3

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E| :icuienIe cccumenIc e:Ic e|cLc(ccc ccn e| fin ce e:IcL|ece( cuc|e: :cn
|c: fc||c: mc: impc(IcnIe: cue :e encuenI(cn en un necccic cecicccc c|
:e(vicic ce FC´:. ccn inIe(neI.
E| p(ccecimienIc fue :enci||c. e: ceci(. :c|c :e (eccpi|c(cn ccIc: pc(c
(ec|izc(. en p(ime( |ucc( un invenIc(ic ce Iccc: |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc: ccn |c:
cue e| necccic ccnIc(c. pc(c cue ce e:Ie mccc :e pucie(c (ec|izc( un
invenIc(ic je(c(cuizccc ccnce :e e:pecificc(cn cuc|e: e(cn |c: (ecu(:c
viIc|e:. impc(IcnIe: y I(ivic|e:.
E| :ecuncc punIc ce |c (eccpi|ccicn ce ccIc: fue e| ce e|cLc(c( un
cicc(cmc ce Fc(eIc e| cuc| nc: mc:I(c(c cuc|e: e(cn |c: ccu:c: p(incipc|e:
ce |c: fc||c: ce |c: FC´: y e:IcL|ece( :i (ec|menIe e(cn ccu:ccc: pc( |c:
(ecu(:c: viIc|e:.
Fc u|Iimc :e cic unc cu|c ccnce :e ceIe(minc |c: cccicne: p(evenIivc:
cue ceLe (ec|izc( e| encc(cccc ce| mcnIenimienIc c |c: FC´:. c|c(c e:Ic
nc :in cnIe: cc(|e unc |ecIu(c ccnce :e e:pecificcn Iccc: |c: ccncepIc:
ce |c: cuc|e: e:Icmc: hcL|cncc. e:Ic :e hcce ccn cLjeIivc ce cue e|
cpe(c(ic cue en e:Ie cc:c e: e| |ecIc( p(incipc|. puecc enIence( |c: cue e:
un invenIc(ic je(c(cuizccc. pc(c cue :e (ec|izc. pc(c cue :i(ve e| lCGM. pc(
cue un cicc(cmc ce Fc(eIc y cI(c ce Ccu:c-EfecIc.
IcmLién :e (ec|izc unc cu|c :cL(e ccmc (ec|zc( e| mcnIenimienIc ce|
(ecu(:c exIe(nc ce |c: FC´:. e: ceci(. :cL(e e| hc(cwc(e. ce icuc| mcne(c |e
hemc: cccc |c: he((cmienIc: Iec(icc: pc(c cue puecc ||evc( c cccLc e:Ie
mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc.
Fc( ú|Iimc e: impc(IcnIe (e:c|Ic( cue un mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc. cyucc
c e|iminc( pc(c: nc ce:eccc:. y pc( ence Iccc: |c: pé(cicc: cue ce e:Ie :e
puecen ce:c((c||c(. ce:ce pé(cicc: eccncmicc: hc:Ic pe(ce( c|ienIe:
f(ecuenIe:.




!NIEMIENIO DE !kO8EM

En Iccc :e(vicic hcy fc||c:. cue ceLen :e( (e:u|Ic: ce unc u cI(c mcne(c:
en e:Ie cc:c Ienemc: un |ccc| ccme(cic| cue cIc(cc un :e(vicic. :in
emLc(cc. hc Ienicc c|cunc: cificu|Icce:. e| :e(vicic cue cIc(cc ccn cccc
ccmpuIccc(c. hc icc cec(eciencc en :u cc|iccc.

Lc: (czcne: :cn vc(iccc: ce:ce inIe((upcicne: ce |c :enc| ce inIe(neI. hc:Ic
cic|ccc: ce |c mccuinc. hcciencc cue ceLc hcLe( unc :ecuencic
e((cnec ce| cpccc ce |c mccuinc. c|c(c e:Ic cue Iccc: e:Ic:
inIe((upcicne: ce| :e(vicic mc|e:Icn c| c|ienIe. ccemc: ce cue cc unc
mc|c imp(e:icn pue: pc(ecie(c cue |c: cuenc: nc pcnen cIencicn c :u
necccic.

Fc( |c IcnIc e| p(cL|emc funccmenIc|. e: |c cc|cc ce |c cc|iccc ce|
:e(vicic. ccu:ccc pc( un mc| funcicncmienIc ce| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc ce |c:
ccmpuIccc(c:. cccmpcnccc pc( |c mc|e:Iic ce| c|ienIe c| Iene( cue
e:pe(c( e| (einicic c cc((eccicn ce |c mccuinc cue ccupc(c.










O8JEIIVO$:

CLjeIivc cene(c|:

E|cLc(c( un mcnuc| :cL(e e| mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc ce ccmpuIccc(c:.
ce mccc cue :ec un he((cmienIc. úIi| y fcci| ce enIence(. e: ceci(. cue :ec
ccmp(encicc pc( e| u:uc(ic. pc(c cue e:Ie puecc cc(|e e| mcnIenimienIc
p(evenIivc nece:c(ic. pc(c eviIc( pc(c: nc ce:eccc:. c inIe((upcicne: ce
:e(vicic.

CLjeIivc: e:pec|ficc::
O #eccpi|c( ccIc: :cL(e |c: fc||c: y e| núme(c ce e:Ic: cue hc hcLicc
cu(cnIe un me:
1
.
O #ec|izc( un invenIc(ic je(c(cuizccc ce| (ecu(:c f|:icc.
O E:IcL|ece( cuc| e: |c (e|ccicn ce fc||c:. ccn e| c(ccc ce impc(Icncic
ce |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc: {Dicc(cmc ce Fc(eIc)
O #ec|izc( un cnc|i:i: ce |c: fc||c: funccmenIc|e:.
O E:pecificc( cue :e ceLe hcce( pc(c p(eveni( |c: fc||c:.







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Jb$IIFICCIÓN

Iccc mccuinc(ic Iience c fc||c( y mc: cun cucncc e:Ic en un u:c
ccnIinuc. y ce c(cn cemcncc. En e:Ie cc:c. |c mccuinc(ic c |c cue nc:
(efe(imc:. e: un ccmpuIccc(c ce e:c(iIc(ic. |c cuc| (eciLe un u:c Lc:IcnIe
LcIc||ccc(. cccc u:uc(ic |c (ecuie(e pc( cife(enIe: mcIivc:. pe(c
ccmúnmenIe e: pc(c u:c(|c ccn un (encimienIc ce| 1007. e: ceci(. |c:
u:uc(ic: :iemp(e (ecuie(en mcyc( (cpicez c| efecIuc( p(cce:c:. |c cuc| nc
e: fcci| ccn |c cec(ccccicn ce| :i:Iemc yc :ec pc( e| Iiempc c pc( e| u:c.

E: ccu| ccnce enI(c en juecc e| mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc ce |c
mccuinc(ic en u:c. pue: |c p(evencicn e: |c he((cmienIc Lc:e pc(c
e|iminc( fuIu(c: fc||c:.

Lc p(evencicn e: |c c|cve pc(c un Luen funcicncmienIc ce Iccc
mccuinc(ic. En e:Ie cc:c. e| mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc e: e| cue cyucc(c
c eviIc( e| mcyc( núme(c ce fc||c: pc:iL|e:. ccmc pc(c: ine:pe(ccc:.
e:pe(c ce| c|ienIe. eIc.

Fc( cI(c pc(Ie. e: nece:c(ic cue e| cpe(c(ic Iencc unc cu|c en ccnce
Lc:c(:e pc(c Iene( un Luen u:c ce :u FC. pc( e||c IcmLién nc hemc:
enfccccc c cue :ec unc he((cmienIc :enci||c ce enIence(. :in pe(ce( |c
e:encic ce| mcnIenimienIc.






MkCO IEÓkICO:

Ccncectc: gene|c|e:
MNb
Lc Ic(ec ce e|cLc(c( mcnuc|e: ccmini:I(cIivc: :e ccn:ice(c ccmc unc
funcicn ce mcnIene( infc(mccc c| pe(:cnc| c|cve ce |c: ce:ec: y ccmLic:
en |c: ccIiIuce: ce |c ci(eccicn :upe(ic(. c| ce|inec( |c e:I(ucIu(c
c(ccnizccicnc| y pcne( |c: pc||Iicc: y p(ccecimienIc: en fc(mc e:c(iIc y
pe(mcnenIe. Un mcnuc| cc((ecIcmenIe (ecccIccc puece :e( un vc|ic:c
in:I(umenIc ccmini:I(cIivc.
En e:encic. |c: mcnuc|e: ccmini:I(cIivc: (ep(e:enIcn un mecic ce
ccmunicccicn ce |c: ceci:icne: ccmini:I(cIivc:. y pc( e||c. cue Iiene ccmc
p(cpc:iIc :enc|c( en fc(mc :i:IemcIicc |c infc(mccicn ccmini:I(cIivc.
-et|vc: ce |c: ncnuc|e:.
De ccue(cc ccn |c c|c:ificccicn y c(ccc ce ceIc||e. |c: mcnuc|e:
ccmini:I(cIivc: pe(miIen cump|i( ccn |c: :icuienIe: cLjeIivc::
c) ln:I(ui( c| pe(:cnc|. cce(cc ce c:pecIc: Ic|e: ccmc: cLjeIivc:. funcicne:.
(e|ccicne:. pc||Iicc:. p(ccecimienIc:. nc(mc:. eIc.
L) F(eci:c( |c: funcicne: y (e|ccicne: ce cccc uniccc ccmini:I(cIivc pc(c
ce:|incc( (e:pcn:cLi|iccce:. eviIc( cup|iciccc y ceIecIc( cmi:icne:.
c) Ccccyuvc( c |c ejecucicn cc((ecIc ce |c: |cLc(e: c:icnccc: c| pe(:cnc|.
y p(cpicic( |c unifc(miccc en e| I(cLcjc.
c) Se(vi( ccmc mecic ce inIec(ccicn y c(ienIccicn c| pe(:cnc| ce nuevc
inc(e:c. fcci|iIcncc :u incc(pc(ccicn c |c: ci:IinIc: funcicne: cpe(ccicnc|e:.
e) F(cpc(cicnc( infc(mccicn Lc:icc pc(c |c p|cneccicn e imp|emenIccicn
ce (efc(mc: ccmini:I(cIivc:.



A|gunc: ccncectc: ce ncnuc|
Un |c||etc. ||-|c. cc|cetc. etc.. en |c: cue ce unc ncne|c |cc|| ce ncnec|
|ncnuc-|e} :e ccncent|cn en |c|nc :|:tenct|cc. unc :e||e ce e|enentc:
ccn|n|:t|ct|vc: cc|c un ||n ccnc|etc. c||entc| v un||c|nc| |c ccncuctc cue
:e c|e:entc ent|e cccc g|ucc nuncnc en |c enc|e:c. /. #eye: Fcnce.
F| ncnuc| c|e:entc :|:tenc: v técn|cc: e:cec|||cc:. Senc|c e|
c|ccec|n|entc c :egu|| cc|c |cg|c| e| t|c-cc ce tccc e| ce|:cnc| ce
c||c|nc c ce cuc|cu|e| ct|c g|ucc ce t|c-cc cue ce:encenc
|e:ccn:c-|||ccce: e:cec|||cc:. Un c|ccec|n|entc cc| e:c||tc :|gn|||cc
e:tc-|ece| ce-|ccnente un nétccc e:tcncc| cc|c eecutc| c|gun
t|c-cc. G(chcm Ke||cc.
F: un |eg|:t|c e:c||tc ce |n|c|ncc|ón e |n:t|ucc|cne: cue ccnc|e|nen c|
enc|eccc v cuecen :e| ut|||zccc: cc|c c||entc| |c: e:|ue|zc: ce un
enc|eccc en unc enc|e:c. Ie((y G. #.
Unc exc|e:|ón |c|nc| ce tccc: |c: |n|c|ncc|cne: e |n:t|ucc|cne: nece:c||c:
cc|c cce|c| en un cete|n|nccc :ectc|. e: unc gu´c cue ce|n|te
enccn|nc| en |c c||ecc|ón ccecuccc |c: e:|ue|zc: ce| ce|:cnc| cce|ct|vc.
CcnIinc|c G.
CON$EkVCIÓN
I(cIc ce |c p(cIeccicn ce| (ecu(:c y c| mi:mc Iiempc ce mcnIene( en |c
cc|iccc ce:eccc e| Se(vicic cue p(cpc(cicnc e:Ie.
De||n|c|ón ce Ccn:e|vcc|ón
Iccc cccicn humcnc cue mecicnIe |c cp|icccicn ce |c: ccnccimienIc:
cienI|ficc: y Iécnicc:. ccnI(iLuye c| cpIimc cp(cvechcmienIc ce |c:
(ecu(:c: exi:IenIe: en e| hcLiIcI humcnc: p(cpicicncc ccn e||c e| ce:c((c||c
inIec(c| ce| hcmL(e y ce |c :ccieccc.
Lc Ccn:e(vccicn :e civice en cc: c(cnce: (cmc:. unc ce e||c: e: |c
F(e:e(vccicn |c cuc| cIience |c: nece:iccce: ce |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc: y |c cI(c
e: e| McnIenimienIc encc(cccc ce cuicc( ce| Se(vicic cue p(cpc(cicncn
e:Ic: (ecu(:c:.


!kE$EkVCIÓN
Lc cccicn humcnc encc(cccc ce eviIc( ccnc: c |c: (ecu(:c: exi:IenIe: en
e| hcLiIcI humcnc. Exi:Ien cc: Iipc: ce p(e:e(vccicn. |c F(evenIivc y |c
Cc((ecIivc: y |c cife(encic e:I(iLc en :i e| I(cLcjc :e hcce cnIe: c ce:pué:
ce cue hcyc ccu((icc un ccnc en e| (ecu(:c: pc( ejemp|c pinIc( unc Ic|vc
(ecién in:Ic|ccc. e: un I(cLcjc ce F(e:e(vccicn F(evenIivc pe(c e:Ie mi:mc
I(cLcjc :e cc|ificc(c ce F(e:e(vccicn cc((ecIivc :i fue hechc pc(c
(epc(c(|c.
MNIENIMIENIO
/ccicn eficcz pc(c mejc(c( c:pecIc: cpe(cIivc: (e|evcnIe: ce un
e:IcL|ecimienIc Ic|e: ccmc funcicnc|iccc. :ecu(iccc. p(ccucIiviccc.
ccnfc(I. imccen cc(pc(cIivc. :c|uL(iccc e hiciene. CIc(cc |c pc:iLi|iccc ce
(ccicnc|izc( cc:Ic: ce cpe(ccicn.
MNIENIMIENIO COkkECIIVO
cccicn ce cc(ccIe( punIuc| c (c|z ce| u:c. cccIcmienIc ce |c vicc úIi| u
cI(c: fccIc(e: exIe(nc:. ce ccmpcnenIe:. pc(Ie:. piezc:. mcIe(ic|e: y en
cene(c|. ce e|emenIc: cue ccn:IiIuyen |c inf(ce:I(ucIu(c c p|cnIc f|:icc.
pe(miIiencc :u (ecupe(ccicn. (e:Icu(ccicn c (encvccicn. :in cc(ecc(|e
vc|c( c| e:IcL|ecimienIc.
MNIENIMIENIO !kEVENIIVO
E: unc ccIiviccc p(cc(cmccc ce in:peccicne:. IcnIc ce funcicncmienIc
ccmc ce :ecu(iccc. cju:Ie:. (epc(ccicne:. cnc|i:i:. |impiezc. |uL(icccicn.
cc|iL(ccicn. cue ceLen ||evc(:e c ccLc en fc(mc pe(iccicc en Lc:e c un
p|cn e:IcL|ecicc. E| p(cpc:iIc e: p(eve( cve(|c: c ce:pe(fecIc: en :u
e:Iccc inicic| y cc((eci(|c: pc(c mcnIene( |c in:Ic|ccicn en ccmp|eIc
cpe(ccicn c |c: nive|e: y eficiencic cpIimc:.
E| mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc pe(miIe ceIecIc( fc||c: (epeIiIivc:. ci:minui( |c:
punIc: mue(Ic: pc( pc(ccc:. cumenIc( |c vicc úIi| ce ecuipc:. ci:minui(
cc:Ie: ce (epc(ccicne:. ceIecIc( punIc: céLi|e: en |c in:Ic|ccicn enI(e unc
|c(cc |i:Ic ce venIcjc:.

10

kECbk$O$ VIIE$
Scn |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc: inci:pen:cL|e: pc(c |c Luenc mc(chc ce |c
emp(e:c: e: ceci(. :cn |c: e|emenIc: cue e:Icn p(cpc(cicncncc un :e(vicic
viIc| y cuyc pc(c c cemé(iIc en :u cc|iccc ce funcicncmienIc. pcne en
pe|ic(c |c vicc ce pe(:cnc: c cificu|Ic e| ce:c((c||c ce |c emp(e:c c c(ccc
Ic| cue :e :upcnccn pé(cicc: ce imccen c eccncmicc: cue |c ci(eccicn
ce |c emp(e:c nc e:Ic ci:pue:Ic c cf(cnIc(.
kECbk$O$ IM!OkINIE$
Scn ccue||c: ecuipc: c in:Ic|ccicne: cuyc pc(c c cemé(iIc ce :u cc|iccc
ce :e(vicic ccu:e mc|e:Iic: ce impc(Icncic c cc:Ic: ce ccn:ice(ccicn pc(c
|c emp(e:c. / e:Ic: e|emenIc: e: nece:c(ic ci:enc(|e: (uIinc: ce
ccn:e(vccicn p(cc(cmccc nc(mc|e: ccnIemp|cncc e| punIc ce vi:Ic
eccncmicc ccn (e:pecIc c |c cc|iccc ce :e(vicic cue ceLen enI(ecc(.
kECbk$O$ VIIE$
E| Ie(ce( nive| ce| invenIc(ic e: |c c|c:ificccicn ce |c: (ecu(:c: cencminccc:
ccmc I(ivic|e:. e:Ic e:. ccue||c: cuyc pc(c c cemé(iIc en :u cc|iccc ce
:e(vicic nc Iienen un impccIc impc(IcnIe pc(c |c Luenc mc(chc ce |c
emp(e:c. pe(c cue Iiene nece:iccce: ce ccn:e(vccicn: pc( ejemp|c. |c
mcyc(|c ce |c: Lc|c:I(c:. |cmpc(c:. inIe((upIc(e: e|écI(icc:. vic(ic:. pinIu(c
ce pc(ece:. impe(mecLi|izccicn. ccmpc:Iu(c ce Iccc c|c:e ce mccuinc:
e in:Ic|ccicne: ce u:c e:pc(ccicc: en e:Ie cc:c :c|c ceLen cIence(:e
cp|iccncc e| ccncepIc ce ce ccn:e(vccicn p(cc(cmccc.
DIkM DE !kEIO
E| cicc(cmc ce pc(eIc fue c(eccc pc( Wi|f(icc pc(eIc cue fue un
eccncmi:Ic iIc|icnc. cue en e| :ic|c XlX p(e:enIc unc fc(mu|c cue mc:I(cLc
|c ce:icuc|ccc en |c ci:I(iLucicn ce |c: :c|c(ic:.
E| cicc(cmc ce pc(eIc Iiene pc( cLjeIc p(incipc|menIe icenIificc(
p(cL|emc:. Fc(Ie ce| p(incipic ce cue |c mcyc( pc(Ie ce |c: cefecIc: :cn e|
(e:u|Iccc ce Icn :c|c unc: pccc: ccu:c:. pc( |c cue cyucc ncIcL|emenIe
c |c :e|eccicn ce p(cyecIc: ce mejc(c c :e puece ccn:ice(c( cue e| 807
ce |c: p(cL|emc: :cn p(cvenienIe: ce cpenc: e| 207 ce |c: ccu:c:.
11

DIkM DE I$HIK
Unc ce |c: p(cL|emc: mc: impc(IcnIe: cue enf(enIc cuc|cuie( pe(:cnc cue
I(cLcjc ccn |c mejc(c ce cc|iccc. e: cue Iccc: |c: p(cce:c: :in impc(Ic(
cue Icn Lien e:Ién ccnI(c|ccc:. p(e:enIen vc(iccicne:. Lc: vc(iccicne:
Iienen :u c(icen en cecenc: ce ccu:c: pcIencic|e:.
Lc: p(cce:c: ce mejc(c envue|ven |c Icmc ce cccicne: en |c: ccu:c: ce
vc(iccicne:. E| cccIc( l:hikcwc p(cpu:c un méIccc muy :imp|e pc(c
mc:I(c( |c: ccu:c: ce un p(cL|emc ce cc|iccc ce mcne(c c(cficc. / e:Ie
méIccc :e |e hc ||cmccc ce cife(enIe: mcne(c: ccmc cicc(cmc ce
l:hikcwc. cicc(cmc ccu:c-efecIc c cicc(cmc ce pe:cccc.
E| cicc(cmc ccu:c-efecIc e: unc he((cmienIc cue :e u:c pc(c c(ccnizc( y
mc:I(c( c(cficcmenIe Iccc: |c: ccnccimienIc: cue un c(upc p(e:enIc
:cL(e e| p(cL|emc en pc(Iicu|c(.

IONOMÍ DE CON$EkVCIÓN INDb$IkI
E| p(incipic ce |c ccn:e(vccicn Iiene cc: cI(iLuIc: cue :cn :u e:I(ucIu(c c
pc(Ie: cue |c inIec(cn y e| :e(vicic cue p(cpc(cicnc. De| cuc| nc: cice e|
:icuienIe p(incipic ¨e| :e(vicic :e mcnIiene y e| (ecu(:c :e p(e:e(vc".
Fc(Iiencc ce e:Ie p(incipic :e cice cue :e puece exp(e:c( unc ve(ccce(c
Icxcncm|c.
Cucncc un ecuipc nc: p(cpc(cicnc un :e(vicic y :cLemc: cue e:e ecuipc
e: e:encic| pc(c nue:I(c :i:Iemc ce p(ccuccicn. nc cejc(emc: pc( nincún
mcIivc cue e:e ecuipc ceje funcicnc( c cue :e :c|cc ce :u: ||miIe: ce
funcicncmienIc c :e(vicic ce cc|iccc. Fe(c ccmc :iemp(e c fc|Ic cue :e
p(e:enIe c|cunc ccnIincencic c cue ceLicc c| u:c :e ce:cc:Ie c
:imp|emenIe c|cún ccmpcnenIe ce e:e ecuipc hcyc cump|icc ccn :u:
hc(c: ce vicc úIi|. pc(c e:c cnc|izc(emc: c fcncc e| ecuipc c fin ce
enccnI(c( |c: pc(Ie: c :uLpc(Ie: cue p(e:enIen Lcjc ficLi|iccc ccn e|
cLjeIc ce cue e| ecuipc vue|vc c funcicnc( ccncc un :e(vicic ce cc|iccc.


12

MI$IÓN DE MNIENIMIENIO INDb$IkI
Lc mi:icn ce| mcnIenimienIc e: cue cccc vez cue unc mccuinc. :i:Iemc c
ecuipc :e hc||c cve(iccc c mcnIencc un Lcjc (encimienIc.
inmecicIcmenIe :e hccc Iccc |c nece:c(ic pc(c (e:c|ve( e| p(cL|emc y
(ec(e:c(|c c :u: nive|e: nc(mc|e: ce p(cce:cmienIc.
E| mcnIenimienIc nc: puece hcce( (enci( mc: unc mccuinc pc(c cue
puecc cLIene( un cpIimc (encimienIc y :i e: pc:iL|e en pccc mc: ce
Iiempc en (e|ccicn c :u vicc úIi|. ccncc un :e(vicic ce cc|iccc cue cump|c
ccn |c: cc(ccIe(|:Iicc: cue e| c|ienIe hc||c (ecue(icc. c| mi:mc Iiempc
cyucc c| p(cveecc( c nc Iene( cue hcce( cc:Ic: innece:c(ic:. ejemp|c.
cucncc :e cve(|c unc mccuinc c pc(Ie ce e||c ce:echc(|c pcc(|c :e( mc:
cc:Ic:c cue (epc(c(|c.
Ccncectc ce |c ccn:e|vcc|ón
Lc icec cue Ienemc: ce ccn:e(vccicn e: ce cuc(cc( (icu(c:cmenIe e|
(ecu(:c y en e| mcnIenimienIc nc e:Icmc: c|ejccc: ce |c (ec|iccc yc cue
|c icec e: cue :e cuc(ce |c p(cIeccicn ce| (ecu(:c pc(c cue nc: puecc
p(cpc(cicnc( e| mejc( :e(vicic ce cc|iccc. E: pc( e||c cue Ienemc: e:Ic:
cc: cLjeIivc: cene(c|e: ce |c ccn:e(vccicn:
1. ¨McnIene( |c cc|iccc y ccnIiccc ce :e(vicic cue enI(ecc un (ecu(:c
c :i:Iemc ce (ecu(:c. cenI(c ce |c: pc(cmeI(c: e:pe(ccc:. cu(cnIe
:u Iiempc p(cc(cmccc ce funcicncmienIc".
2. ¨F(e:e(vc( cenI(c ce |c: ||miIe: eccncmicc:. e:IcL|ecicc:. e| cc:Ic ce
cic|c ce vicc ce |c: (ecu(:c: ce |c emp(e:c".
De||n|c|ón ce ccn:e|vcc|ón
Lc ccn:e(vccicn. e: cucncc |nte|v|ene e| :e| nuncnc. nec|cnte |c
cc||ccc|ón ce ccncc|n|entc: c|ent´||cc: v técn|cc: cc|c cue :e ccnt||-uvc
c| cct|nc cc|cvecncn|entc ce |c: |ecu|:c: ex|:tente: en e| nc-|tcc
nuncnc.
Lc ccn:e(vccicn :e civice en cc: c(cnce: (cmc:. Unc ce e||c: e: |c
p(e:e(vccicn. cue e: |c cue cIience |c: nece:iccce: ce |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc:
y |c cI(c e: e| mcnIenimienIc. e: |c cue :e encc(cc ce cuicc( e| :e(vicic
cue ccn e:Ic: (ecu(:c:.
13

!kE$EkVCIÓN
Lc p(e:e(vccicne: hcce( |c nece:c(ic pc(c ccnI(iLui( c| Luen ce:empenc
cu(cnIe :u vicc úIi| y puece :e( p(evenIivc y cc((ecIivc. F(evenIivc. :cn |c:
I(cLcjc: ce:c((c||ccc: en un (ecu(:c. c fin ce eviIc( :u cecene(ccicn. c cue
:ec cIccccc pc( ccenIe: nccivc:: cc((ecIivc :cn |c: I(cLcjc: ce
(ehcLi|iIccicn cue :e ce:c((c||cn en un (ecu(:c cucncc e| p(cL|emc yc hc
:icc cene(ccc c hc :icc cIccccc pc( ccenIe: nccivc:. Fccemc:
ccn:ice(cn cue |c: (ecu(:c: exicen muchc: |cLc(e: ce p(e:e(vccicn.
Fccemc: civici( hc:Ic en cincc nive|e: ce p(e:e(vccicn ce ccue(cc c|
ccnccimienIc :cL(e e| mencicnccc ecuipc: e| u:uc(ic. e| Iécnicc mecic. e|
Iécnicc. e| e:pecic|i:Ic ce Ic||e( y e| e:pecic|i:Ic ce fcL(icc pc( e:c c |c
p(e:e(vccicn |c pccemc: civici( en pe(iccicc. p(cc(e:ivc y IcIc|.
F|e:e|vcc|ón ce||óc|cc
Se (efie(e c| cuicccc y p(cIeccicn ce| ecuipc. cu(cnIe y en e| |ucc( ccnce
:e e:Ic cpe(cncc. e:Ic c :u vez :e civice en cc: nive|e:.
c) F(ime( nive| e: e| u:uc(ic ce| (ecu(:c. e| cuc| ceLe ce ccncce( :cL(e e|
in:I(ucIivc ce cpe(ccicn y cIencicn ce |cLc(e: ce p(e:e(vccicn menc(e:.
L) Secuncc nive| cc((e:pcnce c| Iécnicc mecic. nece:iIc ce un pecuenc
Ic||e( ccn he((cmienIc: nece:c(ic: pc(c cc( p(ime(c: cuxi|ic: c |c mccuinc
y cue nc (ecuie(cn IcnIc Iiempc.
F|e:e|vcc|ón c|cg|e:|vc
Cucncc |c: ecuipc: Iienen cue :e( (evi:ccc: y (epc(ccc: fue(c ce| c(ec ce
|cLc(e: yc cue hcn Ienicc fc||c: c :u nive| Iiene Iencencic: c nive|e: ce
fc||c: ceLicc c| c|Ic Iiempc ce funcicncmienIc. E:Ie nive| IcmLién :e
civice en cc: nive|e:.
c) Ie(ce( nive| e: cucncc |c |cLc( |c (ec|izc pe(:cnc| ccn c|Ic hcLi|iccc y
ce:I(ezc ccnce |c mcnc ce cL(c nc e: Icn nece:c(ic.
c) Cuc(Ic nive| e: cucncc |c cIencicn nece:c(ic :e |c ccn Ie(ce(c: pe(:cnc:
cjenc: c |c emp(e:c en Ic||e(e: e:pecic|izccc:.




1

F|e:e|vcc|ón tctc| |cve|ncu|}
E: cucncc e| Iiempc ce vicc úIi| nc e:Ic ccn:ice(ccc ceLicc c cue muy
p(cnIc cpc(ece(cn cI(c: cpc(cIc: mc: ncvecc:c: c pc( |c :imp|e
cemcnce ce nuevc: :e(vicic: mejc(ccc:. e:Ic cL|icc c| ccmLic f(ecuenIe
ce nuevc: ecuipc: y c unc ccIuc|izccicn ccn:IcnIe ce pe(:cnc| ce
p(e:e(vccicn.
e) CuinIc nive|. e:Ic p(e:e(vccicn |c hcce e| fcL(iccnIe ce| ecuipc en :u:
in:Ic|ccicne: e:pecic|izccc: y ce c|Ic Iecnc|cc|c pc(c cuc|cuie(
(epc(ccicn. ccmLic c mccificccicn ce| ecuipc.
MNIENIMIENIO
Scn I(cLcjc: cue :e nece:iIcn hcce( ccn e| cLjeIc ce mcnIene( un :e(vicic
ce cc|iccc. E| mcnIenimienIc :e civice en cc: (cmc:: mcnIenimienIc
cc((ecIivc y mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc.
/cnten|n|entc cc||ect|vc
E:Ie c :u vez :e civice en cc: (cmc::
F(ime(c: cc((ecIivc ccnIincenIe
E: cucncc un ecuipc ce :e(vicic viIc| cejc ce p(cpc(cicnc( :u ccIiviccc
cc((e:pcncienIe ceLicc c unc fc||c c pc( muy Lcjc (encimienIc cue c :u
vez cene(c pé(cicc: cucnIic:c: :e ceLe (ec|izc( ccIiviccce: ce fc(mc
eme(cenIe Lcjc un p|cn ccnIincenIe cue puecc (e:Icu(c( |c mccuinc
pc(c cue :icc funcicncncc cenI(c ce :u: ||miIe: e:IcL|ecicc:.


Secuncc cc((ecIivc p(cc(cmcL|e
Scn ccIiviccce: pc(c |c: mccuinc: c ecuipc: cue p(cpc(cicncn :e(vicic:
I(ivic|e: y :e (ec|izc cucncc e: nece:c(ic pe(c nc inci:pen:cL|e. pc( |c cue
mejc( :e p(cc(cmc :u cIencicn.

1

/cnten|n|entc c|event|vc
Fccemc: ceci( cue e: un p(cce:c pc(c |c: (ecu(:c: f|:icc: ce unc
emp(e:c. nc :e :c|ccn ce |c: ||miIe: e:IcL|ecicc: ce cc|iccc ce :e(vicic y
ce ccue(cc c :u cc:Ic y ficLi|iccc |c: civicimc: en cincc Iipc: ce enI(e |c:
mc: cefinicc:: p(ecicIivc. pe(iccicc. cnc||Iicc. p(cc(e:ivc y Iécnicc.
McnIenimienIc p(ecicIivc
Scn |c: I(cLcjc: cue :e hcn ce efecIuc( pc(c cue unc mccuinc funcicne
ccn cc|iccc ce :e(vicic e:pe(ccc y e:Ic: I(cLcjc: pc( efecIuc(:e p(cceccn
ce un ciccnc:Iicc pe(mcnenIe ce(ivccc ce in:peccicne: ccnIinuc:.
e:Iucic p(cfuncc ce| (ecu(:c. Iiempc ce vicc úIi| y cc|iccc ce :e(vicic
e:IcL|ecicc. uIi|izcncc I(cn:cucIc(e:. E:Ie mcnIenimienIc e: cc:Ic:c pe(c
:u cpe(ccicn e: eccncmicc y :e cLIiene e| mc: c|Ic c(ccc ce ficLi|iccc.
McnIenimienIc pe(iccicc
Ccmc :u ncmL(e |c incicc e: un mcnIenimienIc pe(iccicc. (uIinc(ic en e|
cue ce:pué: ce :u: hc(c: ce funcicncmienIc :e hccen cju:Ie: c ccmLic: :i
:cn nece:c(ic: pc(c ccnI(c((e:Ic( e| ce:cc:Ie ce |c mccuinc e:Ic :e |cc(c
(euniencc |c infc(mccicn ce |c mccuinc c vicc úIi| ce :u: pc(Ie: y pc:iL|e:
fc||c:.

/cnten|n|entc cnc|´t|cc
En e:Ie Iipc ce mcnIenimienIc. :e hcce un cnc|i:i: ce |c infc(mccicn ce |c
mccuinc. ccpIccc(e: :en:c(e: en pc(Ie: viIc|e: ce mcne(c cue puecc :e(
in:peccicnccc pc(c cncIc( ccIc: ccmc vicc úIi| ce :u: ccmpcnenIe:.
cc|iccc. f(ecuencic ce fc||c:. e| c|imc en cue I(cLcjc |c mccuinc y :u
cc(cc ce I(cLcjc y ccmpc(c( |c: (e:u|Iccc: ccn |c: cue :e e:pe(cLcn pc(c
cue cucncc e:Ie p(cximc c fc||c( :ec cIencicc. /cu| nc hcy un pe(iccc ce
mcnIenimienIc. :e(c :c|c cucncc e| cnc|i:Ic |c incicue. Le :icue en cc|iccc
ce ficLi|iccc y menc( cc:Ic c| mcnIenimienIc pe(iccicc.
/cnten|n|entc c|cg|e:|vc
E: cucncc Ienemc: un Iiempc ccic:c pc(c cc( mcnIenimienIc c cccc
pc(Ie ce |c mccuinc cue :e civice y (epcne( :u ficLi|iccc cuncue :cLemc:
cue nc e: Icn nece:c(ic pc(cue nc :e ccmLic(c nccc. :c|c hc:Ic cue en
1

ve(ccc :ec nece:c(ic. E| mcnIenimienIc cue ci:enc pc(c e:Ie cc:c e: mc:
:enci||c cue cuc|cuie(c ce |c: u:ccc: en cI(c Iipc ce mcnIenimienIc. E:Ie
mcnIenimienIc. cuncue e: menc: cc:Ic:c ce Iccc:. IcmLién e: e| cue
menc( ficLi|iccc p(cpc(cicnc.
/cnten|n|entc técn|cc
E:Ic :e (ec|izc ccn Iccc: |c: cemc: mcnIenimienIc:. Cucncc uIi|izcmc: e|
mcnIenimienIc pe(iccicc Ienemc: nece:iccc ce ccnIc( ccn cue e|
(ecu(:c Iencc un Iiempc ccic:c :uficienIe pc(c (epc(c(|c en e|
mcnIenimienIc p(cc(e:ivc e:Icmc: c |c expecIcIivc ce Iiempc: ccic:c:
cc(Ic: cue ccinciccn ccn nue:I(c: fechc: ce p(cc(cmccicn. en e|
mcnIenimienIc Iécnicc :e cIience c| (ecu(:c pc( pc(Ie:. p(cc(e:cncc en e|
cccc (ecu(:c p(cc(cmcL|e. |c cuc| e:Ic cc|cu|ccc pc( un cnc|i:Ic
cuxi|icncc:e ce |c infc(mccicn nece:c(ic pc(c ccncce( e| c(ccc ce
ficLi|iccc ce| ecuipc y c:| pcce( cecuci( e| Iiempc en e| cue Ienc(c unc
fc||c y c:| p(cc(cmc( :u mcnIencicn.
Ejemp|c cucncc |e cp|iccmc: e:Ie Iipc ce mcnIenimienIc c unc mccuinc
Ienemc: cue civici( en Iccc: :u: pc(Ie: viIc|e: uIi|izcncc un Iiempc ccic:c
cc(Ic y :i :e puece cp(cvechc( un pc(c p(cc(cmcL|e pc(c e| e:Iucic ce|
funcicncmienIc ce |c mccuinc y ce cccc unc ce :u: pc(Ie: en e| cuc|
pcc(emc: cene(c( (e:u|Iccc: ccn |c: cuc|e: hc(emc: unc ccmpc(ccicn
ccn |c: (e:u|Iccc: cue e:pe(emc: pc(c pcce( cecuci( cucncc Ienc(c fc||c:
c cejc(c ce funcicnc( cpIimcmenIe. e: c:|. ccmc pcc(emc: hcce( un
p(cc(cmc ce mcnIencicn en |c: pe(iccc: pe(IinenIe pc(c cf(ece(|e c |c
mccuinc un Luen :i:Iemc ce funcicncmienIc y cue nc Iencc nincunc fc||c
ni Lcjc (encimienIc.
Herrom|entos poro odm|n|stror |o conservoc|on
Iccc ccue||c ce |c cuc| nc: :e(vimc: pc(c fcci|iIc( nue:I(c |cLc(. |c
cencmincmc: he((cmienIc. Exi:Ien infiniccc ce e:Ic: cue puecen e:Ic(
(ep(e:enIccc: pc( c(IefccIc:. c(cficc:. méIccc:. (ec|cmenIc:. eIc.. pe(c e:
ncIc(ic cue c|cunc: ce e||c: :e cp|iccn ccn mc: fcci|iccc cue cI(c: en
cie(Ic: c:pecIc: e:pec|ficc:. pc( |c cue pc(c nue:I(c: fine: :c|c vcmc: c
ccn:ice(c( ccue||c: cue c(eemc: mc: úIi|e: pc(c ce:c((c||c( en fc(mc
p(ccIicc y :enci||c nue:I(c I(cLcjc ccmini:I(cIivc ce' ccn:e(vccicn. E|
ccnccimienIc: ce cichc: he((cmienIc: y :u cp|icccicn (uIinc(ic. nc: cc(c
1

(e:u|Iccc: p(eceIe(minccc: y nc: fcci|iIc(c nc :c|c |c p|cneccicn ce |c
ccn:e(vccicn :inc IcmLién :u ccnI(c|.
E:Ic: c:pecIc: :cn. ce:cfc(IuncccmenIe. |c: menc: cIencicc: en muchc:
ce nue:I(c: fcL(icc:.
Ienc(emc:. pue:. ccmc nue:I(c: he((cmienIc: p(incipc|e:. |c: :icuienIe::
ncice lCGM {#lME)
F(incipic ce Y. Fc(eIc.
lnvenIc(ic ce ccn:e(vccicn.
Cc:Ic m|nimc ce ccn:e(vccicn.
DeIe(minccicn ce |c ccnficLi|iccc ce| ecuipc.
DeIeccicn cnc||Iicc ce fc||c:.
E| mcnuc| ce ccmini:I(ccicn.
l(emc: cnc|izcncc cccc unc ce e||c: en e| c(cen ccu| mencicnccc. pc(c
fcci|iIc( :u e:Iucic. pue: cuncue Iccc |c p|cneccicn ce |c ccn:e(vccicn
incu:I(ic| ceLe empezc( ccn e| invenIc(ic ce |c: ecuipc:. in:Ic|ccicne: y
ccn:I(uccicne: cue ceLemc: cIence(. e: nece:c(ic cue cichc invenIc(ic
e:Ie je(c(cuizccc. pc( |c cue. c| Iccc( inicic|menIe e| |ncice lCGM.
cp(ence(emc: |c impc(Icncic ce| cccicc mccuinc y. c| ccmLinc(|c ccn e|
p(incipic ce Fc(eIc. pcc(emc: cLIene( |c je(c(cuizccicn ce| invenIc(ic.
Ccn e:Ic. pcc(emc: ceIe(minc( cuc|e: :cn |c: (ecu(:c: {ecuipc:.
in:Ic|ccicne:. ccn:I(uccicne:. eIc.) viIc|e:. cuc|e: |c: ce I(cn:icicn c
impc(IcnIe: y cuc|e: |c: I(ivic|e:.
Fc( |c cue (e:pecIc c| (e:Ic ce |c: he((cmienIc: p(incipc|e: cue :e
mencicnc(cn cnIe(ic(menIe. cuncue enI(e e||c: nc exi:Ic (e|ccicn Icn
e:I(echc. ccn:ice(cmc: cue IcmLién fcci|iIc :u exp|icccicn e| e:Iucic(|c:
en e:c :ecuencic.
Índ|ce ICM (r|me)
E| |ncice lCGM {ncice ce c|c:ificccicn pc(c |c: cc:Ic: ce ccn:e(vccicn).
cue en |c: E.U./. :e ccncce ccmc #lME {#cnkinc lncex fc( McinIencnce
ExpenciIu(e) y :cL(e e| cuc| Iiene ce(echc: (e:e(vccc: #cmcnc cnc
/::ccicIe: lnc.: e: unc he((cmienIc cue pe(miIe c|c:ificc( |c: cc:Ic: ce
ccn:e(vccicn inIe((e|ccicncncc |c: (ecu(:c: :ujeIc: c e:Ic: I(cLcjc:. ccn |c
1

c|c:e c Iipc ce I(cLcjc pc( ce:c((c||c( en e||c:. E: ncIc(ic. pc( ccn:icuienIe.
cue e| |ncice lCGM :e ccmpcne ce cc: fccIc(e: cencminccc::
1. Cccicc mccuinc
/cue| cue icenIificc c |c: (ecu(:c: pc( cIence( {ecuipc:. in:Ic|ccicne: y
ccn:I(uccicne:).


CÓDIO
MÁQbIN

CONCE!IO
10

#ECU#SCS VlI/LES. /cue||c: cue inf|uyen en mc: c un
p(cce:c. c cuyc fc||c c(icincn un p(cL|emc ce Ic|
mccniIuc cue |c c|Ic ci(eccicn ce |c emp(e:c nc e:Ic
ci:pue:Ic c cc((e( (ie:cc:. Fc( ejemp|c ||nec: ce
ci:I(iLucicn ce vcpc(. cc:. ci(e. cc|ce(c:. hc(nc:.
:uLe:Iccicn e|écI(icc. eIc.

º

#ECU#SCS lMFC#I/NIES. /cue||c: cue. cuncue e:Icn en
|c ||nec ce p(ccuccicn. :u funcicn nc e: viIc|. pe(c :in
e||c: nc puece funcicnc( ccecucccmenIe e| ecuipc viIc|
y. ccemc: nc exi:Ien mccuinc: (ecunccnIe: c ce
(e:e(vc. Ic|e: ccmc mcnIccc(cc:. c(úc:. f(icc(|ficc:.
I(cn:pc(Iccc(e: ce mcIe(ic| hccic |c: ||nec: ce
p(ccuccicn. eIc.

8

#ECU#SCS DUFLlC/DCS SlIU/DCS EN L/ LNE/ DE
F#CDUCClCN. :imi|c(e: c |c: cnIe(ic(e: {º). pe(c ce |c:
cuc|e: :i exi:Ie (e:e(vc.

7

#ECU#SCS CUE lNIE#VlENEN DE FC#M/ Dl#ECI/ EN L/
LNE/ DE F#CDUCClCN. Ic|e: ccmc: ci:pc:iIivc: ce
1

mecicicn pc(c e| ccnI(c| ce cc|iccc. ecuipc: ce p(ueLc.
ecuipc: pc(c mcnejc ce mcIe(ic|e:. mccuinc: ce
in:peccicn. eIc.

ó

#ECU#SCS /UXlLl/#ES DE F#CDUCClCN SlN #EEMFL/ZC.
Ic|e: ccmc: ecuipc ce ci(e cccncicicnccc pc(c e| c(ec
ce p(ueLc:. ecuipc: mcvi|e:. ecuipc pc(c :u(IimienIc: ce
mcIe(ic|e: en c|mccén. eIc.

5

#ECU#SCS /UXlLl/#ES DE F#CDUCClCN CCN
#EEMFL/ZC. Ic|e: ccmc: :imi|c(e: c| punIc cnIe(ic(. pe(c
cue :| Iienen (eemp|czc.

4

#ECU#SCS DE FlNIU#/ Y EM8/L/JE. Ic|e: ccmc:
ccmp(e:c(e:. inyecIc(c: ce ci(e. mccuinc: ce pinIu(c ce
cccLccc finc|. y Iccc ccue||c cue nc :ec imp(e:cinciL|e
pc(c |c p(ccuccicn y ce |c cue. ccemc:. :e Iencc
(eemp|czc.

3

ECUlFCS GENE#/LES. Uniccce: ce I(cn:pc(Ie ce
mcIe(ic|e: c p(ccucIc:. ccmicneIc: ce cc(cc. uniccc
(ef(ice(ccc(c. ecuipc: ce (ecupe(ccicn ce ce:pe(cicic:.
eIc.

2

EDlFlClCS F/#/ L/ F#CDUCClCN Y SlSIEM/S DE
SEGU#lD/D. c|c(mc:. pc:i||c:. c|mccene:. cc||e:.
e:IccicncmienIc:. eIc.

1

EDlFlClCS E lNSI/L/ClCNES ESIÉIlC/S. Iccc ccue||c cue
nc pc(Iicipc ci(ecIcmenIe en |c p(ccuccicn: jc(cine:.
ccmpc: cepc(Iivc:. :cniIc(ic:. fuenIe:. eIc.

20

2. Cccicc I(cLcjc
/cue| cue icenIificc c cccc Iipc ce I(cLcjc c| cue :e :ujeIc(cn cichc:
(ecu(:c:.
E| |ncice lCGM :e cLIiene ce |c mu|Iip|icccicn ce e:Ic: cc: fccIc(e:.
Fc( IcnIc. Ienemc::
ncice lCGM = cccicc mccuinc x cccicc I(cLcjc.
Fccemc: cc(ecc( c e:Ic exp|icccicn cue e| |ncice lCGM Iiene I(e:
cp|icccicne: pe(fecIcmenIe Lien ce|ineccc::
1. Je(c(cuizccicn ce |c expecicicn ce |c: |cLc(e: ce Ccn:e(vccicn. ce
ccue(cc c :u impc(Icncic (e|cIivc.
2. E|cLc(ccicn (ccicnc| ce| p(e:upue:Ic cnuc| pc(c |c: cc:Ic: ce
ccn:e(vccicn
3. /uxi|ic( en |c c|c:ificccicn ce |c: ecuipc:. in:Ic|ccicne: y
ccn:I(uccicne: ce |c emp(e:c. ceIe(mincncc :i :cn viIc|e:.
impc(IcnIe:" c I(ivic|e:. pc(c cefini( |c c|c:e y ccnIiccc ce I(cLcjc
ce ccn:e(vccicn cue :e |e: ceLe p(cpc(cicnc(.


CÓDIO
MÁQbIN

CONCE!IO
10

F/#CS: Iccc ccue||c cue :e ejecuIe pc(c cIence( |c:
ccu:c: ce pé(cicc ce| :e(vicic ce |c cc|iccc e:pe(ccc.
p(cpc(cicnccc pc( |c: mccuinc:. in:Ic|ccicne: y
ccn:I(uccicne:. viIc|e: e impc(IcnIe:: c ccue||c: I(cLcjc:
ce :ecu(iccc hechc: pc(c eviIc( pé(cicc: ce vicc
humcnc: c cfecIccicne: c |c inIec(iccc f|:icc ce |c:
incivicuc:.

º

/CClCNES F#EVENIlV/S U#GENIES: Iccc I(cLcjc
IencenIe c e|iminc( |c: pc(c: c ccncepIc: ci:cuIicc: en e|
21

punIc cnIe(ic(. cue pucie(cn :ecui( en in:peccicne:.
p(ueLc:. cvi:c: ce c|c(mc:. eIc.

8

I#/8/JCS DE /UXlLlC / F#CDUCClCN: mccificccicne:
IencenIe: c cpIimizc( |c p(ccuccicn. :u(cicc: pc( ccmLic
ce p(ccucIc c pc(c mejc(c( e| mi:mc.

7

/CClCNES F#EVENIlV/S NC U#GENIES: Iccc I(cLcjc
IencenIe c e|iminc( c |c(cc p|czc |c: pc(c: c ccncepIc:
cnc|izccc: en e| punIc 10. |uL(icccicn. cIencicn ce
ce:viccicne: ccn ccn:ecuencic: c |c(cc p|czc. I(cLcjc:
pc(c e|iminc( c (ecuci( |c |cLc(c( (epenIinc. enI(e cI(c:.

ó

/CClCNES F#EVENIlV/S GENE#/LES: Iccc I(cLcjc
IencenIe c e|iminc( pc(c:. cccicne: p(evenIivc: u(cenIe:.
cccicne: p(evenIivc: nc u(cenIe: y ccnce nc :e hcycn
vi:uc|izccc pc:iL|e: fc||c:.

5

/CClCNES #UIlN/#l/S: I(cLcjc: en mccuinc: c ecuipc:
ce (epue:Ic. en he((cmienIc ce ccn:e(vccicn y en (uIinc:
ce :ecu(iccc.

4

/CClCNES F/#/ L/ MEJC#/ DE L/ C/LlD/D: Iccc
I(cLcjc IencenIe c mejc(c( |c: (e:u|Iccc: ce p(ccuccicn
y ccn:e(vccicn.

3

/CClCNES F/#/ L/ DlSMlNUClCN DEL CCSIC: Iccc
I(cLcjc IencenIe c minimizc( |c: cc:Ic: ce p(ccuccicn y
ccn:e(vccicn cue nc e:Ic ccn:ice(ccc en nincunc ce |c:
cnIe(ic(e: ccIecc(|c:.

22

2

/CClCNES DE S/LU8#lD/D Y ESIÉIlC/: Iccc I(cLcjc
IencenIe c c:ecu(c( |c :c|uL(iccc y ccn:e(vccicn ce
mueL|e: e inmueL|e: ccnce e| pe(:cnc| ce |impiezc nc
puece inIe(veni(. ceLicc c |c: (ie:cc: c ce|icccezc ce|
ecuipc pc( cIence(.

1

/CClCNES DE /SEC Y C#DEN: I(cLcjc: ce ci:I(iLucicn ce
he((cmienIc: y c:ec ce in:Ic|ccicne: ce| cepc(IcmenIc
ce ccn:e(vccicn.


Exi:Ien cc: méIccc: pc(c uIi|izc( e| |ncice lCGM. unc en fc(mc :imp|ificccc
y e| cI(c mc: :cfi:Iicccc. En e:Ic ccc:icn :c|c cnc|izc(emc: e| méIccc
:imp|ificccc. pue: en nue:I(c cpinicn e: e| mc: p(ccIicc pc(c |c mcyc(|c ce
|c: emp(e:c: mexiccnc: y. ccemc:. (e:pcnce c| cLjeIivc p(incipc| ce e:Ic
cL(c. cue e: e| ce p(ccuci( c nive| muncic| un ccmLic en |c fi|c:cf|c ccIuc|
{mcnIene( e| :e(vicic y p(e:e(vc( |c: (ecu(:c:).
Índ|ce ICM s|mp||||codo
Fc(c e:IcL|ece( e:Ie |ncice en |c emp(e:c. puece :ecui(:e |c meccnicc
:icuienIe:
1. Se e:I(ucIu(c un ccmiIé ccmpue:Ic pc( pe(:cnc: ccnccecc(c:
ce |c: funcicne: ce ccn:e(vccicn. p(ccuccicn y fincnzc:. yc
cue e:Ic: I(e: c(iIe(ic: ceLen Iene(:e p(e:enIe: cu(cnIe Iccc e|
Iiempc cue cu(e |c e|cLc(ccicn ce| :i:Iemc lCGM.
2. Se |evcnIc un invenIc(ic unive(:c|. cue ccnIencc Iccc |c cue
ceLe :e( cIencicc pc(c c:ecu(c( un funcicncmienIc
ccecuccc ce |c emp(e:c. /cu| cpc(ece(c Iccc Iipc ce
mccuinc:. ecificic:. jc(cine:. ccminc: ce ccce:c y. en :umc.
Iccc ccue||c cue inIec(c |c emp(e:c.
3. E| ccmiIé ||evc(c c ccLc |c: junIc: cue :ecn nece:c(ic:. c fin
ce cnc|izc( cccc unc ce |c: uniccce: ccnIenicc: en e|
invenIc(ic y cc(|e un vc|c( ce ccue(cc ccn :u impc(Icncic
(e|cIivc. Ccn e:Ic :e cLIiene e| Cccicc Mccuinc. Cucncc
cecimc: impc(Icncic (e|cIivc. nc: (efe(imc: c |c impc(Icncic
23

cue pc(c |c p(ccuccicn Iiene e| (ecu(:c cnc|izccc {ecuipc.
in:Ic|ccicn c ccn:I(uccicn) ccn (e:pecIc c |c: cemc:.
cc|ificcncc|c ccn punIuccicn ce| 1 c| 10. ccn |c cuc| cuecc(c
fc(mccc nue:I(c invenIc(ic pc( ciez c(upc: ce (ecu(:c:. cccc
unc ce cife(enIe vc|c(. Nc hcy cue c|vicc( cue cu(cnIe |c:
junIc: ce cnc|i:i: ce| cccicc mccuinc. cccc inIec(cnIe ce|
ccmiIé ceLe Iene( en menIe fccIc(e: Ic|e: ccmc: (enIcLi|iccc
ce| ecuipc. |c (e|ccicn cue e:Ie Iiene ccn (e:pecIc c cI(c:. :u
c(ccc ce uIi|izccicn y. en fin. Iccc |c cue cyuce c ceIe(minc(
:u c(ccc ce impc(Icncic ccn (e:pecIc c |c: cemc:.
Fc( ú|Iimc. hcL|cmc: mencicnccc cue e| lCGM nc: :i(ve ccmc cuxi|ic(
{exc|u:ivcmenIe e| cccicc mccuinc) pc(c cue. ccmLinccc ccn e|
p(incipic ce Fc(eIc |cc(emc: icenIificc( en nue:I(c fcL(icc |c: (ecu(:c:
viIc|e: |c: impc(IcnIe: y |c: I(ivic|e:. c fin ce :umini:I(c(|e: |c: |cLc(e: mc:
ccecuccc: ce ccue(cc ccn e:Ic je(c(cuizc(cn.
Fc( Iccc |c hc:Ic ccu| mencicnccc. pccemc: ccnc|ui( cue e| ncice lCGM
hcce mc: pcIenIe nue:I(c nuevc fi|c:cf|c. en |c cuc| cecicimc: cue |c
impc(IcnIe ce |c ccn:e(vccicn incu:I(ic|. e: e| mcnIene( cenI(c ce |c:
|imiIe: e:pe(ccc:. |c cc|iccc ce| :e(vicic cue p(e:Icn nue:I(c: ecuipc:.
in:Ic|ccicne: y ccn:I(uccicne: cue nue:I(c cLjeIivc e: e| :e(vicic
ccecuccc y cue |c mccuinc e: e| mecic pc(c cLIene(|c.
Fc( ú|Iimc. :e hcce ncIc( cue |c: cccicc: ce| lCGM nc :cn ccn:IcnIe:
cu(cnIe Iccc |c vicc úIi| ce |c: mccuinc:. yc cue e:Ic: puecen ccmLic( ce
|cLc(. ce p(ccucIc. ce vc|umen. ce p(ccuccicn y. en fin. Iene( cuc|cuie(
ccmLic cue cumenIe c ci:minuyc- |c impc(Icncic y cc|iccc ce| :e(vicic
cue ceLen p(cpc(cicnc(. Se ccc:IumL(c hcce( unc puL|icccicn men:uc|
:cL(e ccue||c: mccuinc: cue hcn vc(iccc :u cccicc mccuinc: e:Ie e: un
I(cLcjc :enci||c y cue p(ccuce |c ccnIinuiccc nece:c(ic pc(c ccnIc( ccn
un lCGM ccnficL|e.
/ fin ce fcci|iIc( |c cp|icccicn ce| lCGM. :e (eccmiencc Iene( cncIccc e|
cccicc mccuinc en |c: Ic(jeIc: ce (eci:I(c ce |c: mccuinc: y e| cccicc
I(cLcjc e:Ic(c en fc(mc ce |i:Ic. y cmLc: c ci:pc:icicn ce| (e:pcn:cL|e ce
expeci( |c: |cLc(e: ce ccn:e(vccicn.

2

!r|nc|p|o de !oreto
Lc c(cn ccnIiccc ce :iIuccicne: cue vivimc: cccc c|c ce I(cLcjc cc ccmc
(e:u|Iccc cue Ienemc: cue cIence( un :innúme(c ce Ic(ec:. c|cunc: muy
impc(IcnIe:. muchc: cI(c:. I(ivic|e:. y e:Icmc: cIenciencc. en e| mejc( ce
|c: cc:c:. un pccc ce Iccc: Ie(mincmc: e| c|c ccn:ccc:. ccn muchc:
f(u:I(ccicne:. ||evcnccnc: I(cLcjc c cc:c pc(c ccnIinuc( en |c ncche c en
e| fin ce :emcnc. pc:pcnemc: nue:I(c: vccccicne:. nc Ienemc: Iiempc"
pc(c p(epc(c(nc: c pc(c cuc|cuie( cI(c cc:c cue nc :ec e| I(cLcjc ce|
mcmenIc. E:Ic :e ceLe c cue. ccemc: ce cue nue:I(c |cLc( ce
ccn:e(vccicn e: pc( ncIu(c|ezc exicenIe. nc e:Icmc: u:cncc |c:
he((cmienIc: ccecuccc: pc(c mejc(c( e| emp|ec ce nue:I(c Iiempc y pc(
e:c ''nc nc: c|ccnzc".
Wi|f(icc Fc(eIc fue un :ccic|ccc y eccncmi:Ic iIc|icnc {1848-1º23). cuien
inI(ccujc e| méIccc cnc||Iicc c |c eccncm|c pc||Iicc :iencc. ccemc: cuIc(
ce cc: cL(c: ' 'E| pe|ic(c :ccic|i:Ic y Cu(:c: ce eccncm|c pc||Iicc pe(c
chc(c. pc( |c cue mc: :e |e ccncce c nive| muncic| e: pc( e| p(incipic cue
||evc :u ncmL(e y e| cuc| e: ce unc c(cn cyucc pc(c e| ci(ecIivc mcce(nc.
Wi|f(icc Fc(eIc ce:cuL(ic cue e| efecIc ccc:icnccc pc( vc(ic: ccu:c: Iiene
unc Iencencic Lien cefinicc. yc cue e| cp(cximcccmenIe 207 ce |c:
ccu:c: c(icincn e| 807 ce| efecIc y e| 807 ce |c: ccu:c: (e:IcnIe: :cn
(e:pcn:cL|e: ce| 207 ce| (e:Ic ce| efecIc. E:Ie fencmenc :e (epiIe ccn unc
cp(cximccicn ccepIcL|e. cue hc :icc úIi| pc(c cp|icc(|c cic(icmenIe c
fine: p(ccIicc:. En e| eje(cicic cnIe(ic( en e| cuc| :e Lu:cc minimizc( fc||c:: :i
:e cp|icc e:Ie c(iIe(ic. :e ||ecc(c c |c ccnc|u:icn cue unc: pccc: ccu:c:
{207) :cn (e:pcn:cL|e: ce| 807 ce nue:I(c: p(cL|emc:. pc( |c cue. :i
cIencemc: pe(fecIcmenIe c e:Ic:. :c|ucicnc(emc: unc c(cn pc(Ie ce |c:
:iIuccicne: ce p(eccupccicn. De |c expc:icicn cnIe(ic( :e ||ecc c|
enunciccc ce| p(incipic
Si hccemc: unc |i:Ic ccn Iccc: |c: ccu:c: cue ccnI(iLuyen c |c cLIencicn
c cpc(icicn ce cuc|cuie( efecIc cue cue(cmc: cnc|izc(. y |c: c(cencmc:
ce mcyc( c menc(. ce ccue(cc c |c mccniIuc ce :u ccnI(iLucicn.
enccnI(c(emc: cue e| 207 ce cichc: ccu:c: e: (e:pcn:cL|e ce| 807 ce|
efecIc IcIc| y cue e| (e:IcnIe 807 :c|c e: (e:pcn:cL|e ce| 207 ce|
mencicnccc efecIc.
2

Vecmc:. pc( IcnIc. cuc| e: e| p(ccecimienIc pc(c cp|icc( e| p(incipic ce
Fc(eIc. ''|ey ce| 80/20 c ce| /. 87 C.
1. Definc e| efecIc cue |e inIe(e:c cnc|izc(.
2. E|cLc(e unc |i:Ic ccn Iccc: |c: ccu:c: cue c(icincn e| efecIc cue |e
inIe(e:c cnc|izc(. cncIcncc e| vc|c( ccn e| cue cccc unc ccnI(iLuye.
3. C(cene |c: ccu:c: ccn Lc:e en :u ccnI(iLucicn. ce mcyc( c menc(.
4. Sume e| IcIc| ce |c: vc|c(e: ccn cue cccc unc ccnI(iLuye pc(c cLIene( e|
1007 ce| vc|c(.
5. Cc|cu|e pc( cccc ccu:c. ccn cué pc(cenIcje ccnI(iLuye c| IcIc|
ó. lcenIificue |c: ccu:c: viIc|e: cue c(icincn cp(cximcccmenIe en 807 ce|
efecIc y Icme cccicne: cuicccc:c: e incivicuc|e:.
7. lcenIificue |c: ccu:c: ce I(cn:icicn c impc(IcnIe:'' y Icme cccicne:
c|cLc|e: c ce c(upc.
8. lcenIificue |c: ccu:c: I(ivic|e: y cIiéncc|c: en fc(mc cc((ecIivc y :c|c
cucncc :ec nece:c(ic.
/p|icuemc: e:Ie c(iIe(ic pc(c e| ce:c((c||c ce nue:I(c eje(cicic.
Fccemc: :upcne( cue ccn |c |i:Ic ce |c IcL|c 2- 3 hemc: ccn:ecuicc
cvcnzc( hc:Ic e| :ecuncc pc:c. pue: en p(ime( |ucc(. c nc:cI(c: nc:
inIe(e:c en e:Ie cc:c cnc|izc( |c: fc||c:: en :ecuncc |ucc(. :e :upcne cue
cLIuvimc: ce nue:I(c e:Icc|:Iicc |c mencicnccc |i:Ic y. ccemc:. e| vc|c(
ccn e| cue cccc ccu:c ccnI(iLuye. c ccnIinuccicn ce:c((c||c(emc: |c:
punIc: 3 c| 5. ccn |c cuc| |c |i:Ic cuecc(c en |c :icuienIe fc(mc
En e:Ie cc:c e: pc:iL|e cL:e(vc( cue :e ci:Iincuen I(e: c(upc: Lien
cefinicc:: |c: fccIc(e: 1 c| 3 Iienen unc ccnI(iLucicn ccumu|ccc ce| 717.
|c: fccIc(e: 4 c| ó ccumu|cn e| 15 7 y |c c(cn mcyc(|c (e:IcnIe ce| 7 c| 24
:c|c ccumu|c e| 147.
De ccu| cue c |c: p(ime(c: |e: ||cmc(emc: ''viIc|e:. c |c: :ecuncc:.
impc(IcnIe: c ce I(cn:icicn y c |c: ú|Iimc: I(ivic|e:.
Yc ccn Iccc e:Ie cnc|i:i:. cIccc(emc: e| p(cL|emc ce ccue(cc c |c
meccnicc inicic|menIe (eccmencccc. FunIc: ó c| 8. Fc( ejemp|c. e| fccIc(
2

viIc| mc: impc(IcnIe: e: |c cpe(ccicn ceficienIe ce |c: mccuinc:. pc( |c
cue :e ce:c((c||c(|c un p|cn exc|u:ivcmenIe pc(c (e:c|ve( e:Ie p(cL|emc.
ncmL(cncc c un (e:pcn:cL|e ce |c cIencicn ce| mi:mc y e| cuc| Ienc(|c
cue inve:Iicc( c fcncc e| pc(cué |c: cpe(c(ic: nc Iienen un
ccmpc(IcmienIc ccecuccc. hc:Ic ||ecc( c (eccmencc( e imp|cnIc( |c:
cccicne: nece:c(ic: cue ||even c |c :c|ucicn ce e:Ie p(cL|emc. En |c
mi:mc fc(mc :e p(ccece(c c cIccc( |c: fccIc(e: 2 y 3. ccn |c cuc| :e
Ienc(|cn I(e: p|cne: incivicuc|e: ccn u n (e:pcn:cL|e pc(c cccc unc. E:
nece:c(ic p(cpc(cicnc( Iccc e| cpcyc cue (ecuie(c cccc (e:pcn:cL|e. c
fin ce cLIene( |c: (e:u|Iccc: ce:eccc:. Ccn e:Ic. ce(cc ce| 717 ce
nue:I(c: fc||c: vcn c ce:cpc(ece( y e| Iiempc e:Ic(c mejc( uIi|izccc.
Fc( |c cue (e:pecIc c |c: fccIc(e: impc(IcnIe:'. hc(emc: un p|cn cene(c|
pc(c cIence( un e:Ie cc:c. c| mi:mc Iiempc. |c: I(e: fccIc(e: cue
(e:u|Ic(cn. y IcmLién ccn ln (e:pcn:cL|e c cc(cc. cuyc: cccicne: nc e:
nece:c(ic cue :ecn Icn ccucic:c: ccmc en cc:c ce fccIc(e: viIc|e:.
Fc( ú|Iimc. |c: fccIc(e: I(ivic|e: puecen en muchc: cc:c: hc:Ic c|vicc(:e c
hcce(:e in:peccicne: e:pc(ccicc: pc(c ve(ificc( :u ccmpc(IcmienIc y
cc((eci( cucncc :e :u:ciIen |c: fc||c:.
U:Iec puece cp|icc( e| p(incipic ce Y. Fc(eIc c un :innúme(c ce
:iIuccicne:. Ic|e: ccmc: :cLe( cuc|e: :cn |c: p(incipc|e: p(cL|emc: cue
cfecIcn c mcnIenimienIc. cuc|e: c p(ccuccicn. cuc|e: :cn |c: cuejc: mc:
impc(IcnIe:. cuc|e: |c: mc: f(ecuenIe:. en |c fcL(icc. cuc|e: :cn |c:
mccuinc viIc|e:. cuc|e: |c: impc(IcnIe: y cuc|e: |c: I(ivic|e: y. en fin. e|
p(incipic mencicnccc puece cyucc(nc: pc(c ccncce( |c: ccmpcnenIe:
c(|Iicc: ce un mccuinc ceIe(minccc c |c: ve(ccce(c: cue||c: ce LcIe||c en
nue:I(c I(cLcjc. nue:I(c: mejc(e: c|ienIe: c p(cveecc(e:. |c: c:unIc: cue
ceLemc: ce|ecc(. eIc. / cuc|cuie( c:pecIc c :iIuccicn cue c u:Iec |e
inIe(e:e cnc|izc( cp|icue |c: 8 pc:c: ce| ''F(incipic ce Fc(eIc'' y
cuIcmcIiccmenIe cumenIc(c |c eficccic en :u I(cLcjc. #ecue(ce. un Luen
ci(ecIivc (ccicnc|izc :u I(cLcjc cnc|izcncc |c impc(Icncic ce| mi:mc.
p(ccu(e hcce( un hcLiIc ce| u:c ce e:Ic he((cmienIc.



2

Componentes de uno computodoro
Ccnccnente: |nte|nc:

Lc Ic(jeIc mcc(e:
E: e| ccmpcnenIe c|cve ce |c ccmpuIccc(c. CcnIiene un
mic(cp(cce:ccc(. |c memc(ic y cI(c: ci(cuiIc: cue :cn c(|Iicc: pc(c cLIene(
unc Luenc cpe(ccicn ce |c FC. En cI(c: Iipc: ce ccmpuIccc(c:. |c Ic(jeIc
mcc(e c ¨mcIhe(Lcc(c" ccnIiene Iccc c |c mcyc(|c ce |c: ci(cuiIc: cue
ccnecIc |c ccmpuIccc(c ccn e| muncc exIe(ic(. Lc Ic(jeIc mcc(e fue
ci:enccc pc(c cue |c: :uL-funcicne: ce v|cec e inIe(ccnexicne: ccn e|
muncc exIe(ic( :ecn ccmini:I(ccc: pc( ci(cuiIc: ccicicnc|e: en Ic(jeIc:. De
e:Ic mcne(c. :e puece ccIuc|izc( |c FC ccmLicncc |c: Ic(jeIc:.

Lc fuenIe ce c|imenIccicn {fuenIe pcce():
Lc fuenIe ce c|imenIccicn :e cuL(e ce un L|inccje meIc|icc pc(c eviIc(
inIe(fe(encic ce f(ecuencic ccn e| :i:Iemc ce vicec y pc(c p(cIeccicn ce|
u:uc(ic cue Iencc nece:iccc pc( c|cunc (czcn ce cL(i( :u ccmpuIccc(c.
Se ecuipc ce un venIi|ccc( cue :i(ve ccmc :i:Iemc ce enf(icmienIc pc(c
Iccc: |c: ccmpcnenIe: cenI(c ce| ccLineIe.

Lc fuenIe ce c|imenIccicn enI(ecc cc: vc|Icje: Lc:icc:. 5 vc|I: pc(c |c
Ic(jeIc mcc(e y Iccc: |c: cemc: ci(cuiIc:. 12 vc|I: pc(c cpe(c( |c: mcIc(e:
ce |c: uniccce: y 0 vc|I: {Iie((c). Gene(c|menIe |c: ccnecIc(e: ce |c fuenIe
:cn :Icncc(c. |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e (eciLe |c: ccnecIc(e: p8 y pº. cuyc: hi|c:
nec(c: :iemp(e :e ccnecIcn junIc: c| cenI(c ce| ccnecIc( ce |c Ic(jeIc
mcc(e.

Memc(ic #/M
Fc( cI(c |ccc. |c Memc(ic #cm {#cnccm /cce:: Memc(y c Memc(ic ce
/cce:c c|ecIc(ic) e: un e:pccic ce c|mccencmienIc Iempc(cnec uIi|izccc
pc( e| mic(cp(cce:ccc( y cI(c: ccmpcnenIe:. / Dife(encic ce |c: Uniccce:
2

ce c|mccencmienIc. é:Ic e: vc|cIi|. Sicnificc cue :u ccnIenicc :e Lc((c
cccc vez cue :e cpccc c (einicic( |c ccmpuIccc(c: IcmLién e: mc:
(cpicc. e: ceci( cue e| ccce:c c |c: ccIc: cue mcnIiene e: muy ve|cz.

Lc: chip: ce memc(ic :cn |c: encc(cccc: ce p(cce:c( ccIc: e
in:I(uccicne: c c(cn ve|cciccc. Fc( cI(c |ccc. |c ccnIiccc ce memc(ic
#/M ci:pcniL|e inf|uye ci(ecIcmenIe en e| (encimienIc ce |c FC {cucncc
mc: c(cnce :ec e| e:c(iIc(ic. mc: pcpe|e: pcc(c pcne( :cL(e é|). Lc:
mccu|c: DlMM :cn. en |c ccIuc|iccc. e| e:Icncc( pc(c |c: memc(ic: #/M.

os t|pos de memor|o son:
$IMM: {Sinc|e ln-|ine Memc(y Mccu|e - Mccu|c: :imp|e: ce memc(ic en
||nec) ce 30/72 ccnIccIc:. Lc: ce 30 ccnIccIc: puecen mcnejc( 8 LiI:
cccc vez. pc( |c cue en un 38ó c 48ó. cue Iiene un Lu: ce ccIc: ce 32 LiI:.
nece:iIcmc: u:c(|c: ce 4 en 4 mccu|c: icuc|e:. Micen unc: 8.5 cm {30 c.) c
10.5 cm {72 c.) y |c: (cnu(c: {Lcncc:) ccnce vcn mcnIccc: :ue|en :e( ce
cc|c( L|cncc. Lc: SlMM ce 72 ccnIccIc: {en :u épccc. mc: mcce(nc:)
mcnejcn 32 LiI:. pc( |c cue :e u:cn ce 1 en 1 en |c: 48ó: en |c: FenIium :e
hc(|c ce 2 en 2 mccu|c: {icuc|e:). pc(cue e| Lu: ce ccIc: ce |c: FenIium e:
e| ccL|e ce c(cnce {ó4 LiI:).

DIMM: {Duc| ln-|ine Memc(y Mccu|e - Mccu|c: ce memc(ic cuc| en ||nec)
ce 1ó8/184 ccnIccIc: y unc: 13 c ~15 cm y en (cnu(c: {Lcncc:)
cene(c|menIe ce cc|c( nec(c. ||evcn cc: pc|cncuiIc: ce cc|c( L|cncc pc(
|c cene(c| en |c: exI(emc: pc(c fcci|iIc( :u cc((ecIc cc|ccccicn. Fuecen
mcnejc( ó4 LiI: ce unc vez. Exi:Ien ce 5. 3.3. 2.5 vc|Iic:.
kIMM: {#cmLu: ln-|ine Memc(y Mccu|e) ce 1ó8 ccnIccIc:. e: e| fc(mcIc
mc: nuevc en e| c(ec ce |c: memc(ic: y e: uIi|izccc pc( |c: ú|Iimc: FenIium
4. Iiene un ci:enc IcIc|menIe nuevc. un Lu: ce ccIc: mc: e:I(echc. ce :c|c
1ó LiI: {2 LyIe:) pe(c funcicnc c ve|cciccce: muchc mcyc(e:. ce 2óó. 35ó
y 400 MHz. /cemc:. e: ccpcz ce cp(cvechc( cccc :enc| ccL|emenIe. ce
fc(mc cue en cccc cic|c ce (e|cj env|c 4 LyIe: en |ucc( ce 2.

2

Lc memc(ic #CM
{#ecc Cn|y Memmc(y. c memc(ic ce :c|c |ecIu(c) IcmLién e: ccnccicc
ccmc 8lCS. y e: un chip cue viene cc(ecccc c |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e.

E| Chip ce Memc(ic #cm :e encuenI(c in:e(Iccc en |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e.
ceLicc c cue cuc(cc e| ccnjunIc ce in:I(uccicne: cue pe(miIen c((cncc(
|c ccmpuIccc(c y pc:iLi|iIc |c cc(cc ce| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc. Fc( |c IcnIc e:
ce viIc| impc(Icncic pc(c e| funcicncmienIc ce| :i:Iemc.

E| F(cce:ccc(
E| chip mc: impc(IcnIe ce cuc|cuie( Ic(jeIc mcc(e e: e| p(cce:ccc(. Sin e|
|c ccmpuIccc(c nc pcc(|c funcicnc(. / menucc e:Ie ccmpcnenIe :e
ceIe(minc CFU. cue ce:c(iLe c |c pe(feccicn :u pcpe| cenI(c ce| :i:Iemc.
E| p(cce:ccc( e: (ec|menIe e| e|emenIc cenI(c| ce| p(cce:c ce
p(cce:cmienIc ce ccIc:.

JUMFE#S {FUENIES)
E:pc(cicc: en cife(enIe: |ucc(e: ce |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e :e encuenI(cn |c:
jumpe(:. cue :i(ven pc(c ccnecIc( |c: funcicne: cue :e puecen c(cenc(
ce:ce e| pcne| ce| ccLineIe y pc(c ccnficu(c( enI(e cife(enIe: cpcicne:
ce cpe(ccicn ce |c ccmpuIccc(c.

VENIlL/DC#ES
Iccc ecuipc ce ccmpuIc. cuenIc ccn c| menc: un venIi|ccc( cenI(c ce|
ccLineIe. cue Iiene ccmc funcicn |c ce exI(ce( e| ci(e cc|ienIe ce :u
inIe(ic(. e| cuc| e: ce(ivccc ce| funcicncmienIc nc(mc| ce |c: ccmpcnenIe:
e|écI(icc: ce |c ccmpuIccc(c {c:| ccmc :cn: e| p(cce:ccc(. e| CD-#CM. |c
uniccc ce ci:cueIe. e| Di:cc Du(c. y en ccc:icne: cucncc IcmLién
inc|uyen Ic(jeIc: c ccce:c(ic: e:pecic|e:: Ic(jeIc ce #ED. DVD.
Cuemccc(e: ce CD. eIc.)
30

Di:cc Du(c
Iccc: |c: ccmpuIccc(c: ccIuc|e: ci:pcnen ce unc uniccc ce ci:cc cu(c
e: |c uniccc ce c|mccencmienIc ce infc(mccicn. E:Ie e: e| cue cuc(cc |c
infc(mccicn cucncc cpcccmc: |c ccmpuIccc(c. /cu| :e cuc(cc |c
mcyc(|c ce |c: p(cc(cmc: y e| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc.

E:Ie e:Ic ccmpue:Ic: pc( vc(ic: p|cIc:. e: ceci(. vc(ic: ci:cc: ce mcIe(ic|
mccnéIicc mcnIccc: :cL(e un eje cenI(c| :cL(e e| cue :e mueven. Fc(c
|ee( y e:c(iLi( ccIc: en e:Ic: p|cIc: :e u:cn |c: ccLezc: ce |ecIu(c /
e:c(iIu(c cue mecicnIe un p(cce:c e|ecI(cmccnéIicc cccificcn /
cecccificcn |c infc(mccicn cue hcn ce |ee( c e:c(iLi(. Lc ccLezc ce
|ecIu(c / e:c(iIu(c en un ci:cc cu(c e:Ic muy ce(cc ce |c :upe(ficie. ce
fc(mc cue cc:i cc vue|Ic :cL(e e||c. :cL(e e| cc|chcn ce ci(e fc(mccc pc(
:u p(cpic mcvimienIc. DeLicc c e:Ic. e:Icn ce((ccc: he(méIiccmenIe.
pc(cue cuc|cuie( pc(I|cu|c ce pc|vc puece ccnc(|c:.

Di:cc: F|exiL|e: {F|cppy D(ive:)
Lc: uniccce: ce ci:cc cnIe(ic(menIe e(cn 5 ' ´ c ce 3.5´ ¨|c: cue
ccnccemc: ¨e:Ic e: e| cicmeI(c ce |c: ci:cc:. Lc: ci:cc: ce 5 ' ´
mcnejcLcn ci:cc: ce 3ó0 K8 y 1.2 ML. Se cice enIcnce: cue |c: uniccce:
:cn ce Lcjc y c|Ic cen:iccc (e:pecIivcmenIe :imi|c(menIe |c: uniccce:
3.5´ cpe(cn ci:cc: ce 720 KL. Y 1.44ML. /p|iccncc|e: e| mi:mc ccncepIc
ce Lcjc y c|Ic cen:iccc. D(ive(: mc: (ecienIe: ce 3.5´ Iienen unc
ccpcciccc pc(c mcnejc( ci:cc: ce 2.8ML. Se cice cue |c uniccc e: ce
exI(c c|Ic cen:iccc.

CD-#CM
Lc uniccc ce CD-#CM ceLe ce ccn:ice(c(:e cL|iccIc(ic en cuc|cuie(
ccmpuIccc(c. cue :e en:cmL|e c ccn:I(uyc ccIuc|menIe. e:Ic e: pc( cue
|c mcyc(|c ce| :cfIwc(e :e ci:I(iLuye en CD-#CM.

31

Lc: uniccce: ce CD-#CM :e vc|vie(cn nece:c(ic: ce:ce cue
p(ccIiccmenIe cejc(cn ce |cnzc( p(cc(cmc: en ci:cueIe:. Lc: uniccce: ce
ci:cc ccmpccIc ce :c|c |ecIu(c {CD-#CM) :e evc|úcn pc( :u ve|cciccc ce
|ecIu(c y Iccc: Iienen unc ccpcciccc mcximc ce c|mccencmienIc ce ó50
ML.

Exi:Ien c|cunc: ce e:Ic: uniccce: cue |een CD-#CM y c(cvcn :cL(e |c:
ci:cc: ccmpccIc: ce unc :c|c c(cLccc {CD-#) E:Ic: uniccce: :e ||cmcn
¨cuemccc(e:" yc cue :u funcicncmienIc e: ccn un |c:e( cue cuemc |c
:upe(ficie ce| ci:cc pc(c cuc(cc( |c infc(mccicn.

Hcy en c|c exi:Ie un nuevc fc(mcIc ce c|mccencmienIc en ci:cc cpIicc
cue :e ||cmc DVD-#CM. E:Ie ci:cc (ecuie(e unc uniccc cife(enIe y Iiene
unc ccpcciccc ce 4.7 G8. lnc|u:c :e puece ve( pe||cu|c: ccn cc|iccc
ciciIc| ccn e:Ic: uniccce:. /uncue nc :cn nuevc:. :u enI(ccc c| me(cccc
nc hc :icc muy cifuncicc cun. Exi:Ie uniccce: ce DVD cue e:c(iLen :cL(e
|c: CD-# y |c mcyc(|c ce e||c: |een |c: CD-#CM
D|spos|t|vos de entrodo

F| tec|ccc
E: un ci:pc:iIivc pe(ifé(icc ce enI(ccc. cue ccnvie(Ie |c cccicn meccnicc
ce pu|:c( unc :e(ie ce pu|:c: e|écI(icc: cccificccc: cue pe(miIen
icenIificc(|c. Lc: Iec|c: cue |c ccn:IiIuyen :i(ven pc(c enI(c( cc(ccIe(e:
c|fcnumé(icc: y ccmcncc: c unc ccmpuIccc(c.
En un Iec|ccc :e puece ci:Iincui( c cucI(c :uLccnjunIc: ce Iec|c::
O Iec|ccc c|fcnumé(icc: ccn |c: Iec|c: ci:pue:Ic: ccmc en unc mccuinc
ce e:c(iLi(.
O Iec|ccc numé(icc: {uLicccc c |c ce(echc ce| cnIe(ic() ccn Iec|c:
ci:pue:Ic: ccmc en unc cc|cu|ccc(c.
O Iec|ccc ce funcicne:: {ce:ce F1 hc:Ic F12) :cn Iec|c: cuyc funcicn
cepence ce| p(cc(cmc en ejecucicn.
32

O Iec|ccc ce cu(:c(: pc(c i( ccn e| cu(:c( ce un |ucc( c cI(c en un IexIc. E|
cu(:c( :e mueve :ecún e| :enIicc ce |c: f|echc: ce |c: Iec|c:. i( c|
ccmienzc ce un pc((cfc { HCME ). cvcnzc( / (eI(ccece( unc pccinc
{F/GE UF/F/GE DCWN ). e|iminc( cc(ccIe(e: {ce|eIe). eIc.
Cccc Iec|c Iiene :u ccnIccIc. cue :e encuenI(c ceLcjc ce. e||c c|
cp(imi(|c :e
¨Cie((c y c| :c|Ic(|c :e /L(e . ce e:Ic mcne(c ccn:IiIuye unc ||cve
:i - nc .

F| ncu:e c |ctón
E| (cIcn c Mcu:e infc(mcIicc e: un ci:pc:iIivc :enc|ccc( c ce enI(ccc.
(eciLe e:Ic cencminccicn pc( :u cpc(iencic. Fc(c pcce( incicc( |c
I(cyecIc(ic cue (ecc((ic. c mecicc cue :e ce:p|czc. e| Mcu:e ceLe envic(
c|c ccmpuIccc(c :enc|e: e|écI(icc: Linc(ic: cue pe(miIcn (eccn:I(ui( :u
I(cyecIc(ic.
Exi:Ien cc: Iecnc|cc|c: p(incipc|e: en fcL(icccicn ce (cIcne:: #cIcne:
meccnicc: y #cIcne: cpIicc:.
O #cIcne: meccnicc:: E:Ic: ccn:Icn ce unc Lc|c :iIuccc en :u pc(Ie
infe(ic(. Lc Lc|c. c| mcve(:e e| (cIcn. (czc unc: ccnIccIc: en fc(mc ce
(uecc cue inciccn e| mcvimienIc ce| cu(:c( en |c pcnIc||c ce| :i:Iemc
infc(mcIicc.
O #cIcne: cpIicc:: E:Ic: Iienen un pecuenc hcz ce |uz |c:e( en |ucc( ce |c
Lc|c (cccnIe ce |c: meccnicc:. Un cen:c( cpIicc :iIuccc cenI(c ce|
cue(pc ce| (cIcn ceIecIc e| mcvimienIc ce| (ef|ejc c| mcve( e| (cIcn
:cL(e e| e:pejc e incicc |c pc:icicn ce| cu(:c( en |c pcnIc||c ce |c
ccmpuIccc(c.

F| e:ccne| c c|g|tc||zccc| ce |ncgene:
Scn pe(ifé(icc: ci:enccc: pc(c (eci:I(c( cc(ccIe(e: e:c(iIc:. c c(cficc: en
fc(mc ce fcIcc(cf|c: c ciLujc:. imp(e:c: en unc hcjc ce pcpe| fcci|iIcncc
:u inI(ccuccicn |c ccmpuIccc(c ccnvi(Iiéncc|c: en infc(mccicn Linc(ic
ccmp(en:iL|e pc(c é:Ic.
33

E| funcicncmienIc ce un e:ccne( e: :imi|c( c| ce unc fcIcccpiccc(c. Se
cc|ccc unc hcjc ce pcpe| cue ccnIiene unc imccen :cL(e unc :upe(ficie
ce c(i:Ic| I(cn:pc(enIe. Lcjc e| c(i:Ic| exi:Ie unc |enIe e:pecic| cue (ec|izc
un Lc((icc ce |c imccen exi:IenIe en e| pcpe|: c| (ec|izc( e| Lc((icc. |c
infc(mccicn exi:IenIe en |c hcjc ce pcpe| e: ccnve(Iicc en unc :uce:icn
ce infc(mccicn en fc(mc ce unc: y ce(c: cue :e inI(ccucen en |c
ccmpuIccc(c.

D|spos|t|vos de so||do

Lc: |nc|e:c|c:
E:Ic e: |c cue pe(miIe cLIene( en un :cpc(Ie ce pcpe| unc ¨hc(cccpy¨:
ccpic vi:uc|izcL|e. pe(cu(cL|e y I(cn:pc(IcL|e ce |c infc(mccicn p(cce:ccc
pc( unc ccmpuIccc(c.
Lc: p(ime(c: imp(e:c(c: nccie(cn muchc: cnc: cnIe: cue |c FC e inc|u:c
cnIe: cue |c: mcniIc(e:. :iencc cu(cnIe cnc: e| méIccc mc: u:uc| pc(c
p(e:enIc( |c: (e:u|Iccc: ce |c: cc|cu|c: en ccue||c: p(imiIivc:
ccmpuIccc(c:. Iccc un cvcnce (e:pecIc c |c: Ic(jeIc: y cinIc: pe(fc(ccc:
cue :e u:cLcn hc:Ic enIcnce:.

í|F DF |/FFFSFAS
O lmpccIc pc( mcI(iz ce ccujc c punIc
O Chc((c c inyeccicn ce IinIc
O Lc:e(

E MONIIOk
EvicenIemenIe. e: |c pcnIc||c en |c cue :e ve |c infc(mccicn :umini:I(ccc
pc( |c ccmpuIccc(c. En e| cc:c mc: hcLiIuc| :e I(cIc ce un cpc(cIc
Lc:ccc en un IuLc ce (cyc: ccIccicc: {C#I) ccmc e| ce |c: Ie|evi:c(e:.
mienI(c: cue en |c: pc(IcIi|e: e: unc pcnIc||c p|cnc ce c(i:Ic| ||cuicc {LCD).
3

Lc (e:c|ucicn :e cefine ccmc e| núme(c ce punIc: cue puece (ep(e:enIc(
e| mcniIc( pc( pcnIc||c. en {hc(izcnIc| x ve(Iicc|). /:|. un mcniIc( cuyc
(e:c|ucicn mcximc :ec ce 1024x7ó8 punIc: puece (ep(e:enIc( hc:Ic 7ó8
||nec: hc(izcnIc|e: ce 1024 punIc: cccc unc. p(cLcL|emenIe ccemc: ce
cI(c: (e:c|ucicne: infe(ic(e:. ccmc ó40x480 u 800xó00. / mcyc( (e:c|ucicn
ce un mcniIc(. mejc( :e(c |c cc|iccc ce |c imccen en pcnIc||c. y mcyc(
:e(c |c cc|iccc {y pc( ccn:icuienIe e| p(ecic) ce| mcniIc(.



















3

MEIODOOÍ:
1. Se (ec|izc e| invenIc(ic ce Iccc: |c: (ecu(:c::

Concepto Cont|dod
Mon|tor 10
C!b 10
Mouse 10
Iec|odo 10
D|odemos 10
Cob|es de o||mentoc|on de corr|ente de| mon|tor 10
Cob|es de o||mentoc|on de corr|ente de| C!b 10
Cob|es de o||mentoc|on de corr|ente de
Impresoro
2
Impresoro 1
Escóner 1
Cob|es kJ4ó 10
Modem o kouter 1
Mesos 2
$|||os 10
8onqu|tos 3
kegu|odores 4
Conectores mù|t|p|es 2
Extens|on 1
Vent||odor 1
I|um|noc|on (|ocos) 1
$|stemo operot|vo (progromos vor|os) 1 {pc( cccc FC)
Internet Se(vicic ce| p(cveecc(
Cómoro web 10

2. E:IcL|ece( e| |ncice lCGM
c. CIc(cc( cccicc mccuinc
L. CIc(cc( cccicc ce I(cLcjc
c. #ec|izc( ecuccicn pc(c e:IcL|ece( |c p(ic(iccc
!rob|emo Concepto Cod|go
móqu|no
Cod|go de
trobojo
Índ|ce
ICM
!r|or|dod
3

CFU 10 x 1 10 óc
McniIc( 10 x 1 10 óL
3 Iec|ccc 10 x 8 80 2º
4 Mcu:e 10 x 1 10 óc
5 Me:c: º x 1 º 7c
ó ScfIwc(e º x 10 º0 1c
7 Ccmc(c 8 x 1 8 8c
8 lmp(e:c(c 8 x 8 ó4 3c
º Diccemc 7 x 8 5ó 5c
#ec Lccc| 7 x º ó3 4c
Si||c: 7 x 1 7 ºc
8cncui||c: 3 x 1 3 10c


#ecccmccccicn:
!r|or|dod Índ|ce ICM !rob|emo Concepto
o º0 ó ScfIwc(e
o 80 3 Iec|ccc
3 o ó4 8 lmp(e:c(c
4 o ó3 10 #ec |ccc|
5 o 5ó º Diccemc
ó o 10 1 CFU
ó b 10 2 McniIc(
ó c 10 4 Mcu:e
7 o º 5 Me:c:
8 o 8 7 Ccmc(c
º o 7 11 Si||c:
o 3 12 8cncui||c:

3

3. /nc|i:i: ce| p(cL|emc: Se (ec|izc in cicc(cmc Ccu:c-EfecIc















Fc||c: cene(c|e: en
e| ScfIwc(e
impiciencc e| u:c
ce| FC
Cccicc: mc|icic:c:
lnIe((upcicn E|écI(icc
Secuencic e((cnec
ce cpccccc
Si:Iemc cpe(cIivc
Vi(u:
Gu:cnc: ce inIe(neI
:pyLcI
I(cycnc:
FuL|iciccc nc ce:eccc

Cc(Ie: |c(cc: en e| :umini:I(c
Mic(c-cc(Ie: en e| :umini:I(c
Cc|cc: ce vc|Icje
Vc(iccicne: ce vc|Icje
Ficc: ce cc((ienIe
Ic(menIc: e|écI(icc:
#e:eIec ce FC pc( ecuivccccicn
lnIe((upcicn ce| :umini:I(c e|écI(icc
/cIuc|izccicn inccmp|eIc ce p(cc(cmc:
lnccmpcIiLi|iccc ce :cfIwc(e
ln:Ic|ccicn inccmp|eIc ce p(cc(cmc:
Dec(ccccicn ce| :cfIwc(e
3

4. Dicc(cmc ce Fc(eIc
Se (ec|izc (eccpi|c(cn |c: ccIc: ce |c: fc||c: pc(c (ec|izc( un cicc(cmc ce
Fc(eIc y ve( :i |c: (ecu(:c: viIc|e: fc(mcn cp(cximcccmenIe e| 807 ce |c:
fc||c:.
Couso de |os |o||os
No
de
|o||os
%
%
ocumu|odo
Cccicc mc|icic:c º00 8º.438 8º.438
Mic(c cc(Ie: 40 3.º75 º3.413
3 Vc(iccicne: ce vc|Icje 1ó 1.5º0 º5.003
4 lmp(e:c(c 15 1.4º0ó ºó.4º3ó
5 Iec|ccc 12 1.1º25 º7.ó8ó1
ó #e:eIec ce FC 12 1.1º25 º8.878ó
7
/pccccc ine:pe(ccc ce
FC
5 0.4ºó8 ºº.3754
8 Ficc: ce cc((ienIe 2 0.1º87 ºº.5741
º Cc|cc: ce vc|Icje 1 0.0ºº3 ºº.ó734
Mcu:e 1 0.0ºº3 ºº.7727
Diccemc 1 0.0ºº3 ºº.8720
lnIe(neI 0.83 0.0825 ºº.º545
3
Cc(Ie: |c(cc: ce|
:umini:I(c
0.33 0.0328 ºº.º873
4 Mccem 0.083 0.00825 ºº.ºº555
5 SuiIch 0.041 0.00407
ºº.ºººó2 =
100

3

G(cficc:














Fc( |c IcnIc Ienemc: cue e| cccicc mc|icic:c e: |c ccucc ce| 8º.438 7 ce
|c: fc||c:.

5. lnvenIc(ic je(c(cuizccc
!rob|emo Concepto
Cod|go
móqu|no
%
ocumu|odo

c|os|||coc|on
CFU 10
ó/12 =

507
ViIc|e:
McniIc( 10
3 Iec|ccc 10
4 Mcu:e 10
5 Me:c: º
ó ScfIwc(e º
100Ŧ2

00
20
0
10
vlLales lmporLanLes 1rlvlales
100 Ʒ
0 Ʒ

10Ʒ
0

7 Ccmc(c 8
5/12 =

41.óó7
lmpc(IcnIe:
8 lmp(e:c(c 8
º Diccemc 7
#ec Lccc| 7
Si||c: 7
8cncui||c: 3
1/12=

8.337
I(ivic|e:
toto|es 12 ºº.ºº1007

ó. EL :icuienIe pc:c fue (ec|izc( un cnc|i:i: :cL(e |c: fc||c:
funccmenIc|e:.

Ccmc nc: hemc: cccc cuenIc. |c: fc||c: funccmenIc|e: :cn :cL(e e|
:cfIwc(e ce |c: FC´:. e: ceci(. e| p(cL|emc :e Lc:c en |c: cccicc:
mc|icic:c:. |c :cIu(ccicn ce |c: memc(ic:. |c cc(Ie: ine:pe(ccc: ce
cc((ienIe: eIc.
Fc( e||c c ccnIinuccicn :e ce:c(iLi(c cue e: |c cue :e ceLe hcce( pc(c
eviIc( e:Ic: fc||c:.
Iccc: |c: ccmpuIccc(c: nece:iIcn :cfIwc(e pc(c funcicnc(. Lc in:Ic|ccicn
ce :cfIwc(e en mi|e: ce ecuipc: (epc(Iicc: pc( unc cficinc c cive(:c: :ece:
nc e: nccc I(ivic|. /cemc:. e:Ic ccIiviccc e: p(ccIiccmenIe cL|iccIc(ic en
|c emp(e:c. Lc: ccIuc|izccicne: ce :cfIwc(e y |c: pc(che: ce :ecu(iccc :cn
nece:c(ic: pc(c eviIc( |c: mi:mc: ccn:ecuencic: cue Ienc(|c unc cve(|c
hc(cwc(e. Lc: p(cL|emc: I|picc: ce unc emp(e:c (e:pecIc c| :cfIwc(e ce
e:c(iIc(ic :cn:
O Lc p(e:encic ce :cfIwc(e pi(cIc c nc cuIc(izccc. E:Ic puece ce(ivc(
en :e(ic: pe(juicic: eccncmicc:. ccemc: ce| mc|funcicncmienIc ce|
:cfIwc(e cc(pc(cIivc.
O lnccmpcIiLi|iccce: ce |c: cp|icccicne: cc(pc(cIivc: ccn e| hc(cwc(e
c e| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc. Cccc ccmpuIccc(c puece ccnIc( ccn unc
ve(:icn ci:IinIc ce :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc. ccnI(c|ccc(e:. eIc.
1

O De:ccnI(c| ce |c: |icencic: ce :cfIwc(e ccme(cic|: e:Ic invc|uc(c
IcnIc :cfIwc(e cuIc(izccc. e inc|u:c pccccc. pe(c nc uIi|izccc. ccmc
:cfIwc(e cue nc :e u:c pc(cue fc|Icn |icencic:. Lc (encvccicn y
expi(ccicn ce |icencic: IcmLién e: un p(cL|emc c ccn:ice(c(.
O Lc ccnficu(ccicn ce| :cfIwc(e y ce| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc pc(c cccc
u:uc(ic.
O Lc ci:I(iLucicn e in:Ic|ccicn ce :cfIwc(e: IcnIc cc(pc(cIivc ccmc
ccme(cic|. eIc.

Fc( |c IcnIc |c: cccicne: ce mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc c |c: cue ceLe
(ecu((i( e| cpe(c(ic y (ec|izc( c cccc unc ce |c: mccuinc: :cn:
1. E|iminc( c(chivc: cuc(cccc: cue nc Iienen nincunc uIi|iccc cccc
:emcnc.
c. E: ceci(. c(chivc: cue |c: u:uc(ic hcycn cuc(cccc :in nincunc
finc|iccc. e:Ic: c(chivc: puecen e:Ic( en |c: cc(peIc: ce: Mi:
cccumenIc:. Mi: imccene:. Mi: cccumenIc: ccmpc(Iicc:.
/(chivc: (eciLicc:. Vicec: c inc|u:c en e| mi:mc e:c(iIc(ic.
2. Vccic( pc( ccmp|eIc e| hi:Ic(ic| ce| exp|c(ccc( cccc :emcnc.
c. E:Ie p(cce:c en nece:c(ic cL(i( e| inIe(neI exp|c(e(. i( hccic |c
pe:Icnc ce he((cmienIc:. Cpcicne: ce inIe(neI. e|iminc(
hi:Ic(ic|. :e|eccicnc( e|iminc( Iccc. y :e|eccicncncc |c cc:i||c
cue cice ¨E|iminc( IcmLién |c: c(chivc: y ccnficu(ccicne: cue
c|mccenc(cn |c: ccmp|emenIc:". /cepIc( y e:pe(c( |c
ccmp|eIc e|iminccicn.
3. E|iminc( c(chivc: cue e:Ién en I(c:fe(encic Iccc: |c: c|c:.
c. E:Ic: c(chivc: puecen :e( ce:cc(cc: en p(cce:c. c c(chivc: ce
p(cc(cmc: cecicccc: c |c I(c:fe(encic ce c(chivc: pc(
ejemp|c ¨c(e:". un p(cc(cmc muy ccmún uIi|izccc ccn mcyc(
f(ecuencic pc(c |c ce:cc(cc ce mú:icc en :u: cive(:c:
fc(mcIc:.
4. Vccic( |c: cc(peIc: ce c(chivc: Iempc(c|e: y ¨p(efeIch" cccc
:emcnc.
c. Iempc(c|e:: c|ic inicic. ejecuIc(. Iec|ec( ¨Iemp". e|iminc( Iccc:
|c: c(chivc: cue cpc(ecen en |c cc(peIc cue hemc: cLie(Ic.
2

L. F(efeIch: c|ic inicic. ejecuIc(. Iec|ec( ¨p(efeIch". e|iminc( Iccc:
|c: c(chivc: cue cpc(ecen en |c cc(peIc cue hemc: cLie(Ic.
5. McnIene( |impic e| c(ec ce I(cLcjc ce |c: FC.
c. Limpic( Iccc: |c: c|c: mcniIc(e:. mcu:e. Iec|ccc:. me:c: :i||c:.
y Iccc (ecu(:c f|:icc cue :e puecc ceIe(ic(c( ccn e| pc|vc c
:ucieccc cue :e ccumu|e en e| c|c.
ó. #ec|izc( un e:ccnec ce |c mccuinc ccmp|eIc ccn e| cnIivi(u: unc
vez c| me:.
7. De:in:Ic|c( p(cc(cmc: cue nc Ienccn nincún vc|c( pc(c e| :i:Iemc
cpe(cIivc.
8. #ec|izc( un fc(mcIec ce |c: mccuinc: cccc me:c: pc(c eviIc( pc(c:
ine:pe(ccc:.
c. E| fc(mcIec ceLe :e( (ec|izccc pc( un e:pecic|i:Ic en |c
mcIe(ic. pue: :i e: e|cLc(ccc pc( c|cunc pe(:cnc cue nc e:Ic
ccmp|eIcmenIe ccpcciIccc y muchc menc: cc|ificccc :e
cc((e e| (ie:cc ce c(ec( fc||c: mc: c(cve:. inc|u:c ce cenc(
i((emecicL|emenIe |c: mccuinc:.
º. E|iminc( |c (ec |ccc| y vc|ve(|c c in:Ic|c( 1 vez c| cnc pc(c e|iminc(
p(cL|emc: ccn |c (ec. ccu:ccc: pc( vi(u:. c cec(ccccicn.
10.ln:Ic|c( :c|c |c: p(cc(cmc: nece:c(ic: pc(c e| u:uc(ic.
11.#ec|izc( unc :e:icn |imiIccc |c cuc| puece uIi|izc( e| u:uc(ic. e:Ic
hcce ccn e| fin ce cue e| u:uc(ic nc puecc in:Ic|c( p(cc(cmc: cue
:c|c c(een p(cL|emc: c| :i:Iemc.

M/NIENlMlENIC DE H/#DW/#E

M/NIENlMlENIC F#EVENIlVC
F| ncnten|n|entc :e c|v|ce en cc: t|cc:.

Monten|m|ento prevent|vo oct|vo

E:Ie Iipc ce mcnIenimienIc invc|uc(c |c |impiezc ce| :i:Iemc y :u:
ccmpcnenIe: |c f(ecuencic ccn |c cuc| :e ceLe imp|emenIc( e:Ie Iipc ce
3

mcnIenimienIc cepence ce| cmLienIe ce |c ccmpuIccc(c y ce |c cc|iccc
ce |c: ccmpcnenIe:. Si |c FC e:Ic en un cmLienIe exI(emcccmenIe :ucic
:e ceLe |impic( en p(cmecic cccc I(e: me:e:.
Fc(c |c mcyc(|c ce |c: cmLienIe: |impic: ce cficinc |c |impiezc :e
ceLe cp|icc( en p(cmecic unc c cc: vece: c| cnc.

Monten|m|ento prevent|vo pos|vo

E:Ie Iipc ce mcnIenimienIc ccn:i:Ie en e| cuicccc ce| :i:Iemc en :u
cmLienIe exIe(nc. inc|uye Lc:iccmenIe |c: ccncicicne: f|:icc: ce
cpe(ccicn ce| :i:Iemc y |c p(evencicn e|écI(icc. Lc f|:icc ccmp(ence
fccIc(e: ccmc |c Iempe(cIu(c cmLienIe. e| :I(e:: Ié(micc ce encencicc. |c
ccnIcminccicn pc( pc|vc. humc ce cicc((c y p(cL|emc: pc( pc:iL|e:
cc|pe: c viL(ccicne:. Lc e|écI(icc ccncie(ne c fccIc(e: ccmc cc(cc
e|ecI(c:IcIicc:. |c :cL(e cc(cc en |c ||nec y en c|cunc: cmLienIe: |c
inIe(fe(encic pc( (ccicf(ecuencic.
Lc e:encic ce| mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc e: p(cIece( e| hc(cwc(e y |c c|Ic
inve(:icn eccncmicc cue (ep(e:enIc. E: pc( |c IcnIc (czcncL|e cue c|
cmLienIe en e| cue e:Ie cpe(cncc e| ecuipc :ec ccecuccc:

O E| ecuipc ceLe e:Ic( |iL(e. en |c pc:iL|e ce |c ccnIcminccicn
ce(cLicc ccmc e| pc|vc y e| humc ce| cicc((c.
O Nc cc|ccue :u ecuipc f(enIe c unc venIcnc expcniéncc|c
ci(ecIcmenIe c |c |uz ce :c|.
O Lc Iempe(cIu(c ceLe :e( ccnI(c|ccc y ccn:IcnIe ccmc :ec
pc:iL|e pc(c eviIc( e| :I(e:: Ié(micc ce |c: ccmpcnenIe:.

En cucnIc c |c e|écI(icc e: ccnvenienIe hcce( énfc:i: en |c :icuienIe:



O Lc c|imenIccicn ce |c ||nec ceLe :e( c I(cvé: ce |c :c|icc
cc((ecIc
O Lc :c|icc ve(Iicc| menc( ce| ccnIccIc ceLe cc((e:pcnce( ccn
e| pc|c pc:iIivc.
O Lc :c|icc ve(Iicc| mcyc( ce| ccnIccIc ceLe cc((e:pcnce( ccn
e| neuI(c.
O Lc :c|icc ci(cu|c( ceLe cc((e:pcnce( ccn |c Iie((c.

Cucncc :e encience |c mccuinc cc un I(cn:iIc(ic ccnce e| vc|Icje y |c
cc((ienIe Iiencen c :e( muy c|Ic:. c Ic| fencmenc :e |e ccncce ccmc picc.
cuncue :e cc cu(cnIe un Iiempc muy cc(Ic. e| :I(e:: f|:icc ce |c:
ccmpcnenIe: e: muy c|Ic. en ccn:ecuencic e: (eccmenccL|e (ecuci( e|
nume(c ce cic|c: ce encencicc ce| ecuipc. pc( e:Ic (czcn :i :e Iiene cue
cpccc( y vc|ve( c encence( |c FC pc( cue :e hc ceIenicc pc( |c:
p(cL|emc: ce :cfIwc(e c en |c ||nec e|écI(icc. hccc|c ccn un c((cncue en
cc|ienIe Iec|ecncc CI#L-/LI-DEL.

Unc vez cuLie(Ic: |c: cnIe(ic(e: p(e|iminc(e: :e p(ccece c ce:c(mc( e|
ecuipc ccnfc(me c |c: cuicccc: y Iécnicc: yc ce:c(iIc:. Fc(c unc
ccecuccc |impiezc :e ceLe ce ce:c(mc( Iccc e| ecuipc.
Lc: Iécnicc: ce cp|icccicn ce| mcnuc| ce mcnIenimienIc ccn:i:Ii(c en:

O E| ccLineIe
O Di:cc cu(c
O F|cpy: y :u: ccLezc:
O Ic(jeIc: cccpIccc(c:
O Lc fuenIe ce pcce(
O Lc Ic(jeIc mcc(e
O CcL|e: y ccnecIc(e:


O Iec|ccc

!roced|m|ento poro e| monten|m|ento prevent|vo:

Cucncc :e cL(e ccmpuIccc(c pc(c mcnipu|c( ci(ecIcmenIe |c: ci(cuiIc:.
|c ce:cc(cc e|ecI(c:IcIicc :cL(e e||c: :i puece ccnc(|c:
pe(mcnenIemenIe. Fc(c Ic|e: mcnipu|ccicne: ceLemc: ce:cc(cc(nc:
ccnIinucmenIe :cL(e e| chc:i: ce| ecuipc {en e| L|inccje ce |c fuenIe ce
pcce( pc( ejemp|c) c u:c( unc pu|:e(c cnIie:IcIicc.

O CuiIc( |c Icpc ce| ccLineIe
O lcenIificc( |c: ccmpcnenIe: p(incipc|e:
O Hcce( un pecuenc cicc(cmc ce |c ci:pc:icicn ce |c: Ic(jeIc: en |c:
:|cI:. |c: jumpe( y |c: ccL|e: ce |c: c(ive: y e| ci:cc cu(c. NcIc( cue
e:Ic: Iienen unc ce :u: |ccc: cc|c(eccc: ce (cjc Dichc :enc| incicc
cue :e I(cIc ce |c Ie(minc| nume(c 1.
O #eIi(c( ce |c: :|cI: |c Ic(jeIc ce vicec y cemc: Ic(jeIc:.
O De:ccnecIc( |c: ccL|e: ce c|imenIccicn y ccL|e: ce |c: c(ive:. y
(eIi(c(|c ce| ccLineIe ce:cIc(ni||cncc|c ccmc :ec nece:c(ic.
O #eIi(c( e| mic(cp(cce:ccc(. pi|c y |c: mccu|c: ce memc(ic.
O CuiIc( |c: uniccce: ce c|mccencmienIc.

|mp|ondo e| s|stemo

E| pc|vc cue :e c|mccenc :cL(e |c: ccmpcnenIe: puece I(ce(
cive(:c: p(cL|emc:. Unc e: cue e| pc|vc ccIúc ccmc ci:|cnIe Ié(micc
eviIcncc e| ccecuccc enf(icmienIc ce| :i:Iemc. exce:ivc cc|enIcmienIc
ccc(Ic |c vicc ce |c: ccmpcnenIe:. CI(c e: cue e| pc|vc ccnIiene
e|emenIc: ccncucIivc: cue puece ccu:c( cc(Ic: ci(cuiIc: c| :i:Iemc. E|


pc|vc IcmLién puece cc((ce( |c: ccnIccIc: e|écI(icc: ccu:cncc
ccncucIiviccce: inccecuccc:. En e:Ie cc:c :e encuenI(c e| pc|vc ce|
cicc((c cue ccnIiene e|emenIc: cu|micc: cue puecen ccncuci( |c
e|ecI(iciccc y ccu:c( cc((c:icn c |c: pc(Ie: ce |c ccmpuIccc(c. Fc( |c
IcnIc :e (eccmiencc eviIc( fumc( ce(cc ce :u ccmpuIccc(c.

Fc||c: ccmune: ce:pué: ce un mcnIenimienIc p(evenIivc.
/ve(|c:
Nc :iemp(e ccn:ecui(emc: c(mc( unc ccmpuIccc(c pe(fecIcmenIe c|c
p(ime(c vez e: pc:iL|e cue :e p(e:enIe c|cún fc||c.

Cccicc: ce e((c( c| c((cncc |c FC:
Un piIicc |c(cc: p(cL|emc ce memc(ic. Ccmp(ueLe :i hc in:e(Iccc
cc((ecIcmenIe e| mccu|c ce memc(ic. Si e: c:| y e| p(cL|emc
pe(:i:Ie. enIcnce: pc:iL|emenIe e:Ic(c e:I(cpeccc.
Un piIicc |c(cc y ce:pué: 2 cc(Ic:: e((c( ce v|cec. Fc:iL|emenIe |c
Ic(jeIc ce v|cec nc e:Ié |c :uficienIemenIe cju:Iccc c| zccc|c.
Un piIicc |c(cc y 3 cc(Ic:: e((c( ce v|cec. Lc Ic(jeIc ce v|cec nc
funcicnc c Lien hcy un p(cL|emc ccn :u memc(ic.
Un piIicc ccnIinuc: e((c( ce p|ccc. Si :e p(ccuce e:Ie piIicc. e:
pc:iL|e cue |c p|ccc e:Ié e:I(cpeccc. cuncue IcmLién puece :e(
ceLicc c c|cún cI(c ccmpcnenIe.

CI(c p(cL|emc hcLiIuc| e: cue e| |ec ce |c ci:cueIe(c e:Ié :iemp(e
encencicc ceLicc c unc mc|c cc|ccccicn ce |c: ccnecIc(e:. Si e| ccL|e
ci:pcne ce cc: ccnecIc(e: pc(c uniccce: ce 3.5 enIcnce: ceLe u:c( e|
cI(c ccnecIc(. Lc cc((ecIc e: cue. :i hcy unc :c|c ci:cueIe(c. :e ccnecIe c|
ce| finc| ce| ccL|e.



De Iccc: mccc: :i c(eemc: cue fc||c |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e :e(c mejc(
ccmp(cLc( |c: ccnexicne: ce Iccc: |c: ccmpcnenIe:. ce:ccnecIc( y
ccnecIc( ce nuevc |c: ccmpcnenIe: ccmc |c memc(ic p(cce:ccc( y
Ic(jeIc ce vicec

/ve(|c: ce |c pi|c c LcIe(|c
Cucncc :e cccIc |c pi|c c LcIe(|c cpc(ece(c un men:cje en pcnIc||c
inciccncc un e((c( en CMCS c 8lCS {CMCS check:um e((c( c 8lCS
check:um e((c(). En e:Ie cc:c hcL(|c cue ccmLic( |c pi|c y c ccnIinuccicn
vc|ve( c cefini( |c ccnficu(ccicn ce |c FC c I(cvé: ce| SEIUF. En c|cunc:
cc:c: nc cpc(ece nincún men:cje :inc cue enccnI(c(emc: en |c pcnIc||c
ce inicic cue nc: pice e| :i:Iemc cpe(cIivc :inc :e ci:pcne ce
cuIcccnficu(ccicn ce| ci:cc cu(c c| p(incipic. en e:Ie cc:c. cL:e(vc(emc:
cue |c fechc y hc(c :cn incc((ecIc:. EnI(c(emc: en e| SEIUF y ve(ificc(emc:
|c ccnficu(ccicn: hcLiIuc|menIe hcL(c ce:cpc(ecicc |c ccnficu(ccicn ce
ci:cc cu(c. |c hc(c y |c fechc. |c ci:cueIe(c. eIc. Depenciencc ce| ecuipc
vc|viéncc|c c ccnficu(c( cI(c vez funcicnc(c pe(fecIcmenIe. Si c| cpccc(
|c mccuinc y vc|ve( c encence(|c mc: Ic(ce vue|ve c pc:c( |c mi:mc e:
cue |c pi|c e:Ic cccIccc y :i e| p(cL|emc pe(:i:Ie :e(c p(cL|emc ce |c
CMCS y hcL(c cue vc|ve( c :u:IiIui(|c.

/ve(|c: en e| mic(cp(cce:ccc(
Lc: p(cL|emc: cue puece ccc((ec( e:Ie ccmpcnenIe :cn cene(c|menIe
i((eve(:iL|e:. nc(mc|menIe unc f(ecuencic ce I(cLcjc nc ccecuccc c |c
fc|Ic ce ci:ipccc( c venIi|ccc(. :ue|en cccLc( c cc(Ic c |c(cc p|czc ccn |c
vicc ce| mic(cp(cce:ccc(. pe(c hcy cue Iene( cI(c: fccIc(e: en cuenIc.

O Si |c FC nc c((cncc pe(c e| mic(cp(cce:ccc( :e cc|ienIc. puece
ceLe(:e c un fc||c ce |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e. ce| zccc|c. c inc|u:c unc
in:e(cicn nc ccecuccc ce| mic(cp(cce:ccc( en e| mi:mc.
O Si e| ecuipc nc c((cncc y e| mic(cp(cce:ccc( nc :e cc|ienIc.
pc:iL|emenIe |c Ien:icn ce I(cLcjc :ec in:uficienIe. Se (evi:c(cn |c:
Jumpe(: ce |c Ic(jeIc mcc(e (efe(enIe: c |c c|imenIccicn ce |c


mi:mc. pe(c en e| cc:c ce cue |c ccnficu(ccicn ce|
mic(cp(cce:ccc( :e (ec|ice :in Jumpe(:. c I(cvé: ce| SeIup.
ceLe(emc: mi(c(|c cenI(c ce e:Ie p(cc(cmc. Fuece :e( cue e:Ié
:e|eccicnccc unc Ien:icn ce 3´3 vc|Iic: cucncc e| mic(c nece:iIe 5
vc|Iic:. Fc( e| ccnI(c(ic :i hccemc: I(cLcjc( un mic(c ccn unc Ien:icn
ce 5 v. e| ecuipc Icmpccc c((cncc pe(c e| mic(c :e cc|ienIc. Si
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