22t Marwan Ibnul Hakam 120

~)IJ .j J t' .. ;).1-.- .,l.:....,.,.. ..} 'J~ r t\.:tJ) J.j ~.!i.i\.J.1 Ju J (OA t T") h' r ~ UoW' ~)~I .I)J 13 • .J:.. (T t AlA) J~

(;:!)~ J\ ~15 .J~ \.a ~ J ~i lJ ~1_plJ! ~\J.J :(1\0 t V) ~\ ~ r.;4' Jl; " . u.r"~ ~ • pi- ~b""" u! J lb. J.~ ~ ~ ~~ :J.,);)~lJGJ r,/Y J.l-.~J(\hYh)~Dt u" )JIJ.Jl~IS ("t) 'A~~ 16 .(AOO) c:--A\ ~ ~\ 4._.~ J yy, IT" LJlj) ~ J l r~J .. I)'plaj\ 11 'C\ YV 1J;1.B ~.JU"J yvr/r ~'J C\, c..I' ~ .Jt' HI .J _,.: _,. •. ll ...... J J \ rr I, ..LR.- ~l I P

• y! ,'\ ~ I, v \iJ)\ ~ to) J h V I v a, 'It=l\ ~l~\ t T V I, ~ !J ~ ~~ 90 \ Y '\/, JJi ~~ ~\ ~ ~ .u\..!. ~ J 'f Y Y Iy ~~JJi cJ .1i;\J.1 CJ. ~~ J Y T" t JA..., ~\ 91. , A ,/" It l,,:H J ~\..lJ1 92

oyJtv ~~ (:}.JI; 97 , t \ / '( *1 vA:r,.J; ~ 1:U .~ .L:-.t ~JI; ~ ~~ u. Jj .",~ 9 • ~ "l J~.J ,JUt. J ) .)I~ .1)) ~(\ tfVV) ~ ~ ~ Ju. '99 C".J1 JbrJ .J\"".J J ,0,.,," .J.A..., ..J!\ J l~/' ~ IJI .;J."i J. ,l\ 100 C_:-"'I ~, J'br J .JL..) J t c../, ~ tJi ~ 'J . __ i· .ah IOl

Ct'""",n J6t. J .u~.) J T"\ I T .JJr-~ J (' A T A) Yo t ,J' :. jb _ftl10l & nh JL-ar,. J .j\;. J J ,t tl \ h J\..S:n ~jJ.1 \ ~ o/v ~ ~\l \ ,. ,'" ~\('il "T ._!. 10) .:_;"" , 1\ Jt.- J 4J I_,r,. J J '0 y J, ..l.AJ Vi! J Y' AI' ~ .J 1 LIt 'J ....l; .,ll IN ~~\ J'br.J ~b,. J J ,r'\/, ~ ~, J Y ,\A/ \ i::J. \J{ ~)t ....;, 'U lDS

~ 111 Jb,J ~~.J J Y ~v/\ .;._ ~ y.t ~~ v- "U J ,rv/, ~ ,jfl106 Li_.~ ~ ~_,wl J.,j ~ ;""l,...,~ Y J Y ~A/' Y ~t ~1 .J Y - Y IV' ~W1 _.,.. J1101 ~ vii J~..J 4ib.- J J , · 0/0 ..lAJ Vl1 l(ll

~~ J6...)"J \ ~ 0/ 0 ~ U"I' log

~jJ, ~ L- s:._ J rvo/'r ~b.JJ .!l;J-M U 110

cY"' _.~H J6,. J J~ J J \ 4,.A/V ~ J.JI11U

"f"p \/1 ~t;j\ J .... J 93 '" ./lV ~l tfJIJ J V I ,/r ~W\ J-wt 9.J A .. , rv ~J ~Jl; J V I "\/'r ltW\ ..1....~ PS

~~l-t ~.j).\ ~~ ~ \... .~}! J ~~Y' .l-w. J ) Y V ~jy' l)l:1\ J lL~ .. 51i J rD,,\}-r .JJrw.)I JW\ SI6 \ tt./T' ,.sJl tJ t)i_plJ\ 01)) ~ J rrt/r

66

The Crown of a Be1iever

The Crown of a Believer

67

1. 'Abdullah Ibn Ummi Hararn ~ 121

2. ,. Abdullah AI ... Yimin! 122

3. Musahiq lbn 'Abdullah i23

4. Abu Dalf 124

5. ' Afir Ibn Zur' ah Jlj

6~ Muhammad Ibn Suqah ll6

7. Habib Ibn" Abdullah 127

8. Abu Bakr fun Ayyash 128

9. 'Amr Ibn Laith As .. Sa.fIar 129 10~ 'Abdur Rahman AI-A'ma 130

11. Hassan Ibn Malik J31

12. Yazid Ibn Yazid 132

13. 'Abdullah IbnMudrik 133

14. Jundub As-Sayaqalah 134

..

15. Khalifah Al-Muayyad 135~t ~ J

The bumus was also worn by:

~1 JL....J.J~ j J 'v~j'\ ~.)I1 Y ~ vi' l:",.";' ~(~'1 ~\ 112

~I Jb.-) 4JL.; J t/, l ~ ~'~'1._j·~1 ll3

Clll: J6... J J ~ 0 J, ;.; ~ LJ' r:J.'";l ..;. ;J lJ Ll4

c==--ll Jlo.-) J~) J Y • ... h ..u.... .)II J A \ h ~ .;1 ,; . ./'} .,j,. 'Ill 1lS

.,;.t\2J\ t} .)~ '~, Ifj ~j ~ 11 ~ ~J ~lt ..J~.) J t,· tT ~'1 .lA;1I 116 J J .Ii J "r ~ .a .. ..:r. oW!: ':/1 ~I Jt",.) ~b.) J i Y'\ ..f' JJo. ~ ..1.10)1 111 , . ,I.,. ptL\ ~ J J:j1J_.\ ~ ~ J J..I-.'i .u.)J L18

..:JU! ~~) J \ rr/v ..u.... ~, 119 r\rJ\ vl!.U J )l_,..~, llO 1\ ~ lTV ~,l ~JI; III ,t y/, r lt~\ J ~LlJ1121

, T l/r ... ~.:. ~Jl; ll3 (y,,,,) ~V _,u .J\)\ l14

lV" t I ~J C;lJU 12' \ ~ Y If' ~~ ~Jt; 1'26 rvt/D Jl.!l~ ~jj, 127

T'v,/, 1. ~~ ~J\r J ,rr/\ ~~ JWI 121

May Allah grant us all the ability to practise 01) this Sunnah as well, which is unfortunately neglected today, except by certain North African Muslims. I was greatly pleased during my visit to Algeria on seeing that the burnus is worn by the majority of the population, but the saddening part was that very few of them even knew it to be Sunnak

May Allah';: guide us a/I to recognise the pure Sunnah of His Nabi ifj and to hold/as! to tt.

A

Amln

0\ v/\ T l~:.n r~l ~ 129 \ l' Y Ir '\ ~;. t:fJV 1]0

Y it vlt A ~J t:fJU 131 \ Y Y Jr" ._;.!..,-:. ~JU 13:2

+

r tJrr ~Jo tJ.JI; 133

T\ r/\ \ ~~ ~J\j 134 ,,1' v ,,~~ {)l~'~", IlS

OlS

'rne Crown or a Believer

The Crown of a Believer 69

The number of panels in the top;

2. The scholars of hadlth and linguists have explained" that

. ~L.'- concerns the length of " the topi; none of them interpreted it to mean five .. panelled. 137 _

SOIne scholars hold that it is sunnah for the topi to have a certain number of panels, however they are unable to present any narrations to back their claim.

This is an extremely trifling matter, yet it has led to a great amount "of

bickering and fruitless arguing. "

Despite an exhaustive search through hundreds of books on hadith, commentaries ofhadith, history and sirah (the biography of Nabi $), we were unable to find any mention of the number of panels on the topi ofNabi 9 or the Sahabah ~.

Similarly, none of the great m uhaddithin and historians who discussed the topi of Rasul ulhlh *' ever discussed the number of

panels. ~

If it was SUIUlah to have a certain amount of panels in the topt, then definitely our illustrious muhaddithin and 'ulama would have mentioned it in their books, however we find the topi being worn for the last fourteen hundred years without anyone insisting on a specific style or pattern. thus we find the practice of the 'Ummah showing that any type of topi may be worn.

It should be understood that whosoever wears a topt will, Inshd Allah, be rewarded for following the sunnah, regardless of the nwnber of panels on it.

This discussion should not be misconceived as an attempt to stop the wearing of five-piece topis or to classify them as bid'ah (innovation); all we are trying to show is that everything has been allocated its specific place in Islam and should thus be kept in that place.

If anyone feels that a certain number of panels on the. topi are Sunnah, then he should wear such a topi, however, no criticism should be directed towards those who don't wear such a topi especially when he has no proof to show it to be a Sunnah.

~t 1lI1J

We, however, found an extremely weak narration mentioning that Rasulullah • had a tall ~~ (khumasiyyah) topi,

This was probably taken to mean a five-piece topl, however the following should be borne in mind:

1 t This hadith is so weak that certain scholars of hadith have mentioned that it is not permissible to quote it, except to inform others of its weakness. One of its narrators used to fabricate ahadith] 136

..

.... !, -t:.) .. ) ~UI o~ ~ N' .)s- ~ ~ \.t ~J..J..1 tl .. J ;.5'l:.A ~l,'JJ Y :I.jJs. UI' Ju J

...

tJJ.r !_rr.;- ..ii' Jli l Jj\J ~ ~1 ~ 4j -~l!:J1

~ ..P'" J .:r ._,...\_,b.J,\ ~ - ~\:.n

I

t~JJ..\ ~ u~ :~jlJ.n Jij ~ o~l ~ .!l~ ~ -JJ~' :Jls- ~ ns .hit;j~ ~l ~ ~IJ)~ ~ J'" c~'l1 jfi ~ :u~ ~! Ju

;li':;l J'iA ~ .J ~lt:J11j J • ..,.. ~I ,:,W J 1.iS" 14-.'- J). ,-,11.}""tJ... '-r''; :I)li 131 _rNf ~\.tlJJ ~1 1.1\ J. J:.tJ ~'aJ~{ ~ ~.J.li ~1S" L,. ~w.L!: .)'~I _r\lL. ~

The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

71

70

A heart-rending incident

The material of the topt

Hafiz Ibn Kathir in his celebrated work Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah (Vo1..8 Pg, 186) and Imam Tabari in his Tarikh (Pg. 2756) have m~ntlOned a n~rration which brings to our notice the great emphasis laid on the topi by the Sahabah ~ and by the family ofNabi itt.

When Hadhrat Husain ~ , the beloved grandson of Nabi!D was attacked during the Battle of Karbala, he was struck on the head by a sword as a result of which his bumus (hood) became filled with

"blood. He removed this bumus and called for a topi (and according to another narration a turban).

Tapis of many different types of material were worn by Nabl • and the Salafus Salihin (the pious predecessors viz. the Sahabah ~ and the Tabi'In). The following are the different materials we found mention of in the books of hadith and history, however we were unable to find an exact description of most of these materials.

A. Woo]

The extre~e im~ortance attached by Hadhrat Husain ¢fo to the topl even at this crucial moment, speaks volumes of the emphasis given by the Shari' ah to covering the head.

, Abdur Rahman Ibn Ziyad l.(ii, narrates that Nab! 8" wore

#'

~~I .1,1, ..... Ii ,;.r ; ~

". ".

a black, woollen topl. 1

Ibn Mas'ud ~ narrates that Nabi $ said:

MUs§. ~ wore a woollen topi when he spoke to Allah, 2

The following great personalities wore woollen tapis:

It Ibn 'Umar ~ 3 "

2. Anas ~ 4

. r A vi v I.$JJ1 J;..- ~ ti.f I~JI; .J tS ;~~I .1)) 1 , r-i.) II~~ .... ,/'1 ~ lJ Jot ~;}\ f J IJ~)\ 2-

~ 4f.)\.) J \ ~A/v ~ v' ] r ' AI A ~~ ~;l7 4

72

The Crown of a Believer

The Cro\VI1. of a Believer

.

73

3t Aswad 5

4t \ Abdullah Ibn \ Awn li

c. Khaz- A blend of silk and wool

"-

SI Anas Ibn Sinn 7 ~I ~J

.

This type of material was very common and is permissible on

condition that the silk content is less than the wool content," '

~

....

,. Allamah S uyDti ':»1 III ;- J writes: "It seems that the, topi generally

worn by Nabi 1& was of cotton or of wool.'; 8

\

Imam Malik J1~ u- J has mentioned that the Sahabah ~ would wear

tapis of a blend of silk and wool. 12

B. Green-stripe~ Yeme!ti It!~terial (a ztll

. ;

This type of topi is reported to have been worn by:

Allamah Abu Shaikh ~~ ~ ) writes:

I . Wabisah ~ .13 2~ Anas _ l4

3 ~ Abu Milss, Ash ~ ari" ~ 4t Imam Malik J6

Sf Qasim.Ibn Muhammad 11

6. Sha'bi "

7. Milsa Ibn Talhah 19 8~ Qiidhi Shurayh 20

9. Rablah "

10. Abu 'Ubnidab 22

II. Ibn Abi A v.Ifa tIJ;, ~3

,

)J! o~J ~~ ~t~ .. ~ o_,_:U .v-J~~)IJ tit. ~I J~) ulS :~ <.f~~',;.r

~ ~~1 ~J.t ~ ~J LrJ ~\ t) '.~ .Jl~T I.!J~} o~J ;;~

Ibn 'Umar ~ narrates that Rasulullah iiJ, had 3 topis: (from amongst 'hem was) a green-striped topi of Yemeni material. 9

Abdullah Ibn ' A'YIn also wore a similar topi, 10

.-

Jlj~' JU-; ~ 11 Y'r~/' Y' ~.4\ 12 t r-iJ 1I_,s.~l ~le" ~ ~.2i.:H _,.. .u J t.b. ~_~ ..I.!-t "C AAly ~I 13 "rV T I \ I &1. ~..._... d.p J :..ru!J.l Jli J (01\ 11) A'''' ~ U:W tJJb:r.J1 .IJJ J-t YVT/r ~:,.u tS~l ~\ I' \ \0/0 ~~~\ '-;-'~ td

~ An Jkrj -Ju..J J \ t t/o ~ ~I 11 ~I J~) ""k.; J y, t/, .J...,... ~, JI ~U; ~u... J' J '1 Q/ 0 ~ ~\ 19 ~J.~ ••• 3,1\ Jb, J ~~ J J \ ~ I I, ~ .jf1 20 Y' l/\ t ~I 21 Trv!, J,..... Vt1ll

~ • .,h J~J 4l~ J J ,rv/, ~ ..,.' J "(".v/, ~ ~[~'1 U'I .. a"U ' W ~).) J , '\I\/V JA..p .;.nl (j

~ ~jJ J l,\A/v ~ ~l7

It r/\ 'i J~ 'JJt),..1 t t ~J II~~\ ~\t ~ J~<!\ _,..) , • l rf ~I L.J~~ ~ ~I Jot~ 9 4) U ~ r$ J~' J\i t.J.J..;tI J~ ~ i ~ u; .Jl. J J \ 'i ,.J V .J.a...- .jI\ ] 0

'.,

74

The Crown 01 q Believer

..........

The Croyvn of a Believer

75

D. A leather toni 11 (j,\t"~I)

A similar narration is reported by 'A.ishah .tI.,29

Ibn ~Abbas. narrates:

'" .

• Abdur Rahman Ibn Yazld and Abu Mushir ":»1 4A'"') are also narrated

to have worn similar topls."

I

F. A Fox-ski~ to~i !ylA!lt)_

....

~:;~ l&J ~l,( ) -J _,br ~r - .hlri o~ ~ ~, J~) 0l)

Nabl A had a leather topi, which had a hole in it.2S

Abu Salit ~ also reported seeing Nabi ~ wearing a leather topi, 26 A leather topi was also worn by Nitti' Ibn Jubayr Ibn Mut'im, 27

I

A topi of fox-skin or lined with fox-skin was worn by:

1. Dhahh§.k J 1

2. Abu) ~ Aliyah 32

'\

3, Ibrahim An-Nakha't 33 ~I ~J

Ibrahim An-Nakha'I also wore a topi of sable, 34

I

E~ A Sham! (Syrian) topi

Note: Any animal skins to be worn will first have to be tanned and will thus be rendered tahir (pure), Pigskin however, cannot be, worn even if it is tanned.

Abu Hurairah ~ narrates:

y~ ~t.j;r!~ ¢,,_:.l; ~ J S. ~\ J P.J ~f.J

G. ~ Misri (Egyntian) toui

'I saw Rasulullah D wearing a white Syrian tOPI,2~

A Misri top! is reported to have been worn by:

It Ali ~ 3' ~

..

, y ~I V .Jt.l)'1 .j \jS' r~~U,H J J.iL.,.. ';\ ., r' _,A:J\...-JI Jli. , · t ~ t.iI' "1, JlI 2P t r l/rr ~.) tf.J\; J ~ ,'L JL,..J ,,,It .. ; J \ vol, ~ ~I J 'f ~ vl» ~ -Jl ~') i __ i· ,t, JU

~"z JA .Jl_,p J J t 'il L :t ~ y~ ,:i~ J' ~\ Jl

cr .,h Ju,,; ,.Jl_,.,.J.) A"(/v J.A..." v' J '\ Y/Y ~ ~I ~'.J ' .+ ~tl32

J JJ.# ~ J ~, '-tt 'Jl ~~\ Jl:-r ~ .j~ ) J "",vi, J.A.." ~1 JJ ~ d,1\ Jb--J ~b..J J "rAV!' ~ cJfl J 1,1, ~~ -wt;.,l) ~i·~\ Jot ...;.~ 4~ J Y 'f' ,,.. .h..,..i ..ji I lS

.. ,

76 The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

77

2. Abu Darda ~ lG

3. 'Umar Ibn ~ Abdul ~ Aziz 37 4t Makhtll JB

5. Raja Ibn Haywah 39

6~ Mayman Ibn Mahran 40

~

7 ~ ~ Ali Ibn Husain 41 ~, ~ J

Note: While dreams, even of great 'ulamalike 'Allamah AI-R4£i'i do not constitute proof in Shari' ali (Islamic Law» yet it helps confirm that what seemed a mistake was really one,

H. A Turldsh top' vL.;J I)

The wearing of an Egyptian topi has been attributed to Nabi it in the book 'Subulul Rudel' (VoL 7 Pg, 284).but it seems to be an error as

the same hadith appears in other booksf with the word _../

~~( double-layered) in place of ~~ (Egyptian).

And Allah knows best.

A Turkish topi was worn by:

. ...

1. AyyUb Sakhtiyani 44 .:u, ..r J

We were unable to find an exact description- of the Turkish topis WO~ at that time, however the former Grand Mufti of Pakistan,

"\

Mufti Muhammad Shafi' Ab1 ~ J passed the following fatwa·

regarding the Turkish topis presently being worn in the Indo-Pak sub

4

continent:

" It is permissible to wear a Turkish topi when not in salah, however the' 'Drama should preferably not wear it. It is inappropriate to perform or lead the salah wearing one, as firstly, it is completely red. The preferred ruling regarding completely red clothing is that it is makrQh t anzi hi. Secondly, this topi is generally worn in our country by those who don't follow a mazhab.' 46

(The above 11la$ written in the first edition while the following paragraph has been added 10 this edition)

I later found that Shaikh 'Abdul Karim Ar-Rafi'! mentioned in his book UAt~ Tadwin fi Akbari Qazwin" that he saw Ibn ~ Abbas ~ in a

dream and asked him whether the topi of Nabi ta was ~.r'u (double-

layered) or was it ~_r2A(Egyptian) as certain people claim? Ibn 'Abbas ~ answered that it was~~(double-layered).4J

\ 'VIA ~w.. ~\ J6

t\j'\v J rv-lv- ~~ Cf..Jt;37

r.... j, .. .. · 1· 31

.. t "t~.l ~.)\J

rr.. I.... .. " .! ~ 39

1 \" ~ I ~,) t:j)U

r ..... /, ... ~ . 1- 40

, ' '~J C"!J .....

~~.r ..Ju....J J ssl« =- ... ~ ~l.jl~ , ;~d ,\I oil

r v "\/ Y JLC....-)r\ ~ .:r ~_J, J , • tc.r'~' J~r 42 t • a 1\ ,JlJjt J~r L) ~jJ:J\ 43

If any of these two negative aspects are found, then one should refrain from wearing these topis, If, however no such drawbacks exist, then there will be nothing wrong in wearing a Turkish topl,

rAY I A ~jJj r ":, .... ;'11 t}.J I; J \ t I r ,J-J J ~l ~ 1,1, , • v'" ~J.U [t..E.JJ\ .. ,

\ o~/" ( YftA J~ ) r_;..J1 )) (Sj.:i I "A \/Y (y) ~I lL.ui ~

78

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The Crown of a Believer

79

This was also mentioned by Mufti Kifayatullah" and Mouland

~ \

Rashid Ahmad Ganghohi ~, \ .. ,~ J .48

s. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal '4 6t Rabt'ah Ar-Ra~i ss

...

7. Ibrahim An-Nakha'I S6.»~~..J

I. A thick double-lavered topi with nadding in-

s ~

between (4 ~h 14 d..t.r%1,A a rli)

m~. III iidIIb .,....;

J. A buttoned to}!i {O ~~\ l 'Allamah Zhahabi narrates:

: 4'it O.J.,... ~ 4. t uP J ..._.c:. tJ. ~ ~ Y'

.)I~~' ,.:JlJ~ J ~IJJJ)I J ~I c,rJ~\ ~ 0lS' 13 ~, J'>-J u!

Ibn ~Abbas ~ .has narrated that Nabi 8 had 3 tapis: A white, double-layered tept, a green-striped topi of Yemeni cloth and one with earflaps. ~9

"Nabi A used to wear white topis as well as buttoned ones and also topls with earflaps. "'7

{This is a very weak narration)

Anas Ibn Malik qp, was also seen wearing a buttoned topi."

This type of topi was also worn by: 1. Anas Ibn Malik ~ ~o

2, 'Uthman 4;0 '1

3. AbO Darda ~ 'sl

ft

4. Abul to Aliyah '1

'Uthman ~ would wear a topi which was (strapped and) buttoned around his neck."

'. ,

, t)f'/~ (J)jl) ~u ~liS" .7 til. t' ~ ""~J ~~\J • ~vy vP (J).}) ~¥; (j"J\:i 148 c)\j;J)! J .,S\ .... ~· .jil J!t;. ~\; ;J J T ~J IlvA:I~' ...,,~I' ~ _,. .;; J \ t l~ ~I J~~ J ~\ .;it .&SJ u.u- .. ~ L) ~j"I'.r '~JJ Jill :JuLL1 Jt; J (0''\ ~ r') ~ rJJ~1 '\J) SO

~ .;.,_.;li ~ .:JIS v ~J \, q/fI,. ~ .. \ .. :H J C;b151 ,\~n J-Li "~tl , ~ v I A '?~..Jt1 x,s. JJ J .?~ ~1 ~ t.v.JJ\ 52 cr "" JL..oJ 4J~.J J ,,, ./y ~ wi ~)' c..J' Ash I\r/v J.....- v' '1

Y I a./ \ \ ")I~l rjs~ po# s.&

T r ,I, t ,"",*$ .. \\ S5

~ ... ,i\ JbrJ ,.J~J J 'f nV/' ~ ~\ ss .Y- 1..iA ~\s. !~\ JU; \J~ ~ r-"~ ..; J t, \..." ;; ~ ~ ~jJi .J JJ~ :S 1 ~ J fl....J ~ 1 Jl 'f hoI v ,.s J.l\ Jr-- .J ~ \.!J\ .\j'" J . ....,.is:J~ ~ ~ rJl Trr/,. _,...n.,,:J, ~ IJ~ ~ ~ ~ t.tJJ' ~ ~iUll ~ tj .J,..~ r

~~, ~"JI"""_' Y J Y hoi, W;;5J1 ~1 ~ ~\ J \ '\ ~1\ O\j)\ ~ 51 tS~l, ~~ f~ .)Ii JU .

\ '. ,I ~ J.u.:Ji J C';"! 19

j

, .

. 80

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The Crown of a Believer

81

M. E~broidered toulS

Kti Thin TOl!is

The following personalities are narrated to have worn embroidered topis:

Thin topls were worn by:

1~ ~Ali ~ 60

2. \ Abdullah Ibn' Urnar ~ 61

3. Hammad Ibn Zayd 61

4. Sa'td Ibnul Musayyab 63

5. Anas Ibn Sinn 64

6. 'Abdullah Ibn 'Awn 6~11 ~J

1. Al .. Mas~Od168

2. Said Ibn Abul Hasan 69

,

3. Abu Qursafah 70~, ~ J

J

The great Khalifah, Harlin Ar-Rashid, used to wear a topi on which was ascribed:

~L.- 1'-"

"I am a warrior; I am a pilgrim" 71

L. Cotton Topls

Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal ~1 ..r.) wore a cotton topi. 66

N. The Tagfyyab (4)\1.1')

'"

.. Allarnah SuyCiti -»1 ~ J writes: "It seems that the topi generally worn

by Nabi .b was of cotton or of wool." 67 .

The Taqiyyah is a white cotton .. skullcap. The Egyptians also call it the Arraqiyyah (~~). It came into vogue before 100 A.H. but gained

popularity much later, especially in Egypt. .

The following personalities were accustomed to wearing it: ] . Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Al-Baghdadi 71

2. Mahmud Diwan ?3

3. Ibrahim Ar-Raqi (702 AH) 74

..

~ ~I Jli. J ,.J~J J rf/r J.A- ~I 60 ~ .. ;\; J ,f\A/V ~ ~1 61

~ ,\1 JI..lIt'- J .u\.=J..) J Y \ t Iv JA...,. ~~ 61 ~?r ~u..J J , • O}I;> J.A.- ~,6J

i;; ~J'.J J \" A I v ..l.-..... ~, " ~ '-i.J~J J 'l4.J\/V ~ ~\6S T ~ -., \ \ jJ~1 f)Y:.' ,PwI 66

A r /, tS Jl:AU ~ Jtj..i 67

.

~l..t ..j\.:t.- J J ,..,." I,. ~I 6. ~~ dl;... J J \ rrl» ..h- ~ ~ ,o,/r ~~ Jl.)! U_,.... )JWI 70

, • ,/, • I$ .. ~.~b.n ~.J\.;' 71 ,r AO/ t ~w..1 .}"' j; • to,/, t ~, n , • 0 I, ~ \Jt ~ ~I-'.!\ .JJ"'u\ 7 J

82

The .crown of a BeljeveJ:

4. Ibn Wazir (730 AH)"

5. Abu] Fayyadh Al-Jamali (783AH) 76

6. 'Abdul Qadir Dowst Jiri (561 AH) 77

7. Ibn Nahhas (698 A.H ) 78

"-

84 Hafiz Abu Zakarlya (+- 700 A. H) 79 ~\ ~ .J

,.

The taqlyyah of 'Allarnah Ibn Taymiyah ':»1.. ;....) was sold for 500

dirhams (silver coins), after his death. so

O. A to~i of felt {~l,1h )

,

The great scholar, Ibn' Abdus Salam, is reported to have wpm a topi of white felt. 8l

· 7~

\T/' ~ ~'¥ ~~~J)J.h

lll/O ~ .J~ l;...~,n JJJJ~ 's Ott /0 ~ ~'j ~l.<J\ .JJJJ~ 16

t t ~/'l to '"~\ (~{ Y 77

,rv/,. 'W"~.iil tp!J' ~ '8 (' 0 t) ~ jJ\ J> r.) ~ fo\ yt:) 79 \ f\J' t ~~;.n J ~\~, 80

.. I • t\ 8 L

y .. ~ ............. J~

The Crown of a Believer

83

P. A toni with holes

In spite of an exhaustive search we were unable to find any mention of a topi with many holes pierced in it. However 'Abdullah Ibn , Abbas 0 narrates:

'''RasCilullBh. had a topi of leather, which had a hole in it," W2

l

The great scholar, Abu Bakr Ibn l Arabi: ~,.. Jr- J has written in his

....

commentary of Tirmizi, .. Aridhatul Ahwazhl:

"The ruling regarding topis is that they should be fiat, not domed, however if one feels that he needs to protect his head from the steam rising from it by making the topi dome-shaped with holes in it, then this can be done as a medical remedy and should not be done out of pride or to distinguish oneself from others." tJ

However, as already mentioned, wearing any type of topi will, insha Allah, allow-one to accrue the reward of practising on the Sunnah of wearing a topi ..

84 The Crown of a Believer

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85

Q. Hard topis

It would only have been possible to lift the turban off the head without it unravelling, it" the topi on which it was tied was made of a finn material.

In addition to wearing tapis of soft material it was the practice of Nabi if, and the Sahabah ~ to wear topts of hard material. This may be deduced from the following:

• 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abbas 4~~ mentions that Rasulullah fi had a topi of leather, 84

• The many narrations showing the wearing of thick topis, containing padding and an inner lining.

• The narrations concerning the high topis worn by our Salafus Salih also indicate that those topls were of firm and solid materials thereby enabling them to stand up high and not fall

This is also borne out by the following statement of Shaikh Ibn

~ Arabi :t "A turban without a topi underneath is not very stable as it could unravel especially during wudhu By tying it on a topi,

the turban becomes steady and its shape is greatly enhanced." 89

In.

• The use of the topi as a sutrah (barrier) also bears out the same point.

• The hadlth of Anas Ibn Malik ~ that when performing wudhfi, Nabi • would lift up his turban and make masah underneath it, without the turban unravelling. 81

..

• A hadith to this effect, narrated by 'Ata .:u, ~..J' ss

• Lifting the turban and making masah beneath it has also been narrated as the practice of;

1. Ibn 'Umar ~ In

\

2. Ibrahim An-Nakha'13K~\ ~J

...

These benefits mentioned by ,. Allamah Ibn .. Arabi 4»' ~ J can only be

accrued if the topi is hard. A turban on a soft topi normally unravels when the topi is removed and doesn't really improve the shape .

Y A tl v I.SJ.J., ~ ~ \..is' • ~JI; ~ IJ))~~ .r=L' Jll .1J) '" ~ .til Y J ,'\, I, r-S'"\J;. \ * (0' t) t, W"'" QV ~ I , (\ tV) \' ..t" ;. Jb J/1 I~ tCW .tti ~JJ.:.1' J l y:' ..tet u. .... )'..,_ ;/J J J~ .~ ~JJ.u ~ , \/\ ~I Jli l~ ,\I Jt"..; ~~.J J ":J-.,r r,/, v tJt ~116 .~;i-.u ~~ lJ ~r~ .~ I)l:..,.! :...;J..; ~ ~)~T ~ ~I J\i J' Iv/\ ~ ~ ~.)WI17

,,~""'l J~J ol,\,.". J) -r,J, ~ ~~~, I' T I r I \ In .. ..!J1 ..,u. ~ .Jl!l.1 cr- ~ ,. y:. ~~ i -1: ; 't J ~ t t.1 v ~ ~ .r: \1\ .... ;Lt. I~

.',

86

The Crown of a Believer

The Khalifah's tolerance

Ubaidullah ibn Sulaiman, the minister of the Khalifah Al-Mu'tadhid, mentions:

I was once in the presence of the Khalifah while a servant was swatting the flies that were around him. A sudden slip of the hand caused the swatter to knock off the Khalifah's topi. I watched with a deep sense of foreboding growing within me, fearing the consequences of this deadly blunder,

However, the Khalifah simply placed the topi back on his head and said to the other servants, "Tell this unfortunate one to take a rest. It seems that we caught him dozing. In the future, increase the number of servants appointed to operate the fly-swatters, n

The Minister says that I then began praising the Khalifah and thanking him for his tolerance, but he simply replied, "This poor soul did not do it willfully, he just happened to doze off.

The CrO\\fI1 of a Believer 87

Punishment and reproach are only tor one who intentionally commits a wrong not for one who blunders or errs. "90

Mujalid says: I once asked Sha'bi the reason for it being popular amongst the people that Qadhi Shurayh is craftier and wilier than a fox, Sha'bi replied: The reason is that when Shurayh would go out (in the fields) to perform salah a fox would stand. in front. of him and imitate him, thus distracting him from his salah. When this became too much for Shurayh, he removed him kurta and placed it on a pole, putting his turban and topi on top of it (thus creating a dummyj.The fox came and stood in front as normal and thus wasn't prepared for Shurayh who caught him from behind. This is why he is said to be craftier and wilier than a fox. (Tahzibul Kamal VoL 12 Pg4 444)

----------------------------------~---------~

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The Crown of a Believer 89

Although it was the practice of Rasululiah f3 and the Sahiibah ~ to cover their heads at all times, special emphasis was given to covering the head during the following occasions:

This shows us that performing salah with the head covered was the practice of all the Salafus-Salih (pious predecessors).

Nnarrations explicitly mentioning that the following great personalities were seen performing salah with their heads covered:

When should the topi be worn?

1 t 'Abdullah Ibn' Umar * 5 24 Suwayd Ibn Gafalah ~ 6 '

3. Shurayh ?

4. to Alqamah g

5. Aswad 9

6. Masruq 10

7. Abu Mushir IJ

8. 'Abdur Rahman Ibn Yazld 12 9t Sa'td Ibn Jubayr ])

10. Ahmad Ibn Abi Hawari ltl 1 I. SaJ im Ibn 'Abdul lah 15 12. \ Amir Ibn ~ Abdullah 16

to

Imam B ukhart, ..:ul U!r-- J in his Sahih, mentions the statement 0 f Hasan

to

B .A. ~

asn AlJ' 4J't-.J :

0) ... ·l.ill J ~L...J~ Js 0J~ r _,AJI ~t)

"The Sahabah ~ would perform sajdah (prostrate) on turbans and

topis." 1 .

Wail Ibn Hujr ~ mentions that he performed salah with Nab} t», and the Sahabah ~ who were wearing burnuses (i.e. covering their heads

with hoods). 2 ~

of'

~lpW! J 0 ,vIr u~l ~;\i .j ~ ..ttl J (' or1) "1 ~ .... ~ ~\J. ~i ~\J) " t~;t. jA ~I.,.. J :rr'" Y , } ~ lJ ~ J\i J ~,. J c:- ..JI Jl".,. J ,.J~ J) \ 'f\ I t ..u_. .)1\ ' I.J~,.. ~~J J \ rrl« ..u....- ~I fi ~~\ Jl=. J •• ,JtJlr'.) ) \ '\ ~ /, .JA..- .,J.\ ) y" v I, ., .. !- !J~ ~ 'J ._;r .all' ~ ,\1 Jl. J .JL...) J \ 0 Y " "u_.. ~I .J Y G"A/' .~ IJI .;).""i '_f' ..JI I ce- 1M Jb- J ..JL. J J 'f ~ v/l ~_::. ... 1 .j! '.J I. (+ ,\1 .) ,rv/, .J.......o -.)1\ !oWl

e=--"'~1 J\.:..J ~~J) ''r~/'' ~ -.Jl' J Y~A/, ~._..t ~'J L;" ,u to IT't/rr ~.)~ .. }; 11 ~ .}\ J L-,. J .u~.) J 'V 0 I, ~ ~\ J ':" V! \ ~ \f ~ ;;t 'Y ~J' ..d' 12 er,,-..:JI Jbr.J .;~ J J Y '''/, ~ ~[ ~~ t i.~ ... 'Z\1 13 ,y alt ~ ~.l ~J\.t 14

~ r .s_,LJ~ ~j ~ l.,..L.~ Y _, ~ ~ AI, ~ Wr .;,tl ) 'f • Y Ir ~L1~ "'" J~ is

,

Ibrahim An-Nakha'I .», ~J mentions that it was the practice of the

Sahabah ~ to perform salah wearing bwnuses. )

.....

Faltan Ibn 'Asim ~ mentions that he found Nabi t3 and the Sahabah

~ performing salah wearing bumuses. 4

~)~i uUcW' iJl r~J ~ rr" J JIOO'~ )-1 ~~ ~ )~, y~ .. l.l.:W ti;~l I ;J .I;J\ f~ t~' iJ ~ ('f \A/\) ~ y~.:t\ ~) J:d.\J..~ J'; \..t~J .., r ".,..1)1 J~ ~! 191 J , .. ,J t ~I ~J t ~ -lv JU)L.Lr" J.!&. Y J (VY") , • 0 ~ Jjb.,.tf~ ~IJJ J t~ ~.)~~ ~~ Jli J Y'rr/\ ~~ ~\ 2 ~ "" J~ J .,1,..) J t • ,', u\j)~ J.pJ L c' jU J

90 The Crown of a Believer

13. 'Abdullah Ibn Mudrik li 14t Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal ]8

The Crown of a Believer 91

then in all these instances, it is maknih (reprehensible) to leave the head uncovered.

"II

15. Ibn 'Abdus Salam 19~1~) ,

The reason for the first instance being makruh is that he has adopted a habit that is not backed by any legitimate proof. Rather what he is doing is in direct contlict to what was the accepted practice from the beginning of Islam.

The Fatwa of Shaikh Rashid Ridha

,

The Egyptian scholar t Shaikh Rashid Ridha, the, author of '~afs~rul Manar' who in spite of being very famous for hIS modem thinking, authored the following article, which was published in the Egyptian magazine 'AI-Manar'2U:

"While it could be considered correct to say that it is not Makruh (disliked in Shari'ah) to perform salah with the he~d unc,?veredt its not being MakrOh is only applicable when performing salah alone at horne without forming a habit of leaving the head uncovered!

As for one who: -

The second instance is Maknlh because he is opposing the majority, which is forbidden in Islam.

As for the third instance, it is Makriih because this person would be the cause of people falling into the sin of backbiting and this action will result in his becoming ill- reputed.

.i J J.i J ~ • ~. ~ J-$. ')'~ C7'" ,l~ Ju.. J ~.R~ J J \'" y, ~ J..J- ~ .l.")~ ]6 r t/rr J.!..tl C'JU l1 'f t ~/, \ i:~1 r)V.l p- l S

.. WJ\ 19

'fa~..... )~

. .• 1 "I""'U

0, oJ'" ..!.t~4~ J .:.;-- ~ •

As for the statement that it is sometimes better to perform saldh with the head uncovered as this leads to greater humility, this is nothing but expressing one's opinion in a matter of Shari' ah (Islamic Law) which does not accept anyone's subjective opinion (Some of OUf

jurists disagree with him on this point), This argument c~n be challenged by the fact that it actually leads to one adopting a resemblance to the Christians and others who are in the habit of praying with their heads uncovered and it is well known that we have been prevented from imitating them even in habits (not to speak of acts of worship),

It can also be countered by the fact that the accepted trend around us is that the proper attire to be adopted when visiting the .. Ulama and the pious, consists of (amongst others) a topi or turban."

A. Makes' a habit of leaving the head uncovered, or

B. Keeps his head uncovered when performing salah in jama' ah with others whose heads are covered, or

C. Insists on leaving his head uncovered in the masjid in ~el presence of such people who dislike this action of his and WII engage in his criticism

92

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.....

..... ....

The Crown of a Believer

~ ...

93

The Fatwii of 'AI/amah Kowthari

..

Imam Baihaqi ~,~) narrates that Nab! .t3 said: ..

"When performing salah, one should wear two items of clothing as the most deserving being for whom you should dress up, is Allah, " :n

The following is a summary of a fatwa by 'Allamah Muhammad Zahid Kowtharl e' ;.____r. J , a world-renowned Muhaddith and Faqih

who held a prominent post in the Ottoman Khilafah in Turkey and who later went on to emerge as one of the greatest scholars Egypt has ever seen.

...

Imam Baihaqi ~i .w--- J has also mentioned the following incident.

Nair lui oj ,?>. J, the slave of Ibn 'Umar ~ says that Ibn 'Umar ~ saw him performing salah wearing only one item .of clothing. He rebuked him saying, "Have I not given you clothing?" "Yes, you have!" replied Nitti'. "So who,') asked Ibn 'Umar ~ "has more right that you dress up well for him? Alldh Ta\§Ia or the people!" 22

It is on this basis, that the fuqaha (jurists) say that -it is Makruh (reprehensible) to perform salah wearing such clothing in which one would not normally present oneself in front of those whom he holds in high esteem.

,

, Allamah Kowthari ;:\)J J..r.) writes:

People often ask concerning the ruling of performing salah bareheaded without an excuse. This question has come to the fore, due to the emergence of a group who seem to take delight in denying those actions, which are accepted by the Muslims and have been passed down from generation to generation. They strive hard to cause discord in the masjid and greatly resemble the Khawarij (a deviant sect which emerged in the time of' Ali ~) in that they lay great stress 011 trivial matters while ignoring major issues.

There exists absoluteJy no doubt in the fact that it has always remained the practice of the Muslims not to appear bareheaded in front of those whom they respect. In the very same way 31 salah performed bareheaded would be reprehensible in the light of Shari'ah.

The ruling concerning the salfih of a person bareheaded without an excuse, it that it is valid if all the conditions and pre-requisites are 111et, however this is in direct conflict to what has remained the practice of all the Muslims throughout the ages.

It also entails emulation of the Christians in that they worship bareheaded, as is well known.

Allah Ta"tala has ordered the Muslims:

"Adopt clothing of beauty when performing salah'

y r,ly eS~! ..:r-Jl 21 Yf'/ty; ~fi:!1 ~, '12

Leaving the head uncovered is discarding this beauty.

94

.

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The Crown of a Believer 95

--.

'Allamah Kowthari 4U~.. 4"'-.J has also most graciously provided us

answers to a few doubts, which arise on this topic,

since we are ordered to cover them at all times, not only during salAh. 'B eauty' will therefore, in this case, have to mean something else viz, that. with which one beautifies hi m s el f." ,_~

A few doubts cleared

1. Misconception: The ayah "Adopt clothing of beauty when performing salah" was revealed to censure the disbelievers who would perform tawaf (circumambulate) around the Ka 'bah. naked and has nothing to do with covering the head.

Thus we can say without any doubt that the covering of the head is part of 'beauty' and this has always been the custom from the early days of Islam, It is for this reason that in no time or place has this ever been seen (in the past) that the Muslims are fanning the rows for salah, bareheaded, Anyone who denies this isjust being pigheaded. We hereby understand that there exists no proof at all to show that 'beauty' does not include covering the head.

Answer: It is a well .. known principle of Tafslr (commentary of the Qur' an) that an ayah is not restricted to the particular incident concerning which it was reveaJed. Rather it would encompass all such situations that fall under its scope. Therefore we find all the rnazhahib are unanimous on the point that it is mustahab (preferable) to wear a' topi (or turban), upper garment and lower

garment when in salah, This is mentioned by 11110.111 Nawawi tV. ..... )

, ~

~1 in AI- Majmu ~ and by ~ Allamah Halbi 4Ul. ~ J in Sharhul

MUllyah.2l

3~ Misconception: It is Sunnah to perform salah bareheaded as Nabl A performed salah without a topi, It is reported that he would remove his topi and place it as a sutrah (barrier) in front of him during salah,

Answer: 'Allamah Aba. Hayyan, the renowned Mufassir (commentator of the Qur' an), has beautifully explained this point in the following manner: ..

"The order to adopt 'beauty', in this ayah, is specific to salah. Therefore 'beauty' cannot refer to covering the private parts

.

.

Answer: It is mentioned in Sharhush Shamail and other books that

this narration is weak; therefore no attention.should be given to it It has not been mentioned in any of the reliable collections of hadith, so how can it contest the covering of the head in salah, which has remained the accepted practice of the Muslims throughout the ages! Yes) we do find that Hadhrat 'Umar ~ would stop the women slaves from covering their heads, so those who insist on keeping their heads open" probably count themselves among the women slaves and would like to emulate them during salah, as this is not becoming of men,

2. Misconception: The ayah concerns covering the private parts, not

the head.

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97

(If we do accept that Nabi ~ used his topi as a sutrah, then we find that "Allflmah Munawi has mentioned that this was at all instance when Nabi $ did not have anything else to use as a sutrah, 2!j This was done to show that it is permissible to perform salah without a topi, even though this would be makrfih for us, not for Nabi ~. This is similar to the instances where Nabi iID\ urinated or drank standing. These actions are makrfih for us, but were carried out by Nabi t3 to show that they are not hararn, The paragraph between the parentheses is by the author not by "Allimiah. Kousthart)

B. When entering the ,toilet

...

Imam Baihaqi ,:u, 4r.) mentions:

~fJ ~ ~~1 ~.) loll Jj, wts"" :~IJ J/{c ~~ .;.r ~{J ~ ~{ ui( ~~l J

,IIi,

~ Aishah $ narrates that when Nabi 8 'entered the toilet he would

cover his head. 27

4. Misconception: The head' is left uncovered during Haj; there should therefore be nothing wrong with leaving it uncovered during sal ah.

,

Imam Baihaqi ~\ ~ J also reports:

, ~

.'~, J>~ 1~1 t3 ~1 JpJ v~ :~ .r' ;3J, ~ J t~ LJI '-;a ::- r:/

~tJ ~ J o~kl:- u-J

Answer: Haj is a unique act of worship performed at a specific time and place; therefore leaving of the head uncovered at other times cannot be established from it.

'\

Habib IbnSalih ~! II ~ J reports that when Nabi • entered the toilet,

.

he would wear shoes and cover his head 28

The gist is that it is not proven that Nabi tj, ever performed salah bareheaded without an excuse, whereas leaving the head uncovered when praying is the habit of the Christians, 26

(V' -\A) ~.UIl\ ~ 15 \ V t V'" t;} fJ' ~~w 26

~.Ji ~ ~ .> ;:;~ 1.,. ~~ ~JJ_I u...~ :Jli J 1\" , ~_pS:J~ ~I tj ~I ~'J) Z7

. ~

J'.i' t tl ••• J·\:""'1~ li.4 ~I pi.; .LJJ w.e.' ~ U.i\J :000/ v I.jJrs. ~i Jli J .~\

.u_,t" ~J_.~l ¥\ Jij. .J,.. : .. ~ ~~, ~.,u.. lJ ,\ r /Y trA'L} rJu:1' ~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~I; J (\ ~"o) ~\ y15 ~ ~i.r~1 ~, ~ ~l ~)l ~~ ~1 t~\ ,U .:,\ fJ,ii -* ,0,.,/ V 4.,U-\ cj ~ IJI J:J,

.., ~ ici\ Jli ) I ~ r tL,., ~ ' ...... ~ 4.,/ , ,-,,~I~' ~ ~\ "J) 21 ~ c; J~LtlZ J • ,_t", ,," :~ J\i ig\ ¥ ~ ~ Jil y ! (' , , V)..t.J..dl ~

J J, ~, J Jw)' .!..tJJ.' ~, ,)s- ,.'-.J.J\ ~ -U) ~Ju J \ vrl y ~\

~ .4:-- I~ J III' i-l .. ;t".~ J J~~' JrL;d ~ ~ ~~ J _,i}' "._:.iJ ~ ~~ :~\ JLi ",It (J"jlyJ~ JU J

98

The Crown of a Beli ever

The Crown of a Believer 99

..

Imam Abdur Razzaq ~, ~ J reports:

~~, ~))r I)\i ~, ,y '~1r.: ~ ~ y.J Jti :..:Ju ~ ~lP Y

1I._p.. J ~ ~11/ ~ly- V""'f.) eU

thereby allowing quicker emerging of faeces, It also prevents the bad smell of the toilet from getting onto the hair. The 'Ulama of Tasawwuf maintain that it is necessary for a person to be respectful, shy and concealed when answering the call of nature. ,:.

A highly authentic narration of Sahihul Bukhan also shows that covering the head while answering the call of nature was a norm in the time of the Sahabah ;J;;,.32

~ Aishah ~ narrates that Abu Bakr ~ said: "Show respect in front of Allah, for I certainly cover my head when entering the toilet, due to respect for Allah." 19

C, When eatin!:

I

Covering the head with a topi when entering the toilet has also been

narrated from:

I. Anas Ibn Malik ~ 30

2t Aba Mils§. Ash' ari ~ JJ

Farrqad G narrates:

i Allamah Munawl writes in his famous commentary 'Faidhul Qadir' (Hadith nOt6667), explaining the reason for Nabi i3 covering his head upon entering the toilet:

t,,,...tJ ~.yl rW ~r b,.1J.1 ~l..'.ii Jt".. ..,..t) ~ iJ~J JI"U "-lJ .J' ~~

:~J~.n j,at Jll .~ J..; ,,~l Cj.J o~ ~ .)1 JL: ..... 'lJ ..:!.I~1 ~J~ JJ. ,. ~,,~b- t.r ~ ~ 'J L..} 0W~' u~ ~J

"It was done out of respect for Allah and because covering the head when answering the call of nature causes the pores to contract

"I ate with Rasulullah • and I saw a white topi placed on the centre of his head." 33

III!!o

~ Ai shah I/jj, narrates that Rasial ullah .. said:

..

UI eat in the manner a slave eats" 34

O~ lIT ~\.tr- .,\1 '\r- ~ ya J ulj) J.r t1)) J ,u~ ~ ( 1\0 l t) JI....JI F 29 CT-.....;P ~~ a,." \ ~\ Jl,; J f'1 '1/\ u-J' .~l j t~'~~ ~ Y J TAo/\ ~,<!1~1 ~ ~I J' ~.I\ J\j)\ ~ 30 ~.;I4 ~! t~ -"~ Jli ~ .u J\,..) .J~J J Y· y/\ J..I-~ JW\ J rtf\ ~ ~~ ~~ · ;" ,~h 11

, l V,f 4,.l_r .J..J. ...A..!~I ~.Jj., ;[ )~HJ ~ d'J v{ J.i ~ J (OVV) I$.)~\ r7~ 32 ~.l!' ~ ~ ...,..~! .. fj t,rl-' ~ r":)..,. -J .J....J! ~ l.i ., •. 11 .j ~, ~ I .i JJ 33 ~ -.:.~ ) Y t vi 0 ~\..,p)'1 cJ ~Y-l dZ J Y It. t/v ~ .l~! J ~ JI~ II)) :<\ f. Y' t) ~l,_) ~ Jli:W

100 The Crown of a Believer

It is therefore necessary for us to display our' humility and subservience to Allah Ta~ala while eating. Covering the head helps greatly in achieving this goal.

The Crown ofa Believer 1.01

It should be borne in mind that it is not forbidden to eat with the head uncovered, Many people greatly exceed the bounds by laying too much stress on this point, while others insist on leaving it out

completely. We are ~ J ~i i.e. Such a nation who neither exceed the

bounds nor do we exercise any deficiency in Din.

Covering the head on this occasion could also refer to wearing a scarf or shawl or even to covering ones body witha sheet

This is supported by another narration of Ummu Salamah ~ 31 and by an extremely weak narration of' Ai shah ijp, wherein she mentions:

"Whenever Nabi * cohabited with any of his wives he would cover his head witli. a shawl." 38

Imam GhaZ§11 l»1 ~) has also mentioned this in his Jhyd 'U/:uln Uddin (Vol. 2 Pg. 46).

-

E. When out in battle

D. When cohabiting

j

Ibn 'Abbas ~ mentions:

...

AbO. Nuaim ':»l 4r J reports:

..... 1) ~ ~')\j.1 j>:-.) 1~1 $ ~IS :~li *' CJl,c. L/' ~lJ ,p. ~~ til 1~! )

~ Aishah .;Go narrates that when Nab1 tj, entered the toilet he would cover his head and when cohabiting with his wives he would cover his head, J'

"Rasulullah til would wear a topi with earflaps when out in battle. "3~ Nabi $'s wearing a topi in battle has also-been narrated by:

1. .. Abdul Rahman Ibn Zayd ~ .w

\

2. Makhul " '»\~J

. .

3~ Wathilal: Ibnul Asqa~4:~ 42

..

Ummu Salamah ~ also narrates that Nabi ., would cover his head during cohabitation. 36

, tt~~1 J~~ J.:.C. • .1 d"J;B v-J y\,.- ~ J. -=';·\1 ..... J \ 0",1 V ~\ ~ ~ ~~ as (".,.r,) _.ll..YJ1 ~ J TV"" -J~~I .' i.w )~k ~J.;J,.1 .1); !JI~J Jti 36

f ~~ .JA J y~! ~~ J J.r- ~ J ,"\ Y I 0- >'..uJ' t:f.jt; 37 , u.. ~ t$~ '1\ rWi lJI J,.Jr 4J J , ~A vP ~1 d~{ 3B '1;i.4.,1J I y1, I\" tj f .Li J .fl_.$. cjl' 39 Y AV/ V tS-ll\ ~ ~ t.l5'" ,6;J\; ~ C;:J)'}lJ1111JJ 40 ~ .Jwrr..~ r ~.J (r. , 'r ~ )~\ .J J ;'-..J LiS'" ,4.;" 4 .. ~ .. ~ -J~ Uf' .t)J ~1 (., • ~ rv)~1)1J io!...tJb. Vi e--b,. ~ ~ J !I' i~1 :r t."lJJ

I 42

~1 Ju J ,l/yy ~I ~ y\.,oW\ J t· oj, ~ r--U rJ'JY-\ J VI+. t 0 .I~~' "

.. \·...;f~ r )~ J c.rJ.u.5J.u; ~ J \/,L;.,n.J~ J ~ Y (VI\. \ V) ~\ ~

".

102

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103

In the same way we find Imam Bukharl .&1 4i'- J narrating in his Sahib, from Anas G that when Nabi fA passed by the ruins of Thamiid, on the way to Tabuk, he covered his head (with his shawl) and quickened the pace of his conveyance. 43

2. Husain Ibn Ali ~ 41

3. KhaJid Ibnul Waltd tt, 48 4t Harlin Ar-Rashid 49

Hafiz Ibn Hajr ~I ~ J mentions the following incident.

Ja'far Ibn 'Abdullah narrates, that Khalid Ibn Walid ~ could not find his topi on. the d~y of the Battle of Yarmuk. He ordered the army to search for It but It could not be found. The search was repeated and it was :ventuaUy found. It turned out to be an old topr, Khdlid ~ explained that when Rasulullah 15\ shaved his hair off during 'umrah, people rushed to get the .hair from the side of his f3 head, while I managed to acquire the hair from just above the forehead. I then placed the hair in this topi, Whenever I participated in a battle keeping this topi with me, we were granted victory."

'II.

'Allimal} Tabarl ~l ~J narrates that the Khalifah Al-Ma'mun and

his entire army wore green attire; to such an extent that even their topis were green. so

There are many narrations showing that Nabi t3 covered his head with a helmet when in battle, however we have chosen not to include those nairations as the object it was protection and is thus out of the scope of our discussion.

F. When imparting knowledge

F

Wearing the topl in battle was the practice of many great personalities. From amongst them are:

1. 'Abdullah Ibnul Mubarak46.&1~;

'Umar 0 mentions that Rasiilullah at. was narrating a hadith to them dwing which he lifted up his head causing his topl to fall to the ground.

- The narrator mentions that it could refer to the topi of Rasulullah ~ or to the topi of 'Umar ~ ite. when 'Umar ~ narrated the hadith to his students he lifted his head up thereby causing his topi to fall to

the gro W1d:~H ,~ .

Mahmiid Ibn Labid 4;J, narrates that on the day of Badr,

RasUlullah J3 said: "The angels have adopted their insignia, so should also adopt yours." The Sahabah ~ then placed pieces of wool in their helmets and tapis, as distinguishing marks."

v ,,/ t D fl-$. ~, ~ v.. ; .J ,) ~\ ~~ ~ ~ ~{ ~l~I~ ...... c=- ',\\ ~\ Ju (t t , \) lJ'J6:.J\~ ~) ~ , J\ Jt.) .,Ju.-,) ) , • {) J ~ ~~ ~ cj \ p!aJ\ I l' " \ J , ; ~\ ; ~ I' ~I y ~l..P)f\ ~" ~jWl .j J_t:l. jA J ~J.il)~ '.il uU: .,.J~) J vol \ ~..1.I')J IJjW.1 J \ ,/ T .J.A..,. ~I .oI~

, 'vIr ~Lt'i' '-;a I t;. 46 l V ~ '"\ t/ ~~I f::j)\; J 'A" A 4.tt.a:J1 J ~L1J\ 47 ~ "n J~,J .Jl_,.p.J J , I, 0/ t ~\ rj ~,_tl:l~ * Y \ ,I, ~ _,.,i....J\ ~ ~ /i '\1 '( ~t.,~ 4.8 , · ,I, II c.';1J' ~J\i 49

. 1"" , t; pkll t!-J IJ SO

til

.~ Y ;;5' ~1 Jl.i ) t't .. ~~ ~ ~,.u.. ,..i.;. :Jli J ( , , t t)" ~ r +JI ~L pi .Ij) 51

104

The Crown of a Belieyg

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The Crown of a Believer ] 05

We learn from the above hadith that the topi was worn while imparting the knowledge of hadlth. This is because the knowledge of din is an extremely valuable and noble gift of Allah which demands utmost respect and honour ~

It was the practice of our Salafus Salih to cover their heads with both turbans and tapis when seeking the valuable knowledge of din.

II,

It is in the same light that we find Imam Mizzi ~1.t ... .J mentioning

'"

The great muhaddith, Hadhrat Shaikh Zakariya Khandehlawi ~, ~,)

writes in his commentary of Muatta Imam Mdlik, that when Imam

"II

Malik .nl ~ J was still very young and decided to set out in the search

of knowledge, his mother placed a longtopi on his head and tied a turban around it~ This then remained his practice throughout his life .. '4

,

regarding Imam Malik dit ~ J :

~t: ..:r-"" t ~ ) D')I.....Jl ()r..,..p) W, j ..!J~ c.;:; .Jt :II) III -!.U~ 01$" 4 1,; ... J Qrli ~.J

When Imam Malik ~1 4. ~ J intended to narrate hadith, he would

perform wudhu, wear his best clot~n~> wea,r a top. ,an~, CO~~ his beard. When asked the reason for doing this, be said: This is how I

show respect to the ahddtth ofRasCtlullclh &) .. " 52

,

Hafiz 1bn Hajr ~l 4r.J writes that it was the practice of Imam Muslim

, ....

~, ~ J to attend the lessons of his teacher) Imam Zuhali d1.t .".. J )

wearing a turban. ,,,

H. When ruling an~ passing judgements

G. :When seeking knowledge

lbn Mas~ud ~ narrated from Nabi ~ that MusS. B wore a to-pi when he spoke to Allah (and thereby received the knowledge of prophethood. )31

The wearing of the topi was not only the practice of the ~Uhlma and the pious but was also always held fast onto by the man on the street and by the leaders as well. We have been ordered by Nabi ~ to hold fast to the practices of the. Rightly -Guided Khulafiih (Islamic rulers). It was their practice to wear the topl, thus it would be our duty to hold fast to this Sunnah as well,

of'

Seeking knowledge demands great humility and respect and covering

the head is a great aid in achieving this. .

~I Y' ~J~.jli ~ ~tJJ! ljb yl ~ ~.ul ~ ~ It!JJ us:.- J :,-rt/ t c.l.p l$.,.,.,.. ... ~ }l.J.A Ju. J ~

rr LI' U,)l ~ J t.b.J\ j_.i 1» J ~ ~ J rA t/\ v JL . .s:H ~jJ 52

• ~ . SJ

~ ~~ o: 'SJ ~~ ~ ~~~..Ur- tl..:Jli ) (' vrt) v' fJ"-Utpl e'J)

• • - .._,;"'~ ~.b- _,A :(r-I t) li;tjJl JJi) ·tl"~f'~1

,. A t J, ~W! yb1 J I.J J')~ d")l,:. 'J ~\.!..1 ~ ".~ 1 G.J!...., 1 J \ ,}.. ~W';rr)\ 0 l;,4 ,,4 1. '\ \ ~ 'a$ Jl)1 ~ L.1U. ~ J U1 fS..I.' 55

106

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107

The following are a number of Khulafa (Islamic rulers) and judges

from whom wearing the topi is narrated:

1. 'Umar ~ 56

2. 'Uthman "

3. 'Ali ~ 58

4. .. Umar Ibn '- Abdul ~ Azlz ~9

5. Harlin Ar .. Rashid 60

6. AI-Muayyid 6J

7. Al .. Mu'tadhid 61

8. Aba Ja'far 63

9. Salahuddin AyyUbi 64 10. Qadhi Shurayh 6'

11~ Qadht Dhiya Uddin 66 12~ As-Saffar 61

13. Al-Juzhul G8

144 Ibrahim Ibnul Mahdi 69

15. Al .. Qaim Bi-Amrillah 70

16. Al-Musta'tn 71

17. AJ-Wathiq Billiih 72

18~ Muhammad Ibnul Wathiq 73

19. Al-Mamun 74

20. Al-Mansirr 75

21~ Abul 'Umaitir "

224 Marwan 77 •

'Allamah Firozdbddi has written that the judges of that time would wear a topi known as the Danniyah."

."i \, ./' .J~))! ~ LJ J Aviv ltLrlI ~~~I • rv/, y IJI ~\ 56 \ rvlv- ~) t-JI1 J \ \ ~I ~ j!J.o.:lI J c..f..1 ~7 cr ' '1 J~) ~u..) J "( T I r ~ ~, :S¥ T'r t/o ) I. t ry I y y\:l,\ .J )~ \;1 J r, lf 0 JA- -:,t' '9 , .. ,/, • ~..J=JI Cul; J '( ·,,1, I ~\ •• ,.-H J ~I.J.J\ 60 ,,/, V '"~\ r~~~ p- 61

'\ \/ \ , ~4:J\ J ~I~\ 61

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• 'C It. ,/y \ ,~I r~1 r 6-1

~ ,1\ JI.>. J ..Jb. J ) \ II. ~h ....... .:i J \ 00/\ r (}Jl,ll c:' 6S V \ ~ _,;.,y _,u Jl)~ 66

o \ vi \ t ,")I.;J~ r')lu:.' r 67

Y to '/r JI~ ~JU' 6~

..

f\ rIA )I~ ~)\; (,9 t : y / ~ ,)\...l.iy dJ li 10 Y I 01, \ I$;.J.JI f:jJU 71 \ t:if \ , t.<#~ ~Jt 12 \ ttl/ \ \ 1$ pkJl t'J..Jt; 7.\

r/\ , ~~\ ~Jli 14 T ~ vI '\ ~~I t..J1,;_75 r TIt r ... ~ ~ l; 7G

~ ~ .. .J

r~ r/' yl!ll J J~~q 77

~,...w, 78

, ,

__ .. -----------------------------------------------

108

The Crown of a Believer

The Crown of a Believer

109

lac ..........

.....

'\

~ Allamah Ibn Hajr Al-Haitami 4U1 4K- J writes;

Taqannu'

Taqannu' is the covering of the head and a portion of the face with a scarf, shawl or similar item of clothing."

In addition to wearing a topi and tying a turban. it was the habit of Nabi &J and the Sahabah ~ to cover their heads with a shawl.

My dearest colleague. Mufti Muhammad Amln Qasim greatly eased my task by' collecting Ahadith concerning the taqannu' ofRasiilulldh ~. These number approximately twenty narrations from about thirteen different Sahabah ~4 If the narrations concerning the taqannu' of the Sahabah ~ are gathered. the number is sure to go

into the hundreds.

'" Taqannu' is to place a sheet of cloth on top of the topi or turban. This will be used to cover part of the face and would then be wrapped under the chin and thrown onto the shoulders. All 'Ulama agree that this act is desirable in .Shariah, in fact it is greatly emphasised upon during salah and when attending jumu' all and other public functions. A number of authentic ahidith have been narrated concerning this action, its benefits and encouragement towards adopting it. This has also been narrated from a large number of Sahabah ~ and other Salafus S4lih. n 81

. Nabi 13 is reported to have mentioned regarding it:

" This is an item of clothing for which sufficient gratitude has not been expressed." 83

We will suffice on the following narration of Anas $:

Nabi tj, is reported to have worn many different colour shawls viz, red, black, green etc.

These will, Jnsha Allah be discussed with greater detail in a future publication ...

"Nab} $ would practise taqannu' with great consistency and regularity?"

..

• Al1amah Suyiiti .1,1 ~.) has written that there exists no difference of opinion in accepting taqannu' to be Sunnah,"

YV tJ \ t ..sJ~' ~ I r· sl» ~,.,11 ~ ~li))l c.~ 19 ._s:j\...J..i .1.._!:. trli ~ ) '(0'/\ .1......:,.ri J r ./ JlUi ~ !Jl.;J1 10 tr: tr;,/o ~\ ~ Jr- ~~ ~ .1.Au. ,J J (\ '\ .lr ~~ t1"..J~) r\ 'I ..... ,,-:-,1}1 ~ ~\j.Jj~ t~ ~ t vrJ \ J;-JI ~ it

~

4.t l;.lJ I 11 .~ ~ ~ ~ J ('(vol, ~) J (Yr~/v) &' rJ J1il).., • .f~ J rovJ\ ~ Ioit' 8J

.-,

110

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The Crown of a Believer

111

Conclusion

We can now conclude that

• The topi is definitely a SUJUlah of Rasulullah ta, . ..

• It has remained the practice of the Sahabah ~, Tabi' in and our pious predecessors right until our times.

• The Sunnah of covering the head will be fulfilled by any type of to pi, regardless of its colour, material or style, as long as it doesnot entail emulation of the Kuffar or fall under any other prohibition in Shari' ah (Islamic Law).

• The topi should be worn at all times with special emphasis gi yen to wearing it during Salah.

• Even more virtuous than donning a topi alone, is tying a turban on it. We should all endeavour to revive this Sunnah in our lives.

~ J)!d ~ ~ ~.J , \.:l1J. 4J !oJ J:r L. J; 4J ~~, ~ uL<.. _,(lr r

..

, t • " lj.rJ.l J~~ , ,t 'A i,:.lJ\~' J1.), ~J~B fi..Tr" c:;.'Y ~.r.1J' J!:-iU (Y \ t , r ::;_JJ\ ~I )J I ~J.i\ll 0lr- oJr~ .kJ:1 ~I (r'

~.,J' yl,:.(j1 JI~ • ~.).II p-.A; (t \ f • r ~1 J L., t ~",.JJ J.,.~J .JJJ~ (0

MayAJ/ah grant us all the ability to practise on every 51 unn ah and to realise the Truthfrom Falsehood. We ask Allah to accept this work and make it a means of salvation for the author, his family and tile

Ummah at large. .

\.v- J? J ~~\;o-~\ '-:- ~S'

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