WARHAMMER® ANCIENT BATTLES

Designed & Developed by Jervis Johnson, Rick Priestley, Alan Perry & Michael Perry
With artwork by Alan Perry, Michael Perry & David Gallagher Production work by Talima Fox & Mark Saunders

Produced By Warhantmer Historical Wargames Ltd.
Warhammer is a registered trademark of Games Workshop Ltd. 'Scatter" dice are a UK registered design of Games Workshop Limited no .. 2017484. Used with permission © Copyright Warhammer Historical Wargames Ltd, 1998. All Rights Reserved. ISBN; 1872372 538 PRODUCT CODE: 60049999010

FOREWORD
The idea for this book followed a conversation wirh Michael Perry. Michael explained mat he had just been putting me finishing touches to his late Roman and Pict ranges for me Wargames Foundry; and had promised [0 demonstrate a game using me two armies at the Partizan show in Newark. As we discussed the various rules sets then available we wondered what it would be like if we used the well-known Warhammer fantasy gaming rules. A version of these rules were cobbled together for me game at Partizan, and to our delight they worked very satisfactorily, Since then we've fought more battles than I can remember, each as entertaining as the game we played at Partizan, It soon became obviou that we really had [0 let more people know about Wa.rbammer Ancient Battles. Thus started an odyssey whieb resulted in me reading up about the different ancient armies, writing and revising rhe army lists and playing more than just a few games. This book is the result, and 1 hope that it provides as much inspiration and entertainment for you as producing it has for us. Be warned though, the Wa.rhammer Ancient Battle rules arc fairly complex, However, as Long as you rake the trouble to read the rules slowly and carefully, [think you'll find that they are easy to understand and - far more importantly - to u e. This being said I'd highly recommend that you starr off with a small skirmish using a dozen or so models a side before moving on to a full-scale battle (unlike one of our players, whose very first game involved over a thousand miniatures a side ... talk about diving in ar the deep end!). You'll find the game rules described in an informal style, with points of interest discussed along the way so that the reader can gain some insight into how and why certain aspects of combat are represented. This emphasis on the intent of the game ramer than the stricr interpretation of the rules may come as something of a shock to hardened players used to rules written in a quasi-legal style. Some fiercely competitive players may even find that this leaves rules open to exploitation (yes, that means YOU Xavierl). In my experience, even the most lawerly of game rules fall into this trap, so I've decided to keep the [ext in conversational English and trust to the player's native intelligence to resolve any potential misunderstanding that might arise. As a rule of thumb, if you try to do something and find yourself saying, "Well it doesn't say I can't do this in the rules!", you're probably bending the rules at best and at worst cheating completely! The final point I'd like to make is mat although I find ancient history fascrnating, and while these rules are based on a lot of careful reading, when all is said and done they have been written because I like playing games with model soldiers and they reflect that fact. Put simply, there's nothing r like better man seeing a few hundred well-painted miniatures Laid our on nicely made terrain. Or at least, I like nothing better than this except winning a hard fought battle with said minlarures (rare though such victories are!). This is the reason I started wargarning and wby I still do today. Have fun!

.. 9 ... . To Hit Modifier'S Chart 24 . _. . 33 33 35 36 PANIC........ .•. . LEADERS _ _. ......•....................... ..... .•......... _ _ . 53 53 .. .. _ INFANTRY ....... _ 25 25 26 27 THROWERS. LIGHT TROOPS SKIRMISHERS liGHT LIGHT . 54 54 56 MANOEUVRE TERRAIN CHARGING. .. BASES ....... ...•• 9 9 _ _ 10 11 14 15 52 52 52 _ . 38 LEADERS.... 61 64 66 _. _ . 30 _ 31 _3I 32 CASUALTIES .. .. BOLT TI-IROWERS 68 HAND-TO-HAND COMBATS HITTrNG WOUNDS THE COMBAT __ 28 29 30 BUILDINGS & FORTIFICATIONS 69 ENEMY To flit Wound ARMOUR REMOVING Chart Chart _ _ __ _ .. _ 40 40 STANDARDS MUSICIANS _ .. . 41 41 42 42 42 AT CI-IARACTERS f[GHTING . HATRED .PONS _ WEAPONS _ . 17 18 20 CAVALRY A SKIRMISH FORMATION . . . .. MARCHING . _ ......... 51 5] f-ACING CAVALRY .. .. Bonus Points Table PURSUIT REDRESS THE RANKS . ~ WEAPONS AND ARMOUR WEAPONS HAND·TO·HAND MISSItE ARMOUR AND _ WEA... . . . __ ... . _ FRENZY......•...•. THE GAME CHARACTERISTICS WEAPONS SPECIAL RULES __ _ 6 7 8 8 8 _ __ ... . _ _ ..... .... _ . .. . . _. .J\IIOUR REMOVING Chart CASUALTIES _... ...CONTENTS CAME RULES THE WARGAME ...... . 40 _ ...... . . 45 45 45 48 SHIELDS - 50 AND ARMOUR UNITS OF WARRIORS PSYCHOLOGY FEAR TERROR _ . _ .._ ......._ Wound AR. 32 RE-SULTS ... THE TURN MOVEMENT MOVING TROOPS .....•...... . ... _ . STANDARD BEARERS & MUSICIANS.•.. SnJBBORN WARBANDS ...•... ..... UNITS _ .. 56 ADOPTING 56 SHOOTING HITTING WOUNDS THE TARGET 21 23 CHARIOTS ELEPHANTS WAR MACHINES STONE 57 _....... 40 CHARACTERS MOYrNG CIiARACfER CHARACTERS SHOOTINGCHALLENGES HAND-TO-HAND WITH 41 MODELS .•. . __ _ .

. .. .. ... . . . . .COLLECTING AN ANCIENT BATTLES ARMY THE WARGAMES ARMY PAINTING A WARGAMES ARMY COLLECTING SCENARIOS SCENERY Scenery Generator VICTORY. . .. . .... Victory Chan 84 85 85 THE ROMAN ARMY THE ARMY UST 116 119 FIGHTING CAMPAIGNS .. .. . . .. .. .. .... . . . ...... .. . .... . ..• ARMIES IN ACTION . . 113 113 72 73 76 78 83 ROMAN COHORT ••.•...... .... WARRIORS OF ANTIQUIlY . . ........ ..•••.. 93 VETERANS VETERAN UNiTS . FURTHER INFORMATION ANCIENT BATfLES SUMMARY SHEET ROMAN DETACHMENT CELTIC WARBAND. . . ..•. .•. 98 100 102 106 CELTIC BUILDINGS DARK AGE BUILDINGS ... . 141 142 _ 144 WARHAMMER ROSTER SHEET USEFUL ADDRESSES .. . .. . . . ..... ANCIENT BATTLE ARMY LISTS USING THE ARMY USTS .•... EARLY IMPER1AJ_ ROMANS BRITISH CELTS . .. . . . 132 134 91 .. ... .... 86 88 89 90 91 BARBARIAN ARMY LIST THE ARMY LIST 126 127 ARMIES.... . . . . PAINTING AN ARMY .. . . . . . . ' VETERAN CHARACTERS 94 94 94 135 136 138 139 140 ROMAN MIUTARY BUILDINGS THE WAR BEGINS LET BATTLE BEGIN! 97 ROMAN DOMESTIC BUILDINGS .. .. .... Bvents Chart Spies Chart FIGHTING CMfPAIGN BATnES RUNNlNG A CAMPAIGN . Terriwry Chart . BRITISH WARBAND 114 115 AN ARMY 'Iable ....•..

figbt tbe wars Alexander wouLd have fougbt had he lived.GAME RULES Using the rules and ideas in this book you can join the great commanders of tbe ancient w01'ld and reiiue again their dreams of conquest. Stride across Asia with Alexander and his Macedonians as he wrests control of the Persian empire from Darius. until now! If your sympathies lie with the Romans themselves then: . perhaps you'd take the fight to the nortb German frontier with Germanicus . wars. Pit YOW" wits against the greatest strategists of the Punic tubat greater adoensure than Caesar's conquest of Gaul. Carry the battle into India or westwards against Rome. Cbariots roar and crasb as the two greatest empires of biblical times struggle to establish their dominion over the Near East. Stand beside Rameses the Great at the Battle of Kadesb as he fights to rescue his armies from a devastating Hittite ambush..... the greatest emperor Rome never held. the king of ktngs. . March with Hannibal across the Alps and see if you can topple the power of Rome when! the Cartbaginians failed. 0.

and expert tabletop generals. Or. tracking down brigand bands or raiders. We acknowledge that for every decisive battle there were hundreds of small actions and minor kirrnishes that are now forgotten. the forces of the Greeks and Persians. . others become proficient painters or modeller and yet more establish their reputations as unbearable commanders. historical background and painting details for a variety of ancient armies. In a wargame we can join Roman patrols north of Hadrian's wall. and by the archeological record of outposts and fortification .THE WARGAME Wargaming is a hobby enjoyed by a growing band of devotees all over the world. skilled painters and modellers. Whatever era or nation you choose we wish you victory! . we might join the savage house-to-house fighting in Carthage. This eclectic mix of interests is one of the fascinating things about wargaming. this book provides a set of game rules which we hope you will enjoy reading and will be inspired to use. Wargaming isn't only about refighting the huge and well documented set-piece battles of history. Warhammer Ancient Bartles is the first in a series of volumes that will eventually include separate source books covering further anny lists. e. As bodyguards of the Pharaoh's envoy we. caught and forced to fight for our lives by advancing Vespansianic patrols on the eve of the Barrle of Cremona. Or we can become part of a foraging party from the illled armies of Vitellius. For those wbo are already wargamers. 1b those who are not already wargamers we extend our welcome to what is a challenging and rewarding hobby. and the armies of the Dark Ages. the Legions of Rome. This book is about fighting tabletop battles with armies of model soldiers representing the warriors of ancient times. barbarian hordes. Amongst their ranks can be found scholars dedicated to researching ancient armies. by stelae and border stones erected by victorious arrnie . and trust that you will feel sufficiently enthused to take the first step towards mustering an army of your own. avid collectors of model soldiers. They are implied by lists of booty WOIl in foreign wars. We hope to cover the chariot armies of the Pharaohs and the enemies of Egypt. as Roman soldiers use planks to cross the burning rooftops and fight the Cartbagintans in each room of every tenement. might journey far southwards [Q punish bandits in ubia and exact tribute from their chieftains.vee nervous of ambush by the local Caledonians. for whilst some might aspire to be expert researchers. of Alexander the Great and his successors. if we are feeling brave. Encounters along these lines are alluded to by ancient authors such as Tacitus and Xenophon.

Tbe best 'Way to learn is to play. Each covers historically matched armies. Phone the Games Workshop Mail Order hotllne on (0115) 9140000 in the UK. or wears additional armour. Fig 1. from a few hundred points to many thousands if you have space and time! While discussing armies and points values we ought to mention the forthcoming Warhammer Ancient Battles Armies series of books. and a finn. For the benefit of players who are new to the wargaming hobby.. two miniature armies. These are used where stone throwing engines are employed as described in the game rules.THE GAME The Warhammer Ancient Bartles game is very detailed and it would be a mammoth task if it were necessary to learn every rule before you begin to play. We suggest that players familiarise themselves with the basic game mechanisms and then get stuck into their first batrle. The list describes the armour and weapons carried by troops of that time. you can make your own Scatter or Artillery dke by painting the sides of an ordinary D6 white and marking the appropriate symbols on the faces with a felt rip pen. In the same way. its palms value is increased.so long as they are roughly equal in number. but this is only a convention adopted for convenience. it is usual for serious players to choose armies from an army list. In me game rules and descripuons that follow we assume mat each side is represented by one player. and so on. deploying the armies.Both dice can be purchased from any Games Workshop store. camel or war elephant its points value is increased further. such as the Romans and their barbarian opponents. and their points values. one player acting as overall commander while the others help him to move troops and roll dice. These are referred to as D6 from now on. the army list ascribes every type of warrior a points value. THE BATTLE Battles are fought between two sides and each side is normally represented by a single player. When the text tells you to roll 2D6 it is instructing you to roll two dice and add the scores together to get a number from 2 to 12. 1·800· 394·GAME in America or (02) 9829 6111 in Australia. So. both sides must their forces. level surface such as a tabletop. Alternatively. When the text tells you [0 roll a D6 it simply means roll a dice. and machines of war. but can still be fought in a long evening. what weapons they can carry. A larger 2. one covering Romans and one for their barbarian foes. However.000 WHAT YOU WILL NEED TO play you will need two or more players. Or can be ordered directly from Games Workshop's Mail Order. a Greek army and so on. Refer to the section on War Machines for more details. A reasonably sized battle is provided by 500 [0 1. Scatter Dice and Artillery Dice Warhammer Ancient Battles makes use of rwo special six-sided dice: the Scatter dice and Artillery dice. We have included two army lists in this rulebook. Examples wargames_ of Ine differeot types 01 dice needed when playing . Three thousand points will give you a fairly big battle mat will probably last a full day. a painting guide with shield and banner designs. and includes the army list itself. and if you make a few mistakes to start with. Fortunately this isn't really the case. The better fighter a model is the higher its points value. You may want to skip forward now . To keep things fair.in which case feel free [0 do so. You can involve several players on a side if you want. This short-hand way of referring to dice rolls saves a lot of space and repeated explanation in the text itself. 3D6 is three dice added together.1. If a model carries more weapons. You can fight any size battle you like. and such a game can reasonably be resolved within an evening. as does a Persian army.000 points on each side. as well as any special rules that apply to them in the game. Each player will also need a tape measure or ruler marked in feet and inches. and working out which side bas won are discussed after the game rules. 4D6 is four dice added together. SETTING UP THE GAME Suggestions for setting up scenery. Later on we shall describe how to go about collecting and painting an army. An army list is a list of all the different troops that form a particular army. as many of the rules are designed [0 represent extraordinary circumstances. In most games they will not be needed . When fighting a battle both sides choose armies to the same total value. weapons. detailed special rules for using them. and as many ordinary six sided dice marked 1to 6 as you can lay your hands on. If players are new to the wargamlng there is nothing wrong with simply using all the available . Each book is intended to describe the different armies. a Roman army has its own list. If it rides a hor-se. it matters very little and can be easily pur right next time. CHOOSING FORCES Before choose hobby models you are ready to fight a battle. The army list defines which troops the army may have. point battle will take a little longer.

elephants and camels played their part. The higher a characterisdc the better it is. Warriors with a low Initiative score are slow or cumbersome. A warrior with a low value is the opposite! Warriors with high Leadership can lead others. MWS8SS TW Weapon Skill (WS) Defines how accomplished or skilled a warrior is with his weapons. or bow determined and vicious a fighter he is.nds (W) This is how much. to lead them. Attacks (A) Indicates the number of rimes a warrior attacks during dose combat. crossbows or even thrown rocks. Wou. and self-controlled. Most men have a Strength of 3. creatures and machines in the game we have nine categories which describe the various aspects of their physical or mental make up. whole. of inches a warrior can move on the tabletop under normal circumstances. An ordinary warrior has a Weapon Skill of 3. Most warriors arrack onJy once. UNITS OF WARRIORS On the battlefield Toughness (T) Toughness is a measure of a man. They fight in properly organised units with officer:.. 4 or more. A battle-hardened veteran might have a Weapon Skill of 4. A puny warrior may have a Strength of 2 and a mighty elephant may have a Strength of 6 or even higber. All characteristics are measured on a scale of 1 to 10. All the models in a unit will be of the same type. we assume that the differences average out over the unit as a. WEAPONS AND ARMOUR Mosr warriors carry weapons and wear armour. it could be a unit of warriors armed with bows and wearing Light armour. from naked sword-waving barbarians ro armoured cavalry armed with lances and bows. warriors with a high Initiative score are much quicker and more agile. or withstand physical damage and pain. the more likely the warrior is to strike a hand-to-hand combat opponent. steadfast. A 3 Ld 7 Regular Legionary 4 3 3 3 3 Ballistic Skill (BS) Shows how good a warrior is with ranged weapons such as bows. faster or braver than others. for example. Large creatures or war engines are often able to withstand several wounds thar would slay a smaller creature and so they have a Wounds value of 2. The tougher a warrior is the better he can withstand an enemy's blows. Although it's true that individual warriors in the same unit may v:ary in certain ways ~ some are probably weaker. These are usually quite obvious.5 or even higher. The higher the score. In the Roman and Barbarian army lists induded later in rhe rulebook you will find profiles for the troops used by these armies. troops don't fight as a disorganised mob of individuals. bolt-throwers and stone-throwing catapults. and have the same weapons and armour. this shows the number with a high Leadership value is courageous. PROFILES Every warrior in an army has a characteristic profile which lists the value of its characteristics. the easier a warrior finds it to hit witb missile attacks. for example. a warrior with a Move of 4 can move 4 inches per turn. Some creatures have been given a '0' for certain characteristics which means they have no ability whatsoever in that field. Strength (S) Sbows how strong a warrior or weapon is. The following example is the profile for a Roman Legionary. Some war machines. Units march in disciplined ranks. Generally speaking. For example. The higher the BS. a unit is made up of troops of the same type. although some warriors of exceptional skill may be able to strike several times. Some are armed with bows or other missile weapons enabling them to strike at a distance. beast. a horse has no Ballistic Skill (8S) because it is quite unable to shoot a bow or throw a missile! Initiative (I) Indicates how fast a warrior can react. In dose combat Initiative tells us the order in which warriors strike. Later we will be describing special rules to reflect the differences between different types of weapons and armour. 3. Leadership A warrior (Ld) Mov~entAllowance(M) Often sun ply called move. inspiring them to greater feats of valour. . and they are trained co manoeuvre as a solid block. Others are equipped with spears or swords to use in hand-to-hand combat. To represent these troops. In addition to horses. chariots and weapons have a higher Strength as we shall see. damage a warrior can take before he dies or is so badly hurt he can't fight any more. These are called characteristics. or object's ability to resist damage. Most warriors have a Wounds characteristic value of only 1.CHARACTERISTICS The ancient world witnessed the development of many types of warriors. since faster warriors will be able to attack before slower ones. as did man-made machines in the form of chariots. Models with a WS of 0 are hit automatically if attacked by an enemy model in hand-to-hand combat.

Although horses have a separate profile. cliariors ute.2.. Rules for cavalry are discussed throughout the game where appropriate. ill Hmmilla('s !!I(IS rlie !p'elltllST gmera{. say/I. evell to see wliic. charioteers. 6esid"es 110one (jar! chasm fiis !}l"Olma or yfl'lcca fris TI"OI!}JS more r!iscl"illlilfatiIl90.Xnrlaer. but are included on its profile because horses might conceivably appear on their own or as pack animal for example. We recommend the following base widths for 25mm model (which is the scale of model featured throughout these rules. standard bearer and musician to be in the front ranks. or more ranks. Fig 2. a few millimetres here OJ" there is unlikely [0 make much difference. To tfi. Firstly it stops them falling over. so dint tlie Iralii111 YGoy(es yrife1'l-ei me (Qrr!s/ip r:f aJord!)11 XiiI!) to tfrat t1 die Roltlal1l'ctp{e. Oil tfie conversation vcrween Joffowill!J Ranuivaf's aifent lit tlie tfie '!"iva( !]etJemfs n/rttfi: 1 Zama. Two sets of sizes are shown.e 111m a (IW!)fr mid said 'Wlinr WOll(rf !J0II say !f you Gar! rIifcamd me?' "TliclI. BASE SIZES Cllvn{t"!J and MOlllltedTrol!Ps 20-25111111 wide 20-25111111 wide J5. If a unit ha a leader. it allows us to standardise the space taken by a model in the ranks. rwo. The base sizes below are suggested.2.1immsclrtufed limllllll liqpes. 6eyour! d"aaur.1I1i011l lie WO II(I rrmK secona.. tpinion Livy. The facing rule is shown in fig 2. H(II1I!. WIiCll {je cOllril1lmf.. FACING All models are assumed to face dlrectly front of their base. Rg 2. Elephants. frc named Iiimse!f without liesiratiolJ.20111111 wide As Li!)lir Ilgmltry allff Sklnnisliers Or{jer flgaIlN'!J War E..e nm. It is order [Q shoot or .. and the one we prefer). When leadership tests are required use me rider's Leadership value. CAVALRY Most of the annie of ancient times included cavalry. and you should simply make me base deep enough to fit me model. SecondLy. If you have an army that is already based there's no need to change it. require! . Wounds. the smaller provides compact and denser looking units. etc). Units can change formation as described later in this book. There are two reason for chis.. Formation of a unit of troops allowing for the leader.Units move and fight in a formation of one. A cavalry model is treated in all respects as a Single model.1. The mount's Toughness.bl1( nallled" A(i!. BASES We recommend thar individual models are glued [Q card or plasti-card bases. and Leadership are never used. as to . but this takes time as we shall soon discover. The archer can shoot at only what he sees. chariots and their riders are covered by special rules described later in this ruJebook. Base depths are not specified. Wilen [Sepiol AjricatlllS asked" wlio. lt is worth remembering this simple rule right from [he start as it becomes very important once the game is underway. [he other is more suitable for the larger 25mm figures made by figure manufacturers these days.lie 'pflcrf. rlie kitl!) tf tlie MnCl!lloU1allS. hectlltse witli 11 smarrjorce he uad"rrmtuf armies illfllwlI:m6te Iilla hum!sl! fie linr! tnll/crser! rlie 1II0st d"immr regions. Each rank must have the same number of models except for the rear rank of a unit which may have fewer models than the ranks in from.. Some annie also included huge elephants or fast moving chariots. forward from the because a model in front of it.!! tliar lie (TlII{ been rlic finr to teach rlie art r1 cam'amera1ion. tandard bearer or musician these are placed in the middle of the front rank as shown in fig 2.' . when me model is attacked it's me rider's Toughness and Wounds that are used. ie only what Is in his line of sight. askill!] wlioll! HflllllIunf COI!sidill"cdInlra.1. This is important can only see things tbar lie in a 90" arc vital that troops can see their enemy in charge a described later.!}illfS. When we refer to cavalry we specifically refer to horsemounted troops (rather than camel riders. Rmmil1a( s&ctet{ P!Jrrl1us. so (Oil!)die master III dim (nuJ". '1 s{jou(' l'(aa UI!JSCfJ 60tli 6ifore AkxflJlder and" 6ifore Pynfms and" 6ifvrc arr otlier !JtJ1cral"s. You don't have to use them if you don't want to. Theil Scpio {llv/(. lie_possessed 11&0 the arttf wi til Iill!} mel! over to Him. three. Should the rider be slain the entire model is removed from the battle. and therefore determines how many troops will fight when it comes to close quarter combat.

Mighty war engines lob their cargoes of death towards their cowering foes and clouds of arrows darken the turbulent skies. you're playing to enjoy a cballengil2g battle with friends. 4. and so on: each player taking a turn one after the other until [be battle is over. followed by me second player again.THE TURN Battles are fought between two opposing armies pitting armed might and cunning other.the sides . Eacb player rakes one completeturn. explormg the ancient ioortd for tbemselves and taking tbe game far beyond the published rules if they wish. TI)fJ spirit of the game is more important than UJirmingat any cost. Remember. Afterwards sit down and discuss what bappened and see if you can reach an agreement in case the situation arises again. [n a game of this size and Level of complexity there are bound to be some situations where the rules seem unclear. When you come across a situation not flt/ly covered by the rulebook. When a situation of contention arises agree on a fail. counterparts are commanded by you . CLOSE COMBAT During the close combat phase all troops in hand-to-hand combat may fight. START OF THE TURN The rules often call upon a player [0 make tests or actions 'at rile start of the turn'. then resolves all hand-to-hand com bar and 0 on. we represent this howling maelstrom of action in turns. THE TURN SEQUENCE When it is your turn ie' up to you to keep track of where you are in the turn sequence. One way oJresoloing a dispute is to roll (]I D6 to see whose interpretation applies and get on with the battle. These are always completed in the order given below. Inevitably there will be the ado occasion when events can be worked out in one phase or anomer with little real difference. BE PREPARED TO IMPROVISE Warhammer Ancient Battles is a challenging game. Each turn is divided into the four foi!owing phases. Within the turn. actions are performed in a fixed order called rile turn sequence. Player's should feel free to invent and improuise. TIle first player then takes another turn. In Warhammer Ancient Battles. In a real barrie lars of things happen at once and it is difficult to tell exactly how the battle is progressing at anyone moment. 2_ MOVEMENT During the movement phase you may move your troops as defined in the rules for Movement. The fortunes of each side way throughout the battle as one side charges and then me other.two against each models are Their metal player EXCEPTIONS There are exceptions to the general turn sequence wben things are worked our as they occur miller than in any strict order. Note that this is an exception to tile normal turn sequence in that both sides fight. Each turn is divided up into phases during which me player moves all of his units. with many different armies and endless possibilities. and all actions in that phase rnu t be resolved before moving on to the next.and reasonable solution and gel on with the game as quickly as pass tbie. 1. . This is ramer like plunging from a mountain path or Sinking into quicksand consequences resulting from movement which may be conveniently resolved mere and then. SHOO11NG During the shooting phase you may fire any missile weapons as described in the rules for Shooting. in a similar way to chess or draughts. or a particular situation lies outside the rules as they are written. Quite often the actions of one player will trigger some special weapon or the sudden appearance of a particular trOOP type. roaring with fury and bloodlust as they throw themselves upon their enemy. The forces represented by the commanded by kings and generals. 3. Nor would we want to trj. If you forget. then his opponent takes a turn. be prepared to interpret a rule or COme up untb a suirable rule for yourselves. as we can't possibly give rules to cover euery circumstance. your opponent should be able to remind you. These are mostly Psychology tests as discussed in the Psychology section. This is ineoitable. shoots all his missiles. not just the side whose turn it is.

It is nor necessary that every charger can see his foe . the movement phase proceeds in a strict equence. units will charge. other 5. DECLARE CHARGES If you want any of your troops to charge you must declare this at the very start of the movement phase. A unit can charge up to a maximum distance of double its normal move. To declare a charge you must indicate which of your units is charging. so they cannot charge Ihe enemy infantry. When you declare a charge you must do so without measuring. 3. Hemember only one model needs to see the enemy for the unit to declare a charge. The chariot is faCing the wrong way! It can neither see them or charge Ihem. This is referred to as [he unit's 'charge distance' as explained later. . REMAINING MOVES Move [he rest of your troops. For example. ENEMY INFANTRY Fig 3. If you want to attack an enemy then you must charge . A unit may only declare a charge if at least one model in [he unit can see at least one model in the opposing unit. An elephant charges against a unit of enemy infantry. like the turn sequence. you are never forced to charge. However.2. DECLARE CHARGES AI the start of your move phase you must declare which MOVEMENT PHASE 1.to-hand combat without charging. relying upon your judgement to estimate [he distance. The infantry lie within the 90' arc of sight of the elephant so il can see to charge them. RAllY FLEEING TROOPS If any of your troops are fleeing you may arrernpt to rally them. 2. you might wish [0 declare that your spearmen are charging the enemy's archers.1. charging is the only way troops are normally allowed to move into hand-to-hand combat. DECLARING A CHARGE Fig 3. The other unit of cavalry is facing the wrong way.you cannot simply move into hand. MOVE CHARGERS Move charging troops and resolve movement resulting from the charge. COMPULSORY MOVES Move troops rthat are subject movement rule.MOVEMENT During the movement or move phase. and which enemy unit it is going to charge. to a compulsory 4. The first unit of cavalry can see and declare a charge upon the enemy Infantry. you may move your faeces on the battlefield.the whole unit is assumed to have the enemy in Sight so long as at least one model can see. EKCep[ in a few unusual circumstances explained later in the rules section.

As fleeing usually results HOLD A unit can stand fast and receive the charge. A unit with a move of G" Or less wilJ therefore flee lD6" and units with a move of over 6" will (lee 2D6". However. This double speed move is a charge move. If the rroops rally then they remain where they are but may immediately adopt a new fighting formation facing towards the enemy. FIRE & FLEE If the charged unit is equipped wltb missile weapons and the chargers are more [han half their charge move away From them. which means the troops come to their senses and stop flecmg in readiness to fight once more. as can happen if the enemy panics as a result of casualties uffered. the player who e turn it is now has tile opportunity to rally any of his !TOOpSmar are currently fleeing. and is likely [Q give you an advantage in combat. and m:ly run away from the battlefield altogether whether you want them to or nOL As soon as a unit declares COMPULSORY MOVES After the player has attempted to rally any units that are fleeing. then the barged unit" can shoot at the chargers as they advance. AU compulsory movement is done now before other movement takes place. flee. Unless the chargers are halted by their fire. See the Panic section for rutes regarding the effect of casualties. A charged unit bas four response options. MOVE CHARGERS Once any compulsory moves are complete. Fleeing troops are of no fighting value unless they can be rallied. Work this out immediately . In effect. in which case it turns tail and runs as described above for fleeing. Once the unit bas fired it must flee unless its fire halts the charge.refer to the hooting section for rules governing missile weapons. individual troopers bracing themselves for [he inevitable impact. Fleeing troops always flee away from their enemy or towards [heir own base table edge. A charging unit's position at the start of the movement phase determines if it charges into the flank. lmrnedlately move the fleeing troops the distance indicated by the dice roll. \Vhen troops charge they move twice as fast as normal. In the rally phase of his turn a player makes a test to determine whether hi fleeing trOOP manage to rally. FLEE Flee means just that . The player has no control over the movement of these troop and so these are referred to as compulsory moves. The only difference is the number of dice roUed [Q see how far the unit runs is reduced by one to represent the time spent shooting. and they always move a randomly determined distance. it Is time for the player to move any units that have declared a charge. thar it is fleeing it is moved directly away from me charging enemy by 2D6" if its movement rate is 6" or less. the fire & flee option is a combination of both stand & shoot and flee. block lines of advance and do all sons of other annoying things. This gives troops moving in this way the opportunity to get in the way. representing a run or gallop. andfire & flee. orneumes you may find yourself able to charge an enemy in the flank or rear. The fleeing unit is repo Itioned facing directly away from me enemy charging. the unit must flee after it has shot. or because [hey are disorienrared or confused. These are statld & shoot.RALLYING CHARGE RESPONSES Once you've declared all )low' cba7'gesyour opponent declares bow his charged units will respond. This is the usual response of troops who are not equipped with missile weapons or who are LOa close to their enemy to shoot. hold. Generally speaking a player can move his troops how he wishes within the confines of me rules governing movement. If the charge is successfully halted the shooters will Stand instead. [f tile fleeing troops fall their rally test and continue to flee then they are moved next With other compulsory movement. or 306" if its mo e is more than 6". . The most common kind of compulsory move is fleeing. sometimes troops go out of control for some reason. Work out the unit's shooting immediatdyrefer to the Shooting section for rules on missile weapons. Chargers are moved towards their target in accordance with the rules in the next section. STAND & SHOOT If the charged unit is equipped with missile weapons and the chargers are more than half their charge distance away. then troops can shoot at the chargers before turning around to flee. For example. either because they are overcome by sheer [error. The full rules governing fleeing troops are covered later in the Hand-to-Hand Combat section. troops with a normal move of 4" per turn have a cbarge move of 8". it is time to make any compulsory moves that tile rules require. Troops are normally forced to flee when they are defeated in hand-to-hand combat or if something else equally traumatic has happened to them. This is particularly good as an attack from an unexpected direction might throw the enemy into a panic. rear or the front of the enemy target. from hand-to-hand combat the rules for fleeing troops can be found in the Hand-to-Hand Combat section of this book.when your unit sees the enemy thundering down towards tbem they are quite likely LO turn tail and run as fast as they can ill the opposite dlrectionl This is a rather desperate option as once troops begin to run they tend to carry on. Having declared charges and carried out any charge responses.

3. you do not have to move troops at all if you do not wish to.as we shall discover later! The lesson is . A unit's front. all enemy they can see. Often the position of a charging unit straddles two areas. REMAINING MOVES Once compulsory moves and charges have been resolved it is time to move the rest of your troops. This ls an important consideration in baule because units can only declare a charge against an enemy to their Iront . If Ihe situation is so close you can't determine where a unit should charge then roll a dice to decide. and so cover charging and compulsory movement as well as ordinary moves.4. hindering terrain. in which case you must judge which area the unit is mostly in. FIg 3. EXAMPLES OF CHARGE MOVES FLANK ZONE FLANK ZONE REAR ZONE All units have a fronL a rear and flanks as shown in fig 3. me encumbering effects of weighty armour. A unit in fronl of its enemy will charge the front. a unil to the side win charge the flank. These rules apply ro all movement except where otherwise nored.If the charging unit is in the target's frontal zone wh n the charge is declared it charges into the front. and manoeuvring units on [he battlefield are covered on the following pages. Generally speaking. units which are attacked in the side or from behind suffer considerable disadvantages in combat . Or you can move them as short or great a distance as you like up ro their permitted maximum move distance.le.3. flank and rear zones extend out from its corners forming four quadrants of 90·. . ss units generally begin the game facing each other this is the most common situation. The rules governing movement.where possible charge your enemy in the sides or rear but whatever you do never present your vulnerable side or rear to the enemy! Fig 3. Although individual models can fight to their from. sides and rear. If the charging unit comes from the flank zone it charges into the side. and a unit behind will charge in the rear. obstacles to movement. if in the rear zone it charges into [he rear as shown in the examples below.5. CH~~~ R~ FLANK • CHARGE FRONT CHARGE FLANK CHARGE FLANK FIg 3.

A horse without barding carrying a warrior wearing heavy armour and shield would move 7"_ ARMOUR REDUC'J"ION MOVEMENT IN Shidd. For example.a warrior witb no armour can move 4". and fleeing [fOOPS are discussed separately Moving the armies is an important.MOVING TROOPS The same rules govern almost all movement. On the whole this need not cause concern during playas it is far better to keep the game flowing than worry about unavoidable imprecision It is recommended that where a move is especially important or an exact measurement is critical. The odd fractton of an inch will inevitably drsappear as Lines are neatened and models are edged together. MOVEMENT RATE Normal movement rate is defined as the Movement (M) characteristic value of a model minus any reduction imposed for the effect ofencumberlng armour. which equals a move of 6". and often decisive part of the game. A horse rider can normally move 8"_ If carrying a knight with heavy armour and shield. Units which are charging or marching may move further (see below). For The nature of the game. and the horse is wearing barding chen the knight moves 8"-1" for the rider's armour and shield. the varied terrain it is fought over and the stability of the models themselves means it is impossible to be absolutely accurate about the movement of troops. Because the weight of their gear impedes movement rroops wearmg a great deal of armour will move more slowly.'IIH?llr aroue.I\fII. units can move up to their movement race in inches. The table on this page indicates the reduction in move distance incurred through wearing armour. Any exceptions that apply to chargers. During their move phase. movement can be as challenging and satisfying as a game of chess. Light AnllOur or Hc(!v!} A. including the movement of chargers and most compulsory moves.IOW· NOIre -1" s(adi 1lI1f{flM)!!) Banfea Cmm(rlj AnnoUl' .f mlf{ Lignt . example. and -1" for the horse's barding. most warriors have a movement characteristic (M) of 4 and so may move up [0 4". with a shield and uieartng heavy armour he SUffers a penally of ·1" and so can only move 3". When opposing commanders are well matched. You do not have to move the full rnovernenr allowed or even at all if you prefer. or sii iefr. . then it is good practice to agree what you are doing with your opponent before moving your troops.

The same unit of spearmen and Is now in three ranks of two. this unit has had to move and wheel three limes.MANOEUVRE Troops move and fight in a tight fonnation of one or more ranks. F01· example you might wheel2" to tbe left and move 2" straight foru/ard 101' a total move of 4". forming a unit which we might think of as a regiment of infantry or a squadron of cavalry. In addition there is a fourth special manoeuvre. A unit which is charging is only permitted to wheel in order TO align itself to the enemy as described later. unit can wheel several times during its move as long as it bas movement left and is not charging. When you turn a. To avoid the wood. Fig 3. When a unit moves it must maiatain its formation. standard bearers or musicians. TURN To turn a unit of troops all the models remain in place.a unit with a move of 4" must give up 1" to turn for example. to change There are three specific manoeuvres which enable a unit to turn about or rearrange its ranks. When a unit wheels it counts as having moved as far as the model on the outside of the formation. Fig 3. but if it wishes direction then it must make a manoeuvre. has turned to face Its flank . unit containing leaders. called reforming.6.7. which means thatindividual models are not free [0 wander off on their own.8. turn or cbange formation. To make a turn a unit must surrender a quarter of its move . pivoting round one of the from corners. but are turned round through 90 or 180" to face their side or rear. Once you have wheeled you may use any movemem the unit has left. The units swings round rather like the spoke of a wheel and completes the manoeuvre facing a different direction. These are wheel. WHEEL To wheel. these models are always automatically repositioned back into the new front rank of the unit. A unit of spearmen facing forward in two ranks of three. The formation can move straight forward as a body perfectly easily. the leading edge of d1C formation moves forward. A Fig 3.

The player declares the unit is reforming and it regroups into a new formation. For example. a third line... The order is issued to adopt a new formation. . iT 111111111 UNIT ARRANGED IN TWO RANKS Fig 3. A unit whicb reforms cannot move that turn.9. Re-arrange the unit into as many ranks a you wish facing whatever direction you want. or all of its move to add or deduct two more ranks.CHANGE FORMATION A unit can change formation by adding or reducing the number of ranks in which it is deployed. Changing forma!ion during a battle will slow down your units considerably. Reforming troops cannot shoot with missile weapons thar rum either . CU <? ~ UNIT SACRIFICES ITS ENTIRE MOVE TO ADD 2 RANKS UNIT SACRIFICES ITS ENTIRE MOVE TO SUBTRACT 2 RANKS REFORMING A unit of troops can change the direction in which it is facing and rearrange all at once by means of a manoeuvre called reforming. A unit must surrender unit in two ranhs may increase its depth to three ranks by moving models from the front two ranks to form a half of its move to either add or deduct one rank. ... and the troops mill about until they assume their new positions. A unit of troops can reform during its rnovernenr phase as long as i 's not in hand-to-hand combat and is . otherwise free to move as it wishes. as it takes the entire movement phase to reform.

As long as the ranks on both sides are in contact with the obstacle this i perfectly acceptable. Debris. Almost sheer slopes that need to be climbed on hands and knees. Fast flowing but still fordable rivers. The penalties for difficult terrain type and obstacles are cumulative. The unit still loses half of its move until all the ranks have crossed. oft sand. bogs or thick mud. steps or ladders. very difficult or impassable during the course of the conflict. When the unit moves from this position the ranks must be returned to base-to-base contact. This is balued for tbe difficult terrain. on either side 01 an obstacle VERY DIFFICULT TERRAIN Very difficult terrain includes areas that are even more arduous to move through. [f troops move over open ground and difficult terrain during the same turn. so he now only moves a furtber 1" through the wood. It includes terrain features such as rivers. impenetrable swamps and sheer cliffs. Players may decide before battle whether certain terrain features will be difficult. then their movement over open ground is at full rate and over difficult ground it is reduced exactly as normal. lakes. Marshes. Where an entire unit of troops is attempting to cross an obstacle the penalty continues [0 apply wh i le any of the models are crossing. It takes a warrior half of hi move to cross an obstacle. Fords. Other types of terrain effect movement as described below. . very difficult terrain. such as the following: Incredibly thick woods packed with briars and thorns. This type of terrain can include hills if both players agree to it before the game. He now bas 2" of his move teft. Troops cross difficult ground at half their normal rate. They will slow down if impeded by obstacles sud] as bushes or woods. but otherwise hills are considered to be open terrain. Open Terrain Open terrain is clear ground that doesn't impede movement at all. boulders. for example. OBSTACLES Obstacles are things like hedges.10. Fractions are rounded up to the nearest half inch to prevent unnecessary complication. If a warrior has insufficient move Left to cross an obstacle he must halt in front of it. It is perfectly possible for part of a unit to end up on one side of a Iinear obstacle and another part to be on the far side. troop: may move through the gate as normal. fences. The warrior does not count as halfway across if he has 1" remaining.TERRAIN Troops only move their full movement distance over unobstructed ground. but players can always agree to make terrain features more or less passable if both ides prefer to. Units can end their movement as long as both ranks are touching it. streams or shallow water. loose rocks. walls and trenches that troops must clamber over to cross. to cross an obstacle. If troops are moving at half rate of 2" acres difficult terrain. Very difficult terrain reduces movement EO a quarter of the normal rate. So if a warrior has a move of 4" he must surrender 2" [Q cross a hedge or a wall. a warrior moues 2" '{CrOSS open ground and then enters a wood. difficult terrain. To simulate this terrain is divided into five types: open terrain. If a wall. Rg 3. a further I" in this case. Woods or dense foliage. Troops must go round impassable terrain. Place the part of the unit which can cross on the far side of the obstacle and Leave the part that could not cross on the other side. So if your unit has a normal move of4" it can only move 2" through a wood. Difficult Terrain Difficult terrain includes the following: Brush. wreckage. Stairs. hedge or fence ba a gale in il then as umed to be open unless otherwise agreed. Steep or rreacherou slopes. it is and IMPASSABLE TERRAIN Impassable terrain is terrain so difficult to move through thar it cannot be crossed during the course of a battle. then they must surrender half their remaining move. This is fine. . impassable terrain and obstacles. For example. scrub and other clinging vegetarian. The method of generating scenery described later can be used to determine whether scenery is dtfftcuk or very difficult.

distance charged.he enemy il halts and is aligned If it is impractical to align a unit properly because of interposing terrain. This can sometimes be achieved by moving the chargers straight forward.ng to stand & shoot have done so. whatever the range [0 the chargers at the beginning of their charge may be. directly cowards the intended target then comes ro a halt. 2D6" or 3D6" depending on their response and movement rate. ALIGNING THE COMBATANTS Once the charging unit is in contact it is autornarically aligned against its enemy to form a battle line as shown in the diagram below. MANOEUVRING DURING A CHARGE A charging unit cannor turn or change formation. 'In {jan(!:. other troops. If they are moving Duel' difficult terrain such as a mudd)' field tbey moue at half rate. but must make rhe usual deductions for terrain and crossing obstacles. In the combat phase the entire fleeing unit is destroyed. Once the charger against the enemy unit touches t.figlirill!J r. f Porexample.12" to take a Panic test. CHARGE REACTIONS If your opponents stand & shoot or fire & flee it's possible they may cause sufficient casualties to force a Panic test as you charge in. other models. execute the wheel and measure the distance rhey will need to turn. Tlie !fulcra( liiJltJlI!f gets arf tHe yraise.. 111is may result in your charge being brought to a halt before contact is made. When a unit charges an enemy the player must endeavour to bring as many models into combat as is possible. This represents the snooung troops holding their fire until the last possible moment before they ShOOL If your oppOnenL'i flee as you charge then du:y will move directly away from you either 06".nwhich case they will stand instead. caught with their backs turned as they attempt to flee. in which case their charge has f-ailed and the chargers move their normal movement after the fleeing troops. If chargers need to wheel towards their target. mounted Knights baue a mouement rate of 6' and can charge 12". causing friends within . if a unit can charge 12" it might wheel 4" to bring models to face the enemy and then cbarge up to 8" touiards them. rfrcre's. Make sure you have completed all of your charges before moving. Once a unit has completed any required wheel it moves forward towards me enemy and stops as soon as the twO units touch. MOVING ENGAGED UNITS Once opposing units are engaged in hand-to-hand combat they may not move until one side or the other breaks and is destroyed. A FAILED CHARGE If the chargers have estimated their move incorrectly you may find that chargers can't move far enough to reach [heir intended target. The unit is automatically wiped out in hand-co-band combat. Any shooting is counted as being at close range for tile weapon. For example. If the fleeing troops have not moved far enough away to avoid their attackers then they are in deep trouble! Move the chargers into contact with the fleeing troops.CHARGING Chargers are moved after compulsory movement and before the rest of your troops. Your troops have begun to charge. This will count as parr of the total. This is why it is importanr to work OUt missile fire from troops who stand & shoot/fire & flee before moving chargers. or until one side disengages as explained later in the combat rules. realised that it is impossible to cover [he distance and their movement has petered out as they lose their enthusiasm. A unit that fails its charge can nor shoot "With missile weapons that turn. Panic tests are explained later in the ru\ebook. Chargers are moved at double their normal movement rate. But wliell if's Qvel~ and' llterory WOI1. See the rules for fleeing troops in the Close Combat section for more details. Troops which fire & flee wiU shoot: first. Units already engaged in hand-to-hand fighting at the start of their turn cannot move but must continue to fight in the hand-to-hand combat phase. Maybe the fleeing troops move too far for the chargers to carch them. If this is the case the charge bas failed If a charge fails the unit is moved its normal move distance rather than its double speed charge. wlie/! rne sofrfiers sI1for rniscrav{e aays. ' Ellt"!pid"es . and troops electi. and must men flee unless their enemy's charge bas been halted i. This extra alignment move is free. as described later. bur often it will be necessary to wheel them slightly at the start of the charge to face the enemy.o' 6c done. or whatever. Before you move a charging unit check that the enemy has declared his response and that troops electing to flee have been mov-ed. reducing their charge distance to 6'. Fig 3. then it is acceptable to re-align the charged unit as well (or instead) so that battle Lines remain neat.10.

REDIRECTING A CHARGE ODDBALL A charge can sometimes the enemy. r-L . the average soldier bas only a limited knowledge of what is going on in the battlefield. unil behind. side TARGET 2 PANIC Troops who are attacked in the flank or rear while already fighting other enemy must take a Panic test to see if their nerve breaks. . The charge is halted as soon as the chargers move within 8" and the Berserkers are moved straigbt away. FLANK AND REAR CHARGES TARGET 2 Being charged from an area you cannot see and thought was safe is a frightening thing for even the bravest of troops. A unit charged in the flank or rear will lose this advantage as me rearmosr warriors will be concentrating more on defending themselves then being able to help their forward comrades. trigger extra movement TARGET 1 FLEEING For example. . If he is in hand-to-hand combat already he may panic and flee. If this new enemy unit is within me chargers' charge move then treat tile situation exactly like a newly declared charge. However. The tatgel unit flees away from the charge revealing if the player wishes.13. If the enemy has somehow got round behind him he might reasonably assume the battle to be lost. therefore it is only possibly co either flee or bold. me enemy unit may nor stand & shoor or fire & flee because his frontage is covered by his own troops as they flee. F1g 3.12. STUFF from If your opponent flees it can happen that another enemy unit i presented within your charge range. The unit of archers in the centre is charged and fear. Doubt will be sown in his mind and he may become disoriented and confused. Viking Berserkers will leap out of their units and attack as soon as the enemy approach within 8" of them. For example. The originallarget has now moved forward 10 reveallhe second unit The charging enemy may now declare that it will redirect its charge towards Ihis new unit if the player wishes. This test is taken as soon as it bas been established that the chargers are in range. See the Close Combat rules . . With his field of vision narrowed by his position in the ranks. This happens out of the normal sequence. It is up to tbe player to say tbat he has out of sequence movements 01· actions to perform at tbe appropriate moment. thinking the enemy is upon his unguarded back.. nits ranked up in depth normally fight better because the troops in the rear ranks are able to phy ically support those in front lendlng their weight co the formation.for details of combat results and how rank bonuses work. The cha rg ers can redi rect Ih a cha rge onto t ha secon d unit Under such circumstances the charger can declare that he will charge the newly revealed unit instead.11. . COMBAT BONUSES If a unit is charged in the flank or rear by a unit of five or more enemy models then it lose any rank bonuses that it would otherwise have had in hand-co-hand combat. the chargers will then be faced by the second unit that was behind it. from the front. CHARGING UNIT another Fig 3.-~--- CHARGING UNIT Fig 3. Panic tests are fully described later on in the rulebook. t. but before moving any troops. if rwo enemy units arc placed so that one is directly behind another and the from unit flees..

They can tight whether they are turned Of not. In order to make a fast march a unit must include a musician. account of their freedom co move. but it is very bandy for threading your way through buildings and other obstacles.If a unit is attacking an enemy [0 their flank or rear it gains the advantage of fighting a formation unprepared to fight in that direction. They are literally going 'at the double'. This is called a fast march. but in.y! T. however. TNe res: were ~lot !}Oitl!} to dis!]rI1ce tfiemsefves. and the unit is assumed to march to the beat of his drum or blast of his horn. the attackers receive extra combat bonuses as described in the close combat section. 15 troops formed three figures wide and five deep could fast marcb. can march move in the same way as units of troops. srmu{nrl (iemccr r1 tlie Tlmtf1 Legi011.14. For example. FAST MARCH If a unit of troops is formed into a column no more than three models wide it can increase its rate of march to three times its normal movement rate. Fig 3. breaking into a fun. such as character on their own. cliccrill!J wi(Iry they (cepeilowll.It!} to 1l1!) cOllnt!"!} and m!J c0ll1mal1!e1~' He tfirew f1imse!f into the sea an! stnrte! forward {roward" the snore! with the eag(c. and so forth. Except that it is faster than a normal march. mrres! !)OU waHt to fietm!J !Jour stt11!dim( to the ene". It isn't avery practical formation for fighting. snarr 10 1119I!. " lllCius Caesar i.they are far tOO cumbersome. It can wheel as normal. A unit on the march cannot shoot rrusstte weapons during the shooting phase. but {hey look a bit more hopeful if facing the enemy! Obviously the models may be turned back again should the attackers be dnven off or destroyed. We call this snaking. This a special type of movement unique to long lines of troops. at all!) rate. but take. to . A unit on the march is not prepared for combat so marching is not suitable for use close [0 the enemy Because of this troops may only march if there are no enemy within 8" of them ar the start of their move. a fast march is exactly the same as a march and all the rules for marching also apply to it. Marching troops move at twice their normal movement rate with weapons sheathed or shouldered. They may. They march at three times the normal rate. War engines. TURNING MODELS When a unit is attacked in the sides Of rear. as you might imagine a column of troops would wheel to follow a curving road. MARCHING Marching at the double allows troops that are slightly removed from the main fighting zones to move more rapidly. avoiding scattered vegetation and hummocks in the ground. INDIVIDUAL MODELS Models which move individually. march within 8" of the enemy as they make their move. In the case of individual models their speed bonus is not due [Q marching in formation. Consequently. alii when tfte men in tHe next sliijJs saw diem the!) too qUickIy '1\( this criticnr t110mmt 1'(11' jo({owel dicit exan!yfc. lt is unprepared for combat and any weapons carried are not ready to be used. '!ftcr menU!] 011 thc !]ois to Mess thc fc!Jioll tlirou!J/i /iis act. sliouttuf: 'Come all. heavy chariots and other large constructions such as wheeled siege towers cannot march . The cavalry unit has arranged itself into a snaking formation manoeuvre more easily round the enemy infantry. in a long Line with models Lined up one behind the other can manoeuvre very easily. any models couching the enemy may be turned round so that they can fight. fIlcn! Jlln!}1. a formation five wide by three deep tbey could not. tt must stop if it comes to these features. at what would be fast march rate for a normal unit. SNAKING A unit on the march COLUMN cannot change formation. A unit deployed A marching unit cannot move through difficult or other obstructive terrain or cross obstacles. The Lead model is not restricted by troops either side and so can choose a path which twists about. and helps to ensure that units don't get stranded away from the fighting. This represents the swift movement of reserves. Trailing models are placed so that they follow the path of the lead model.

then your shots automatically miss. 1£ your declared target Lies beyond this maximum range because you have estimated the range wrongLy. A target whicb is more than. stone throwers or bolt throwers. Just as their real life counterparts cannot see through hills or hedges we must assume char our models cannot see behind corresponding scenic features. that sudden fall of ground that hides your enemy and the distances mal blur friend with foe. Models mounted on horses. Short range is up to half the maximum range of a weapon. 8" away counts as being at long range. Long range is between half and (he maximum distance. This is why you rnusr pick your target before measuring range.\X1AIllJII RANGE Rg 4. Common sense will [ell you a model cannot fire in one direction while looking in another. Missiles lose power and accuracy Long before they reach maximum range so ranges are divided into shan and long. except as rioted later. CAVALRY NOMINATE 1 ENEMY TARGET ARCHERS Fig 4. You may also shoot with any war machines such H. is blocked if there is anything between bim and his intended target. Sang ]avcfill 16" 24" 30" 30" 18" 8" . in the situation shown in the diagram below you might choose to have your archers shoot at the cavalry or at the unit of spearmen. there are modifiers that make it more difficult for a weapon to bit at long range. WHO CAN SHOOT The direction an infantry model faces is assumed to be [he actual dtrecuon faced by the warrior it represents. These ranges arc the maximum distances that me weapons can fire. elephants or in chariots are allowed [0 fire in any direction. An infantry model can see within a 90· arc A shooter's line of Sight. Continue until you have shot with each unit or war machine. only the models in the from rank of a unit can shoot. can shoot at either the cavalry or the RANGE All missile weapons have a maximum range which is the greatest distance they can shoot. He declares he is opening fire 017 the nearest enemy unit. Ifth is is the case then only those mar are in range can shoot and the remainder automatically miss. The unit of archers spearmen. me For example: The player is using short bows wbich baue a range of 16". Where models are on square bases this can be imagined easily by projecting a line through me corners. The rules for these are covered in a separate section of the rulebook. Troops armed with bows. For example.1.\/'ON i\1.SHOOTING Once movement is complete it's time to work out your shooting. and therefore his shot.rom the front of a shooter. crossbows. Towering over our miniature battlefield we ace unaware of all this but the troops represented by our models are not so lucky.' aminate one of your units you want [0 shoot with and select the enemy target you wish ro sham at. or adler missile weapons may shoot at any enemy target they can see. morning mists and the haze of dust. Once you have declared your target measure the range and resolve shooting using the rules below.2. As we shall see later. Inrerposing models or scenery will therefore block his line of Sight. Picture the woods and hedges that obscure vision. His hail of arrotus falls short of the sneering enemy troops. \\'[. Because of this. ShoP" BolV CO"!posite Bow LOlIgBow CrossGoa. When be measures the distance be finds the enemy are 17" away. because the models behind them will nor be able [0 see past their friends co me target. To represent this a target must lie within a 90" arc projected f. Imagine a real battlefield with its contours. FOI· example: Short mnge 101'a short bow is up to 8". There is no particular order in which shooting must be resolved. It often happens that some shooters in a unit will be in range of their target whilst others are out of range.

ELEVATED POSITIONS Troops occupying elevated positions such as hills or the tops of buildings. Not only can such troops see and shoot. Such a model can shoot but it can also be seen and shot at. Troops are permitted to shoot into combat if you wish but if you do so then hits must be divided equally between both sides. to the farthest you can see . block Sight beyond them. Woods block line of sight if the shooter and the target lie on opposite sides. of checking if a model can see another over the table and take a model's eye be reasonable about this though as it more difficult to see enemy troops on a than over a perfectly flat.. Hedges and walls block sight over level ground. The easiest way is [0 get down view. a large rock.. it is impossible for us to say exactly what your model scenery looks like. Hills.(~ ~ .A$.. a model placed directly behind an obstacle so that it is touching is assumed to have taken up a position where it can see and shoot over the obstacle with head and shoulders clearly visible. as you are likely to hit the wrong target and kill a friend rather [han an enemy. block your sight and prevent models shooting through it. over the tops of lower hills. It is not possible SHOOTING AND HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Troops engaged in hand-mohand fighting are fur [00 busy to use missile weapons and therefore may not shoot. missile range is reduced. An Interposing hill or house will. A model positioned at the corner of a building so that he is peeking round is behind hard cover. There are two sorts of cover.\ ' ~'''' k' '- . hard cover and soft cover. You can hide behind a hedge bur a crossbow bolt or an arrow will go straight through it. 1i'oops. Models in trenches or pits are also counted as behind hard cover. Troops in hand-to-hand combat are taking pan in a vast swirling melee. I . open wagons or cans and woodland all provide soft cover. hit on your Side. If further inside the wood a model can neither be seen by models outside nor can he see them. Hedges. However.ing a D6: a score of 1-3 means 3. The corner of a building. exposing themselves to view. Troops within woods autornancally count as being in soft cover. and obstacles. trees. and under the clrcurnstances it is virtually impossible to tell friend from foe or get a dear view of your target.. to shoot directly through one model to hit another. It is only possible to see through 2" of woodland. while 4-6 means a hit on your enemy. This is posstble but not necessarily a good idea. Troops positioned at windows and doors alsocount as being in hard cover. walls and wooden palisades are all hardcover. mist free COVER Troops take advantage of cover to hide from enemy missile fire. . The u nit oj arche rs is ab 1 to sh 001 aI Ihe fool lroops b uI n 01 al e Ihe cava Iry un il be causa I hair 'Iina of sig h t is bloc ked by Ihe hed ge. so if a model is within 2" of the edge he can see out and.3. it is not a good idea to shoot into hand-to-hand com b a i . One of the most useful aspects of this is apparent when you have a unit deployed on a hillside: models in a rear rank higher up the slope can see over the heads of ranks in from of [hem and so can SbOOL This can enable many more models to shoot than is possible over level ground where only the front rank is able to bring its weapons to bear. but they can also be seen and shot at because they are standing high up. J. HARD COVER Hard cover offers real physical protection as well as partially concealing the target from view. can see to shoot over the heads of models. large boulders and buildings block sight over level ground. SOFT COVER Soft cover partially shields a target from view but provides little actual protection against lncorntng missiles. This makes them harder to hit because they can duck back out of the way leaving arrows to splinter against a walJ or tree. Fig 4. shoot and he can also be seen and shot at. Odd bits can be allotted to either side in some random fashion such as by roll. it is not practical to be definitive about which kinds of build ing or terrain block sight. On [he whole.which is 2". You must be prepared to use your own judgement within the following guidelines. lower buildings. If both target and shooter are inside the wood. You must would be much real battlefield gaming [able. Players may wish to shoot ar targets engaged in hand-tohand combat. friendly or unfriendly.

Count bow many models in your unit are shooting. However. or fire & flee. and roil mat number of dice. You roll 5 dice and score 1. Although they cannot see their target. To represent this tactic. The regiment could be formed six models wide and two ranks deep. such as a unit of enemy troops or chariots. it is often impossible for all the models to shoot at a Single target because no one target is visible to all shooters. 4. DIVIDING SHOTS A unit of troops always takes aim and shoots at a single target where possible. . It is assumed that shooters w-ait until the last moment before drawing weapons or rurrung to flee. However. because a particular target can be shot at by all your troops while another may be in sight of only a few. This represents the unnerving effect of the charging enemy upon the shooter's aim. a regirnenr of rwelve warriors might have six: armed with spear and shield and Six armed with bows. Individually they are not likely to hit. with the archers in the second rank. at enemies charging them from more than half their charge eli ranee. or BS. 11'1 mixed unit of spearmen and archers the bowmen can a shoot over the heads of the unit in fronl. so you need a score of at least 4 to bit. [f you have a lot of models shooting you may have to roll several batches of dice. and there is insufficient time for the unit to snoot at their enemy. Therefore. 2. and 6 tobicb equals 2 bits and 3 misses. darkening the skies with large volleys of arrows! me BS To Hit 1 2 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 7 8 9 10 6 5 0 -1 ·2 ·3 you have hit. The higher the individual's BS. in the other side's movemenr phase before chargers are moved. To determine whether you hit you must roil a D6 for every model shooting. where possible. For example. Work out shooting at short range for the weapon regardless of the range at the start of the charge. The [allowing table shows the minimum D6 score you will need to hit. ! ate that chargers who begin their move within half of their own charge distance of the enemy cannot be shot at. and must be within its arc of fire. Although the chan covers scores of 1 or even less. In such circumstances rnisstle troops in the rear ranks are allowed to fire overhead as described. In [his case you may divide your shooting between two enemy tat-gets if you want roo HITTING THE TARGET The chance of a shooter scoring a hit on his target depends on his Ballistic Skill.SHOOTING AT CHARGERS A unit armed with missile weapons can stand & shoot. Fig 4. archers are trained to lob shots (Q a predetermined distance under the direction of their officers. the greater his chance of hitting. It is easiest to roll all me dice at once. This means [hal in the shooting phase me regiment could take three shots with me rear rank of archers (half of six archers can fire overhead). a roll of 1 always misses. For example: You fire with 5 archers tubo baue BS 3. if If you score at least the number required you score less you have missed. There is normally no such thing as an automatic hit. They are simply too close. 2. although you don't have to do O. but as a mass [he effect can be devastating. This may occasionauy mean you are obliged to sham at one target rather than another. Infantry or cavalry armed with bows can shoot wid) models in the rear ranks of the unit so long as me unit did not move in its movement phase. The target must still be in range of [he model shooting. me number of models shooting from rear ranks is halved (rounding down) to simulate their decreased accuracy. obeying the commands of their leader who is directing their fire. all the unit muse shoot at a ingle target.4. me nits which shoot at chargers do so out of the normal turn sequence. Generally the missile troops form the rear ranks of the unit. me minimum dice roll needed to bit after modifiers have been applied is always at [east 2. MASSED ARCHERY Bow armed warriors in the rear ranks of a unit can shoot over the heads of troops in from of them. When shooting at a charging unit an additional -1 to hit penalty is imposed. Certain armies combined bow-armed troops and shock infantry together into the same unit.

TO HIT MODIFIERS Shooting isn't simply a matter of pointing your weapon at the target and letting fly. There are other factors also. The strength of a hit is used to determine wbether the target is slain. or fire & flee. the unit is standing behind a hedgesoft cover. Sometimes you will find orne of the shooters ace within shorr range and some are at long range. Factor that make it easier are added to your dice roll. Such attacks will still hit on a roll of 6. Factor that make it harder are subtracted from your dice roll. Any enemy shooting at them therefore suffers a ·1 to hit penalty. -2 Target is behind hard cover ·1 Shooting at an enemy who is charging If you are charged and elect to stand & shoot at your attacker. All shooting [0 hit modifier are cumulative. whlch make them difflcult targets to hit with missile weapons. TO lifT 7 8 9 10 11 0'· more STRENGTH MOD/FIEf{ Strengtfi -1 srYCll!Jrfi -2 SrrCII!]tfi ·3 SrrefJ!Jffi -4 5 n'eII!Jtfi -5 . [f your target lies at over half your For example: Ten archers open fire. The bold archers are armed with short bows wbicb means their targets are at long range (short range is 8" or lessfor these weapons). Most war machines are large targets. See the section on Light Troops for a complete explanation of rules for sklrmishers.2 = tbe 4 required. -1 Shooting at a moving light chariot ·1 Shooting while moving Light chariots tended to move quickly and ill an open formation. So. for example. If this reduces the Strength to below 1 the attack has no effect . So each archer needs to roll a 6 to hit as 6. maximum range you are less likely to hit. The archers have a B of 3 and their targets are 10" away. See the section on Characters for a complete explanation of rules for shooting at character models.the missile has Lost so much power it bounces harmlessly off the target. Pactors other than your skill affect your chance of hitting. If achieved then he can roll to wound the target as described below. -1 Target is behind soft cover If your target is behind soft cover then your chance of hitting is reduced. but the strength of me attack wiU be reduced. as explained next. Tills modifier does not apply to models mounted in a moving chariot OC war wagon. then your chance of hitting your opponem 15reduced. Skirmishing models are difficult to hit with missiles as they are relatively small. -1 Shooting at long range If your target is behind bard cover your chance of hitting j drastically reduced. Because tbeir BS is 3 the archers need a 4 to hit but since their targets are in cover and at long range tbis means thai they suffer a penalty of ·2. The attacker must first roll a score of 6. but the Strength of the attack is reduced by the amount shown on the table. Cavalry modeJs and light charters are nor considered to be large targets. This modifier does not apply when shooting at heavy or scythed chariots. The player rolls ten dice and manages to get two 6's . and so are heavy or scythed chariots. -1 Shooting at a character mode] If your target is a single man-sized character model then this penalty applies. This means that with a BS of 5 you would need to roll a 4 to hlt tnsread o( the l as normally required. If this is the case you must roll two batches of dice. While the enemy thunder towards you your aim will be distracted and your shot hurried as you abandon your weapon to take up a sword or run. one for each range.two hits. or on the back of an elephant. and others that make It harder. some of which make [1 easier to hit. but it does apply to cavalry. and the penalty represents that difficult shots may not strike at full force. Even a simple turn or change of formation is enough to reduce his concentration and so counts as movement. Elephants are large targets for example. ·1 Shooting at skirmish formations +1 Shooting at a large target A large target is anything which in real life would stand over approximately 10 feet tall or which is especially bulky.' 7+ TO HIT Sometimes a roll of 7 or more is required once modifiers are taken into account. If the shooter moved during the movement phase then his chance of hitting is reduced. Therefore troop firing at Iight chariots mat moved in the previous turn must subtract -1 from their to hit roll. 7i:J malee matters worse. such a range and cover. while the vast majority of other types of troops are not. if you are shooting at long range at a target behind soft cover your chance of hitting is reduced by ·2. individual targets able to take advantage of whatever cover is available.

mzl filllTe rhei. baving scored 2 hits against tbe enemy troops behind tbe bedge consults tbe table." . rfie!J 90 tnc to!Jttfier to rfie smoorhtst IIml {lI1w({est [jif gIV I!urf (ficy can . wounding one enemy trooper: "wlilrl! I Grelik. The number indicated is the minimum score on a D6 required [0 wound.WOUNDS Not all hits will wound their target .""err. Creatures such as elephants are so tough that arrows do not easily pierce their flesh. while others will g. Once you have hit your foe. z 2 2 2 2 6 5 4 3 2 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 <C LLJ 6 6 5 4 3 N 6 6 5 4 3: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 WEAPON STRENGTH The following table show the strength of various missile weapons. The Strength values of common missile weapons are summarised below.· {jaH{e 011 it .~1aec{IITC IVII!' OlZ ellch other. The opposing troops are Toughness 3. He now needs to roll 4 or more to wound. first find the weapon's Strength and look down me row. Continuing our example: the player in command of the archers.widi die ri1Su{t tfilll II1lell fli...' vicrors IIC11e. WOUND CHART TARGET'S TOUGHNESS 1 1 J: 2 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 6 5 5 N 6 N N 7 N 8 N 9 N N N N N 10 N N N N N 4 3 2 2 . or are so resillern that they can ignore missiles sticking into their bodies. 11 H~rorfon's .. me To use the chart.. . Then look across the column for your [.find. z e w U) 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 N N 6 N N N a: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 6 5 4 3 2 I- 4 3 2 en 0 D.. mll{ /Tsjor tfie Iosers tfie!) 're wiyerf out. the target's Toughness '1" is Included on its profile bur is usually 3 in the case of an ordinary trooper. The archers' short bows are Strength 3. you must roll again to see if you wound him.rget's Toughne s." \\'EAPON STRENGTH Shorr Bow Bow LOII!J6ow 3 3 3 3 4 '!i 11 511"9 Crossbow .aze their rarget causing no real harm. Roll a D6 for each hir you scored and consult Wound Chan below. He mils a 4 and a 2. To do this compare the weapon's Strength value with the target's 'roughness value.'!} (asses.1.some may glance off armour or clothing..'!Jot l1IitfroUf lien!. They are included here as examples: the section on Weapons describes all missile and hand-tohand fighting weapons in more derail.

Rules for different types of armour and shields are covered more fully in [he weapons section. Not S/J1prisin. He must now roll 6 to save. If he had scored a 5 01' 6 [be arrow would have bounced off and tbe warrior would baue been unharmed.gly he has failed. a warrior uieartng light armour and carrying a shield bas a saving throw of 5 + on foot and 4 + when mounted. Normally tbe tuarrior would need to roll 5 or 6 to make his save and avoid laking tbe wound but. better than it would he if he were on foot. Roll a D6 for each wound your troops have suffered.z o ARMOUR Models that are wounded still have a chance [0 avoid damage if they are wearing armour. These models have an armour saving roll Or armour save. The player in command oj them rolls a 2. This is shown by the table char follows.1/{AiOUR fNFANTRY f: o o :c VJ SAVE CrWALI~Y SAFE None Shiell None 6+ 5+ 4+ 4+ 4+ 3+ ArfdS +1 Atfrf. For example. This means he must roll a 5 01" 6 to be saved by his armour: To continue our example from before: the archers have scored 1 wound on the enemy troops behind the hedge. carrying shields or if they are cavalry. This represents the extra protection afforded by his mounr. +1 [jilt 6+ 5+ Arml'w' Li!J Ii r A. 1 is subtracted from. If you roll greater than or equal [Q the armour saving throw of the mode! the wound has been absorbed or deflected by its armour. so armour provides less prorecrion againsr them." saving throw is 5 +. STRENGTl-J OF HIT REDUCES AR. The enemy troops are wearing light armour and have a shield. A crossbousman bits a warrior in light armour untb shield. because of the crossbow's enormous hit'ting power.2 . bts dice roll.\10 lIR SAl'E BY NOlie -1 3 or 4 LCH 5 6 7 . Such weapons confer modlflers chat are subtracted from the foe's armour saving throw.II· Shiefrf Annour Cml/1(j-y witl! Bardi 119 Lm'!} c era Budirer 0110 counts in fil1l1rf-rl'-fimu( wmvm Cavalry models automatically have a saving rhrow of 6 even if the rider is wearing no armour. so the. . For example: A trooper carrying a shield and wea'ring light armour has a saving tbrota of 5+.3 ·4 -5 -6 -7 8 9 10 . If the rider is wearing armour then his saving throw will be 1. For example: A crossbow has a Strengtb of 4.n mUl r Shidrf + Li5lir + Heav!:! sfri 5+ 5+ 4+ Aads +1 As Sliic[J Heavy ArmOl. ARMOUR SAVE MODIFIERS Some weapons right through are so powerful that they can punch armour.

Dice which score wounds are picked out and banded over to the opponent so he can take his saving throws. You will have gathered by now that it is necessary to roll quite a few dice to resolve shooting .f ({ie IllI1fi:S ana tlie asses fIIU{ /1(( die rirtlll!Jfir tIIrimafs ex""p' for those wlikfi c(IITicrimissiles and ilrti((cr!:! yit.fI mlssiles. However. alld tli e HI a iII Goa!) JJOS... CllC/l Tlie i'grill tr!J lIa 9 rcfIt ri!ffi CI{ ft!) in nifwtfi119 IhclJIscfvt'S. If models are deployed in a single rank then casualties are removed roughly equally from either end. III t/iis jl05 j tim. This same system applies when you work out hand-to-hand combat damage roo. rheyjenmealls qf esc'!)'c /ospfl/olS..fir column wi.whole handfuls at once in facd This doesn't take as long as you might imagine because all the dice are rolled together. Each elephant model can endure 5 wounds in fact. diu'illg which tfie ROil/fill were aMe ro escf911' 1'0 Bt-tli-fiorl!l'. are sufficiently resilient to have several Wounds.1 01' if se!f-dtjeucf. representing troops gathering about their officers and standards.1" 'W' on its profile.fie [ews rC9Jomfcn witli UI(lI'-Crics a lid' !Jeffs if itltcrll1ill!Jred ddi!Jlillllln rage. the result is always the same so we can consider all casualties as slain and remove them from the game.um{ dow" into tile rallit. Sinc« 110 one ccufef dlSCOller .Pell !JIVIIlId. from QUl· ten dice to bit four might ryplcally score hits. or simply too badly wounded to carryon fighting.tferca tlie tfi9'osar 1 evel'!JtfriH!J rfint {UfI1pered trIC army.~ if despair. ".e {(j((e. fie o.. This is not enough to slay an elephant outright. JEwish war AD66 FAST DICE ROLLING Obviously some riders are slain.c. and some mounts are killed throwing their riders [0 the ground. wllire otlicrs drolle llie n:m"!J. so the player must make a note that it has taken 2 Wounds.diem alia watcfieajor tfiCltl to C(llIIe alit..REMOVING CASUALTIES Most troops can only sustain 1 wound before they fall casualty Some models can take several wounds before they become casualties.fie army on towarm Betfi-lionm. CASUALTIES Where [fOOPS have only a single wound. sillc. they may represent men temporarily knocked out. Tiu: JeHls nifire fJlfldejeHlcI" aTTacks 011 t{je t. This keeps the formation neat and represents rear rankers stepping forwards to cover gaps in the line as they appear. down rfie road. ti 0 II eri aLlo lie rfi e tm ITowert ylll't '!! tlir road yefred .gr(lil rfiar rfie Jews /if igli t ''!JJtlIl'C diem (llid use rficlIJ a!}fli'llrt rfiCI!ISr{j'fs. MULTIPLE WOUND CASUALTIES Some models. die 1 in die tlllrl'OIV n Vomfjlmfmenl r1 missi(es flie!) . thei. This is a convenient and practical way of repre enting cavalry.Pc. Then pick out any dice which score a hit and re-roll [bern to wound.·atfi. these things can be safely imagined as models and their mounts are removed as a single piece.fiile tfic Jews Cllcircred. Although they would in reality fall amongsr rhe from rank it is more convenlcnr to remove casual lies from [he rear of the unit.w.riecl Cemus fltU{ fils Ctllll'C al'll'Y lVOllftf ahnos: certait1(!J Jial'c been ollcnvrrdlllea!f nigfit lina 1l0tjl1(rCll. 011 60r/i riles rFrere were djffi (Inri ravilles down wfiidi to CAVALRY CASUALTIES In the case of cavalry models all shots are worked am against the rider. . such as elephants. The full rules for elephants arc discussed later. Once the unit takes another 3 Wounds from other attacks it will have suffered 5 wounds and one elephant model is removed as a casualty..re . So. di. wliieli rlie!:! k~pr Guau56 tlicy needed t. rj tlie tfescemfit'!JlVadiva!).HId". lind if WilS ill!J'OSSiGrcJOI· fior-scs to duu'!}c die enemy '91 Thi' mll3f' s(t. . ". For our purposes. The most practical way of going about this is to take as many dice as you have troops shooting and roll them all at once.oura 1101 nrfi1(lI l(t· ill Olrk. but the same comments apply to any target which has rnulttple wounds. The number of wounds a model can sustain before it ralls casualty is indicated by its Wounds v-alue 0. die!} were reduced in tlieir hc!p(esSllt'Ss to Ianwntntion IInri9"{)(UI. these are re-rolled and may score 2 wounds. The player who has suffered tbe casualties must remove slain models from the unit. Imagine that a unit of elephants suffers 2 wounds from arrow fire. if you're shooring with ren archers roll ten dice. sOllie [fie JClVS !Jot ill JI1J1fI (wd _Pl'l!lIcmrd· then: jrom Cllltwgil1g.1f . horses bolt and run away. (jill when tlie Rowans weI" _Pflcf(ed to!Jetfier II a unit of troops is hir and uffers wounds which it is unable to save then for each wound suffered one model is removed as a casualty Casualties are not necessarily dead. If the rider is slain the mount is removed as well. So. Cestills tfilm r. awl ttic 'allah'Y's simatio« was (vet! more nllll!JIlIVIIS fIIld yrecIlI'ious.{jCHI awl arm hecaus« tfi~!1l11e. as described in the next section. Tirey rlierifo. removed as follows: casualties are To ~pced' '!p tfieir retreat. as it dispenses with the need for individual dismounted riders and 100 e mounts. fa wliieli . but these are the exceptions rather than the rule.

catch and destroy them. PURSllE Units whose enemies have broken and fled. Like me movement phase. as described in [he following rules. 4. the dose combat phase follows a set order or sequence as explained below. The losing side will have lost by 'points' as explained in the following rules. regardless of whose turn it is. 2 or more Each unit that loses in combat must take a Break test. 5. 6. 3. RESULTS Work OUL which side has won each combat and by how much. and rear whether they panic in [he following rules. formations .HAND-TO-HAND Once all shoorlng has been resolved it is time to deal with the brutal cut and thrust of hand-to-hand combat or meh~e. The close combat phase is an exception to the normal turn sequence in that both sides rake part in the ftghttng. COMBAT Regardless of whose [urn it is all models that are in contact with the enemy must fight. BREAK TESTS I.. Units engaged in hand-mohand figbting cannot move or shoot. CLOSE COMBAT PHASE 1_ FIGHT COMBAT Each unit involved in combat Hgb ts as explained results. as it's sometimes known. FLEE! UnitS which have broken or failed their Panic test must flee from their enemy as described Move all newly fleeing troops now. that rum are allowed to pursue. Any unit failing its Break test is termed 'broken' rank models are turned round and moved askew to show this. 7. in the following rules. Take all required Panic rests now. Take all Break tests now. REDRESS RANKS are tidied up ready for the following turn. At the end of the close combat phase. forced to flee or disengages as explained later. PANIC TESTS if units have broken men other friendly units within 12" must take a Panic rest to determine and run. but must stand toe-to-toe with their enemy until one side is destroyed. Fight all the combats before working au t 2 .

For example. bur ir is possible mac several units may become involved. roll a 06. models strike blows in a strict order.that is what defines tbe distinct combats. and if you wish they may be temporarily turned in the ranks to indicate that they are doing so. If opposing troops have the same Initiative value then the side which won the combat in the previous turn may strike first. Even models attacked in their side Or rear may fight. A cavalry mount WHO STRIKES FIRST In the desperate hack and slash of close combat the advantage goe to the best trained and most determined warriors. which is [rained to kick out against the enemy. In confiict CD two un its of Greeks arefighting em elepbaut. and the player who score highest goes first. or chose who have gained the extra impetus of charging into combat [hat turn. This illustration shows three separate combats. These attacks are worked 0\.COMBATS Work out combats one at a time . if this doe sn't apply. especiatly if they last for several turns when troops pile in to support tban theirfriends. or you could take [be outside chance of fighting the character. one unit from each side as is tbe case wit" conflict @.resolve the fighting for all the troops involved in one combat before moving on to the next. A combat is usually a fight between one unit from each side. Combats frequently involve 1'I"100-e one unlt 01'1. or. Troops who have charged that turn will automatically strike first. Otherwise. tobereas in conflict @ there are two Greek units fighting uoo Indian units plus a chariot. rut blows are struck in the order of Initiative (I). II a model is touching more than one enemy model the player can choose which to arrack.1. which is why it is better to charge your enemy rather than allow him to charge you. This is important because if a model is slain before it bas bad a chance to strike it obviously cannot light back. CD Fig 5. each side. This means that some cavalry have two lots of attacks. In the illustration at the bottom of the page. and a combat between two opposing units on the right. can also attack in some cases. The most example is the fierce warhorse.H separately using the mount's own characteristic values. WHICH MODELS FIGHT A model can fight if its base is touching the base of an enemy model. Models with the highest Initiative value strike first followed by models who have a lower value. for example. The important thing to remember is that all the units in each conflict are interlinked . there are three separate combats: one between two units and an elephant on the left. enemy character and an ordinary enemy trooper you may decide to attack the trooper because you stand more chance of harming him. To represent this. two units of swordsmen and a chariot in the centre. if faced with an. common A combat is oflen a fig"t between. Striking first is a big advantage. the rider attacks and his mount attacks as well. a huge fight between two units of pearmen. ® ® .

J 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 7 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 8 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 9 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 10 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 e. CAVALRY When you are fighting against cavalry all blows are struck against the rider using the rider's Weapon Skill. a 3+. DEFENDED OBSTACLE Troops lined up behind a wall. Players generally find it simple enough to remember this.HITTING THE ENEMY To determine whether you score a hit roll a D6 for each model fighting. even though the obstacle lies between them. This penalty no longer applies once the attackers have won a round of hand-to-hand combat. and don't usually need to refer to the chart itself. warhorses are the most notable example. is Inside a building. The from rank is moved right up against the wall [Q show this. Attacking models do not have to physically cross [he obstacle. Otherwise you hit on a 4+. If you look at 10 Hir chart below you will see that if your warrior's Weapon kill is greater than your foe's you hit him all. though this is rare. The mounr may fight using its own '"'(feapon Skill if it bas its own arrack. me attack the defenders can do so by charging them as normal. indeed they are unable to do so whilst it remains defended.. Defenders have the advantage of already raking up a good position With their weapons sticking Out or over gaps in the hedge or wall. hedge or other linear obstacle can defend it. z <t 3 4 5 6 7 w :: (J) a: w ~ 0 ~ 8 9 10 « ... unless his Weapon Skill is more than double yours in which case you require a 5+.J . U you have more than one arrack (A) witb any of your models then roll a D6 for each attack. The amount needed to score a hit on your enemy depends upon the relative Weapon Skill (WS) of the attacker and his foe.. instead their front rank is positioned on the opposite side of rile obstacle to where the defenders are situated II attacking an enemy who is defending a waIJ Or a hedge. An enemy that wishes to TO HIT CHART OPPONENT'S WEAPON SKILL 1 1 52 en . or behind some other defended obstacle you will require a 6 on a D6 [0 biro The penalty does nor apply [0 both sides. After the attackers win a round of combat it is assumed that enough attackers have forced their way Over the obstacle to render it useless as a defensive barrier. Attackers must mount an assault in the face of their foe's sword points and spear rips. Compare the Weapon Skill of the attacker with the Weapon Skill of his opponent and consult the chart below to find the minimum D6 SCQce needed to hit.

or no chancel WEAPONS MODIFIERS Unlike shooting it'S the Strength (S) of me attacker that is used rather than the Strength of the weapon..which is the standard for ordinary warriors . Charging knights urub lances receive a +2 bonus on their strength. Consult the Wounds [able below. e J: 2 3 4 5 6 7 z w en Z N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 N N N . the . ardor ' profiles.. These bonuses are discussed together with other special rules for weaponry in the section on Weapons & Armour later on in this book. Once you have hit your foe you must roU again to sec if your hits lnflict morral wounds.. Halberd armed infantry gain a + 1 bonus to their Strength. N stands for no effect . The chan indicates the minimum score on a D6 required to cause a wound. cross referencing the attacker's Strength (5) with the defender's Toughness (T).WOUNDS Not all successful ruts are going [0 harm your enemy some may rebound from armour or bounce off tough bide. en a: 0 c. some weapons bonus on the attacker's carried Strength by troops confer a as in the following examples. while others may cause only superficial damage. This procedure is exactly the same as described for Shooting previously. Most troops have a Strength value of 3 . Astute players will have gathered by now that in most circumstances. where no bonuses apply.. « w == 6 6 5 4 3 6 6 5 4 8 9 10 .bur of course larger creatures such as elephants and machines such as chariots have a trength value which is considerably tougher. Infantry armed with doublebanded axes will gain a +2 bonus 10 tbeir Strength in band-to-band combat. Where the table shows an 'N' this indicates that the target is simply coo tough for you to hurt. Bod] values appear all. average troops wi th S3 and T3 will always scare wou nds on a roll of 4+ The majortry of players find it a simple matter to remember score required after a few games me WOUND CHART 1 1 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 TARGET'S TOUGHNESS 3 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 5 N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 6 N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 7 N N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 8 N N 9 N N 10 N N N N N N . However.

ARMOUR Combatants that avoid damage if shields. This i shooting. This is the same as for damage from shooting. The chart below shows the reduction in the enemys saving throw compared to the attacker's strength. Firstly. In reality. but are placed behind their unit. Models which fail as casualties are not removed from the tabletop immediately. If he rolls greater than or equal to the armour saving throw of his troops then [he wound has been absorbed or deflected by the warrior's armour. and any feu ranker stepping into his place cannot attack that cum. as any casualties cau ed will reduce the number of enemy left [0 fighr back. Although casualties would. f For each wound suffered [he player rolls a D6. This is importanr for two reasons. If weapons give a strength bonus then this increases the strength of a hit making it easier to pierce armour. This means that the side to strike first has a signiflcarn advantage. models which are removed before they have a chance to attack may not do so. and this is much easier where casualties are left behind their units. fall amongsr the rank fighting. and the are wounded srtll have a chance to they are wearing armour or carrying exactly the same as described for same rules apply REMOVING CASUALTIES Close combat casualties are removed in exactly the same way as shooting casualties and you may wish to re-read iliac section at this point. it is most convenient to assume that rear rankers will step forward to fill any gaps. In most circumstances it is therefore practical [0 remove casualties straight from the rear ranks of a unit. STRENGTH OF /lIT REDUCES ARMOLIR NOlle -1 -2 -3 SAFE BY 30" Less 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 -4 -5 -6 -7 32 . Secondly. ARMOUR SAVE MODIFIERS The higher an attacker's Strength the more easily Jr can pierce armour. when it comes to working au! who has won the combat you need to know how any casualties have been inflicted by each side.

An 8 points against 2 potnrs victory is extremely decisive as the difference in scores is a whopping six. The bonus can be claimed for an incomplete rear rank so long as it contains at least four models. The side which has inflicted the most wounds has won the combat. Rules for tandards described later. +1 Standard If both sides have troops attacking in the flank then the side with [he most number of flanking units gets the bonus. compare the values to discover which side has won the combat. Begin by adding up all me wounds caused by each side. JUSt add them all up. Troops which are better led. or is included in a unit of troops which is involved in combat. unit you are resting for. +1 Battle Standard + 1. and more professional are more likely [0 stand firm. including the number of casualties caused and bonus points. The other side has lost. Firstly say which. Take the rest as follow. These bonus points can make all the difference between winning and losing the combat. If you are defending a hill and several units are involved. if both sides cause 3 wounds the result i a draw. then you may add a further + 1. Each bonus point is added to the number of casualties you have inflicted. +1 Flank Attack If you are fighting an enemy unit in the flank you may add a + 1bonus. So for example. you may claim a rank bonus of + 1 for each rank of infantry behind the first at the Start of the combat. Bach heavy chariot destroyed In combat adds + 2 to the opponent's combat result as well as points for any wounds inflicted. If both have inflicted the same number of wounds then the result is a draw: However. So. the bonus goes to whoever has the unit in the highest position. Depending on which units pass and which fail their rest some may break and flee. while wild. beating the enemy by 4 points to 3. It does not matter which particular units suffered the wounds. The table below summarises the bonus points. You need to take a separate Break test for every unit involved in the combat. Remember only infantry units count this bonus . Do not add up bonuses from all the units fighting. . while others may stand their ground. +2 Rear Attack If any of your units bas a standard may add a + 1 bonus. bearer then you If you have several standards you still only add not +1 for each tandacd. but if one side had a battle standard it adds + 1 to its score. This difference in score is important because it is used when working our if a defeated enemy stands his ground or turns and flees. is attacking the enemy in the flank. some higher than others. because the difference in scores is only one point. as well as points for any wounds inflicted. an infantry formation three ranks deep would give you a + 2 bonus. An 8 points against a 7 points victory is only a light win for example. or if it is fighting from higher ground. braver. Each Lighc or scythed chariot destroyed in combat adds + 1 to [he opponent's combat result. Now add the difference between tbe winner's and loser's combat score. BONUS POINTS +1 Infantry Rank Bonus 1£ your formation is an infantry unit of at least four models Wide. If you have several units fighting in combat count bonus from the deepest unit. so long as your entire unit numbers at least five models. This bonus and the bonus for a flank arrack are cumulative. The higher tile winner's score is compared to the loser's the bigger and more decisive the victory will be. +1/+ 2 Destroyed Chariot If tile army's battle standard i fighting in a combat. up to a maximum of +3. Do this once all the units engaged in combat have fought. This is called a Break test. a ide can claim extra bonus points under certain circumstances . The bonus is only applied once no matter how many flanking units are tnvolved.cavalry do the the that not! TABLE High Ground +1 If you are fighting from a htgher pesitlon than your enemy you may add a + 1bonus. If the total is greater than the unit's Leadership (Ld) value til en the unit is broken. LOSERS TAKE A BREAK TEST The side that loses combat must take a test to determine if it stands and fights or turns tail and runs away. Once both sides have established their total points.for example if it has a battle standard. So if you are artacking in the side and rear you will receive a bonus of +3. are The same applies as for a flank attack btl! to units attacking in the rear. a four deep formation gives a + 3 bonus. Roll 206 and add the scores together. This bonus is lost if tile unit is charged in the flank or rear by an enemy unit of five models or more.RESULTS For each separate combat you must determine which side has woo. Do not forget to add the wounds taken by elephants or character models which have not been removed as casualties. Broken units will turn tail and flee once all combat on the entire battlefield has been worked out. Until all combat has been worked our Simply turn a few of the rear rank models found to remind you that the unit has broken. temperamental troops are far more likely to run for it.

Worn down by prolonged fighting and heavy casualties the unit breaks and flees without taking a Leadership test. The spearmen inflict 3 wounds on the archers. The fleers are moved 2/3D6" just like any other fleeing unit. Should the fleeing unit encounter friendly troops they will push through them. Rally tests are taken in the movemenr phase after charges have been declared bur before movement (see the sequence at the start of the Movement section). They have a Leadersbip value of 7. units of troops reduced to less than five models are unable to function as a fighting unit and may not rally. Dice are rolled to establish how far the fleeing unit moves. but the player may rearrange it formauon and rum it [0 face whichever direction he chooses.the vast numbers of spearmen pressing from the back baue ouerusbeimed them. The spearmen have four ranks in their formation. If rne score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership (Ld) then the unit stops fleeing and has rallied. leading ro crumbling battle lines and possibly causing other units to flee as well. It is worth bearing in mind at this stage that Panic tests must be taken once all Break tests are complete but before any fleeing troops are moved. . RALLY TEST FLEEING TROOPS Once you have completed all of the Break tests resulting from combat that turn. 17Jeplayer rolls 2D6 and scores 7. If enemy troops charge a fleeing unit then the fleeing unit automatically flees from the charge assuming the charge is within reach. The troopers have scattered beyond recovery or have found places to hide themselves until the fighting is over. To represent this. UNITS REDUCED TO LESS THAN FIVE A unit reduced to less than live models automatically breaks if it loses a round of combat. The archers must therefore take C/ Break test adding +2 to their dice score. even though they have caused more casualties . A fleeing PANIC TESTS FOR BREAKS Once all defeated units have taken a Break rest then troops nearby must make a test to determine JlOW they react [0 seeing their friends turn and run. 1b take a rally test ro1l2D6. round obstacles that block it path. They abandon their formation and run from their enemy in a complete rout. it sham with missiles. A fleeing unit that has suffered too many casualties will be unable to rally . If any models leave the table edge the entire unit is considered to have left the battlefield and is removed from play. and as eacb extra rank adds + 1 to the score this gives tbem 3 + 3 = 6points against the arcbers 4. The unit continues to flee until j[ leaves the table or is destroyed. RALLYING A fleeing unit may attempt to stop fleeing in irs movement phase by taking a Rofty test. SUBSEQUENT MOVEMENT OF FLEEING TROOPS If it is not destroyed then a fleeing unit continues to move 2D6" or 3D6" towards its own side's table edge during its own side's move phase. The charging enemy destroys tile fleeing troops if it catches them. and the archers inflict 4 wounds on the spearmen. of troops. and have taken any necessary Panic tests. blindly scrambling over the ground in their efforts to avoid the enemy. The unit must spend rhe remainder of the turn stationary and may not shoot or fight. Fleeing troop rum directly away from their enemy and run as fast as they can. This represents the spread of panic amongst the army as friendly 'units collapse and mill tail. This is called rallying and a unit that rallies successfully may reorder its ranks in preparation to fight once again. and full rules for panic are given in the following section. the +2 modifier brings his total to 9 which is greater than the unit's Leadership so the archers are broken: If the unir normally moves 6" or less roll 2D6. MOVE FLEEING TROOPS It is difficult to judge how far fleeing troops will run because they are no longer fighting as a unit but milling around in a frightened mob. FLeeing models that would otherwise end up intermingled with friendly units are instead placed to the side or beyond them if this is tile only option. This represents the efforts of leaders and brave individuals to call a bah to the rout. but with the extra +2 modifier on the dice the player will have to mil 5 or less to stand and fight. Fleeing troops will nor move troops unless they have no other choice. Move the fleeing unit directly away from its enemy so that it is 2D6" or 3D6n away from them and facing in the oppostte direction.For example: A unit of archers is fighting a unit of spearmen. Fleeing models [hat have [heir retreat completely blocked by enemy models are destroyed. 1£ the unit moves more than 6" roll 3D6. unit cannot fight or it wiU move including units towards enemy can do nothing else. bring the troops to their senses and restore order. Where able to do so. Thearchers have therefore lost the combat. The result is the distance covered by tile fleeing troops minus any penalty for terrain or obstacles. This is called a Panic test.its warriors are demoralised and only interested in escape. In addition a fleeing unit will be destroyed if it is caught by pursuers as described under Pursuit. For example. Ibis is a compulsory move so fleeing troops are moved first once charges are declared (see the Movement section). it is time for broken troops to flee. It must attempt to get away from the banlefield as quickly as possible.

or a comparable obstacle or fortification.ir. If the pursuers do not move far enough to overtake the fleeing troops then no further casualties are caused. Like fleeing. The resulting combat is worked out in the following tum.sr1mell. as tHe crown tf .VHt fie was die target r1 cver!) marKsmall i11 tHe neigHbouri1l!) towers.PURSUIT ITa unit win a combat and all of the enemy it is fighting break and flee.. Others _pressd within striking disranc». .I"Ossed. so dice are rolled to determine how far the pursuing unit will move.Tfie Ca1tpaigns of A{cxmu{cl' . {jut }flit: (ety't down iuta the fortress rw migfit Ei!Jthat IIIlry act ~l'ead" conrrernatioll amol1g tfie cnemy. To tFrinK was to act . 11« roo raslify. Note that a unlr may only pursue if all the troops it Is fighting break .s {if migfir welT be lii«etf . The pursuers are considered to be charging and so get all the usual benefits and bonuses as if they had charged that turn.kel!J1iH!Jthei!" distance. Scm tIIbfi ug Jor yrccerf"clIcc.mind" . No penalty is imposed because of their pursuit move.. 0/ AVOID PURSUIT A player may decide that his unit should nor pursue. house.6y stayiu!J ftis wnere lie wa. hedgerow. . PURSIDT OFF THE TABLE A unit which pursues irs fleeing enemy off the table returns to the same poinr in its foUowing movement phase. pursuit is a hectic and uncontrolled affa. PURSUIT MOVE Once fleeing troops have been moved. and. Leave a reasonable gap to separate the two unitS if both roll the same distance. La this situation. alia lie cut tfiem dow« . A yortl) Indians came tit him. rfien a secona. though it may shoot and otherwise participate in the game as normal. aeatfr wou(a come .Freyllt fris Eiac/'(to tfie wan(wa mad"e ready to fight..·ushed"jol·wara. and if the core is equal ro or less than the unit's Leadership then the test is passed and the unit may remain stanonaryinstead of pursuing.. To find out how fur they pursue roll 2D6 or 3D6 in exactly the same way as for fleeing troops..their command"er PURSIDT INTO FRESH ENEMY It sometimes happens that pursuers move far enough to hit a fresh enemy unit. and the attacked unit must 'hold' as any attempt to flee or shoot amidst rile confusion of running bodies is impossible.. Oll/. cmd"eff victims to j {lis sword".if one unit breaks and another stands and fights then the victorious troops do not pursue.. Roll 2DG. 01· at (east . then [he victorious unit will normally pursue.. bur unrf"er tlie excessive (oad" rlicy broKe alia lil'flled' tlie cfi!llucrs to tFre gIVum{ No Imfian Ifen tu red to l!P_proflch Afexallaer as fie stood" on the jortress waf( . the player may decide to pursue or not as he wishes. Assuming the pursuers do not encounter any fresh enemy they move as far as the distance indicated by their dice roll. march or move exactly like any other unit. The tmit may not move other than ro position itself along the [able edge. tlie!J lIIaae II da. me U the pursuing unit's dice roll is greater than that of the fleeing unit then the pursuers have overrun and completely destroyed the entire fleeing unit.de wliere h' stood aHd" hllrfed" at Him HlnatCl'lW missifes they {jad"or couM find". This applies even after the first round of combat.lie too Jeff. if not all. Afte:r tliat Plane ventured (. That it was il1d"eerf" A{cxlllldel' WHOstood tfter1! was yrain to af( . as it is assumed some. ArrIml . pursuit is a Single bonus move which is made when a beaten enemy flees. This represents the unit's leader calling his troops to hold.His atmost (e!letlda!"!) courage ITO (ess dian /iis sliining al'lllOur_Pl"Ocfaimcd" him! Surf"d"e»0 a tliouglit (. die!) jormed" a ha!fci.sli jor tlit: (llaael·S. victorious units may pursue. The pursuers move the distance indicated by the dice roll straight towards and through fleeing troops if they move far enough. lie (AfexaHdcr) stood there Oil flie {jarr(cIHetits UrOtlc. As pursuing would force the unit [Q abandon its secure position there is a great incentive to stay where they are. The sigfrt rj kim fi«erf" tfie mell r1 die Guara witli terror jor his stife'!J. lit exp(oit which wou(rf filfe I!}JOl1 tfie (!_p.. This is considered to be a new charge.. First om:. hacking at [heir retreating foes as their backs are turned.. The troops triumphantly surge forward. if it is defending a wall. Note that unitS do not continue to pursue in subsequent turns.{!Jaill to attaCK him nand-ta-liatla . who tried to '9'yroad1 filw fie st'?}Jyetf witfi a weff-aimed stone. overtaking and cutting them down as they run. The pursuers are carried forward against the enemy unit as they chase their fleeing enemy. Normally a unit must pursue if it is able to. The pursuers are simply moved the distance indicated towards their broken enemy. A unit does not have to pursue Troops that pursue a fleeing enemy over an obstacle must halve their pursuit move as they cross the obstacle. In their following turn they may charge. but the player may attempt to prevent this by making a test against the unit's Leadersblp (Ld).:e itlsiae rHtljOtTl"I)SS.wirliollr _fiu1Frer hesimtto» lie maac /iis recp. of the victors will have [Q cross the obstacle to pursue their enemy.

4. The opportunity to redress their ranks following hand-to-hand fightil1g. Lapping models from the rear rank move 10 the enemy's Ilank. further models may be lapped around to the rear should they win a further round of combat.units must maintain equal-sized ranks apart from the rearrnost rank. These extra models are described as Lapping round. Fig 5. as much depends upon the casualties inflicted and combat results. then models may be moved from the rear ranks round the sides of the enemy unit. building or terrain. . thereby allowing more models to fight. Tills will not always be necessary. assuming mere is room and thatthe flank is nor blocked by another unit. therefore affords the winning side the chance to adjust their formation slightly by expanding their frontage or lapping round the enemy's sides. Remember that units engaged in combat cannot move in their movement phase. and models are arranged in a higgledy pigglcdy manner to show their disorganised srarus. Fig 52. EXPAND FRONTAGE ARCHERS ARCHERS IIIIIIII ENEMY SPEARMEN ENEMY SPEARMEN MOVE TO EXPAND THEIR FORMATION'S WIDTH BY TWO ON EACH SIDE. A unit may expand its frontage in this way by up to rwo models On each flank.REDRESS THE RANKS Once fleeing troops and pursuers have been moved it is time to tidy up the formations of fighting units in preparation for the next: phase. In this situation Ihe enemy spearmen win the combat and expand their formation by moving eight models to Increase [he width of the unil by two on each flank. In this way it is possible to extend your line and surround an enemy unit completely. EXPAND FRONTAGE a unit wins the combat it C.to move models from rear ranks and place them in the forward ranks to increase the width of the formation. Fig 5.3. Once models have covered the enemy's flanks. Lapping models from the rear rank move to the enemy's rear. FLEEING UNITS nits which are fleeing abandon their formation and so have no opportunity to redress their ranks at this time. The unit forms a rough block or mass of troops. Remember . You may move up [Q [WO models around each flank. [f LAPPING ROUND U a unit wins the combat and irs formation already extends to the enemy's flanks.

DISENGAGING FROM HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Units engaged in hand-to-hand combat at the start of the turn. Cavalry a7'(J allowed to disengage from combat untbout taking a Leadersbip test. Well trained 01' very manoeuurable troops can disengage reasonably sa/ely. is failed then tbe unit breaks and flees. 01' 3D6" if its move is ouer 6'.1!/t1lltr!) c'1H!. Jleei11geither 2D6' if its move is 6' or less. but only if all of the enemy troops they al-e ftghtitlg are either slower or have the same movement as themselves. However. at the same time that you declare any charges. Bifol'f fie was in COfllltltlru{.. HI: alit/a!)! yreva/red' (iccausc liis _praHuill!1 al1rf was so s~i1rca dint lie maae IW111!) If tbe test is passed the unit has suecessfully disengaged and may move up to double its normal movement rate away from tbe combat. By tficse riforms fie made the soidters stir( 11101'11 mobife Jor he took care to y.1aIlN'!:J) so thur tne tr(JOYs Ii. 1 1 i~lIIovatjo~rs Ima il11_Pl'ovcUlents mlriraJ'!} lIT ucl1l1itjue.pmclIt. if the disengaging unit fails its test and breaks and flees. This turn is free and has no effect on the unit's further movement. die Greek iI!lmrtl'!1 'i'ere acasnomed to !Ising ver!J (arge I'orma sliif(rfs. 0/ Lllenus Neyos __.COMBAT BONUSES Models which are lapping round the flank or rear are ignored for purposes of establishing a unit's rank bonus in hand-to-hand combat. so troops along the sides of 'flanked' units can fight back against troops that are lapping round. mal' attempt to disengage from combat in their movement phase: Sucb l1'00PS are assumed to be taking advantage of a lull in the /igbting to retire in an ordered fashion. The enemy has disengaged during a lull in the fighting. and if the score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership value then the test is passed. SHort rlinlSring syears alld smarr sword's.l0rl{j. '-~--""-~~~ . although it is not strictly necessary [0 do so. He sLl6stirHtc:rf _pdtaeJol' die round sliiefd'(6ectlHsc tHis diau!l'l t!i. Lapping round models in this way might therefore reduce your rank bonus by Ilmrnng the number of full ranks fighting. Declare if any of your units will disengage from combat at the start a/the movement phase. !pflicnltes was exrml1llf'y experienced in lllal: ~e was l!itcm hi cammmu{ armies amf never d'ipra!:Jcrf YOO1' fllaamlitp. then a Leadership test rnust be taken as described above. If any enemy troops are faster than they are.. and the enemy leaps foruiards to exploit their mistake.~--' 1 . They have been driven off by the enemy and forced to regroup behind the unit's main body.IOUfr( fiave lIlorc mobj(. TI4rn the models around through 180" to show tbis. Players might wish to physically tum the models round LO face their enemies in order [0 show this. This means chat in most cases it is well worth lapping round If your units are able [Q do so.ty 011 tfie 6attrific(rf ana ill tfieir IlI/COllUtel' Willi the tmCI11!:J. Take a Leadership test for each disengaging unit in the same way described for avoiding pursuit. If t. units mat are lapping round do receive extra bonuses for flank and rear attacks so long as the entire unit consists of five Or more models. WHICH MODELS CAN FIGHT Bear in mind that all models touching base-to-base are allowed to fighr in hand-to-hand combat. Roll 2D6.vvi/e st1fiticttt Sllcul'ityJol' dieir lioarcs at tfie mme time as fie o!Jfitwed dint _protection. before charging units are moued. Units that are fighting an enemy that successfully disengages from combat are not allowed to pursue. He aou/Hea rlie (e/lgtfi rf tlie pear ani (c'I1!Jtfietleatneir SI1..he test. fIe clitll1gcd . Units disengagingfrom band-to-hand combat are moved in the compulsory movement pari of the movement phase. At the same time lie S116stitrrtlu( fimm (orsders Jor (juked bronz« ones. DEFEAT IN COMBAT If a unit is defeated in hand-co-band combat then any models already Lapping round are immediately returned to the rear rank of the formation. whilst poorly diSciplined troops rna)' find their O1'deT~')I withdrawal turning into a rout. However.e trooys Gecame ((!lown as_permst 1. then its enemy may pursue just as if the unit had broken In band-lo-band fighting.. In this case the dis8ngagemfmt has failed.

See the Character section for rules concerning characters and units. in Test during the hand-to-hand combat phase more friendly units breaks within 12". Friends break from/or are destroyed hand-to-hand combat within 12". Fleeing friends are destroyed by chargers within 4". If chargers are unable to reach the unit no rest is required. If the result ts less than or equal to the unit's Leadership score the [est is passed and all is well. the riders' Leadership is used for Panic tests and not that of its mount's. 3. and units fleeing as a result of panic. . 2. in hand-toIn in the side or rear whilsrengaged 5. These factors are represented. take a. With your leader dead rumour of defeat spreads along the battle front like wildfire. and vice-versa. then a test is needed as tbe total number of fleeing troops is 12. If your army's General is killed then every unit in your army must rake an immediate Panic test. WHEN TO TAKE PANIC TESTS A unit must circumstances. from a charge and is caught and destroyed. The General is slain. Note that only one Panic test is required. I. use the highest value for [he test. 5. 6. but before hand-eo-hand combat starts. chariots and elephants. If the enemy unit is smaller than five models no test is required as there ape assumed to be too few to cause panic. 4. 4" then you must test. The General is slain. so a well led unit will be Less prone [0 the effects of Panic. Characters often have better Leadership [han ordinary troopers. Troops with a high Leadership are much less likely to panic than troops with a low Leadership. work out all combats first and men take alI resultant Panic tests. in the same way as described in (1.n order to avoid confusion between units fleeing after losing a combat. 3.) above. If the result is greater than rhe unit's Leadership score then the test is failed. 2. . and the extra attackers are easily absorbed into the general carnage. Test if your unit is already fighting in hand-mohand combat and is charged in the flank or rear by an enemy unit of five or more models. If there are only 6fleeing models tben no test is required.nit of troops is led by a character then the entire unit can test against his Leadership value. chen all friendly units Within 4" of the final position of the fleeing troops must take a Panic rest unless they outnumber the destroyed unit by at least two [Q one. Fleeing friends within 4" at the start of the turn. Panic test in the following ITa friendly unit flees. For example. Fleeing friends destroyed by chargers within 4". Make this test as soon as chargers have declared their charge and are determined to be within reach. TAKING A PANIC TEST A Panic test is taken as follows. in the game by Panic tests.n particular. This is often the moment when battles are won and lost! . might want them [0. Take this test once all charges are complete. namely Leadership. 1. Roll 2D6 and compare the result to the unit'S Leadership (W) value. a Break test is not a Panic test. and soon the whole unit is fleeing away from the battle in blind panic. USING A CHARACTER'S LEADERSHIP If a u. their commander. The sight of a few rag-tag stragglers is insufficient to cause panic. regardless of how many broken or destroyed friendly units are within 12". Some troops are steadier than others as indicated by their Leadership value (ld). 11 is the number of models in the fleeing unit!s udncb is important. when troops see their friends running away some will lose their nerve. not the number of fleeing models Within 4" of {be I esters. Friends break from/or are destroyed band combat Within 12". 4. No test is required for a unit that outnumbers its destroyed friends by at least two [0 one. However.PANIC 1t is an unfortunate fact that in the heat of battle troops often don't respond as you. Jfa charier or elephant has several crew. This is important because some bonuses apply specifically to Break tests and ochers apply only to Panic tests. Make a test at the starr of your tum if there is a fleeing friendly unit within 4". as a large unit takes comfort from its size. side or rear whilst engaged USING THE RIDER'S LEADERSHIP In the case of cavalry. Charged combat.I. You do not have to take this test if your unit outnumbers the fleers by at least twO to one. a few may waver. ~fJ'ou have a unit of 12 models and tbere is a fleeing unit of 7 or more models toitbin. The unitsuffers 25% casualties from shooting. You must completely if one or is also make this test if a friendly unit destroyed in hand-to-band fighting . You will notice that a Panic test Is taken in the same way as a Break test in hand-to-hand combat and uses the same characteristic.I. or fires & flees. due to breakmg/destroyed frtends. Charged in the in combat. Fleeing friends within 4" at the start of the rum. If tbere are 2 fleeing units of 6 models each.

even though the rules do not strictly require ir. Unit of infantry confronted by fleeing f'riendly cavalry. L below). The barbarian cavalry continue their charge in the same way as if their foe had fled voluntarily ~~~k1~rJmf\-~~~~ Fig 6. or fires & flees. then the normal flee & pursuit rules apply. As [he infantry have a leadership of only 7 they fail their test. and consequently the fleeing unit can be destroyed in the same way as a unit which breaks following defeat in combat. TIley flee 2D6" away from their enemy.5 charged in the flank by a unit of 5 barbarian cavalry while fighting a unit of barbarian warriors to its front. Panic tests are taken before the broken unit flees. A unit which is skinnishing cannot cause another unit to partie unless that unit is also skirmishing . The: cavalry roU a total of 9 which is more than [heir Leadership so they panic. and elephants count as five or more models all on their own! If a unit is engaged in hand-to-hand combat and ie panics. SKIRMISHERS Skirmishers are lightly armed troops who are not expected to stand before fully armed troops . perhap where ambushers spring a trap. See the Light Troops section for more details. Note that a unit that panics and flees from hand-to-hand combat does not lead to further Panic leSIS . A unit FOI' distance of 2D6" obvious threat. AI the start of their turn a unit . PANICKING AT THE START OF THE TURN A unit must also test if it is charging and suffers 25% casualties from an enemy who either stands & shoots. I. must test if it suffers 25% of its number as shooting casualties In the enemy's shooting phase. a Panic. example if CI unit of 12 troops takes tbree casualties it must test for panic to represent the disconcerting effect of massive casualties from intense missile fire. No Panic test is therefore required by non-skirmishing units on account of broken. Both the barbarian warriors and the barbarian cavalry will flee from their enemy. Fleeing troops abandon their formation and are moved in a rough mass or mob a - me EXAMPLES OF PANIC TESTS Example 1. but must flee during the compulsory movement parr of its movement phase. This may result in the unit panicking before it contacts its target. See rules governing or 3D6" away from their enemy or most but the player is allowed to decide his troops will flee within these the Hand-to-Hand Combat section for fleeing troops. A test is onLy required for friends that are defeated in combat and broken as a result. exactly where guidelines. The Romans roll a rota] of 10 which is more than their Leadership so they panic and flee. The skirmishers roll a remarkable -1. A unit of 10 Romans . in which case it has been forced ro flee from the hail of arrows unleashed by the defenders.of 1C!n infantry is confronted by a fleeing unit of friendly cavalry wirhin 4". The Romans take a Panic rest as soon as the cavalry declare their charge and are found to be wfthlnrange. The player rolls 2D6 and scores a 3 and a 5 adding up to 8. PANICKING UNITS A unit which fails a Panic test wilL flee in the same way as a unit broken ill hand-to-hand combat or a unit fleeing from a charging enemy.6. Only one Panic test is required in the enemy' shooting phase on account of casualties . During the hand-to-hand combat phase a unit of barbarian warriors ts defeated and broken. If the enemy did nor win the previous round of combat (or if the antagonists have not yet fought for sorne reason) then the enemy cannot pursue. ore that a unit which panics and flees from combat does not cause other units to panic on account of friends breaking from combat within 12". Jleeing or destroyed skirmishers. Example 2. This is most likely to happen if you are fighting a scenario you have invented. chariots count as the number of models equal to the number of crew.their role is to barass and delay rather than to fight. If both players agree. VOLUNTARY TESTS lt is conceivable that a situation occurs where both players agree a Panic test is in order. test can be taken to represent unsettling situation the unit finds itself In. If a unit panics at the start of the turn because of fleeing friends within 4" it may not attempt [0 rally that turn. The unit suffers 25% casualties from shooting. PANICKING IN HAND·TO·HAND COMBAT CHARIOTS AND ELEPHANTS When working out the number of models in a unit for these tests. The fleeing unit may be pursued if its enemy won the preceding round of combat.the results of the flrsr rest stand for any further ca ualties inflicted.other units take no account of skirmishers dashing about the battlefield. even less than their Leadership of 5 so they bravely stand fast. ( ee Fig 6. All friendly units within 12" must take a Panic rest. each cavalryman (Cider and steed) counts as a single model. Example 3.only units that arc defeated and break in combat cause Panic tests. and so pursue. . or in some other unexpected circumstance that the players have contrived. The infantry unit panics and must flee in the compulsory part of its movement phase. The barbarian warriors already fighting the Romans won the previous rum's combat. which in this case includes a unit of barbnrlan cavalry and a unit of skirmishers nearby. boulder are thrown from cliffs. The infantry have a Ld value of 7.

LEADERS~ STANDARDS {, MUSICIANS
This section introduces rules for unit leaders, musicians and standard bearers. These warriors are not just viral as individual warriors, they can also be seen as representative of their unit's training, morale, and willingness to obey its orders or 'get stuck in'. by a standard bearer assumed to be armed and armoured like the other models in the unit and who fights in exactly the same way. Although the standard bearer has to carry a banner as well as fight, he is chosen from the meanest and most determined of warriors, and this more than makes up for any disadvantage mac carrying the standard may bring. The standard bearer model is placed towards the middle of the front rank next to the leader. A side that has a standard may add + 1 to its combat score when deciding who has won hand-to-hand combat. See the Hand-toHand Combat section for details. Unit standard bearer models are not removed as casualties unless there are no orher ordinary trooper models to remove instead. It is assumed that any surviving warrior picks up the standard should its bearer fall.

LEADERS
Any unit of troops can include a leader model, representing an especially able commander. The leader model is.always placed in the centre of the front rank of his unit. He remains in this position throughout the battle. charging, fleeing, fighting and moving along with his unit. Unlike the characters described in the next section, a leader can never leave his unit or act independently from it. Leaders are armed and armoured like the other troops in their unit. IIthe model itself substitutes a sword for a spear, or does away with a shield in favour of a dramatic gesture, then these differences are put down to artistic license and all fighting is worked out assuming the leader is armed in the same way as his men. If a unit has a leader it may roll an extra attack dice on his behalf. For example, a Leader with an Attack (A) value of 1 would normally roll one dice to hit, bur because of the leader bonus this is increased to two dice. Leaders are never removed as casualties unless all the ordinary troopers are already slain - a unit's leader is always the last to go down fighting!

CAPTURING STANDARDS
If a unit flees from hand-to-band combat and the enemy pursue, or if a unit is wiped our in hand-to-hand combat, then the enemy will capture its standard. The player must give the standard bearer model to his opponent for the remainder of me battle (it is returned once the game is over thoughf). This is important because a player can claim bonus victory points for each standard be captures.

MUSICIANS
An army marches under its banners but it does so to the beat of drums and the call of blaring horns. A unit may include a musician model to accompany it into battle, either a horn blower, a drummer or some other worthy soul. The musician is assu med to be armed and armoured like the other models in the unit and fights in exactly the same way. Although the model has to carry an instrument as weU as fight, he is not only uncommonly valiant but also enjoys the support of troops around him, which is taken as compensating for any encumbrance suffered. The musician model is placed towards the middle of the front rank of the unit next to its leader, the normal arrangement is therefore: leader in the middle wtth standard and musician to either side. lf a unit bas a musician then an inspiring horn blast or rousing drum beat can turn a drawn combat into a win. \'({here a combat otherwise ends in a draw each side rolls a 06 for each musician model that it bas fighting. The side that rolls the highest indiviclual dice scare is the victor and wins the combat by 1 pornr, Jf one side has a musician and the other does not, then the side with the musician will automatically win a drawn combat by 1 point.
As

STRANDED LEADERS
ometimes a leader can find himself stranded from a fighl - his men are fighting but he isn't. This is most Likely to happen where a unit is cbarged in the flank or rear, but it can also happen if the front of the enemy formation is too short to cover the leader model. When this happens the player is allowed [0 move the leader inro a position where he can fight in his next movement phase. Simply swap the leader for a trooper model that is already fighting. This can mean that the leader loses the chance to fight in the first [urn of combat. Although this rule allow a leader to move to join the figbting he may nor do so if already fighting someone else. He can't move ro fight an enemy attacking the rear of the unit if he is already fighting an enemy to the front.

STANDARDS
A tandard is the focal point of a unit. Ir proclaims the unit's identity and defies its enemies. Standards also have a practical value: they are used to signal. direct movement, and provide a visible paint around whicb formation changes and manoeuvres can be made. The following rules represent the boost to a unit's fighting prowess due to its standard. A unit of troops may carry a standard in the form of a flag, banner. totemic idol, Or similar device. It is carried

with unit standard bearers, rnusicrans removed as casualties unless there are no trooper models to remove instead.

are nor ordinary

CHARACTERS
The ancient world would not be what it was without the presence of potent individuals, great heroes, mighty generals and the odd rorten-hearted scoundrel. These characters add an entirely different aspect to the game, often as valuable military commanders whose presence inspires other troops to feats of exceptional valour. However, a character might equally well be an Egyptian princess being escorted on her way to a dynastic marriage [0 the heir of a Syrian city Slate. Or it could be a rich merchant leading a convoy of goods and hired mercenaries across the desert. or perhaps an ordinary mao or woman who is destined to playa significant role in our game - a bribed sentry or a shepherd boy who happens to be a dead-eye shot with a sling. A character is a Significant individual in the game for whom we can Invent suitable special rules. The details and extra rules for characters are not given here as there are simply too many and space does not permit it. Instead each separate army list supplement includes a section giving the profiles for a range of types of character that can be used withthe army. If you refer to the rwo sample army lists as the back of this book you will find examples of characters for the Roman and Barbarian armies. Players should note that although characters can move more freely than unit, they are still bound by the normal rules for declaring and executing charges. A character may charge an enemy in the rear if he starts his move in front of it, and he may not charge an enemy he cannot see when charges are declared.

CHARACTERS WITH UNITS
Character models can join units of troops and fight alongside them if you wish. To join a urut a character has only to move so that he is touching it. Once he bas joined, the character model is placed in the from rank next [0 rhe unit's leader. standard and musician if it has them. The character will inevitably use up a proportion of his move to reach the unit. If the unit has not moved then it cannot now move further than the character, as itS remaining rnnvernent has been wasted waiting for him. Although characters are normally placed in the front rank of a unit, if the unit is already engaged in combat then the character may be placed anywhere in order to fight the enemy - even at the sides or rear of the formation. Once the combat is over the character is returned ro his rightful place in the front rank. A character who is with a unit of troops might find himself unable to fight becau e there is no enemy facing him. The enemy line might fall short of his position or the enemy might be fighting to the side or rear of the formation, for example. In this case the character moves to join the fighting in his movement phase in the same way as a leader (see the rules for Leaders), If a character is travelling with a unit then his movement is dictated by the unit as a whole. He simply moves along like an ordinary member of the unit. If the character moves slower than the unit then the whole unit will have to slow down so that he can keep up!

MOVING CHARACTER MODELS
Characters move and tight as individual units of one model, except chat a character can join a regiment and fight with it and, if he does so, his movement will be restricted as described later. Apart from models which have joined with other units, a character model is free to move in the movement phase. He must rake lora account any penalties to movement for crossing terrain and obstacles as normal, but he does not have to turn or wheel in order to change direction, the model is Simply moved to face whichever direction is required as the player wishes.

CHARACTERS

LEAVING UNITS

A character who has joined a unit may leave again during any subsequent movement phase. He may nor join and leave the same unit in a single rum, but he may leave one unit and join another if you wish. A character may not leave a unit while it is subject to some compulsory movement rule. For example he cannot leave a unit which is fleeing, declared a charge, has rallied that rum (because it cannot move) or which is engaged in hand-eo-hand combat. If a unit declares a Charge any characters which have already joined the unit must charge too and take part in the resulting combat. This means that once hand-tohand fighting has begun a character will nor be able to leave the unit he has joined until all the fighting is over and any compulsory rnovernenr such as fleeing and pursutr bas been resolved.

CHARACTER LEADERSHIP
A unit accompanied by a character may use the character's Leadership value fOT any Leadership tests it is required to take. If a unit I,S joined by several characters use the highest leadership amongst them. This is a very important rule, as it provides units of poor troops with the Leadership they need. Leadership is used for Panic tests, rally tests, and Break tests in combat, as well as many of the special Psychology tests described Later, While the character is with the unit be is considered to be parr of iTin all respects. If the unit is forced [0 flee for any reason, because ofa failed Break or Panic test for example, then the character is forced to flee as welJ and at the same speed, and he may not leave the unit until it has rallied.

SHOOTING AT CHARACTERS
A character

and hopefully alerts the character in time for him to duck or cunningly avoid the hurtling missile, The missile slips past the character and hltsthe man standing beside or behind him, If a character is with a unit and is hit by missile fire, a stone thrower, or any kind of shot, then roll a D6. On the roil of 1 the character fails to hear the warning and is hit by the missile. Work out damage as normal. On the roll of between 2 and 6 the character is alerted IO the danger and avoids the missile. The character is not hit and the missile strikes another model instead - transfer the hit. to an adjacent model in the unit.

model may only be picked out as a target by enemy shooters if he is the closest target. This means that characterscan move around behind the battle lines without attracting an unrealistic and unreasonable amount of missile fire.

A character model that is with a unit may only be picked out as a target if the unit is the closest target and the character tstn the rank facing tile shooters. Note chat it is only characters who may be targeted in this way leaders, standard bearers and musicians may not as they would be replaced by another warrior in any case. When you are shooting at a character model there is always an additional ·1 to hit penalty. This is because the normal chance of hitting assumes the target is massed up in ranks. or is pretty large to start with. This is nor the case when you are shooting ar a single man, especially if there are other potential targets to distract the shooter's
atte n ti on.

HAND-TO-HAND FIGHTING
When a unit closes with its enemies in band-to-hand fighting character models will inevitably find themselves confronted by enemy !TOOps.When a model is fighting it can strike its blows against any enemy model whose base it is touching. in the case of troopers confronted by character models they will usually have the option of striking at a character or an ordinary enemy, as bases will inevitably overlap slightly as you move the models into combat. Characters may sometimes come into direct combat against enemy characters. but the same choice applies to them - they may attack anyenemy whose base they are touching. The exception to this is [be challenge, as described below.

In addition, a character model who has joined a unit may be lucky enough to avoid death from a missile, thanks to a warning shouted by a comrade. Possibly one of his companions shoves him out of the way, or pushes him to ground. A trooper spots the fateful missile beading towards his leader, and shouts "Look Out Sirl" or some such warning,

me

CHALLENGES
In each turn before working our any hand- to-hand combat, each side is allowed to issue challenges. The challenge represents one-on-one combat between rival. characters, the final showdown between migbty adversaries in the midst of battle. A player may issue one challenge in each combat fought. As you will recall, a single combat can include several untrs on each side and so may involve several characters - however only one challenge can be made per combat. Where several combats are fought during the turn one challenge can be made in each, The player whose rum it is has the first opportunity to declare challenges, The player can issue a challenge with one character model from amongst those already engaged in each combae,

This is the only time when an exrra banner confers a further bonus. If the ba ale standard joins a unit of troops then the unit receives an extra + 1 combat bonus when working Out who has won combat and is in addition to the usual + 1 for tile unit's own standard. A battle standard can be captured in the same way as a unit banner. . it cannot be used for any other sort of Leadership test. FIGHTING CHALLENGES Once a challenge is accepted the two rivals are moved in the ranks so that they are opposite each other. The character is in charge of the whole army and. but they will count towards the overall combat result. panic and other psychology. note that a challenge cannot be issued unless there is a character to flght. and the refnsing player must retire One of his own characters from the combat as described below The disappointed challenger fights normally in the combat phase. such as Panic tests. As these attacks are impact damage they don'[ COW1t rowardsthe challenge. more tban any other model. This ability does not apply if rhe battle standard bearer is fleeing. no other models may attack [hem even if their bases are touching. then he must do so before any other units which have to take a Panic test at the same time. If the General should flee then he loses any influence over his troops whilst he continues to Dee. This simply reflects the fact that for other units to benefit from the General's Leadership. Note that a battle standard only allows units to re-take Break tests. Attacks from heavy chariot impacts are worked out against [he enemy unit before the rest of combat. if a player accepts a challenge he elects one of his own characters from those already engaged in the combat to fight the challenger. matter how many banners are involved. This may be accepted or declined in the same way. if the General has to take a Panic test (because a nearby friendly unit flees from hand-co-hand combat for example). This character may not fight or do anything else that rum. See the rules for Standards. but warhorses pulling the chariot may. Unlike with ordinary unit standard bearers the battle standard is nor passed on if irs bearer is slain. and no other models may shoot at them. Normally troops fighting alongside their banners receive only + 1 no. represents you personally. If a character is riding a chariot then no other crew can fight. he must set an example by standing firm himself REFUSED CHALLENGES lf a challenge is refused men the declining player must retire one character nominated by his opponent. or for Break tests in hand-to-band combat. Once the challenge is underway no further challenges can be issued in that combat until one character is slain or forced to flee. ARMY GENERALS An army can be commanded by a unique character known as the General. Any unit within 12" of the General model may use the General's leadership value instead of its own when making a Leadership based test. A challenge might therefore last over several turns of combat. ready to fight in the next turn. If the models are in chariots it may be more convenient to remove them altogether and place them beside the fighting units. The character is returned to a fighting rank once the hand-to-band combat phase is over. A unit which is fleeing may use the General's Leadership if he is within 12" when arternpting ro rally. This means that a unit near the General can lise his superior leadership when resting for fear. However. This character is known as the battle standard bearer. A unit is only allowed to retake its test once per turn. Any unit within 12" of the battle standard may re-take a failed Break rest. THE BATTLE STANDARD An army can also include an individual who carries either the General's personal banner or the battle standard of the army itself. Also. The General is important because he can inspire others to fight on where otherwise they might turn and flee. The (so-called) hero has chosen to hide behind his fellows rather than face the challenger one-an-one. Ordinary troopers cannot take up a challenge. When combat is worked out these [WO will tight together. If a character is riding a warhorse that has its own attack then the horse flghts during the challenge as well.His enemy has the option of refusing or meeting the challenge. The retiring character is removed from the engaged rank: and placed at the back of the formation. If he refuses then no challenge takes place. If the player whose rum it is does not issue a challenge in any combat then his opponent may issue one himself.

but they are only used in special circumstances. for example. 01' troops tbat figh« in a special/ormation). jar example). or because tbe battle bas some other unique feature (eg buildings. Because 0/ tbis you don 't really need to learn any of the jollowing rules until you playa game tbat requires their use there's not a lot oj point learning the rules jar chariots if you don't plan to play any games that include them. This being said it's well worth wbile scanning tbrougb tbe rules in this section so tbat you get an idea of what is included.SPECIAL RULES You have now read all 0/ tbe most important J-ulesfor Warhammet· Ancient Battle. either because a special troop type is being used in a battle (chariots or elephants. On the following pages are more rules. and t'hey will be used in just about every game tbat you play. .

Such troops are obviously at a disadvantage when fighting troops armed with more efficient close combat weapons. but it is irnportant that the unit's overall appearance is not misleading. All the models in a unit should carry the weapons ascribed to them. clubs or other hand weapons. and if a minority carry other weapons these are counted as spear as well. axes. HAND-TO-HAND WEAPONS Almost all troops are armed with a hand-to-hand combat weapon of some kind. 1WOWEAPONS Some troops are armed with more than one type of weapon. but he bas an armour saving tbrour of 4. 5 0·" 6 against an opponent armed with a dagger 01· improvised weapon. This is an exception to the rule that a warrior may only use one weapon in hand-to-hand combat. An enemy wounded by such a weapon receives a + 1 armour saving throw modifier. sing one to fire at the attackers as tbey charge and another in the ensuing combat. ail models count as being armed with swords. For example. and for differences in their armour. HAND WEAPONS Hand weapon is the term used to describe all swords. u. musicians and standard bearers where this is impractical. and so on. axes. The difference between these weapons is slight and so they are all considered ro be comparable in terms of use and effect. You will soon realise [hat differ-em weapons often imply different tactical options. DAGGERS AND IMPROVISED WEAPONS All U·ClOpS are assumed to be armed wid] a weapon of some kind. Daggers and improvised weapons are easily deflected by armour.WEAPONS AND ARMOUR The game rules as already described allow for variation in [he Strength and Toughness of opponents. and are suited to certain styles of play. clubs. who charges into combat. bur nor for the different kinds of weapons they might be armed with. For example. This is particularly effective with barbarian units as you wouldn't expect much uniformity amongst the masses. In a mixed weapon unit such as this. Once the basics of combat have been mastered you may wish to introduce further detail by using the following rules representing different kinds of weapons. arming some with swords. a warrior equipped with lighl armour ariel a shield would normally have an armour saving th1"OW of 5 or 6. most troops carry a sword or dagger as well as their primary weapon. some with spears. If a warrior carries a band weapon in each hand be receives one extra attack from his left hand. Some warriors carry a weapon in both hands so they can rain down even more attacks on their enemy. No special rules are applied to these units on account of their weaponry. WEAPONS AND UNITS As a general principle every model in a unit of troops carries the same weaponry . a warrior armed with a bow and jaueiin could fire one or the other in the sbooting phase. Special rules for each different type of weapon are described below. FOI· .a unit of spearmen all carry spears. be it simply a dagger or a mighty double-handed axe. not both. while a spearman could lise either his spear or bis sword in hand-to-hand combat. Many players like to mix models in a unit. However. knights armed with lances need to charge to use their weapons effectively so a player must be careful to manoeuvre them into position so that it is he. rather than his enemy. a heavy double-handed axe or sword gives a buge Strength bonus but always strikes after the enemy. A urarrior who stands and fires as a cbarge response is allowed to change weapons. hammers and other similar weapons wielded in one band. So. in a unit of spearmen most will carry spears. example. troops armed with more than one kind of weapon are only allowed to use one ar a time. Most of the rules for combat have already been covered in the Hand-to-Hand Combat rules. be it a dagger or an improvised weapon such as a rock or rough dub. except for Leaders. etc. 1.. For example. 1. WEAPONS Some types of weapons confer both advantages and disadvantages to the troops that use them. It is acceptable for a unit to include the odd model that is armed differently. Models that would not normally receive an armour save will save on a 6. It doesn't matter if his attack (A) value is 2 or more. For example. a warrior receives only + 1 attack from his extra weapon.

Double-banded weapons require both hands [Q USe. simple and cheap to produce.DOUBLE-HANDED WEAPONS This category includes all axes. making it an ideal defensive weapon. Troops equipped wield if and cannot If they carry shields backs or placed on with a halberd require both arms to use shields in hand-co-hand fighting. This enables models directly behind front rank fighters to fight as welt. splitting them as the horsemen ride into their ranks. but they are used differently byeach. Lf rile bearer has a shield he may nor use it in hand-tohand combat. Any hits at trength 4 or more confer the usual modifier on the enemy's armour saving roll. 3. his total Strength will be 4 when he charges. HAlBERDS The halberd is a heavy bladed weapon mounted on a sturdy shaft. Alternatively. so this may be reduced as well. It allows troops to hurl a deadly volley of missiles as they charge. it's assumed they are slung on their the ground before flghting begins. 1. but are less welt suited to arrack. often 10 feet long or more. hammers and clubs which are so large that they must be wielded with two hands. Par example in the case of a StrengtJ:J 5 hit the sewing tbroui drops by -2. for [hat matterl quick. ote [hat this bonus only applies when the cavalryman charges and it only applies for that rurn. and then follow this up with a hastily drawn sword or axe. the spear can be held on to and used in band-co-hand combat. Double-handed weapons confer a + 2 Strength bonus on all hits. this will be reduced also. 3. Double-handed weapons always strike last regardless of which side charges or relative Initiative levels. for example. The disadvantage is that the weapon is very heavy to swing. A foot unit with thrusung spears is able [0 fend off the enemy with a mass of spear points. Spearmen fight in two ranks if the enemy charge them while they stand [heir ground. 1. 1. and were designed to be held and thrust at the enemy rather than thrown. This means that a block of spearmen makes a very good defensive formation. [nfamry armed with thrusting capable of fighting in a special Greek Hoplite's phalanx. so it is a very adaptable and extremely effective weapon for infantry. THROWING SPEAR Throwing spears were one of the most common type of weapon used by ancient armies. This allows warriors directly behind front rank fighters to attack as well. the throwing spear was (and is. It must be Left on the ground or slung on his back during me fighting. and highly effective in dose combat. It is held in both hands and used to chop as well as thrust. Cavalry armed with thrusting 2. Thrusting spears are useful weapons for troops on foot or riding a horse. as would [he Xyston used by Alexander [he Great's Companion Cavalry. such a the for such formations can lists for the troops that 2.l-lalberds therefor-e confer a + 1 Strength bonus on all hits. spears receive a +1 Strength bonus when they charge. . Thrusting spears used by the Persian Immortals and their Greek Hoplite enemies both fall into this category. spears were sometimes formation. As the enemy's armour save is affected by the strength of the hit. representing both the warriors in the rear THRUSTING SPEAR Thrusting spears are fairly long weapons. Rules be found in the separate army are allowed to use them. A blow from a double-handed axe can break armour apart and cur a foe dean in half. Halberds are heavy weapons and a mighty swing can cause considerable damage. Up to four or five feet ill length. A cavalry unit armed with thrusting 'pears can employ them like Lances to ride down enemy troops. If they charge their careful formation is affected and they may only fight in a single rank that rum. A man with a Strength of 3 therefore bits with a Strength of 4 if fighting with a halberd. so a warrior may be slain by a more nimble foe before he has a chance to strike. 2. either when they charge or when they receive an enemy charge. However. Double-handed weapons are heavy [0 swing and leave the user vulnerable to a more lightly armed foe. Infantry armed with thrusting spears may fight in two ranks of troops because warriors in a second rank thrust thelr weapons forward past those fighting in the from. Because of this throwing spears have different rules depending on whether they are being used by infantry or cavalry. 1. If rile wielder'S Strength is 3 then aU hits from a double-handed weapon will be at Strength 5. The steel blade has a palm like a spear as well as a heavy cutting edge like an axe. In the case of a warrior with a trength of 3 a halberd hit has a Srrength of 4 and -I to save. In addition the rear ranks of an infantry unit can aid their companions by hurling their spears over the heads of the troops in from and into the enemy ranks beyond. swords. this advantage only applies as long as [he spearmen do not move. The following rules reflect the advantages of foot and mounted soldiers equipped with thrusting spears. The Strength of a hit affects the armour save of the target. If the wielder's Strength is 3. If both sides are armed in this way chargers strike first followed by the side with the highest lnitlative. Infantry armed with throwing spears may fight in two ranks in the first round of each combat.

Infantry in skirmish formation and aU cavalry armed with throwing spears may re-roll any to hit dice that miss at the first attempt in the first rum of each combat. When they storm through enemy ranks their steel tipped lances rip through armour and £Iesh. splitting them apart as horsemen ride into their ranks. regardless of Initiative and even if the opponent charged. for example. Heavy throwing spears may only be used by infantry units. PIKES Pikes are extremely long spears as much as 20-25 feet in length. In the second and subsequent rounds of combat only [he front rank can fight. 1. The lance rules represents the heavy lance that is designed to be couched and used in a Charge with tile full weight of the rider and his mount behind it. ore (hat this bonus only applies when the cavalryman charges and only for the first turn of each combat. cavalry armed with a kamas always strike first when fighting an opponent with a shorter weapon. making it an ideal defensive weapon. KONTOS The kontos is the cavalry equivaleur of the pike. Note that although the kontos looks a lot like a lance. This category includes tile famous Sarrissa used by Alexander the Great's plkemen. or the unit can Stab at the enemy using the kontos' superior reach ro make it difficult for the foe to strike back. but longer than anything else. such as the Macedonian phalanx. The charging side always has an advantage. 1. A cavalry unit equipped with rile kamas can ride down enemy troops.ranks hurling their spears at the enemy and the missile attacks made by the from rank as the enemy charge in. except that they add + 1 to their Strength in [he first turn of each combat. Rules for such formations will be covered in the separate army lists for the forces mat use them. They are considerably more difficult and expensive to produce then ordinary throwing spears. lnfantry armed with heavy throwing spears are treated in exactly the same way as infantry armed with throwing spears. 1. the weapon's great length means rhar rroops will invariably get in the first attack while the enemy attempt to get past the bristling hedgehog of spear points. this represents the troops first hurling their spears at me enemy and then following up with a hand weapon if the spear misses its mark. except that they receive a +2 Strength bonus when they charge rather than + 1. then u can use its throwing spears again. it does not use lance rules. and that needs a special saddle and stirrups to stop the rider being knocked off his horse by the impact. The rules for cavalry armed with thrusting spears also apply to cavalry armed with a kontos. or replaced with new spears supplied from stocks at the army's camp. but they easily penetrate an opponent's armour or shield when they hit. IIthe wielder's Strength is 3. thereafter me warrior either drops his lance and fights on with a sword. The kontos is shorter than a pike. 2. An infantry unit armed with pikes is able to fend off enemy with a mass of spear points. The rules for infantry armed with thrusting spears al 0 apply (Q infantry armed with pikes. In addition troop equipped with pikes alway strike first when fighting an opponent with a shorter weapon. It also cover other heavy throwing weapons. 1. such as the Frank and Viking throwing axe. Troops armed with pikes are often capable of fighting in a special formation. but in the case of lancers this is greater than for any other troops. Also. It is very important that lance-armed cavalry successfuUy charge the enemy rather than allowing themselves to be charged. Also. his total Strength will be 5 when he charges. HEAVY THROWING SPEARS Heavy throwing spears are similar in length to ordinary throwing spears bur have a longer and heavier metal spear head. lances are only effective as they charge. Any hits at a Strength of 4 or more confer the usual modifier on the enemy's saving roll. but is mOST famously represented by the Roman pilum. ate that if an infantry unit gets involved in a second combat later in [he same barrie. Cavalry armed with lances use the same rules as cavalry armed with spears. . LANCE Cavalry armed with lances are the ultimate shock troops. regardless ofInitiative and even if [he opponent charged. Any spears chat were thrown earlier are assumed to have been picked up again. The pike is longer than all other weapons apart £rom other pikes. or else he continues ro use the butt of the lance [Q punch at his foe. smashing bones and flinging foes to the ground. The category include weapons such as [he Frankish angon and panish saunlon. 2.

Egypt and Assyria. even slIIylilS jf rli'c yo r !:ie so III e atrllc~ ~ecrilZ!J '!f victol'!J never cnllsen to yrevaif. The javelin has no strength of its own because its effectiveness depends on how bard it is thrown. Javelin and darts were used in two main ways. Secondly.!) ~f remorse. The rulers of these mighty empires are depicted driving chariots and drawing such bows. nits armed with composite bow may use massed fire as described in Shooting rules. JAVELINS AND DARTS The javeli n is a light spear which is [00 flimsy to be much use in hand-to-hand fighting but is perfectly balanced for throwing at the enemy. . penalty for moving and shooting does not apply because a warrior throwing a javelin or dart would usually make a run-up in order to gain the momentum to throw the weapon. but was considerably cheaper to produce. COMPOSITE BOW The composite bow is constructed of several materials. but we have gathered them here to be complete Some of rhese weapons have additional special rules. The composite bow was major weapon of the armies of the ancient ear East . In addition the -1 to hit. in which case onLy one or twO javelins would be carried.MISSILE WEAPONS By using missile weapons it is possible to strike down the enemy while still our of range of his hand-to-band combat weapons. SHORT BOW The short or self bow was one of the most common missile weapons used In the ancient world and was made of a flexible branch of wood and a suing of sinew or fibres. Units armed with short: bows may use massed fire as described in the Shooting rules. . We have already looked at me rules for bows. and these would be burled at me foe prior to fighting band-to-hand combat. strong weapon with considerably greater range than a simple short bow. me Wise 9cllemfsfi!p CQlIsisrs in (ltrncirill!] il1 lilliI'll! rfie Ifrtfllllj wen ~est. ao if atJllff all'1 1lI1l!J distil!! t. {1culIlse n COl11Ufl'01' OtIC_paz'. Use the Strength of the warrior who throws the javelin or dart to work out damage from hits. their enemies trampled asunder and pierced by a muitirude of arrows. 1. This category also includes weighted darts such as the Roman rnartiobarbuli.. and is srill in use today amongst primitive or isolated tribesmen. It was not as sophisticated or difficult to make as a composite bow. 2. they were used as a secondary weapon by troops that fought in close formation. Both these types of weapon are thrown by hand and the effect depends upon the skill and strength of the caster. Javelins and dans have such a short missile range that the usual -1 penalty for shooting at targets over half range does not apply. in which case each man carries a large bundle of javelins with which to pelt an enemy from at long range. !f yo is II st7'ellgtfi. The rules for catapults and boll throwers can be found in their own section later in the rule book. fixed together [0 create a flexible. me 1. 1. The bow was depicted on the rock paintings of Stone Age man. crossbows and other missile weapons in the rules for Shooting. Firstly they were used as a missile weapon by light troops operating in skirmish formation.

2. This reduces the range but enables the slinger to sham far faster.. This means that a crossbow inhibits the movement of its users compared to a bow. The sling is linle more than a looped strip of cloth or Leather into which a srone is placed. or fire & flee. but it is much more powerful and has a longer range. they !ida ou r 61'11 I/efy as (Oil!] ns tliey (Ourrr. Tfie ROlllans sl1ferea /I sta!J!Jel'ill!) dimsw'.1SSlTcred who(e ITrllly. turn._ftritl!J their arrollls]rolll ITff sirfes aT tlie et1circkd soWers. Therefore slings may only be used by troops in skirmish formation (see the rules for light Troops). against a charging enemy as there is insufficient time. f1l1tllulIIGcmf the Romans were unaGfe TOSTem rile urrack the Pel'Siall frorse. 1. The sling requires a very large 'wind-up' area compared to other missile weapons. Yfi. Hit aurf wOlwd"crf]rom eve!"!) sMa. A unit of stingers may fire twice in their shooting phase if they do nor move in their movement phase. It is very difficult to draw back the string of a eros bow once it has been fired: the shooter must either brace the weapon against the ground with his feet while he heaves the string up. aile ill wfiic/i (I !Jl'cnt army IVIlS d"estt'O!Jca. Units armed with long bows may use massed fire as described in the Shooting rules. ContenT meTdy to }. As a result. The sling is whirled about the slinger's head until it reaches a certain momentum. 1. It can fire an arrow substantially further than an ordinary bow. or be mu r employ some kind of mechanical device such as a windlass or lever. it was not ensy to rew(r (Jllorfil!r n.CROSSBOW TnI:' king mtITCktdlnle. in the same phase you are 1 Herodian '1 LONGBOW The Long bow is a powerful bow favoured by experienced archers. Their range is reduced to half (9") if they fire twice. r/icy c1fc1'ca 110 resistance. typically requiring 2-3 times as much space.'1(0 olle par. alT tfie RomaltS werr drivell . The one advantage of the sling is that the rate of fire can be varied by releasing the Ilng shot before you have worked up full impetus. . but it! tfic eni aff Hlere kiffctf. where tfiey lIIade a wa(r I!f tliei. all arm!) h!foriol" ill srrclI!}t/i rmn aercrmirrmioll to 110m I!! rlie armi.rorecr tficlIIsdvcs.vents encollm!Jca die Persia» kill!) to anticiPate Gettel' tllifl!)s iu tliefima·e. Tlic slIccesifll( olltcome 1these ill!}lortrwt e. and then the sling stone is released in the direction of [he target.!pcctedl"y wirli liis clllireJorce mid tmyyed Hie ROImms IIke_ftsh ill a net.ke it.-s o(a. snidas alld fou!Jht flkc all arm!! !Ulder sicge. r1 The crossbow is a more complex device than an ordinary bow. tfie!) IIsed theil' sli ierdS to _prImer tliose yam ~f their 60dies C>yosen to rlie Persian III'YOHIS. die Persians 1II. You cannot move and fire a eros bow so if you move in your movement unable [0 fire that turn. SLING 1. In addition the much heavier arrows it fires greatly increa e it armour piercing ability. Note that sltngers cannot fire twice when [hey stand & shoot.

+1 f01· being cavalry. Including the +1 cavalry bonus. it provides an armour saving throw of 6 +. 1f used on irs own. However their greater size and bulk meant that they could not be used by skirmishers or light troops who relied on mobility and speed of movement in battle. 111is penalty does not apply to warriors wearing heavy armour and carrying a buckler. Tills save is increased by + 1 for cavalry. These are described as light armour because they offer slightly less protection than heavy armour and weigh less. Armour and shields provide a model with a special armour saving throw tbat can neg. and -l. a warrior uiearing Ugbt armour riding a. . The mort: heavily armoured troops are. breastplate and helmet. 1. Troops in skirmish formation can always use a buckler if carrying one. camels or elephants. and may also be increased if the warrior has a shield or is riding a barded horse. This makes it ideal for light troops armed with rnrssile weapons who are able to unsling the buckler quickly when engaged in hand-to-hand combat. We have also included new rules to cover large shields and budders. An en dosing suit of chain mail armour can also be classed as heavy armour. as described earlier in the rules. HEAVY ARMOUR This isa completely enclosing suit of armour as worn by a knight.ate some or all of the damage suffered in a turn.ARMOUR AND SHIELDS Most troops wear armour and carry shields to protect themselves from [he savage blows of their enemies. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry as described earlier in the rules. Troops wearing heavy armour and carrying a shield Or large shield subtract 1 from their movement tate. Most of the rules for armour saving throws have been covered already in the shooting and hand-to-lund combat rules. The buckler confers a + 1 save modifier. It is made from metal plates and is very heavy and cumbersome. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry. large shields confer a + 2 save modifier rather than the + 1 save modifier for a normal shield. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry as described earlier in the rules. !fused on its own it provides an armour saving [brow of 6+. chainmaU or a scale armour coat. Large Shield Some warriors used very large shields that offered considerably greater protection than an ordinary shield. so the definition is not completely rigid 1. 1. There is a disadvantage though to wearing a great deal of armour . If used on its own it provides an armour saving throw of 5+ for tnfaotry Of 4+ for cavalry. and may also be increased if the warrior has a shield or is riding a barded horse. BARDING Barding is armour made for horses. It can be made of metal or can take the form of a.1 for tbe horse's barding). 2. thick quilted coat with a linen covering bearing the knight's coat of arms. 1. Buckler The buckler Is a small shield that is light and easy to handle. but we have gathered them all here for completeness.because metal armour is so heavy troops wearing a lot of it will move slower than unarrnoured troops. barded borse would have an armour saving tbrous of 4 + (6+ JOt· tbe ligbt armour. Cavalry riding mounts that have barding their armour save by + 1 point. SHIELD This is a standard sized described in the rules. . Troops wearing light armour receive an armour saving throw of 6+ against any wounds that they suffer. the harder they are to kill. shield of the type already L A shield confers a + 1 armour saving throw to the model carrying it. Cavalry wearing heavy armour and carrying a shield or large shield subtract 1 from the mount's movement characteristic. and may also be increased if the warrior is riding a barded horse. but other troops can only use a buckler against hand-to-hand attacks and not against missiles. and may also be increased if the warrior is riding a barded horse. or a full panoply of armour including greaves. Troops wearing heavy armour receive an armour saving dHOW of 5+ against any wounds that they suffer. Cavalry horses wearing barding must subtract 1 from their movement rare. Armour greatly affects a warrior's chance of survival and so influences tbe outcome of combat. LIGHT ARMOUR Troops may wear a metal breastplate. as described earlier in the rules. 2. increase For example. 1.

a unit and character may be affected by different psychology rules! Where a character is affected by rules that do not apply to the unit. and most. However.. For example. See the Hand-to-Hand Combat section for details of Break rests and fleeing troops. and if attacked tbemselues may decide to flee. For example. If a unit is charged by an enemy that it fears then it must test against its Leadership to determine if it overcomes its fear. are affected by only one. where they are affected. he rakes any necessary tests on his own. dangerous as individuals but often difficult to control or unpredictable on the battlefield. These are fear. more tribally-organised societies produced brave bur Ill-disciplined warriors. If the result is less than or equal CO the unit's leadership score the rest is passed and all is welt If the result is greater than the unit's Leadership then the test has been failed. well equipped and drilled to fight in battle . if be is forced to charge because of frenzy. and even religious backgrounds of the warriors that fought in them. 2. If the test is failed. This test is taken once the enemy declares his charge and is found [0 be within his charge distance. If the test is failed me unit will automatically flee if outnumbered by the charging enemy. If a unit is compelled by a psychology rule then any associated character must remain with the unit. stubborn. Other. He cannot leave the unit whilst it is bound by the rule. a character does not benefit or suffer from any bonuses or penalties from a psychological rule unless he is affected by it himself. bur must roll 6's to score hits in the first turn of combat. If a unit wishes to charge an enemy that it fears then it must pass a Leadership test as described above to overcome its fear. Societies with a strong military caste and deeply embedded sense of social duty produced good officer-Led armies. Each of these is represented by a special rule. It can happen that a unlt is joined by a character who is unaffected by a particular psychology rule. or rules. military traditions. If you do not you may find that you are before you even begin.PSYCHOLOGY Ancient cultures were fabulously diverse and ancient armies necessarily reflected [he sociaJ conditions. Even more co nfuslng . defeated PSYCHOLOGY RULES \'iTe represent me more extreme and Interesting tendencies of troops by means of what we call psychology rules. troops who fear Iheir" opponents will be reluctant to attack them. or obliged to advc. If not outnumbered the unit will fight as normal. although he must accompany them as they charge. as horses find the sight and smell of camels unnerving. A unit must take s fear test in the following situations: 1. to know in your FEAR Fear is a natural reaction to unnerving. This means a character does not go into efreney JUSt because he is with a unit char does so.frenzy. hatred. moving as it moves or staying put if it halts. a unit is automatically broken if it is defeated by an enemy that czxises fear and which outnumbers it. that governs the behaviour of affected troops on the battlefield. A unit defeated in hand-to-hand combat is amomaticaJly broken without a Break test if it is outnumbered by feared enemy. 3. UNIT PSYCHOLOGY AND CHARACTERS In gene raJ. and i affected by the psychoLogy rule that applies to him as an individual This might cause a character to separate from me unit be is with. IT the feared enemy does not outnumber the unit men a Break test is taken as normal. The entire unit is either affected or not at all.nce because be is warband. the unit may not charge and must remain stationary for the turn. Roll 206 and compare the result to the unit's Leadership (Ld) value. ate that it makes no difference whether a fear test as described above has been passed or not. terror. different nations. camels cause fear in enemy horses. foOl'example. where a psychology test of any kind is required it is taken on behalf on an entire unit of troops. Many troops are not affected by these rules at all. . and usarband. compelled to pursue due to hatred. unfamiliar Situations or large bizarre creatures such as elephants. The psychology rules in this section introduce cultural characteristics for individual races and As the comritander of your army it is your dury about these things and take them into account plans.

1. Roll 2D6 and compare the result to the unit's Leadership (U:I) value. 4. Many of these frenzied warriors are drugged or tranced. A unit which fails its terror test will flee immediately. flesh-tearing attack. If the result is greater man the untr's Leadership score then the test is failed Should they fail tbey will be completely overwhelmed with horror and reduced to gibbering wrecks. Should they subsequently rally they may continue to fight but they are no Longer frenzied. any subsequent encounters with terrifying enemy will simply count zs fear.. Troops who bate their hand-to-hand. 5. or decided to flee from a charge.just take a terror test: if you pass the terror test then you automatically pass me fear test too . If a creature causes terror men it automatically causes fear as well. crocodiles. Frenzied troops must charge if there are any enemy within charge reach when charges are declared. HATRED Hate is a powerful emotion and the history of me ancie I1. it is conceivable that other large wild creatures might feature in your games. you never have to rake a terror and afear test from the same enemy or situation . Tbis means they will not break u mess they fOU 11 or more on 206 or unless their enemy are a u/arband Of cause few' etc. 1. 1. Troops who bate their enemy must always pursue them if they flee. 2. exactly as if it had failed its Break test in band-to-hand combat. However. adversaries take any Break resrswirh a Leadership value of 10. this value regardless of the combat results and bow many casualties they have suffered.the unit will automatically declare irs charge. The following rules apply. in which case terror might also be caused by lions. However. 3. A unit must test to overcome its terror if charged by or wishing co charge an enemy that causes terror.TERROR Terror rules represent creatures so huge and threatening rhar they are even more frightening than those described by the fear rules. and so on . . and all the rules described above apply. the foe. Frenzied troops always pursue a fleeing enemy whether the player wants to or nor. Such warriors will fight almost to the death rather than flee from [hem. They cannot attempt to avoid pursuit by testing their Leadership as other troops can. and therefore break [hem automatically. After [be first round of blood-mad hacking they lose some impetus and thereafter fight as normal.ot reduce. Troops confronted by creatures that cause terror must test to see if they overcome their terror. As you only ever take one terror test in a battle. They flee exactly like other troops. 2. crazed frenzy has been beaten out of them and they continue to fight just like other troops. troops with 2 Attacks double up to '" and so on. Troops fighting in hand-to-hand combat against a hated foe may re-roll any misses when they first attack. Once they have overcome their terror they are not affected again. and of irreconcilable feuds leaving generations of dead in their wake. Troops only ever test for terror once in a battle. This bonus only applies in the first turn of each combat and represents the unit venting its flatted all.. although Break tests are still taken in hand-to-hand fighting. rival ry. FRENZY Some outlandish warriors can go into a fighting frenzy. They do n.lf the result is less than or equal to the unit's leadership SCOre [be test is passed and all is well. and have worked themselves up into a frenzy with loud chanting and screaming. 3. Frenzied troops figh [ with double their normal number of Attacks (A) in hand-to-hand combat. A unit must test for terror at me starr of its turn if there is an enemy which causes terror within 8". Frenzied troops never panic and are not affected by other psychology r'ules. Thetr exuberant. If frenzied troops are broken in hand-to-handcombat their frenzy is automaticaUyended. Troops with 1 Attack therefore have 2. grudges borne w over centuries of racial animosiry. The player has no choice in the matter .t orld is fulJ of hatred and. No Panic rests are required for frenzied eroops. 2. Unlike other troops they may nor attempt to hold back as dley are far too crazed with blood lust. These creatures cause terror. a whirlwind of destruction or raging fury in which all concern for their own personal safety is ignored in favour of a blood-letting. In practice the most common example by far is the elephant. tigers.

Warbands wblch are not otherwise bound by a compulsory movement rule must therefore take a special [CSt at the start of each turn. we recommend that you turn the unit's standard bearer through 90" or move him to the other side of his leader [Q signify this. 3. Stubborn <- . On a roil of a 1 however. 1. increasing it from 5 to 8. who lack the unthinking obedience of regular troops trained to act on orders without a second thought. however. If the initial charge could be checked.STUBBORN Stubborn [[OOPS are uncommonly tenacious warriors who have a reputation for carrying on fighting where other [[OOPS would run away They may be professional warriors. fearful. roll a D6. WARBANDS Some troops are more confident in large warbands where their morale is bolstered by the presence of [heir comrades. If the enemy is not within charge reach the unit must move towards [he nearest enemy.e.To represent this a unit that is defeated in band-to-hand combat is automatically broken without a Break test if it is outnumbered by a Warband which charged that rum. or less exhausted foe. the unit will surge forward in an undisciplined manner. The warriors in a warband lack any sense of discipline and will tend to advance over confidentJy in the face of the enemy. rerrifying opponent. These troops are almost always undulled barbarian warriors. a unit of stubborn troops thaI toere cha1"gedin the [lanle would still have to take a Panic lest. then a warband would often find itself at a disadvantage against a more disciplined. In case you have any dLfficulty remembering if a unit bas taken a Break test before or not. Note thar although units are referred to as Warbands these rules are used in some army lists to represent troops that are poorly trained militias or civilian mobs rather than what we might think of as warbands of warriors as such. a u/arband witb a Leadership of 5 is formed up four ranks deep. { 2. If the Warband was led bJI a chieftain with a Leadersbip of 6. It the unit i facing away from its nearest enemy ~t will rum or wheel to face them and move as far as it can towards them. then bis Leadersbtp would count as a very respectable 9. If the unit's movement is blocked by friendly troops or terrain it will move as far as it can before stopping. 1. This means a warband will receive a + 1 to their Leadership for every rank after the first up to a maximum bonus of +3. if things do go wrong and they panic or break. Having ignored their first Break rest they take all further Break tests normally. or determined zealots fighting for their lives. on a roll of 4-6 they automatically hold (the special rule for stubborn troops applies). and must move at least 4" if possible. Stubborn troops cannot be defeated easily. and so they don't get a Leadership bonus either] . If the Warband does not outnumber the unit then a Break test is taken as normal.. The unit can move faster than this if the player wishes and assuming thar the unit is allowed to do so. If stubborn troops lose a round of combat against an opponent who would automatically break them (i.they cannot ignore panic or otberpsycbology tests. The charge of a warband could often bowl over an enemy by its sheer ferocity. Roll a 06 for each unit. However. They pass the test automatically without any dice being rolled. and will only break and run after they have suffered heavy casualnes. The following rules J apply to stubborn troops. For example. troops do not have ro take a Break test the Brst time they lose a round of combat in a banle. If Warbands are fleeing or skirmishing no rank bonus would normally apply." or charging warband). For example. A unit obliged to surge forward in this way must charge the nearest enemy if any are within reach. The extra three ranks after the first add +3 to the lTIarband'sLeadership value. This does not mean that such troops lack bravery and under the right circumstances they can prove tenacious and stout-hearted opponeots. cooler-beaded. on a roll of 1-3 stubborn rroops areautomatically broken (the special rule for the enemy troops applies). hardened mercenaries. all of whom could rightly be described as stubborn. On the D6 roll of 2-6 the unit remains under control and may move normally that rum. Note that stubborn ll·00PS only ignore their first Break test . then they can prove extremely difficult to fatly.1b represent these qualities Warbands add their close combat rank bonus to their leadership value for all Leadership based tests. while a Warlord with a Leadership of ioould count his Leadership as 10/ 2. See the Hand-to-Hand Com bar section for details of Break tests and fleeing troops.

Models in a skirmishing unit are arranged so that they are not touching. slings. aturally it would be possible to write far more about the myriad types of light troops. MOVING Skirmishing models are moved individually. such as the avage Huns. such as a courtyard. Although these units were the most important. Unconstrained by formal rank and file. very often carrying weapons with which to harry the foe from a di ranee such as javelins. Skirmishers are loosely organised bands of troops who move and fight in a dispersed or open formation. nor a comrade behind him ready to take over once he Is exhau ted or wounded. Should tile group be split as a result of casualties. There is no waU of overlapping shields [0 shelter behind. They suffer 0. Troops described as skirmishers in their amlY list must fight in this formation . Skirmishing models move around obstacles or over rough ground much more easily than troops in a tight formation. then tile player must rectify this in his next movement phase. SKIRMISH FORMATION Troops fighting in skirmish formation do nor move or fight in a rigid formation of ranks and tiles. crouching or dashing from point-to-point. Thi ection of the Warhammer Ancient Battles rule book describes rules for three different kinds of light troops. Their role in a full-blooded battle might be less significant than their overall value as a policing force. either getting their first taste of war or serving in the only way open to them. Constantly moving. It is worth remembering [hat not all skirmishers were professional soldiers. in battle. Fig 7. a warrior can step aside to avoid incoming missiles. 211 APART Troop' in skirmish formation are arranged in a loose group or rough line.0 movement penalties either for crossing obstacles or for moving over difficult ground. they were not the onJy types of troops used by ancient armies. or as raiders pillaging enemy territory. spears and other close combat weapons.they cannot form up in a conventional formation. . skirmishers. and include all troops described as skirmishers as well as light infantry and light cavalry. light infantry. Indeed some armies. the unit must still form a cohesive group with models up to 2" apart. Whilst illequipped to take all. This does not reduce the distance they can move in any way. Any unit of cavalry can also adopt a skirmish formation [Q move through a built up area. each warrior is able to take advantage of localised cover. bur a general overview will serve our purposes well enough. SKIRMISHERS Before describing rules fOI'skirmishers ir is won:h taking a broad look at the role played by light troops In ancient armies. fought entirely in (hi manner. it is a simple matter for skirmishers to barry such units by lobbing missiles Irorn a short distance. or deflect them with his shield. or should individual models become divided from it for some reason.1. any unit of infantry can adopt a skirmish formation in order to enter buildings as described in the section on buildings. scouts. but cavalry are obviously unable to enter buildings.. After movement is complete. Arnues almost always included lightly armed infantry and cavalry. or to make swift advances through woods. over steep hills or across rivers to occupy important positions that dose order troops found difficult or impossible to reach. Unimpeded by their fellows these flexible groups can easily move into or through rough terrain or woodland and into built up areas. so that they could chase off their more lightly armed counterparts. Many were nothing more than young or poor citizens. and individual models are simply turned about freely as [hey manoeuvre. These troops are indicated in their army list. a few carry sword and shields. Instead [hey fight as a loose group or rough line with open space between each model. The best counter to skirmishers was other light troops . skirmishers were deployed to creen the main army from enemy missile troops. Indeed. However. Models are positioned up to 2" apart so that they are nor touching each other. Light infantry and lighr cavalry can fight in either formation.LIGHT TROOPS In ancient times battles were mostly decided by the heavily armed fighting units. rhe speed and mobility of skirmishers makes it almost Impossible for less mobile troops to do much about this. and light cavalry. He does not enjoy the upport of other warriors at his side as be would in a convenrional regiment. WHO CAN SKIRMISH 10 a battle onJy light troops are allowed to skirmish.Whilst the lightest skirmishers carry nothing more than a Sling or a few javelins and tend to avoid hand-to-hand combat altogether. In a dispersed skirmishing band each warrior fights as an individual. and can change formation as described later. The unit does oat turn or wheel. closely formed units in hand-toband fighting. and bows. regiments of infantry or cavalry lighting shoulder ro shoulder and armed with swords.

Thi means the enemy cannot receive a bonus for attempting to attack these positions. Any models that are unable to reach their enemy are placed loosely behind or beside those fighting so that the unit remains in a clump Or line with models up to 2" apart. FORMATION IN COMBAT Skirmishing troops lack the formation of ranks and files and so lose some of the normal bonuses that apply to such units. LEADERSHIP TESTS Skirmishers are scattered across a broad area and their leaders are unable to see all their troops. The enemy i not obliged to randomly allocate hits between friend and foe as is normal when shooting into a combat. See the Shooting section for details. 1£ a character is fighting as part of a skirmishing -1 penalty is applied onLy once and nor twice. So a skirmishing unit with a movement characteristic of 4 moves up ro 8" rather than 4". and charging. ENGAGED SKIRMISHERS When skirmishing units are engaged in hand-to-hand combat. SHOOTING AT SKIRMISHERS An enemy shooting at skirmishing troops suffers a -1 to hit penally in the same way as if they were shooting at character models. le. Individual warriors may be unaware of what is happening to the unit as a whole. Skirmishing troops receive no advantages for having additional ranks in their formation.s visible to at least one member of the unit when charges are declared. Models not already fighting subsequent rums if they can pan of ordinary movement. and do not have time to Stop and shoot at the enemy. Such ranks cannot fight in combat regardless of their armament. are assumed to be concentrating on moving and are unable ro shoot that turn. They simply move at double pace all the time. This Is one of the disadvantages of skirmishing: troops are unable to benefit from me presence of potent leaders. it is possible that some models will be fighting while others are left out of the combat. . Models are moved as no charge is declared. SHOOTING AT SKIRMISHERS IN COMBAT Just as individual skirmishers who are nor fighting are able to move and shoot. Similarly the unit cannot be charged in the flank or rear whilst engaged in combat. In this case any models not fighting the enemy are allowed to move in their movement phase and shoot at suitable targets in their shooting phase. Skirmishers do not double their 'doubled' move [Q march or charge. Their standard move characteristic is still used to resolve pursuit and fleeing. SHOOTING AND MOVING Skirrnlshing units that move faster than their standard movement characrerisdc value. more than 4" if their movement value is 4.DOUBLE PACE Because they are unrestrained by the closeness of their formation skirmishing troops move at double pace. separated as they are by distance and cover. and offer no combat bonus when working our which side has won. so no Panic test is required for this. unit the HAND~TO-HAND COMBAT Skirmishing units may charge an enemy that i. they can also be shot at by the enemy. They are simply running roo fast. All models in reach are moved individually towards their foe and arranged into a fighting line. me models do not count as must move into combat in do so. Skirmishing units have no flank or rear in combat.

-___ . Simply move the models apart to form a rough dump or Line with each model moving its usual 'double pace' skirmish move as described later. ADOPTING A SKIRMISH FORMATION A unit permitted ro do so may adopt a sklrrnrsh formation either as it deploys or during the battle assuming it is free ro move normally. lightly armoured cavalry who are able to manoeuvre mud) more easily than slow ponderous cavalry encumbered by weapons and armour. Light infantry can either fight shoulder to sboulder like ordinary troops on the battlefield. When formed up in close order. skirmish formation all me rules described above will apply to them. If a character joins the unit then his Ld cannot be used to rake tests. and me character is bound by the results of any tests taken by the unit as a whole. and the unit regroups into a conventional formation centred upon the position of its leader. w. When light cavalry fight in skirmish formation all the rules described above will apply to them. light infantry have a maximum rank bonus of only + 2. LIGHT CAVALRY Some troops are described in the army cavalry Light cavalry can either fight shoulder like ordinary troops. Close order troops expect light troops in open order to be defeated in combat. lists as light shoulder to can fight as formation as SKIRMISHERS AND PANIC Troops that are arranged in a normal formation of ranks and files do not have to take a Panic [est due to a unit in skirmish formation fleeing. When Light infantry fight in. hom player or other musician model. See Adopting a Skirmish Formation for rules on changing between ordinary and skirmish formation. breaking from. or wiped om in band-to-band combat. To represent this. Skirmishing troops who can do so can readopt a conventional formation so long as their unit includes a drummer. The musician sounds the call to reform. See me rules of Reforming in the section on Movement.A unit of skirmishing troops makes any Leadership based rest against its own Leadership (Ld) value. and so it does not surprise or worry them when they are I light cavalry are nimble.hich means that they do not benefit a much from the security and mass that extra ranks confer to a formation. See below for rules for changing between skirmish ro ordinary formations. light infantry are judged to be in a slightly looser formation than that adopted by regular infantry. In all these cases the unit of skirmishers is judged to be so dispersed that the chances of all the men seeing or hearing the commands of one individual are virtually non-existent. or they skirmi hers by adopting a skirmishing already described. Skirmishers cannot test on the General's Ld if he is within 12". LIGHT INFANTRY Some troops are described in me army lists as light infantry. compared to the normal maximum rank bonus of +3 for ordinary infantry. or they can fight as skirmishers by adopting a skirmishing formation. and cannot re-roll Break tests due to the army's Battle Banner being within 12".

CHARIOTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD Chariots are treated as a single model in much the same way as a mount and rider. Light chariots of this type were also a powerful element of Celtic barbarian armies. are designed [Q engage the enemy directly and generally have a larger crew with which to fight in close combat. two sets of characteristics are included. This being said chariots continued [Q be used in out of the way places like Britain and Ireland uncil considerably later. but not all that effective for charging the enemy directly so rend to be used as mobile missile platforms. The heavier vehicles were often fitted with scythes designed to increase the carnage as they smashed into enemy formations. cavalry were able to carry out all the battlefield roles that chariots previously performed. causing considerable damage as they do so. Light chariots are fast and manoeuvrable. and one for the warrior on foot. Persians and the armies of Alexander the Grear's successors made use of heavier chariots drawn by [WO to four horses which were designed to smash into an enemy unit and cause as much damage as possible. and were nor hampered by dense terrain to nearly the extent that chariots were. These troops could form solid blocks capable of resisting chariors. In the case of chariots this would mean that the unit would have to take a Panic rest if charged by a unit of chariots with five or more crew in total. in addition to the points for any wounds inflicted. heavy and scythed. Scythed charters are much . Each heavy chariot destroyed in combat adds +2 to the opponent's combat result in addition to the points for any wounds inflicted. Most chariots had at least rwocrew members. but they were increasingly replaced by cavalry and had all but disappeared by the 2nd and 3rd centurie Be. Their sturdy construction though. COMBAT RESULT BONUS Each light or scythed chariot destroyed in a combat adds + 1 to the opponent's combat result. Chariots became less effective as trained and disciplined heavy infantry appeared on the battlefield. FEAR Any type of chariot causes fear in enemy infantry. scythed heavy chariots would be fielded with only a heavily armoured driver. although they were rarely fielded in vel)' great numbers except in Britain. Sometimes however. \Vhen an individual warrior can fight on foot or in a chariot. bULare primarily designed to smash at full pelt into the enemy. whose job it was to drive the chariot into an enemy unit at break-neck speed! Needless to say this was an extremely dangerous job. ie a unit charged in the flank has to take a Panic test if it is charged by five or more enemy models. The Egyptians and early Greeks used light chariots drawn by two horses with a crew comprising driver and bow or spear-armed warriors. or else were trained to open lanes for the chariots to pass through harmlessly. In any case.CHARIOTS Chariots were much used in the early period covered by these rules. both to their opponents and themselves! M WS BS tight Charlot Heavy Chariot cytbed Chariot 8 S 3 4 5 T W 1 A 4 Ld 8 8 6 7 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1 4 3 2 4 1 7 NUMBER OF MODELS Chariots are considered to be equal to the number of crew for the purposes of any rules specifying a certain number of models. one for the warrior riding in the chariot. Specific details of chariots used by those armies that had them are included in its army List. and often the driver would bail our of the chariot before it smashed into the enemy's ranks. as described in the psychology section of the Warhammer Ancient Battle rules. like heavy chariots. one to control the team pulling the chariot and the other CO fight. Some typical examples are shown here. limits their manoeuvrability. but as chariots varied widely in design the list is by no means complete. Chariots are split into three broad types: light. The Assyrians. A chariot has characteristics in the same fashion as other models. Heavy chariots though.

chariots are less manoeuvrable. enabling them to charge enemy through 3600 in their following rum. except to cross a river at a bridge Of a ford. representing the chariots breaking lnto a high speed gallop. Pasltion ing an add itiana I warne r on a ch arlot . Sometimes chariot models touch accidentally or unavoidably for some reason. and in the case of chariots this adds +2 to the save. If a charier ends its move so that it is touching another chariot. 1f they carry sbields and fight armour the save is 3+. Chariots cannot move over obstacles or difficult terrain. To represent these tacncs some chariots are also allowed to carry additional warriors as well as their own crew. A word of explanation will belp to clarify this rule. Chariots always operate in a loose formation forming a rough line or dump with each chariot within 2" of another chariot in the same group. with all the models in the squadron facing roughly the same direction or forming a column moving along the same path. each consisting of three or more models.1. TRANSPORTING TROOPS In many armies chariots were used to transport [fOOPS quickly round the battlefield.chariots are not skirmishers! By doing rhls. or it careers headlong through a wall. This is right and proper for skirmishers . as ordinary troops such as infantry can. Models in [he same squadron cannot be turned to face different directions once they have moved. and some do not. models must end "their move facing in the direction they have travelled.ARMOUR SAVES Chariots have a saving throw based on the armour worn by their crew in the same way as cavalry models. the warriors dismounting when the time came to fight. if a chariot crew carries shields. Heavy and scythed chariots are too big and bulky to move ar march speed. A chariot compelled for some reason to move over rerrainit cannot normally cross is likely to be damaged as its wheels strike rocks. for example if they are forced to flee from dose combat. Each model is moved individually. although they can charge at double-rate normally. If some warriors ina chariot have armour an d/o r shields. and cannot derive any bonuses for additional ranks. then use the best protected individual to work out the chariot's armour save. Chariots models must always be placed slightly apart so that they are not touching. Chariots cannot t1ght in a eighr formation of ranks and files. British chariots were almost certainly used in this way. However. and the model is free to turn or pivot as it moves with no penalty to the distance moved. its body becomes emangled in undergrowth. For example. Chariots sometimes have to cross obstacles or difficult terrain for reasons beyond their control. there is a chance of them colliding. a light chariot on a roll of 1. However . for Caesar notes in his commentaries on [he Gallic Wars that [hey combined the speed of cavalry with the solidity of infantry. Models carried in this way are represented by free- MOVING CHARIOTS Light chariots are allowed to march at double speed.bur not for chariots. the chariot has a save of 5+. skirmishing units gain the ability to effectively 'see' all round. This is similar to skirmishers who can arrange models to face different directions at the end of their mow. a heavy or scythed chariot will be des rroyed on a D6 roll of 1-3. If the crew are completely unprotected. The rules for chariot colltstons are explained below. and the distance moved by a model is halved if it does not move directly forward in a straight line. In addition. This saving throw is increased to represent the extra protection offered by the chariot. If forced by circumstance inro dtfficulr terrain or over an obstacle. Similarly there is much evidence [hat the Hittites used 'charter runners' who would ride in the chariot and then dismount to skirmish with the enemy when they were dose enough to use their weapons. whether friend or foe. CHARIOT SQUADRONS All chariots are organised into special units called squadrons. Some players feel tempted to arrange their chariots facing different directions because chariots fight in a dispersed formation. heavy and scythed Fi g' 8. Where this is permitted it is noted in the army list. the cbariot has a save of 4+.

Opponents fight against the chariot itself they cannot attack any additional warriors it is carrying. They strike blows in normal initiative order. Once models are dismounted they form a separate unit. sides or rear. Warriors carried in this way cannot be used to satisfy any fiis ckarior. No roll to hit is required. shrunK /Jack. So fie fiaufcrf him. alia j1'01n his fiandS tlie rohrs sf!!ye' . Models cafried by a chariot squadron may dismount from their chariots at any point as the unit moves. This is because it is easy to disable a chariot by killing a single horse. in much the same way that a horse and its rider are treated as a single cavalryman. heavy & scythed chariots cause a number of automatic hits when they charge their enemy. he haa Iost {lis Nerve. the horses pulling it. Scythed chariots were capable of inflicting even greater damage. Light chariots especially are quite small and can move very quickly making them difficult to hit when on the move. Dismounting warriors must form into a single unit. ATTACKING CHARIOTS A chariot model including its superstructure. ani sliovelliim over on liisJace. and all on board are treated as a Single target for the purposes of missile fire and hand-to-hand combat. out if dio wnfer. Warriors are allowed ro dismount and charge in rile same turn. Place any transported models to the l-ear of the chariot's base. Note thar although they fight in a dispersed or loose formation. being rather too small and fast moving. allowing the chariots to move off on their own after their riders have dismounted. if a Hittite chariot carrying a chariot runner suffers a wound then botb are lost. In most cases a chariot's number of wounds is actually less than the number of crew. This always happens when a chariot charges into an enemy chariot. the sheer size of the vehicle and its horses bowling opponents over and crushing them under its wheels.Patrok. automatic hits. am! as hejer{ the Tqt liim. Roll to wound using the chariot'S trength characteristic. A. You cannot choose to lose the runner rather than the chariot. fit alia Parrokfos 111 his lIext Thestor. A chariot can sustain a number of wounds. CHARIOT COLLISIONS If a chariot ends its movement in base contact with another charter there is a chance they'll collide. chariots are not judged to be difficult to hit with how shots in the way thar skirmishers are. rye L ILIAD j . as [hey may need to move away from the chariot during the battle. Additional warriors transported by a chariot which becomes involved in hand-to-hand combat must fight from the chariot using their own attacks and weapon skill. but it can also happen when chariots from the same side are touching. but only against a target [he unit could see when charges were declared. although this would almost invariably lead to the destruction of the chariot as well. charging scythed chariot causes D6+2 used up half his movement as well. who HuddTeainrirfe CHARIOTS IN HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Chariots fight against enemy in contact with the chariot whether to the front. On the other hand they do not constitute large targets either. these hits are automatic. causing as much damage as possible. as ajisfiennan wHo sits alit ON tnejut if a racK with line and !flittcrin!J bronze hOOK dj'a!Js afori. Chariots cannot duck and weave like an individual mao. To reflect this. bur their move is reduced by the proportion of the distance the chariot had gone when they dismounted. A charging heavy chariot inflicts D3 automatic hits (ie half the score of a D6) in the first round of combat as well as any bits inflicted by the crew. To represent this.{os comil19 dose u]' to him stabbed witfi a penr-tnru:rt at tfie rigfit side if die jaw a t1d' drove it all tftrou!Jfi die teeth. Enl!Jl's ron. moutli Of/HI to thc bright peal~ out 0/ the chariot. troops firing at light chariots that moved in the previous turn must subtract -1 from their to hit roll. On a roll of 1 [he scythed chador survives [be collision. and the crew fight as normal from then on. Models may move on the turn they dismount. For example.standing models rather than models glued [0 the chariot itself. As each model dismounts from a chariot it is simply left behind at a point along [he chariot's path. (ben be counts as baving damage suffered by the chariot and are automatically lost if their chariot is destroyed. or by reducing the crew to a single man who would not be able [0 do anything other than drive the chariot. outrush tfiulII:fenmsfy. and arrack first during a charge. He jefr. Dismount the unit's leader into a suitable position and form up [he rest of the unit around him.J . who is thus loomed. Due to this players should be careful [0 leave a small gap between chariots once they've moved. t{UIn {WOKe' muf tfra!J!Jcd fiim lIIith tlie peal' oller tfie ralr. but are only caused if the chariot charges that turn. and must be dismounted close together to facilitate this. mainly because they were meant ro smash at full-speed into the enemy. HEAVY & SCYTHED CHARIOTS Heavy chariots are large and strong enough to cause considerable damage as they charge. However the charier itself is destroyed if the D6 roll is 2 or marc. For example: if {he chariot uses up half its movement before its rider dismounts. and once these have gone the entire chariot model is removed from play.

These warriors are able to concentrate all their attentions on shaming allowing them to achieve a higher rate of fire than would normally be posstble. no matter how many chariots are attacking the unit. These troops are especially well trained or experienced. Tbe character automatically suffers a wound. Fig 8. If a chariot touches two or more other chariots roll a 06 for each.Wbt-re chariots are touchtng other charters in [his fashion roll a 06 on behalf of each chariot. and if you don't have one he is assumed to have been killed in the collision. bur flee 2D6" when they break and 306" as they flee in subsequent turns. This tactic may not be used against chariots attacking a unit from its flank or rear. Take one test. No combar is fought against chariots that pass through a unit in this way. FLEE AND PURSUIT Heavy and scythed chariots flee and pursue 206". . They Tn tum move out the way to avoid being killed. [hen touching chariots with matching scores are removed. If you refer to the Roman army list at the back of this volume you'll find out more about drilled troops as well as some examples. If the test is failed then the unit must fight any chariots that smash into it. and is placed on foot in the position where the collision took place.2. DRILLED TROOPS ln the army lisrs some troops are described as drilled. Characters that survive a crash cannot attack or be attacked in the combat phase when the collision took place. If any of the dice rolls match. use the weapon carried by the majority of tbe unit when working Out which special rules apply to the chariot's arcades. Drilled troops are allowed to open their ranks if a scythed chariot attempts to smash into its from. If all the dice rolls are the same. as shown in Fig 8. To allow a scythed chariot to pass through its ranks a unit must first take a Leadership test. The exception [0 this is that chariot warriors armed wirh bows or javelins are allowed to fire twice in the shooting phase rather than once.2. even if this would exceed its normal movement. U there is stin a choice the player may choose which weapon to use. The reduced move for Light chariots as they turn and flee simply represents the ran that it is difficult to [Urn a chariot round quickly in order to run away! WEAPONS USED FROM CHARIOTS On the whole weapons used by warriors fighting from chariots are treated in the same way as weapons used by cavalry. and are more manoeuvrable than ordinary warriors. They take advantage of the fact that chariot horses will try to avoid a solid block of troops if they can. then rbey all collide and are destroyed in a multiple plle-upl Character models with two or more wounds [hat are mounted in a chariot can survive a crash. If both scores are the same then the chariots crash and are destroyed. heading for any gaps and hurtling out the other side. 1£ the test is passed then place the chariots on the other side of the unit. They may move and figbt normally from the following rum. Obviously you will need an appropriate foot model to represent rhccharacter. Where the crew of a chariot are armed with a variety of hand-to-band combat weapons. The charlot driver launches himself off his chariot as it crashes through enemy troops. Light chanors pursue 3D6".

However both types were almost equally effective against any infantry or cavalry unfortunate enough to get in their way! Elephants have an armour saving throw of 4 or more on ID6 against attacks from the creature's front. most famously when Hannibal included them in the armies that crossed the Alps into Italy during his war against Rome. When you move an elephant model simply measure me distance and make yuur move. ELephants cannot march although they double their move when charging in the same way as other models. There is no need to rum or wheel. Arcs of fire on an elephant. If the Mahout is dead [ben any tests are made against [he elephant's own Leadership value. giving them an armour saving throw of 3+ to the from and 6+ from any oilier direction. / / / " / / -. " "". " " " Fig 9. but remember they do not receive tile additional + 1 as do cavalry riding smaller creatures However. from the front. However. and once an opponent knew how to handle them they were surprisingly easy to defeat. M WS BS 0 0 2 T W A Ld 4 4 7 7 African Elephant Indian Elephant Mahout Crew 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 6 3 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 6 1 1 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 1 1 LEADERSHIP o long as he is alive any tests against Leadership are always worked out using the Leader hip value of the Mahout rathe. Elephants continued to be used in battle for hundreds of years. always use the most heavily armoured to work out any armour saving throws. Against well drilled armies elephants bad a lot less success.ELEPHANTS The use of war elephants was confined to the Far East until Alexander the Great came up against them when be invaded India in 326 Be. They do not form into units as such. In addition to the mahout the elephant carries a crew of two or more warriors armed with long spears. if the elepbanr turns at all irs movement is halved. line of sight.1. . Although the Romans made some use of elephants (the Roman army that invaded Britain in 43 AD included a number of the beasts) their use declined after the Punic wars. For elephants protected by barding add + 1 to their armour save. ARMOUR SAVES Elephants were at their most effective against troops meeting them for the first time. and is not the same animal as the much larger plains elephant that survives in Africa today. Elephants are tall creatures. whose horses were terrified of the huge creatures and would not go near them unless trained to do so. it from me flank. Alexander's successors learned this lesson quickly. riders inside a howdah (as opposed to riders on the elephants back) are treated as being protected by a large shield (+2 armour save). This represents the fact that the elephant's thick skull makes it invulnerable to all but the heaviest form of attack. The African elephant used in ancient times is now extinct. The forest elephant was smaller than the Indian elephant and considered to be rather less effective in direct combat with ns Indian cousin. and can upon over the heads of inrervening also be seen over intervening hedges but trees and buildings will block the be seen and fired troops. particularly if the enemy were not well trained. as only they bad the speed and manoeuvrability to work round behind an elephant and attack. They can or Low obstacles. Elephants are always treated as individuals. Two different breeds of elephant were used in the ancient world: me Indian elephant and the African forest elephant. Although Alexander was able to defeat the Indians' elephants. If some members of the crew have armour or shield. Thi may well be wby light infantry were considered so effective against elephants. they must have made quite an impression because they were used by his successors in the numerous wars fought after his death. " ELEPHANTS IN COMBAT Elephants are controlled by a driver called a mahout. who rides on the elephant's back just behind its head. as the elephant is able [0 tum freely as it moves to face any direction you wish. Riders may save for their armour. The warriors either ride sirting on the elephant's back or inside a howdah.r than the elephant.. only to be revived hundreds of years later by the Sassanid Persians. and mainly used their elephants to protect the flanks of their armies against enemy cavalry. javelins or bow .

SHOOTING AT AN ELEPHANT When shooting at an elephant roll to hit as normal. These blg creatures were often hand-reared by their mahouts. Apart from these circumstances.2. and so is subject to two lots of attacks. 1_ If the test is passed the elephant remains under control and aU is well. or the me Work our wounds eparately on the riders elephant. and the score required to hit will depend upon the relative values of die elephant'S weapon skill as with all band-to-hand fighting. Once you have established how many hits have been scored you must apportion them between me riders and the elephant. An HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT In hand-to-hand combat the enemy is faced with an elephant and ns crew. No Break STAMPEDING ELEPHANTS An elephant has one major disadvantage as a weapon of war. negating the usual benefit of extra ranks. that loses a round stampede as described of combat will below. Roll to wound [he elephant as normal. moves 2D6" immediately. though difficult to kill. Arracks are worked out exactly as normal. elephant auromarically test is taken. COMBAT RESULTS If an elephant is fighting in a combat then no units from either side may add rank bonuses to their combat score. moves a further 2D6" in the phase of its own side' rum. No Break test is taken. 5. Only one Leadership rest is made. The confusion caused by the elephant breaks up cohesion of all the units.6 The Riders. the enemy fights against the WS of the elephant. The mahout is always assumed [0 be [he last member of the crew to be slain. For each hit scored roll a D6: 06 Score 1. Take any saving throws as normal. using the mahout's Leadership value if he is still alive. many pin-prick wounds or [be loss of its mahout could cause it to become u ncootrollably wild and as great a danger to irs own side as to the enemy. to stampede ir continues of the game or until it leaves . Because of this. Once any htts have been worked out they are randomly divided between the elephant and its crew in the same way as hits from shooting. Take a Leadership test at [he end of tbe shooting phase. 3. even if it doesn't suffer any wounds itself. If the test is failed then the elephant stampedes. Tbe Elephant. no matter how many wounds the elephant suffered in [he shooting phase. and are likely to go uncontrollably wild if he is slain. under certain circumstances elephants must make a test to see how they react. RoU to wound as normal. as if the riders and elephant were rwo different models.3. elephants and their crew are considered to be immune to all the rules for panic and psychology and will never nee from combat. These attacks are worked OtH in the usual fashion. adding + 1 because the elephant is a Large target.4 What Is Hit When it comes to attacking back. If an elephant loses a round of combat it does not flee but will automatically stampede instead. and the riders attack separately using their own characteristics. As the elephant and riders are likely to have different Initiative values they may strike their blows at different times. 2_ If an elephant's mahout is slain [hen the elephant must immediately make a Leadership test to see if it stampedes. or the elephant's Leadership if the mahout is dead. STAMPEDE MOVEMENT A stampeding elephant Thereafter the elephant compulsory movement Once it bas starred stampeding for [he rest the table. If an elephant takes one or more wounds from enemy missile fire it might stampede. The elephant attacks using its own characteristics.

However. If a stampeding elephant attacks a unit and loses the combat. Note that elephants causefem' and terror to all such troops. 9_2 Stampede template This tactic may not be used against elephants attacking a unit from tcs flank or rear.fleeing and their enemy cannot pursue. no matter how many elephants are attacking the unit. 0 WEAPONS FROM ELEPHANTS On the whole weapons used by models who are riding an elephant are treated in [he same way as weapons used by models riding cavalry. Elephants [hac stampede from close combat are not considered to be . even though they may have won the combat. The only exception [0 this is that any elephant crew member who is armed with either bows or javelins is allowed to fire twice each shooting phase rather than once. note that even caval. For example an Af. then turn it away from the enemy and roll again on the Stampede template. Stampeding elephants that leave the battlefield return (thank goodness!). and if charged by an elephanr must choose to enher flee or fire & flee as their charge reaction. do not NUMBER OF MODELS For purposes of any rules [hat specify a certain number of models. while cavalry fear them instead of being terrified of them. In order to allow elephanrs to pass through its formation. If any troops belonging to either side get in the elephant's way it will stop and attack them. TERROR Elephants are huge creatures and terrifying opponents. Breale tests etc.When [he elephant stampedes roll a D6 and refer to the Stampede template shown below to determine the direction the elephant moves in. The elephant will continue 10 stampede in this same direction unless it is forced to change direction. and can be enticed to move th-rough a gap and out the other side where they can be dealt with by reserve troops. Infantry mat are used to elephants do not fear them. and men continue to stampede in the same direction in its next movement phase. If the {est is passed men place the elephant on (be opposite side of me unit in the same way as you would for chariots passing through.lephams are noted in their army list. No combat is fought againstelephents mat pass through the ranks of a unit in this way. See [he diagram in the Chariots section. 'USED TO' ELEPHANTS 2 5 6 In some armies prolonged contact or special rrauung allowed troops to get used to elephants. Only take one test. as they are able to concentr-ate all their attentions on shooting allowing them to achieve a higher rate of fire than would normally be possible. including those on their own side! In addition cavalry and chariots are not allowed to charge elephants. although its riders do not have to join in unless they want to! If a stampeding elephant breaks an opponent it will pursue 206". . as described below. Most elephants will try [Q avoid smashing into a solid block of troops if they can help it. If the Leadership test is failed the unit must fight any elephants as normal. a unit must first take a leadership test. Troops described in melt army list as drilled as well as used to elephants are allowed to open up their ranks if an elephant charges towards their front so that it has an opportunity to pass through them. They csuse fear in infantry and terror in cavalry. in which case it will head off in a random direction determined by the roll of a Scatter dice. Stampeding elephants cannot rally! A stampeding elephant always moves in a straight line directly ahead. Fig.ican elephant counts as tbe equivalent of five models for the purposes Of Panic tests.ry that are used to elephanrs are not allowed to charge them.. elephants are considered to be equivalent to melt initial Wounds value. and must still flee or fire & flee if charged. It will only deviate if it encounters impassable terrain. the Stampede template. The types of troops that are considered to be used [0 e. This includes when an elephant stampedes into the unit as described in the Stampede rules. If stampeding out of dose combat it first rums 180 so that it is fadng directly away from its foes and then roll a dice and move the elephant as shown all.

e. For example where there are two crew and a character roll a D6: 1-2 cretuman A.roll to wound me machine.3. a war machine tbat lost one oj its crew and bad talsenL point. In this case. D6 Score 1. By the same token a W31' machine requires at least one crewmen to work. If an army includes several war machines of the same type these can be organised into units called batteries. More specialised war machines are described in the special rules section of the army book for armies [hat use them. The crew figures are based separately unlike with a chariot or elephant where [he crew or rider are likely to be physically glued to the chariot or elephant. so it i not necessary to determine which is bit. However if a character is with a machine be may be hit by shots directed ar it. further hits do nor need to be randornised but will strike a crewman or rhe machine as appropriate. 5-6 Character: EFFECTS OF DAMAGE OR CREW LOSS If a war machine is damaged or loses any crew then there's a chance it will not work properly If you wish [0 fire a war machine [bar has suffered ally damage or lost any crew then you must first roll a 06. Once hits have been established randomise where they strike as shown below. even if it has crew remaining. if a crewman lies under the temple he L<. BATTERIES Each war machine can fight as a single unit of one model ramer like a chariot or an elephant. MODELS A war machine model comprises of the machine itself plus a crew usually of two or three models. This is essentially me same as for shots at elephants. ThL~ is [he usual way in which war machines are deployed. Bult throwers were powerful torsion devices that could send a spear-sized bolt dean through several ranks skewering each in turn! These are all relatively common war machines that can be found in several armies.WAR MACHINES War machines are an important part of many armies in the ancient world. oj damage must roll a 3 to [ire. 'tone throwers were used to lob boulders high into the aLI to come crashing down upon enemy formations or behind clry walls. SHOOTING When shooung at a war machine shots are worked out against the enrire model and any hits scored are randomised against the crew and rn. Or flee. A cretoman= roll to wound a crewman. They sensibly keep a safe distance between themselves and the dangerous mechanism.2. HITS ON CREW/CHARACTERS Usually a machine's crew are identical. so rather than repeat ourselves the rules have been collected together for ease of reference. either because they are broken in combat or because they panic. only a crewman can operate a machine. Characters do not actually become crew when they join a machine. and are never hurt should a machine malfunction. The models are still moved individually but must remain together fQC the duration of the game. This i necessary because a war machine's crew can be forced to flee from [heir machine. or once the machine is destroyed.4 5 or 6 Hit Tbe machine .. randomise any crew bits to determine if the character is bit. WAR MACHINES IN COMBAT The crews of the machines described here all fight in the same way. When fighting in a battery each machine must remain within 5" of another machine in the same battery forming a rough line or clump. and should all be slain me machine is useless. Machines and their crews constitute a Large target (more man 10' high or broad in real terms) and so the shooter benefits from a + 1 to hit bonus. a character cannot operate a war machine. achine. However. are worked out as described later. the character must be positioned with a specific machine for purposes of allocating damage from shooting hlrs. Machines of the same type are automatically assumed to be formed into a battery when deployed within 5" of each other. The two most common types of war engine were stone throwers and bolt throwers.hit. Obviously a war machine that is destroyed may nor fire. In order to fire you must roll a score greater than the total of the damage it bas suffered plus ally crew tosses. 34 crewman B. HITS FROM TEMPlATES Any shots from stone throwers. The unit will benefit from the associated character's Leadership value in the same way as would a unit of troops.. if the rnachine Lies under the template it is hit. especially in small armie that might have only one or two machines. CHARACTERS A character model may join a unit of machines in rJ11:: same way as he mighr join a unit of troops. or any weapons that use a template. For example. . In the ca e of batteries. Once all crew are slain. i.

Crew may deliberately abandon a war machine in order to crew another. Note that once separated from their machines crewmen become individual models. Thus six crewmen fleeing from a battery of machines would cause a Panic rest in friends nearby (as there are five or more) even though they may have abandoned only three machines. Crew models will not fight away from a machine and if they are charged whilst not serving as crew they will always flee. characters or machines that they are touchlng. An enemy FLEE If a machine's crew flees from a charge then [he chargers can either continue to charge past the machine in order to destroy its crew or. and must either hold or flee from the charge. ATTACKING A MACIDNE A machine attacked in hand-to-hand fighting is assumed to have a WS of 0 and is therefore hit automatically. if the player prefers. The machine itself does not 6ght. No combat results are worked out and the attackers are free to move away from the machine as they wi h. bur is abandoned by its crew and any associated Characters. \There machines fight in a battery the entire battery must declare the same response. Consequently. HOLD ln hand-to-hand combat crew that defend their machines are automattcally repositioned so that they can fight enemy in contact with the machine. a war machine's crew can either hold or flee bur cannot srand & shoot as machines are [00 cumbersome to allow this. The victors must ignore it in order co pursue unless the player elects [0 restrain pursuit and passes the required Leadership test to do so. Individual crewmen and characters can not move further [han their normal move distance to reach an enemy [hough. The machine itself does not flee as such. they can stop when they reach the machine and attack it. attacking an abandoned war machine is not considered to be engaged in combat. FLEEING CREW II crew flee from hand-to-hand fighting their machine is abandoned. ABANDONED MACHINES An abandoned machine can be re-crewed by crew members from any other war machine from the same side if their own machine has been destroyed or abandoned. If several machines are organised into a battery all the crew from the machines plus any characters wid) them can group together to fight. the number of crewmen fleeing is used as the basis for Panic tests on friendly troops nearby: For purposes of rallying the original number of crewmen is considered to be the original size of the unit.CHARGE RESPONSES If charged. . Enemy models can divide attacks between crew.

the number indicates that nothing is amiss and the shot lands exactly where you aimed it.11. Refer to the Damage chart for derails. 'lo decide if the missile land where you have aimed it roll both the Scatter dtce and the Artillery dice. If you roll a HIT then the missile lands exactly where you have aimed it.Qrget. You make your guess and declare that you are [iring 28" directly touiards the centre of tbe spearmen Having made your guess measure 28" towards your target.roll Rg 10. If you roU a HIT then the numbers are ignored. TheArtillery dice SC01"f! is 4 . You will have to use your judgement to decide exactly which models He under the template . You must guess the range as accurately as you can. while models whose bases are only touched or grazed are ignored. of you. Jaw· Roman (cqi0 1fS. For example: You are firing a stone tbrotuer at a unit of spearmen.0ays were a{elT alld ready to d~p(o!]Jrolll column tUG rcfi into b(Jttfe ort{er anll!] The Roman rf Tacticus . a 06 and consult Artillery dice (right). If you roll an arrow then the missile veers in the direction shown by the arrow. the Misfire [able. engine.10 and 1'V1ISFlRE. a number simply indicares that the shot has nor. Models that lies directly under the hole is hit automatically . Once you have made your guess place the template directly in front of the stone thrower the distance you have guessed.1. Iwl Gerlllan tluxi{aricsfa/Towel by U III II 011Hted. The bigger the. Now. to judge precisely. Pivot the stone thrower model on the spar so mat it is pointing in the direction you wish to shoot. plus the surrounding radius over which shards of sharp stone can strike nearby troops. declare how far you wish to fire. 8. Stone throwers have a strength and usually wound on the roll of a 2+ against most human or Similarly sized targets. As a rule of thumb a model can be considered as a potential hit if at least half of its base area lies under the template. 1/ not. 1m roll both dice. 'I1u: design for this is shown below.there's still a chance the stone may veer off course and hit something. FIRING THE STONE THROWER phase. The largest stone throwers could hurl a projectile big enough to knock down buildings or even City walls! The Artillery dice is marked 2. Stone thrower template. The template represents the area of impact itself. sending them crashing through enemy ranks crushing limbs and armour alike. the larger the rock it could throw and the more damage it could do.. Once your each high you have worked OUt which models are struck by missile work out damage in the usual way: Roll for target lO see if you wound.2.cti ca JltI (I'!j. OUl Work For example: You guessed exactly right and the template lies directly in the middle of your chosen. The t. Nor all were built in the same way by any means: some used a massive counterweight to catapult their missile into the air whlle others used torsion power like a giant crossbow. and it can be made from card or plasticard. A misfire roll automatlcally cancels out the whole shot regardless of the Scatter dice result. The Scatter dice shows a HIT! 1 11m have landed bang on target. mal'chedJonvara it! tIle jo{{olVil19 onicr:jirst Gam. 6.sometimes it is nor cas.1)0IVIlJeH. Models whose bases lie under the rest of the template are hit on a D6 roll of 4+. if you have made a good guess the template will lie over your intended target. misfired. I. next. Move the template the distance indicated in the direction shown by [he arrow. DAMAGE Once you have established where the stone lands.STONE THROWERS Stone throwers are powerful and destructive weapons that lob large boulders higb lnto the air. The Scatter dice is a dice marked with arrows on four sides and the word HIT on two sides. Many armies of the ancient world used these devices. you JI roll a misfire then something has gone wrong . cadi Jjrought 69 fight i'1alltry allli mOlmreti bowmen to livisioIJa( strenqtfi.note that only one model can lie under the hole and if there is any doubt it is the model that is under the exact centre. without measuring the distance [0 your target. (wd Germt"lIJicus with two Gattaflons ~f Gllanis mrd"yick. damage is worked out. thell the Jour more {e!}iOHS. If you roll a number on the Artillery dice then this is the distance in inches the missile veers off target as shown by the arrow on the caner dice. and the 1"6111(1. in fron. If the Artiliery dice bad been a misfire tben the whole shot would have been messed up (JS indicated on tbe Misfit·e table. Fig 10. don't worry . Scatter dice (Islt). You will need the results of stone throwing in the shooting to make a round 3" diameter missile template that has a 1" hole in the centre."9 auxififim"!J liattaflom. 4.

but a typical stone thrower has the following values. Generally speaking. but as rna t targets have only 1 wound it is not necessary [Q take this dice roll. . 3. lfic (. Otherwise . or tbroum higb into the air in lieu of the stone! 5-6 MAY NOT SHOOTl A minor fault prevents the machine shooting this turn.1 iI ruued in IICCOmlltlCe wirh IHccfilll1im( <liT 1111. A hit from a stone thrower causes either D3 (ie half the score of a 06) or 06 wounds depending on its size. A crewman drops the stone as be lifts it into position. entangled in tbe machinery.."!! clIttJy"rrs. A machine cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. A rope snaps and lashes about wildlJ~ a crewman sets the machine up wrongly so tbat it pulls itself apart. As with other details these may vary in pecific cases. Models are allowed no saving throw from a stone thrower. and cannot fire next turn either while the damage is repaired."!Tea 1IU1I11!li(l((jmu.s wCigfitr ill yrI!PQf7iOJ1 to tire lit! tliiokuess rif rfio sinew. No r:Jpc torsiOIl CII!}ill( more YOHlttjllr rfim! tlicse 11110"!lPfS isfOlma. it's possible tor them to be the target of other machines or warriors armed with doublebanded axes who can chop them apart. one of tbe crew is slain . Details are given below for typical examples. 6. a MISFIRE refer to bas PROFILES Stone throwers vary in design . Remaining models under the template are hit on the 06 score ofa 4+.the (ollgel' II1'1US ir fillS.(r is strutlg wilfi royer sillrw. No saving throw is allowed for armour. or maybe a careless operator becomes entangled in the mecbanismt Tbe engine does not shoot this turn.. The Gcsill!Jea nl"e to t!ifclll{ US. Work out hits as normal. 3·4 DISABLED! Tbe normal smooth running of the machine and its crew is disrupted by some accident or freak occurrence. and huge ones. solid devices stone throwers are difficult ro destroy. some are positively monstrous! Basically.. the stone tumbles to the g7"01II1d splintering tbe engine and tbrounng debris into the ail: Tbe engine is destroyed and its crew stain or injured. tfie Jl. . Tfie cllt.· t{. maybe a ratchet jams or a rope loosens. stone throwers have such a long range that it is pointless moving them about. before being destroyed. 5.some are bigger than others. SUMMARY Declare target and guess range. tlie!:} were so llaUlea liecallu tfjc!J dtarfi witli t{. 6". lIud.rketf om irs mll!]e ill aall/.l1Iu.. maugollff"s 1 all ITS. The move rate is the speed the stone thrower moves with tts full crew . Bm tfie IIumgQlu( shoots 5tOtll?<.iggt.c flll1l:hiflC is. Ullt! size'!! rlie stoller it liflrfs (ike 11 r{lIlI1ler17o(r. 4".MISFIRE TABLE FOR STONE THROWERS 1·2 DESTROYED! The engine cannot stand the strain placed upon it and breaks under tension as it is fired. rfiar is. The single model in the exact centre is hit. ATTACKING STONE THROWERS Being large. The machine is unharmed and may shoot as normal next turn. 6 7 8 03 None None None Big Stone Thrower 48" Huge tone Thrower 48" D6 06 7.. chariots and bulldings.( Gy {cpr-lieneed men wlla lIall~ Ivo. POSition template and roll Scatter & Artillery dice.!?. If the Scatter dice shows a HIT the stone struck home. we shall divide them into three types. ilymermtes wliutcvcr it hits." or 10" in the direction away from the aiming point as shown on the Artillery dice. 2. f Tfiey usea 10 cn« "SCf1piOIlS" wliat nJ'l t"'W .ifl. Remove tbe engine and its crew.er it shoalS wotll CClJltrillllHce. big ones. if lIiffWtf . Ve!JCriIiS 1 i'gna .1rtr. ordinary sized ones. In addition. Maximum Strength Wounds Save Range You may guess Stone Thrower 48" If the Scatter dice shows an arrow [he stone has landed 2".. however. Stone throwers therefore have a profile with a Toughness value and a number of wounds they can sustain. 8.. 11 rfrrows "11r'io.if any Crew are slain its speed is reduced proportionally.~. If the Artillery dice shows Misfire table. riu!1 darts.caught by a snapping rope. you are squashed regardless of what armour you're wearing! STONE mROWER 1. However. t/iCIIlSefIlCJIIg{linsr diesc 1I111( "''''piOns''. however. elephants. To belp you remember it is a good idea to turn the machine round to face away from the enemy. 4. When a big rock lands. It is. useful when attacking characters... Bits of wood and metaifly all around.

and other missile weapons. but atypical bolt thrower has the values shown here. If you score a bit work out damage as described below. the missiles are so fast and deadly mar any type of armour can be pierced along with irs wearer. They are mounted on their own stand. Generally speaking. Align bolt thrower on target and roll to hit. If you miss then the bolt hits the ground or sails into the air and comes down harmlessly somewhere else. crossbows. Bolt throwers therefore have a profile with a Toughness value and a number of wounds which they can sustain before they are destroyed. If you hit then resolve damage against the target using rhe bolt thrower's full Strength of 5. ArmOUJ· saves are 110l allowed for hits from a bolt thrower. deducting -1 from the strength for each rank pierced. ATTACKING BOLT THROWERS WORKING OUT DAMAGE FROM HITS A bolt thrower is a powerful weapon that can burl its bolt through several ranks of troops piercing each warrior in turn.3. 2. Continue rolling for damage until you fail to slay tile target or run out of ranks. see the Shooting section for details. it is possible for them to become the target. there is therefore no need to roll the D4 [Q decide the number of wounds. On the whole these weapons are nowhere near as large or cumbersome as stone throwers. Continue to work our damage as the boll pierces and slays a model in each rank. A m del damaged by a boll thrower sustains nor I but D4 wounds (use a sided dice or roll a D6 and roll again if you get a 5 or a 6). 3. As with other details these might vary in specific cases. like a spear. A boll thrower is easily able to take out more than one of your en emy's ran ks In battle. often with wheels so that they can be pivoted easily A crew of two or more is required to wind back the powerful torsion arms and position the huge bolt ready for firing. FIRING BOLT THROWERS Bolt throwers are fired in (he shooting phase alongwith other missile weapons.BOLT THROWERS Bolt or dart throwers are large crossbows that shoot a missile like a heavy arrow. TIle chan below shows its details. Because saves are not taken a target with only 1 wound will be slain if it takes damage. Fig 10. 4. 0 save is allowed lf the target is slain roll damage against the second rank at Strength 4. which means rhar even an elephant or another war machine can be hurt or even slain by a hit from a bolt thrower. solid devices bolt throwers arc difficult to destroy. However. of other machines or warriors armed with doublehanded axes who can chop them apart. 5. . To determine if the boLt strikes its target roll a D6 to hit using the crew's B in the same way as bow shots. lf the model is slain then the bolt hits the trooper in the second rank directly behind: resolve damage on the second model with a Strength of 4. All the usual modifiers apply other than the machine can pivot without penally. Deduct -1 from the Strength for each rank that the bolt thrower has already pierced. SUMMARY OF BOLT THROWERS 1. PROFILES The bolt thrower hurls a sharp tipped missile. resolve damage with a Strength of 3. engines of war have such a long range that it is pointless moving (hem about.if any crew are slain its speed is then reduced proportionally A machine cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. Resolve damage at Strength for a bolt thrower. To shoot your bolt thrower first turn it on the Spot so that it points towards your intended victim (no penalty to hit is applied for this). If the second rank trooper is slain then a model in third rank is hit: Being large. me The move rate is the speed the bolt thrower can move at with its full complement of crew . The boLt travels straight forward and hopefully hits the first target tn its path. iliac causes Considerable damage.

then this leads [0 unreasonable situations. Any troops deployed inside a building will be hard to winkle out. Models in the building can be assumed to be wherever you wish. If the building bas several storeys then if will be able to hold more models. at only do they look attractive. chariots. any troops can skirmish in or around buildings. and can shoot from windows or move out through doors as convenient. towers and watch posts. The number of models you can get into your buildings will depend on the building'S size. if you wanr to build a whole city [Q fight over then u's up to you. Buildings provide interesting features on the battlefield. this is not always very practical. Of course. as it is easy £0 wa te vital time taking a village that the enemy then simply ignores or circumvents. if your buildings are really huge. Although only specified types of troops can kirmish on the battlefield. and other large models cannot enter buildings that are too small for them. Models on flat roofs. balconies. Troops in buildings do nOI all have to shoot at the same target. A5 a guide. However. Note down on a scrap of paper how many models are in the building if you wish. shooting from a particular window at targets they can see. parapets. if you have a building that is 48" long it would be silly to allow a model to move into tbe building at one end and then out the other side moving 48" 111 tbe one turn! Should you u/isb to use buildings of such extreme dimensions then you will baue to record movement inside them. or the storeys divide. instead they may shoor as individuals. this goes somewhat beyond the scope of this ruLebook where we are concerned with tabletop battles over fairly open rerrirory. Models inside buildings wiU benefit from the advantage of being behind hard covel' (-2 to hit) as well as being in skirmish formation (a further -1 [0 hit. Cavalry. noting down where troops are on a piece of paper each turn SHOOTING FROM BUILDINGS Models inside buildings can shoot missiles from arrowslits. villages. allow as many models into the building as can fit into its ground area. Unless your buildings are really huge you will not need to move troops about inside. and allow you to enact sword fights within temples and palaces and full scale assaults against mighty fortresses. or something else along these lines. the rule that follow certainly allow you to do so. bigger than 6" along any edge. ie. But a good general knows that it is not always profitable to occupy buildings just because they are there. and so only troops that are in skirmish formation may enter such terrain (the rules for skirmish formation can be found in the Light Troops section). allowing you to place model inside. An elephant i ju t tOO big to get into a peasant hurl Some players like to make their buildings a that the roofs actually lift off. either isolated farmsteads. MOVING INTO AND AROUND BUILDINGS It simply isn't possible for rigid formations of troops to move around a building. Up to two models may shoot from each opening. However. Models that have shot missiles from windows can be seen and may be shot at by enemy in their turn. The following section therefore provides rules for using buildings on the battlefield.However.BUILDINGS AND FORTIFICATIONS The Warhammer rules are extremely flexible. to simply remove models from rhe [able as they enter buildings and place them somewhere om of the way. Models may enter a building in their rnovernent phase by moving through an unguarded doorway or window. and decide whether or not a particular building ha any tactical value. but they are also importaru from a tactical point of view. and you may find it easier . You can decide exactly bow many models a building can bold before the game begins. Towers may overlook a wide part of the battlefield and provide an excellent vantage point for archers. A unit may be positioned so that some models are inside a building. or such-like can also shoot as normal. while the rest of the unit is outside Models can leave a building through any unguarded doorway or window. You must weigh the tactical considerations for yourself. and so may be able to defend it against far Larger numbers of enemy. For example. windows or doors. but are not allowed ro enter and exit a building on the same turn.

. Up to two models per side may fight through each window or door. a treacherous ledge might reduce movement [Q half rare with a 1. and simply transfer models to it as they enter the building.. building through unguarded doors and windows. If a building is very large it rnay not be appropriate to destroy it all at once. windows and interior walls. When deciding which side has won a combat in a building. a winding stairway might take half a ttUTI to climb. but ignore the usual bonus for fighting in ranks. flank attacks. balconies. When both sides have models inside the same building It is necessary to have a floor plan. Ally models inside must make their basic armour saving roll or they are trapped inside and slain. Po ill t)' 7 2 5 1 5 5 10 5 {og IiOHS. Models that pass may be fanned up outside the building. (wick OJ' Toug{mess Dnmttgt unit has ro be in skirmish formation to assault 11 building. Attacking models can enter the. and the attackers will therefore require a 6 to bit regardless of their weapon skill unul they have won a round of combat (see the combat rules).C 8 6 8 9 A Iic(lvi0 . terraces. For example. or a tum if it is very long. gatehouses.[iricK 10 7 If a building SUstains its fuU quota of damage points tr collapses. Floor plans can be quickly drawn up on a piece of scrap paper. We have included values for heavy doors and fortress as you may wish to fight games that involve defenders locking shut the doors of their tower or castle wbile the attackers attempt to batter down their defenses. You can invent your own special rules [0 incorporate unusual buildings into your games."ooaCn S(jIlCKs. We can't anticipate every variation of architecture that you might want to design. Domestic doors are not sufficiently substantial [0 withstand a determined defender and so offer no resistance to attack.FIGHTING INSIDE BllLDINGS An attacking T!lpt: ~ Bllifd"ing MIIf{ or straw (juts. Wounds and damage polnts are exactly [he same thing. but this shouldn't stop you making models as varied as you please. The foHowing chart lists types of building and suggests values for Toughness and damage points. count up casualties. SPECIAL RULES Everybody wbo makes their own model buildings likes to include features which appeal to them. standards. As most garners make their own buildings you may prefer to tailor each building's values to its appearance. It is a bit confusing to refer to wounds when talking about buildings so we shall caLI them damage points instead. For example. gates. This could conveniently be divided into three parts for recording damage points and for rnO"l)ing troops untbin it. as you need to be able to tell where the models are in order [0 establish who can fight who. in 6 chance of falling if you move faster. . You could divide up large buildings into several smaller sections each with its own damage points .·chgOl'ua door Aforti-us !late ot"fortificatiofJ huts or houses Stone 1i0l/S8 StOHe rower MIII(. Keep the floor plan on a suitable flat surface near the battlefield. DESTROYING BllLDINGS Elephants and war machines may be capable of destroying buildings.outhouses Timlizw. Buildings therefore have a Toughness value and can sustain a number of wounds before they are destroyed. Obviously. and so forth. you might baue a manor house with a main section and two separate wings. The defenders cou at as fightIng behind an obstacle. (ig(jt . and don't have to be too accurate JUSt so long as they are about the right size and show the approximate position of important features like doors. and so forth. so that they can move through doors and windows more easily IO get Inside. but must stop if a defender guards the en tran ce. A narrow passage might aJ10w room for only four models per runt. This is entirely up to you. if you have a model building with a removable roof you will nor need floor plans. drawbridges and so on.

but don't worry. only a few are needed to begin. This may sound daunting to a newcomer. it is not necessary to do everything at once. Although you may eventually amass an army oj hundreds of models. paint it and then organise your models into battle-ready units. Over the next Jew pages is a guide giving you hints and tips on how to go about painting your a1'1nyand there are also some ideas of scenery you can use in yOU1' attles./ Iii ) COLLECTING AN ANCIENT BATTLES ARMY Toplay Warhammer Ancient Battles you must first buy an army. The most important thing to do when you want to start playing is to have a few painted figures with which to play out a battle with. b .

Indeed. It would be unfair of us to recommend one scale or manufacturer over another without first making it clear that the authors are not only 25mm garners. in the case of Michael and Alan Perry.[he chances are that [he reader will already have a collection or will have a favourite scale and preferred make. Their adverts appear regularly in the wargarnes press. At the other end of the scale. but there are very few compared to the 15mm or 25mm Jzes. Certainly. which is a pity because the plastic sets combine low cost with ready availability. having. Warhammer Ancient Bartles can be used in conjunctton with models of any scale. For this rea on it is traditional for wargamers ro lump aLI armies prior to the Middle Ages together as 'ancient'. Some players find it more satisfying to fight games with historically marched opponents. Over such a long and varied period of histOry. on the tabletop lt is possible for Pharaoh's chariots to meet the legions of Rome. Some of the most popular of them all are the legions of Rome and her enemies. are the larger 30mm models. and readers are referred to the magazines currently available. The scale is popular amongst competition garners rather than collectors. This is a great advantage when it comes to organising and participating in competitions or finding new opponents. such as 2mm and 5mm are used to represent very Large forces for sieges and such like. including Gauls and Britons. reliving Caesar's campaigns in Gaul. 'Micro' scales. or for Alexander the Grear to lead his Macedonians against King Harold's Saxons. . There is a new scale . relative stability of military technology over this era means that players with armies from widely different historical periods can fight each other quite easily. the practice of painting. An army of 25mm models looks spectacular and is the preferred scale for most serious collectors. so to speak. and war machines of a historical counterpart. The models shown in this book are 25mm models from the collections of the authors and are manufactured by the Wargames Foundry. Although this is [he scale favoured by the authors we would recommend an. assembling. however. from ancient Egyptians to Dark Age Vikings and Saxons. We enjoy collecting and palming our armies just as much as gaming. The most well established of the popular scales is known as 25m01. Almost as long established as 25mm. Prospective players. which simply means the average warrior stands about 25mm tall. Amongst wargamers there are devotees of almost every army of ancient times. but also 25mm model designers. However. We should at least mention some of the other scales available. These are followed by a minoriry of garners who usually have armies in 15mm or 25mm scale as well. me MODELS There are now many thriving manufacturers offering model warriors of the ancient period in different scales in both metal and plastic. Dacians and Parthians. Even if you witch. This size affords plenty of scope for accurately modelled detail and rewards careful painting.THE WARGAMES ARMY A wargames army is a collection of models representing [he military formations. and for this reason prefer the 25mm scale with its wealth of de mil and pleasing weight in the hand. The principal advantage of 15mm is that the individual models are cheaper. to metal models of a different scale later. This size of model is available from many manufacturers. and commanding an army will hopefully inspire you co continue wargaming for many years co come. but the game rules have been devised using our 25mm collections. but even so the nature of warfare remained broadly comparable. at this size the model have only nominal detail and are really Little more than tokens. Germans. taken the step from buying other people's models to making their own.10mm . Most readers will be familiar with thts scale as it is the size of Airfix. or Hannibal' battles against the Romans of an earlier time. may find the following summary useful. and especially youngsters who may not have [he means to buy metal models to begin with an army of 20mm plastics. if anyone wanted [0 make a start in Ancient Battles they could do worse than choose 20mm. to give just two examples. Old campaigners will need little guidance when it comes ro deciding which scale or manufacturer to choose . This is not a scale used much by adult wargamers these days. Revell and Esci plastic soldiers. A small range of metal models is also available in this scale. warriors.char aims to combine the ability to represent large forces with sufficient detail to make the models recognisable for what they are. technology and society changed a great deal. However. once a popular size but now somewhat neglected. newcomer. Large ranges are available from several companies. Slightly smaller than 25mm models are those in the 20mm range. is the smaller 15rnm scale.

and other jobs where a fine point is not necessary. It is nor a definitive guide. Indeed. silver and bronze. [f you want to paint during tile evening a desk lamp is essenual . Remember. flesh. and old hands will undoubtedly have already evolved their own preferred technique and style. Those who wish to know more are referred [0 the many modelling and wargarnes magazines available. there are wargarners who enjoy painting and modelling so much that they game rarely if at all. SETTING UP A PAINTING TABLE Before starring to paint anything a minimum of basic equtprnenr is required as weU as paint and brushes. art shops. so there is no need for turps or white spirit. Once a brush is [00 worn for regular work it can still be used for painting bases. Sufficient space is required for paints. the models shown in this book were painted using Citadel Colour acrylic paints available from Games Workshop and developed by the authors (amongst others) specifically for painting metal and plastic miniatures. We suggest you start with the following selection of equipment: Acrylic paints: white.PAINTING A WARGAMES ARMY There is far more to wargaming man winning or losing battles. you will be cutting onto the surface as well as painting. EQUIPMENT A minimum selection of paint and modelling equlpmenr is required. A desk or [able by a window is ideal for the daytime. Although you can do without etcher of these tools for a while. However. you cannot mix acrylic and enamel paints together. Some modellers may have already developed a preference for old-fashioned enamel paints. so a layer of card or hoard might be necessary too. It is a good idea to lay down a good thick layer of newspaper to protect the tabletop beneath your work area. and it is recommended you stick to one or the other. but the main reason for painting is to prepare arrnies for the even greater spectacle of battle. ideally a table or desk where projects can be left in place from one day to the next. blue. a size 0 brush for painting small areas and fine detail. all ofwhich are up to the job.models need to be painted before they are ready to [oin your armies. These paints are thinned with warer and brushes are also cleaned in water. scenery. Many people find a sheet of hardboard makes an ideal surface with. light brown.preferably with a colour corrected 'daylight' bulb which shows me true colours of the paints. The movement of the armies and unfolding of events amidst the carefully rendered scene is every bit as important as which side wins or loses. PAINT We recommend water-based acrylic paint for painting models. In addition it is useful [Q have lit least one good file and a pair of clippers for cleaning mould lines from miniatures and removing plastic models from their sprues. There is nothing more wasteful or frustrating than having to constantly pack away and set up a work area. This brings us to one of the most important principles of the wargame and one which is almost never said openly because experienced player take it for granted . of finding somewhere IO paint. For the record. All of the tools mentioned above are available from specialist modelling shops or. green. t:he added advantage [hat the whole lot can be picked up and moved. Certainly. Each game is also a stirring spectacle. a nicely painted model does make an impressive display. There is also the mane. applying glue. Purring the final touches to a unit of newly painted troops is a satisfying morneru for the wargame enthusiast. in the case of brushes. black. it's definitely WOrTh investing in both as soon as you can. brushes and modelling materials as well as for the models themselves. red. proudly displaying their forces in glass cases or on shelves where they can be admired in all their glory. and there is no reason why these cannot be used instead. yellow. Many people find that they already have household items or tool which are useful. Size] brush or craft knife (old mug) Superglue A modelling A palette Waler container for mixing painr (old plate or ceramic tile) Tissues or kitchen rowel Spray can of matt white or white primer undercoat To this list it would be sensible [0 add at least one more brush. Several manufacturers produce acrylic paint for modellers. A typical painting table . This section of the book aims to describe how to paint a wargame army and is primarily intended [0 provide beginner with enough information to have a go for themselves. Painting models is very hard on brushes so the brush fibres gradually wear out.

and so all. no matter how thick does tend to distort slightly over time. For example. Superglue is best for sticking metal to metal. standard bearer and a musician. Although it is not strictly necessary to shade or highlight models it does enhance their appearance and is worth arternptlng. although more time consuming. then go on to the main runic colour which might be red. In the ca e of cavalry models the separate horse and rider can be glued together before palming. BASES Models must be mounted on the correct sized bases as described in the rules. Begin by lining up all the models on your painting table. PAINTING Citadel has developed a wide range of paints especially for use on plastic and metal miniatures. Suggestions of bow to go about this are discussed separately. is to cover the base with a textured filler or fine sand which is then pai Il ted. where infantry are mounted on 20 x 20mm ba e (Celtic tribesmen for example) you might mount three onto a single base 60 x 20mm. Bases can be made from thick card or plasticard cur to the required size. then the next layer which might be armour for example. There are several good ways of doing [his.green dyed sawdust available from model shops and commonly used by railway modellcrs. probably about twenty models in all including a leader. the flat white coating will provide the ideal surface [0 rake paint. j . You'll find that by the time you've finished the last model of your unit the first will be dry and ready for its next coar of palnr. the simplest method being to paint the base green and leave it at that! A more pleasing effect can be obtained by covering the base with flock . An even better method. Paint one colour at a time. Once complete the models can be prized from their temporary base before the shields and weapons are attached and each model is fastened to its proper base. Obviously. To complete [be model rhe base can be textured and painted to represent ground. This is called a mould line. whilst card. These strands can also be removed with a knife and the resulting scar scraped or rued flat. If you glue four or five models to a strip of stiff card it makes them easier [Q handle wbilst they are being painted and means you can put them down without them falling over. The best thing to use for this is a spray can of white primer as sold in Halfords for use On cars. You may also find strands of metal or small blips where vents in the mould let out air. Some players prefer ro mount models in multiples to make it easier to move whole units. Once all the areas on the models have been painted you can add shading or highlighting. as (hey ind icate the mould has filled fully. These are not a fault but a good sign. Ln this way any mistakes you make early on are simply painted over later. Plasticard is best in that it does not warp. UNDERCOAT Your models are now ready for their first coat of palm which is the white undercoat. finishing off with weapons and details. The chances are that you will have chosen a unit of core infantry such as Roman legionaries Of Celtic tribesmen. and is infinitely superior to the alternative of applying white paint with a brush. Models may be mounted on individual bases leaving individual models free [Q adopt a looser 'skirmish' formation if required. and it is easily removed using a file or by scraping it lightly with the edge of a modelling knife. PREPARATION Having decided which anny you are going to collect the first step is to buy and paint a unit. Metal models are cast in rubber moulds and consequently you will tine! a fine line where the mould halves join. For example. When undercoating with spray paint place the models in a cardboard box or something similar to contain the spray. Go outside to do the actual spraying. Many people find it is easier to paint troops from the 'inside out' starting with the flesh. completing each colour on every model before painting the next colour. sufficient 'singles' must be left to facilitate removing casualties from the unit. then the layer of clothing next to the skill. Most people find it convenient to temporarily glue models to a strip of card prior to painting. Shields and separate weapons are best omitted until they are painted. Whatever type you choose. A light coating over the entire model is all that is required and to achieve this it is often best to apply a couple of very ligbt coats from different directions. you might start with all the flesh.The undercoat must be thoroughly dry before you begin to paint. Models call be glued to their base using a suitable contact adhesive such as Bostik. You can also buy a mod eller's version of the same thing from model shops.

To apply sand the base top is first painted over with PYA glue and the sand is sprinkled on. This consists of shan fibres glued on in me same way as flock. COLOUR Black Wbite Red Yellow Blue Lt Brown SlfADE Add BLack or Light Brown Add Black and/or Red Brown Add Red Brown Add Dark Blue Add Dark Brown Add Dark Green Add Reel Brown Add Black Add Dark Brown HIG-HLIGHT Add White and/or AddYeUow Add White Add White Add While Add White Add White Silver Blue Green Flesh Silver Bronze . BASES A unit stands or falls upon the appearance of its bases. So long as the bases are all the same colour the unit will look like a coherent and purposeful group on me tabletop. sand or whatever. whilst brtstles from a brush or broom can be glued on for rufts of grass. if bases are poorly finished the army will look dlsappointtng even if the models themselves are painted to a prize winning standard. bare ground. Begin by raking or mixing a suitable dark shade of the base colour as shown on the accompanying chart. If the result is highly visible it is worth the few seconds it takes [Q paint a dark coloured or even black Line around me join to define the edge. If it is too thin it will run right out againl Practlce wiil soon establish the ideal consistency. hlghlighting accentuates raised creases in clothtng and other details. on a heavily folded cloak paint a thin line along the raised part of the crease. This technique is sometimes called 'lining in' or 'black lining'. A popular choice is to flrsr paint the base and then glue flock onto the rop surface using PYAglue dabbed ()nLO the surface with an old paint brush. This is quick to do and has the advantage that it will cover over the gap between the model's metal base and the card ba e. Highlights are painted ustng a lighter shade of the underlying colour or.y of representing grass. it is easy to apply highlightS by gently brushing over (he surface with a lighter coLour. with white as indicated on the accompanying chart. Just as shading deepens the appearance of the model. More ambitious painters may texture the bases using either a ready prepared filler such as 'Ietrion. Conversely. troops based neatly in a uniform colour will look pleasing on the tabletop no rnatrer how simply they are painted. cuffs meet hands. either in small patches or as an overall finish is to use artificial 'electro-static grass'. because the surface is irregular. or where any area butts against another. Rather than referring to anyone manufacturer's range of paints we have described the colours in generaJ terms. These finishes must then be painted and. IDGHLIGHTS Highlights are raised areas where the light catches and brightens a colour. A quick shake will remove all tile surplus sand leaving a layer on the base itself For those prepared to lavish attention on their miniature warriors small tones can be added ro represent rocks. You can choose whatever colour you want to represent grass. It is nor essential to shade your models at all and it certainly requires a little practice to get it eight. This creates a sense of depth to the model and helps to distinguish adjoining areas from one another. if the colour is very pale. on a bronze helmet paint a silver highlight around the helmet bowl. Apply it to the high points of raised derail. but painters already confident with the basic process will find it well worth mastering the technique. The simplest way to finish a base is to paint it allover in one colour such as a mid-green. Experienced painters will often pay extra artennon to edges where hands meet weapons. If the paint is sufficienrly thin it will run into cracks and crevices considerably aiding me process. A more satisfying finish can be obtained by applying some kind of texture to represent grass or broken ground. SHADING AND HIGHLIGHTING CHART This chart provides a handy reference tor mixing shades and highlights. For example.SHADING AND HIGHLIGHTS ADDING SHADE Shading is the process of painting darker colours into creases and other recesses to represent shadows. Take or mix the highlight colour on your palette. Thin the paint with water so that it flows freely and carefully paint it into creases and folds. or a mixture of PYA glue and sand. Another wa.

and cavalry can usefully be fielded as units of between 5 and 10.000 points.oo~~ File cards provide a ready means of keeping track of your forces. Fortunately. It may be possible to sit in on a game or even borrow someone else's army before you commit yourself to a particular force. whilst an army of heavily armoured cavalry will be relatively small.. To this solid core you can add one or two units of cavalry or light troops and a general [Q create a small army. 404 24I-€G'o'. visitors will also have worked our their own army.~O ""'<.-c:. to recommend which troops to buy. and the total points value of the unit..\1"1" HS <. \"II11enonsidering your first army the time it takes c coger a playable force together is important because you'll undoubtedly want to begin gaming as soon as possible . When choosing an army one of the most important considerations is the number of models required . me different players.dy but precious [i111e is wasted which could otherwise be spent gaming. the points value per model.. It 0 . A core unit of. IdeaUy. after which choosing an army to any points total is a doodle.."' . Methodical planners appreciate reliable. when it comes to expanding your collection..:''''~\~ ". n"~'(. deciding which models will form 2.)rl\I 1'tll\""\00Jt I'" ..:I ""Ta. An example of a filled out.rmy indeed. Aim to have at least 1..both from the point of view of cost and also the effort needed to palm them. It is a self-evident fact that different armies appeal to At the end of the book you'll find a suggested 1. \ln I ..000 points. characters ORGANISING AN ARMY 'When arrtving at a feIJow player's house for a game you'll probably find he has the table set Out and has already chosen his army. All pertinent derails are recorded on the card. It is well worth getting your army's points value properly organised using file cards or something similar. Not only does the host have to wait while his opponent gets rea.000 points complete as soon as possible. In the case of duo Romans. and for Romans this means field baillstas or scorpions which will add 34 points each to the army's value. say 24 Roman legionaries will provide about 400 points.. \. If the unit bas a standard. Although this requires some effort you only have to do it once. Although [he number of models you'll need varies from army to army. Only the most strong willed individuals settle upon their ideal army straight away and restrict their collecnon accordingly. and to explain how to use them in battle.000 potnt Barbarian army worked out from the army lists that are also in this book.. a unit of front line infantry will number 20 to 30. Inevitably. A small Roman army might comprise of 2 units of 24 legionaries. In addition you'll definitely need a general to command the army. but garners will enjoy more success with armies that suit their tactical preferences. Laser on. ~JI.:>C>-\lOEo \ "DQ. By this we mean solid fighting troops such as Roman legionaries or Celtic tribesmen. On the other band Gauls. an army is chosen as much because of the way it looks as the way it plays. Once the army has acquired its core troops and essential you can start to add some of the more irueresring trOOP types such as a unit of heavy cavalry or exotic infantry. you'll probably need to assemble about 100 models before you have a force that can be fielded in battle... a scorpion and its crew. The method described here is one way of organising your army and garners are welcome to adopt this or use any means they find convenient.000 point Roman army and a suggested 1. .COLLECTING AN ARMY Deciding whlch army to collect is me first big decision a new player must make.:>·0 AR. so it is a good idea to add him as soon .:1:> (.OIl'Plo-J. Most players will buy and paint a few models from several armies before finally deciding how to expand their collection into a sizeable force. musician and Leader this is noted as well...as you can..'S 5 "\" W 0 ~ ~ \ ()1(<6) s. Another option is to add a few war machines. most wargarners are only too pleased to talk about their armies..-. whilst skirmishers Or light troops might fight in units of 10 to 20.. a unit of 16 a.. 3.''''''"l'IItD I I p. winch are unreliable but also deadly when thrown straight forward in a mass. 16 archers. An army which consists entirely of lightly armed infantry will be a very large a. There is nothing more frustrating than for a player to turn up and then proceed co choose his army before the game can begin. characters. Each unit of rroops. As you can see an army can grow quite quickly once the bulk or the core troops has been assembled.· ".. or whatever total has been set for the game. Typically.file card is shown below me MUSTERING YOUR FORCES A good Start for any army is to assemble a couple of uni ts of core troops. steadfast troops like Imperial Romans.F\~..'\"'L~P M wS ~. including the troops' profile. and war machines is recorded on a standard file card. Britons and most other 'barbarians' fight in huge unruly mobs. a unit of j 0 auxiliary cavalry would bulk out the force by a further 200 points.\8.. time is less important because you already have a force that can fight whilst reinforcements are underway.-. plus 10 cavalry and of course a general.tlxiliaries.

Some players find them roo cumbersome. it is often a better idea to split a large unit onto several trays. If you arc particularly successful with an army you can use it over and over again. and can be stacked on top of each other. You will also find the internal trays of the steel cases are nor very tall and this restricts the type of models you can pur inside. For example. or sacrificing a musician or standard in favour of an ordinary trooper. imagine a unit of Gauls 40 strong arrayed 4 ranks deep. They have the added advantage that they can be moved about. an. pets and confused relatives can have a devastating effect upon your collection if they manage to get their hands. 0 the roster sheet is well worth keeping until the next game.army. You may be permitted options which are not necessarily bound to the appearance of models. Whilst a single move tray per unit may be convenient for smaller units. . Several sturdy lidded boxes probably provide the best and most convenient way of storing your models. and to an extent it depends upon your army. the unit of 40 Gauls occupies a huge tray 200 x 80mm. Old fashioned steel boxes are very heavy. You now have a complete list of the army which will serve as a useful crib sheet during the game. A better solution is to obtain a modern style plastic tool box which is not only lighter bui also somewhat larger and has more room for taller models. The roster sheet can also be used to make nares and summarise special rules which apply to YOlU. as models can be dusted with a soft brush (a make-up brush is ideal) bur it is still preferable to put the army in a box or drawer. in cases such as this the option can be noted on the file card as a us eful reminder. The tray can also be used ro store the unit Simply by placing the entire tray into a box or drawer.Once a card has been prepared for every unit in your army the whole stack can be placed together in a card index holder or simply kept witb your army When you add a new unit it takes a matter of moments to add a new file card. This is because the card has details for the entire unit. generals. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT As your army grows me you will soon discover a need to store it somewhere our of harm's way. and more delicate conversions. It could just as easily be fastened to four trays each 100 x 40mm containing ten models in rwo ranks of five. Children. None the less these cases are the safest way of transporting models. stored in a cupboard or on a shelf. This means it is necessary to pick each model out one at a time which is rather impractical for a large army. MAKING MOVEMENT TRAYS Wbe!:her to use move trays or not is entirely up to you. or you might want to reduce rile size of the unit to meet your permitted poinrs total. Copy over the unit's profile and any other details you need onto the roster sheer. ntis enables you to easily remove the unit from storage when required. When it comes to choosing your army referring to the card will reveal the total COStof the unit. card or board cut to a size so that an infantry or cavalry unit will stand upon it when arrayed in its usual fighting formation. such as whether to field a unit with or without maruobarbuli (throwing darts). Copy over all the units required to form the army and add up the total to make sure you are within the agreed points Limit. A high shelf will serve to keep the army together. The tray is used during the battle until the unit wishes to break its formation or sustains so many casualties that it i more convenient [Q abandon the move tray. gripped safely within the surrounding foam casing. This is just as easy to move and has the advantage that the formation can be changed without necessarily having to remove all the models from their trays.d most players use them for their special models. Move trays are most useful if your army includes big infantry units as they do away with the need to move each model individually. In addition you can note down wounds suffered by characters on the roster sheet in pencil so that the sheet can still he used again if you want. This isn't necessarily a problem. A move tray is nothing more than a sheet of reasonably stiff green plasticard. but you might want to field [he unit without its leader. II the models are blue-tacked on a the move tray or secured with double ided tape then they won't fall off but can still be removed as casualties occur. will usually bring you back wit:bln your limit. standard bearer or musician. bur will not protect the models from dust. If you have gone over the permitted [oral (and you'll probably find you have) then removing the odd model from your larger units. others use them all the time. Foam-lined tool cases are also available. For example. but it is better [0 copy the derails over onto a single sheet of paper or roster sheer. Some players keep their armies in transportable rool chests. The file cards can be used during the game to check characteristic values if you like. The disadvantage of these foam-filled cases is that the models are held individually. The formation measures lOx4 models and as the bases are 20mm square the entire unit will fit upon a base 2 OOx8Omm. paws or teeth on it. especially when HUed [Q the brim with a metal army. Each unir can be blue-lacked down onto us move tray and the whole tray placed inside its box.

but it is our intention to publish separate volumes covering the history. Either pick a scenario to play or randomly select a scenario by rolling a dice. )'oiserfoll Mis steer!.fit! with trner ai fIl rfillt! tile horsemlln. In the meantime players are referred to the two lists at [he back of this book Wben players arrange [0 playa game it is necessary to decide what kind of battle to fight.---.. war engine and by choosing armies to a fixed poinrs total. shooting and combat. If your table is smaller. However. of Kadesh. 2. The foUowing scenarios glve different sorts of games of which the most straightforward is the Pitcbed Battle. By allotting a strict polnts value [Q each kind of warrior. Ar the Bartle. 12" CJ) w CD w w 0 0 0 24" m m Scale diagram of an 8')(4' wargames table. 3. For purposes of explanation the rules assume thai each army is represented by one player. Pitched Battle Meeting Engagement It is clearly useful to have a means of choosing evenly matched armies.. showing the standard deployment areas. In this section you will find options for different barrie scenarios. Surprise Attack Flank Attack Break tbro ugh Ambllsb Last Stand Ski1'lnish PLAYER 1 EDGE PLAYER 1 DEPLOYMENT ZONE 12" ..' Xe1Upfion . for ins ranee.. {jone. but mere is no reason why several players shouldn't play on the same side.-. and no closer than 24" 10 each other. character and. 0 G) UJ m . uniform details and army lists for a wide vartery of ancient armies. 'For 110 mml everj'el"isfierf --. perhaps with one acti fig as overall commander while the others are allotted portions of [he army to control.12" • PLAYER 2 DEPLOYMENT ZONE . in which case players can either field everything they have or agree to use two armies of roughly equal size. or fadet{ GYII fit1l'tfiw ill {jrmrefivm GellI£! {iirren die Joot solifler CIII! strike {/. many barnes were formal affairs where both sides deployed facingeach other and proceeded to fight according to the tactical plans of (heir commanders. 5. but the indicated distances remain the same. be employed to enact many kinds of conflict from chance encounters and skirmishes to full-bloodied battles. caustng immense destruction before falling upon the Pharaoh's encampment. it is possible to ensure armies are as equally matched as possible. The two armies deploy no closer than 12" to the side edges. shortage of space prevents us including further lists. and can. Of course.SCENARIOS Battles are fought between two opposing armies. . Players new co wargaming will probably want to use their entire army against their opponent'S. Each scenario is intended to be used in conjuncuon with army lists as the scenarios uti lise tile poi nts values of the troops as the basis for working Out the OPPOSing forces. There are various ways of doing thts. the Hittites attacked an unprepared Egyptian column.Anabasis Scenarios In the ancient world battles were fought in all kinds of circumstances other than straightforward encounters where both sides drew up in from of each other. 4..s '!!rait! rjdie tmc1If!J. Two army lists have been included in this volume for JUSt this purpose: one covering Barbarians and another covering lrnperial Romans. 7. {mrf (IS lIIucfi tifrajtf rjJllffitl!J r1f as fie i. then the space available to deploy is less. wno is yrccariomf:. Before the barrie begins players must select their forces. 12" . 6. The game rules govern movement. PLAYER 2 EDGE . 1. 8.

d nlll cut il tff. 3-4 = 5 turns.r witr. mrti''!Pllterl fiim mltl srmeK fiim in flit: sfitlllfifc. DEPLOYMENT. JOIl ~fDI'llpines. Once both players have completed their maps they are revealed to their opponent and the armies are set out as indicated on the map.( to Yf(P their e''CIssiIJ9 mrd ra tfil'usr tfit· Macefi'ouinlls 6ncK Irgnil1 illra tlie ri)ICY: III tfiis O'11'Ollllr&r A[extmler's Jorce iVlU jJl'tvoifllllj liar 0. Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges. Unless one player concedes beforehand. VlCTORY. The armies begin to deploy into barrie lines ami fight immediately. lIIas n (. of turns turns to 5-6 = 6 The players elect [0 play for an agreed number or. The highest scoring player chooses whether to go IirS[ or second.. !iehind. !ill r 11[50 Gemll!C tlie!) Jorl!Jr. Players set up the scenery agreeable manner. in any mutually ARMIES. Character models are alway' listed together as one entry and musr be placed last in the column of march (i. may be moved 4" further onto [he table. lI'itfi his SIVo. A score of 1-2 4 turns.'escmli((d· /Ill itgillltr!) Ln e.( down illlo die ))(aitl. Troops already weary £rom their long march must attempt to deploy inro the best positions as rapidly as possible. Unlts can be placed anywhere on the player's own half of the table but not within 6" of the centre line or within 18" of an enemy unit that has already been placed. The game continues limit each side has taken the number of rurns indicated. but models can be positioned in different locations as required. t [ ~ '''9n91:11I1'11( o/'c.. SCENERY. A. = WHO GOES FIRST. MEETING ENGAGEMENT In a Meeting Engagement rival armies meet whilsr they are still in a column of march. This game combines the need ro make a good barrie plan with placing units one at a time. TURNS."i.)0 6ecnlls. AU characters are deployed last as a single choice. die Mnw{ouiall5 tr!}iug to dimS! tlie PCrSill1J5 Dllce ow{ JOI' Ilff JI'OI)l die . A score of 1-2 4 turns. Players take it in turns to choose and deploy one unit at a time starting with the side which has the most units. (jilt efeltlls.rmies arc chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game.Pitched Battle armies deploy one unit at a lime and [he opposing generals can decide how to react to their enemy' dispositions at they go along. ~irr. Unless one player concedes beforehand. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated. roll a 06 to decide how many play. 01' until one player concedes. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums or. at the bortom of the list) . or until one player concedes. The first player to complete his deployment adds +L to his dice roll. Once both sides have completed deployment. alternatively. Another way of deploying in secret is to erect some kind of barrier across the table so that troops can be arranged unseen by the opponent. 5·6 6 turns. Both players roIL a dice. turns.• 1. 3-4 5 rums. wlii{e rfi. the winner Is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. the winner is rhe player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. See the standard deployment map at the beginning of this section. The player who deployment first takes the first rum. then his opponent places the first unit from hls list. = = = WHO GOES FIRST. PITCHED BATTLE Tfiougfi i. with the units at the top of the liSt at the front of the column and units at the bottom of [he list at the back. In a Meeting Engagement tbe players set up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner.nnres find tlOIU rniw(liis saber tI!]lTillst A li'XlIIIIlfrjrolll. DEPLOYMENT. This is the quickest way to set up a game. Armies are chosen £rom the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. Each player makes a rough sketch of the battlefield upon which he indicates where his various units will be deployed. Once players have completed their marching order the player wnh the most units places the first unit from his list. This doesn't have to be anything fancy. cornet wood fiwCt's n!JlliliSt jnllcnlls . roll a D6 to decide how many rums to play.hler6nJ!~ tm. Before the game begins both players make a list of aU [he units in their army.. See the separate Victory Points schedule.e. all skirmishers including light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation.. See the separate Victory Points schedule.(III(I{r~1 6nl1fi: it .. Each player's list represents his marching order. When It comes [0 placing characters these are all placed at once. . The players continue to alternate placing units from their list until they reach the lase entry which will always be the characters. SECRET DISPOSITIONS Some players prefer to deploy their armies secretly using a map rather than simply placing their units one after the other. ARMIES. 1l0l'Scs ami IIICII wrre t1l1lJII!Jun witli I'ndi m otfier lit tfie stI'1I99fi:.' Persians lII'tCllprq. box lids and cereal packets wil1 do just fine. T RNS. tlidr sttetl!Jrfi (!tid c:g:m·iellcc. completes his VICTORY. alternatively. SCENERY. '!! Aninn ~~ " _ ~~ _ __ ~ __ ~h 2.

pass. roll a D6 to decide how many rurns to play: 1-2 = 4 turns. DEPLOYMENT. but no closer man 12" ro either player's table edge. roll a D6 [0 decide how marry turns to play. SURPRISE ATTACK A 'urprtse A. See the separate Vicrory Points schedule. ARMIES. DEPLOYMENT.000 paint army each force must contain at lease 1. deployed no closer than 24" and no closer than 12" to the side edges . Flanking units are placed on the battlefield in [he movement phase of the player's turn three. as described for a Pitched Battle. The players elect to play for an agreed number of turns or. no more than lOOmm Of roughly 4"). VICTORY. TURNS. . The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated. may be moved 4" further onto the table.ttack is a variant of the straightforward Pitched Battle. for example in a 3. However.000 points. A score of 1-2 = 4 turns. no scenery may be placed within 12" of the shorr sides of the table edge except for a river tbat may run off the edge. The game continues until each side has taken me number of turns indicated. Unless one player concedes beforehand the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at me end of the game. Units deploying onto the battlefield at the stan of the movement phase may take a normal turn but may not charge as they will have missed tile opporruniry co declare charges that rum.3. but must take into account obstructive terrain and obstacles. Unit formations must not be so deeply arrayed that they intrude more than the depths of twO ranks of cavalry onto the table (i. '111e player who deployment first takes the first rum. VICTORY. then further units may be brought onto the same flank in the movement phases of subsequent turns once [here is room for them to deploy. bur where a small professional army faces a large force of poor quality barbarians a surprise attack by the former can pay dividends. Where armies are of equal size and capability tbere is little opportunity for a successful surprise attack. See the separate Victory Points schedule. He can move different units or he can move the same unir several times if be wants. alternatively. 3-4 := 5 turns. possibly by means of a side valley. Armies are. Once born sides have completed deployment. bridge. or until one player concedes. SCENERY.some deploying to the front as usual whilst others attack from one side. but no advancing units may be moved within 8" of enemy troops. Born players roll a dice. The first side to complete its deployment gains the advantage of surprise and is allowed ro advance onto the battlefield whilst me enemy is still deploying. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an. or other route. or until one player concedes. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. In a Flank Attack the number of turns played makes a big difference to the outcome of the game with a short game favouring the smaller force and a longer game favouring the flanking player. 5-6 = 6 turns. all skirmishers including light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums. FLANKATTACK In a Flank Attack one of the armies comes from two different directions . 5-6 = 6 [urns. Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown on the standard deployment map. The unit moves 4" regardless of its own movement rate. This enables him to occupy tactically advantageous ground or to set up a devastating attack in the first rum. In a Flank Auacte battle the players set up the scenery they have in a mutually agreeable manner. When it is his turn to place troops me player who has completed his deployment can move anyone unit a further 4" onto me battlefield. Each force muse contai n at least a third of his roral points. The flanking player deploys only his frontal force onto the table at the starr of the game. Each rime it is his rum to 'deploy' the player can move anyone unit in this way. 3-4 = 5 turns. completes his 4. This repre ems two separate forces converging upon an enemy from different directions.see the deployment map at the stan of this section. Both armies are deployed one unit at a time as described for a Pitched Battle. The highest scoring player chooses [0 go first or second. ARMIES. SCENERY. equal points value agreed before the game. The flanking player divides his army into two separate forces: a frontal force and a flanking force. He can place as many units as he can along one side edge. If mere is not enough room ro deploy the entire flanking force in one turn. WHO GOES FIRST. Alternatively. TURNS. but starting with the player who rolls me highest score on a D6. WHO GOES FIRST. Unless one player concedes beforehand [he winner is the player who bas accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. FlANKERS.e. In a Surprise Attack the players ser up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner. It differs in thar the commander who completes his deployment first is allowed to move troops onto the battlefield whilst his opponent continues to deploy. Each side chooses and deploys a single unit at a rime.

A score of 1·2 = 4 turns. ARMIES. The ambusher takes the first rum.. WHO GOES FIRST. SCENERY. ln addition. DEPLOYMENT. Alternatively the army breaking through carries vital information or is guarding an important individual . Another well known example is Teutoberger Wald where an entire Roman army was destroyed when attacked in column of march. ARMIES. the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game.for example ambusher 2. the player attempting the breakthrough 12" 4 receive + 30 extra Victory Points for each unit of five troops or more which breaks through before the game ends. all skirmishers including Light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation. If your table is very wide (more than 4') you may allow longer.. AMBUSH MAP 12' t AMBUSHED ARMY DEPLOYMENT I ZONE . BREAKTHROUGH In the Breaktbrougb one army arrempts [Q break through the opposing lines whilst the enemy tries to stop them. or maybe plundering Assyrians fighting their way round the Citiel of Syria. VICTORY. and where no record of the battle survives. or a royal prince dear [Q his father. A score of 1·3 = 5 rums. The 1110stfamous of all ancienr battles of chis type was Kadesh where an Egyptian army was caught on the march by Hittites. These were large battles. either to prevent them reaching a vital objecnve or to contain and destroy them. such as patrols. roll a D6 to decide how many turns to play. His units must be formed into columns no more than three models wide. alternatively. DEP. The ambushed player deploys his entire army first. . The player with the highest score may choose to go first or second. In an Ambush the players set up the cenery in a mutually agreeable manner leaving a dear path 12" wide extending rtghr across the edge of the defender's side of the table. VICTORY Unless one player concedes beforehand the winner is me player who has accumulated the most victory points at [he end of me game.'. but one can imagine that ambushes were more common where small forces were involved. . The Victory Polnts schedule explains bow these are worked out. TURNS. Once the ambushed player has finished his deployment the ambusher deploys his army no closer man 18" to the defender's set-up area and no closer than 12" to the side edges. The ambushed side is allowed half as many points again as the ambusher . or one player concedes. Armies are deployed no closer [han 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side in me same way as in Pitched Battle. or lWO units plus the general. 4 Otherwise. The side attempting the break out then deploys its entire army. facing in the direction of travel (either [0 the Leftor right . ore that this is longer than most scenarios to give sufficient time for [he army attempting the BI'eaktbrough to reach the opposing table edge. but note that no victory points are awarded for pas essing table quarters in a Breakthrough game. Both players roll a dice. a civic or tribal leader sympathetic to a foreign power.000 points. The players elect [0 play for an agreed number of turns or.LOYMENT.a rival to the throne. unless one player concedes 12" beforehand. Armies are chosen from [he army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. AMBUSH In an Arnbush one army is arrayed in column whilst his enemy attacks unexpectedly from prepared posirtons.000 points ambushed 3. See the separate Victory Points schedule. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated. 5·6 = 6 turns. The defending army sets up as the enemy approaches and braces itself for the attack. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated.. This is the path along which rile ambushed army is travelling. perhaps a rampaging horde of Saxons in Gaul. Once both sides have completed deployment. Armies are chosen from the army liSIS [0 a points value agreed before the game. SCENERY. TURNS. alternatively.roll a dice to determine which). A unit which reache the opposing table edge and which is nor engaged in combat is automatically removed and is deemed to have successfully broken through. or until one player concedes. The ambushed army is deployed along the clear path along the edge of me table no further than 12" from the edge and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown below on the map below. Such a battle might represent an army chasing and catching marauders. may be moved 4" further onto the table. 3-4 = ') turns. Players ser up the scenery agreeable manner.5. in any mutually 6. 4-6 ==6 turns. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums 0. or until the player attempting the breakthrough has successfully moved three units of at least five models. WHO GOES FIRST. The side that is attempting to stop the break Out deploys irs entire army first. roll a D6 to decide how many rums to play. off [he opposing [able edge. The game automatically ends and the player arternpting the breakthrough wins if he gers three units of at Least five models off the opposing player's table edge or rwo such units plus the general. 12' 18' AMBUSHER'S DEPLOYMENT ZONE 4- 12" . foraging parries. or accompanied messengers.

so thar tbe troops can take full advantage of the cover it affords. TURNS.'misb it is often more satisfying to set roe game up around a farm house or ruin. In a Ski. Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown on the standard deployment map at the beginning of this section. To introduce a random elemem each player rolls a dice and me side with the highest score places one unit.000 points. Once the defender has deployed his forces. SKIRMISH. SKIRMISH A Skirmish is basically a small action. Players set up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner. usually between lightly equipped troops. The other player can then place any remaining units. The defender sets up his entire army within an 18 x 18" square that is centred upon the middle of the table. This represents their dogged determination to fight to the end. The game will continue until each slde has taken the number of turns mdicated. WHO GOES FIRST. except that the defending player can set up scenery as he likes inside his own deployment area. Unless one player concedes the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory pomts at the end of the game. The game represents two scouting forces meeting unexpectedly. The attacker is allowed twice as many the defender .for example attacker 3. The defender has 50 automatic victory points so long as he has at least one unit of troops still fighting at the end of the game.000 defender 1. troops clashing as they forage or search for water. No scenery at all can be placed within a band that extends 6" beyond the defender's deployment area. ARMIES. 3·4 := 5 turns. The players elect [0 play for an agreed number of turns or. SCENERY. A score of 1·2 =: 4 turns. as shown on the map below: This is the defender'S set-up area as described above and all defenders are deployed within it at me beginning of the game. Because a skirmish is quite small it is quite feasible to play [0 the death! WHO GOES FIRST: The first player co complete his deployment goes first. All models in the defending army increase their Leadership score by +1 up to a maximum of 10. DEPLOYMENT. fortified hill or similar chosen position which he must defend against overwhelming odds. 8. but in this game all units can. raiders or renegade barbarians. VICTORY. Otherwise the Victory Points schedule is used as norma!. the attacker deploys his army anywhere on the table that is not within 8" of the defender's set-up area. LAST STAND In the Last Stand one player is occupying an encampment. alternatively. SPECIAl. In a Skinnisb aU units involved are allowed to skirmish as described in the rulebook. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game and up to a maximum value of 1... playuntil one player concedes or until all of his units are destroyed or fleeing. lists to a the game points as points - . W DEFENDER'S ARMY 18x18" 8" 8" o . and so on until one player has placed all of its troops. or perhaps a situation where a patrol encounters bandits. ARMIES. roll a D6 to decide how many terns to play.. Armies .. 5·6 = 6 turns. both players roll again and the highest roll places a unit. TURNS.7.. or until one player concedes. the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game or who annihilates his opponent! See the separate Victory Points schedule. In the Last Stand the players set up the scenery in a mutually agreeable manner.na:: ~« a:: IW Wz ~O G~ «>«. - DEPLOYMENT. Unless one player concedes beforehand. small township.500 points. NormalLy only troops specified as being able to skirmish can do so. The players elect to play for an agreed number of turns or. LAST STAND MAP « r. SCENERY.are chosen from the army points value agreed by the players before begins..I e. alternatively. RULES. VICTORY. The defender rakes the first tum.

For example. or you might prefer ro devise something similar using your Own scenery as a basis. the scenery can be laid out in any way you find agreeable. you might allow your opponent to remove a wood from his side of the table if he lets you reposition a hill. in which case it can be placed straddling the dividing line. The battlefield is then complete! If both players are in agreement scenery can now be moved around or removed if it is felt a better battle will result. say. you might decide how much scenery you want and then roll randomly to determine what ir is. then both dice to see who positions it. then bam players roll a dice and the highest scorer positions it. If you decide to USe the version printed here don't worry if you generate terrain you don't have. Each player continues to lay down scenery one item at a time. -' r: . Unless he passes the player places the scenery somewhere on his own side of the table. Players can make use of the Scenery Generator tables in any way they please. A method which works well for Pitched Battles or Meeting Engagements is for one player to lay the scenery out while the other player chooses which side be will fight from. PlACING SCENERY The authors' favoured method is to firsdy decide which table edge the armies will start from. A further advantage is that it is possible for the host to set up the game in advance so that it is ready to play once his opponent arrives. either player may declare he is satisfied with the scenery as it is instead of generating and placing a further piece. All these are perfectly good methods and there is no reason why players shouldn't experiment until they find a method they like. after which the lowest scorer chooses another irem. after which each player chooses and places one item alternately until the table is complete. wooded hills or hillsides with walls. You may wish to use the chart on page 84. Many players find it convenient to use a scenery generator system when setting up the battlefield. and so on. Once there is one river or stream on the tabletop any further 'river/stream' results are re-rolled as it would obviously be inconvenient to have a battlefield crisscrossed with rivers! One type of scenery can be placed over another where appropriate to produce. Another method is for a player to choose a piece of scenery. Once each player has placed at least one piece. Then each player rolls a D6 and the highest scorer starts to place scenery first.SCENERY There is no hard and fast rule about how players set up the battlefield. just re-rollunnl you get a result you can lise. The player can either place that piece of scenery or 'pass' and place no scenery at all if he prefers. Scenery is not placed on [he other player's side of the table unless it is a plain hill. The other player then has the option of generating and placing one more piece if he wishes. For example. Tills ensures that the scenery is laid our in as even-handed manner as possible. To generate a piece of scenery roll 2D6 and consult the Scenery Generator table.

and may have cliffs on one or more sides. shallow pit or area of loose rocks. as we assume players are going to use scenery they have made themselves. This makes for a rather dull battle. boulder strewn ground. preventing shooting.i. A single house or tower that may have up to 6" of adjoining walls or hedges. A stream may havea single crossing place along its length if you wish.SCENERY GENERATOR TABLE (Ro1l2D6 Score Result A Deep River Or Lake Score Result A Hill 2 8 Choose either a deep river or a lake. but this does not apply to streams. A river must be placed so that it flows onto the battlefield from one side and our from either the same or another side. Even with this restriction in mind. not ro impede movement to tile extent where armies are unable to get anywhere. A river must always include at least one bridge or ford somewhere along irs length. 6 A Wood Woods slow troops down (to half their normal speed) and they also act as a barrier to sight. so a river is never placed over more [han half the length of the table unless both players agree to do so. 11 A ViUage or Small Settlement A village is represented by several buildings (2-4 is enough). If it extends over more than half the length of the table it must include twO crossing places one of which is chosen and positioned by the opposing player. swamp or sheer cliffs. If you place a river it must have at least one bridge or ford. Should the river extend over more than half the table length then the opposing player can place a bridge or ford as described on the chan. 9 Walls/Hedges or Fencing Up to 12" of continuous walls. Hills are useful defence points in hand-mohand combat as it is easier [Q win a combat if you are uphill of your opponent.hey do so (losing half of their coral movement distance that turn). ditches or other linear obstacles. The village may have up to 12" of adjoining walls or hedges. .is to provide an lnteresring andentertainlng banle. Cliffs are impossible to move over and act as a barrier to movement. fences. Walls and hedges are useful defensive positions as troops may be placed behind them where they will be protected from enemy arrack. Troops move across difficult ground at half their normal speed. 4 Difficult Ground Choose an area of difficult terrain such as a marsh.£ficulrto move over (troops move at half speed). defensive game. Obstacles can be crossed but troops are slowed down when t. Obviously it would be silly for a wood to extend over the whole table! As a general rule no terrain feature may be bigger than 12" across. It cannot spring from nowhere and it cannot simply end. Very difficult terrain may be crossed at quarter speed. 12 Very Difficult Ground Choose a feature that is very difficult to cross such as a steep sided quarry. Rivers cannot extend over more than half of the table length without your opponent's consent. 7 Bill or Wood Choose either a hill or a wood. impossible to cross. If neither player is satisfied with the terrain once it has been generated then start again. be crossed anywhere along its length except at a ford or bridge.he table length it must include two crossing places one of which is chosen and positioned by the opposing player. deep rivers do not make for entertaining fast moving games and players might prefer to avoid using themaltogerher in favour of either shallow rivers or a lake. We have not defined the size of hills or woods. debris. 10 A Farmhouse or Watch Tower 3 A Shallow River or Stream Choose either a shallow river (which can be crossed ar quarter speed) or a stream (which may be crossed at half speed) The river or Stream must enter and leave at a table edge. If the river extends over more than half t. a thick wood or parch of dense briars. Remember the objective of setting up terrain . hedges. 5 A Steep Hill A steep hill is d. A lake is A deep river cannot Hills do nOTslow down troops but they provide excellent vantage points where you can position archers or station troops. soft sand. Rivers can be particularly problematic if one side is determined to playa whoUy Static. area of scrub. A river may not extend over more than half the length of the table unless your opponenr agrees that it may do so.

Refer to the chan below and add up the points gained by each side. Victory points equal co the points value of the unit or character separately E. with one side decimated or running from the table. captured .in aua runs away! Q.my unit or character either. A5 you will notice. destroyed fleeing or having fled from the table. The difference in victory points is a good indicator of how decisive the victory has been. the dice rolls are designed to give a battle anywhere between four and six turns. AtlO tfi e r dt. an invented or historic scenario might tneroduce new victory conditions. in a 3. fleeing or fled unit. Each full table quarter wholly occupied by your own side. ometimes it will be obvious who has won. war machine or elephant cannot occupy a quarter . bur often the result will be in doubt even in the final turn.!J J' rr £iu!J 0' /I e. Wfiatcare 1jar tliat siiieftf? A yarti1J!j CW'se 011 it. However. but 1 have save. 100 victory points. My fifr Arclil(ocli1lS . or 'sudden death' objectives where the game ends as soon as an objective is met. Unless one player concedes before the allotted time. Once the battle is over both players calculate their victory points to decide who has won. Divide the table into four equal quarters through its middle.000 point battle a difference of 50 points or less is a marginal win. The Breaktbrough scenario is an example of this where the player attempting the Breakthrough automatically wins and the game ends if he gets three units off the opposing table edge. and for this reason we suggest players fix the number of turns before the game begins. 200 victory points. fleeing. Enemy General slain. The side which has the most victory points has won. a victory of 500 or more points is a resounding thrashing for your enemy! If both sides score the same points the result is a draw.' m!:Jfjfe. G-rCCkversion 1 who fights fie VICTORY CHART Each ene.only a unit of troops or chariots may do so. or having fled the table. just as !J DOt!. A character model. because 1 must" It's 110tthe _poor tfiin!:j's }'III(t . including [he scenarios described above. shier. If a quarter is occupied by at least one of your units of troops and no enemy then you can claim 100 extra victory pain ts per quarter. I 6eliitu{ a liusfi. 100 victory points. The number of rums affects the way the game plays. A unit which costs 325 points is worth 325 victory points to your enemy. determine which side has won at the end of rhe final turn.g. The usual method of deciding who has won is to calculate victory points for each side.some Saian now Has jay if it. The Victory Points schedule listed below is used for most games. Each unit standard Army standard captured 100 victory points in addition for any points already for the General a a destroyed.VICTORY Either agree beforehand for bow long you will play or roll a dice as described in the scenarios. Characters are accounted for victory points even if they join with units of troops during a battle.

so we introduced the chance that Pompey's troops would arrive late in (be day. according to Caesar). as a group of players .. Faced with Caesar's approach the troops at Corfiniurn (two crack legions) wisely switched sides and Italy was won for Caesar pretty much without a fight. but our irutial games of Ancient Battles wert: fought during the Roman Civil War between Caesar and Pompey.000 or 500 men. the war was fought to control the resources of the various regions. FOf example.you can collect contemporary armies which will enable you to refight conflicts based upon and inspired by the historicaJ background. it doesn't matter. men the Pompeians retainconrrol of the crack Legions which in reality went over to Caesar following the Pornpeian's defeat. access to veteran legions Of local troops. I think Jervis' approach serves as an excellent example of how to go about refighting a historical campaign. It wouldtake roo long to describe how we adapted all of the six battles bur Corfinium is an interesting example of the method. Unfortunately. This series of battles began when Caesar crossed the Rubicon and ended in the Dyrrachium campaign and the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus. type and number of troops available to both sides in the final.. La the end Pompey abandoned Ahenobarbus to his fare and embarked his army for Greece. Historically. Of course. In real life. not all barnes invoLve thousands or even hundreds of men. regardless of whether the two armies are contemporary counterparts or if they are divided by many centuries and thousands of miles. Ahenobarbus.we already owned several Roman armies. battle.. and the supplies needed to keep the growing armies on the battlefield.. the most obvious change to history is that we refought the battles with much smaller forces. it is well worth declding which specific campaign or period of hiStory you want to represent. for many players tile challenge is [0 recreate the events of an entirecampaigo with irs particular circumstances and actual characters. 1. Of course. such as the more complex aspects of supply.000.and I have to say the result was enjoyed by all those who took part. The war involved thousands of men (Six thousand of Pompey's men died and 24. or nor at all. and the Balkans. who in rum refused TO retreat southwards to join Pompey. The results of the preliminary conflicts were judged to affect [he mix.20 ro 30 models standing in for 5. Our reason for choosing this series of battles was straight forward enough . INSPIRED BY HISTORY Though our Dyrrachium campaign was based upon history. Pompey mustered 36.000 were captured at Pharsalus alone . so that a game between a few hundred models can represent a battle between many thousands. In a smaller battle we might let a unit of the same size represent 2. so that by the time ir came to the final game we had all that 'was needed to fight a very large battle indeed! Whether you or your fellow players have armies already or whether you intend to begin new ones. for the final battle at Pharsalus. Although we already had plenty of models each player succeeded in enlarging his own army during the course of the campaign. a sure case of history repeating itself. In fact OUI Pompey followed the historical precedent and abandoned Ahenobarbusl In our refighr Ahcnobarbus was soundly defeated once more. North Africa. with the winner gaining the coffers and recruiting ground of Italy. There must have been countless skirmishes where a few dozen men fought on each side. if the Pornpeian player does better ar Corfiniurn than his historical counterpart.000 legionaries to fight at Pharsalus bardLy a practical proposition for a wargamel When refighting a real battle you'll probably have to scale down the number of troops involved in order to represent the fighting Oil the tabletop. The real barrle was bardly a battle at all because Pompey refused to move north to support the local commander. The idea behind the campaign was to fight each of ow: chosen battles one ar a time in chronological order. Without wishing to embarrass the man unduly. If the battle was 10s[ Pompey would lose not only Ahenobarbus but also the bulk of his Italian army. being divided into five preliminary battles and culminating in the final battle at Pharsalus. and [he politicaL negotiations which continued throughout the war. timing pLayed an important part in Pompey's decision. The real campaign featured a number of large battles and took place over three years in Spain. Then. leaving it to US to invent or extrapolate events for ourselves. At our refight of Pharsalus each Legion was represented by a single unit of Legionaries . decisive. the importance of naval forces. The important thing is to scale down both sides.000 men. we made many assumptions andchanges so that we could play it as a series of wargames. Our recreation of the war was conducted somewhat more briefly. ancient authors rarely record such minor sklrmlshes except in the briefest terms. and the veteran legions chose to side with Caesar as in reality: HISTORIC CAMPAIGN The authors' interests lay in varied periods of ancient history. With four players regularly involved we divided into two sides. However.FIGHTING CAMPAIGNS players it is enough to fight their armies against another op ponenr of an ancient era. Por some We represented the course of the campaign by allowing a general who bettered his historical performance in a battle to recruit more or better troops. DYRRACHIUM Jervis Johnson researched and masterminded OUI Dyrrachium campaign . In OUI refight we allowed the player representing Pompey to decide whether to support or abandon Ahenobarbus at Corfinium. . We were prepared to ignore some things altogether.

and newcomers can come along and learn the skills of generalship. defeating his enemies in order to expand his own dominions. We have found this very loose format is a great advantage when playing large campaigns. and whilst their armies suitable.15 lie was reririn9 am! Jt!'Uck fiim In rfie chest over tlie "!pyre. Imagine that a group of players have collected armies representing cultures and periods as diverse as the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. defend. No map is used to fight the campaign. THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICT Our campaign is deliberately arranged in uch a way that players can use armies from any period of ancient hlstory. These territories represent settlements geographical features and resources which constitute the player's empire. Each player's goal is to build an empire. painting and scenery making. The more territories a player controls the bigger and better armies he can field. instead players discover. The rules tbat follow take a different approach than the strictly historical campaign. Draw. and makes it possible for players to participate 00 an occasional or temporary basis. Lf Assyrians can meet Norse raiders in a single battle. cities. TfrDIIS c(Jmc to dose lJuarter's am{ wrcndiea tfir: freav!J pear jromfii> victim's CHest. Then Peirus breatli rift fiim in neatli. and the more varied are the types of troops he is allowed to recruit. but it's worth taking a look at one way in which such things might be arranged. without any obligation to playa set number of games 01" against any particular opponents. Tli/: bronze YOirtt stuck in His (II"!!. this sort of campaign is that contemporary forces. We have already described how go about refighting a historical based on historical counterparts. However. and annex [owns. although the actual territory fought over has no basis in reality. but no historically based campaign could posstbly accommodate such a diverse selection of force. it is still possible for players to compete against each other over a campaign so long as all involved are happy to accept the necessary abstraction. either a formal club or an informal group of friends who routinely get together to fight battles. It would cake a fairly substantial book to explore these in any detail. witH n tfrrust to rhe centre ~ liis /Jdfy.II!] His shmy swora. The campaign may be thought of as taking place on a newly discovered but suitably Large island or in some sparsely populated and generally unexplored land. The fighting takes place over a fictional or imaginary land. . In this sense. Once the campaign is underway new players can join at any time simply by generating three new random territories from the chart. and other strategically important features called territories. To begin the campaign. For example. and can be thoughr of as being Linked together by hinterlands of plains and farms. you can pool resources to buy scenery or pay for the hire of rooms. mrew fiis penl' at Peinu . and encompassing large areas of wilderness. He fd((etf (jim. These players can still fight each other using the Ancient Battles rules. A player's territories represent the key strategic places in his empire. Republican Rome. Each player must keep a record of his territcrtes on a sheet of paper or in a notebook which will serve as his campaign diary. then why not in a campaign. One of the most entertaining group activities is to organise a campaign or league. die Aetafimt. each player generates three random territories from the chart shown over the page. and why nor in a sprawling competition pitching these cultures against Romans. Players can drop in.Then Thoas. of the campaign at any time. Celtic Britain and Saxon England. There are many advanrages to forming an association with other players. ILIAD The campaign is also arranged to allow those taking part to play each other as and when they wish. Players can swap troops amongst themselves. the situation can be thought of as more realistic [han a campaign fought over accurate modern maps which were in reality unavailable to ancient generals. Campaigns of exploration into (he unknown were undertaken on more than one occasion by the ancients themselves. many will by hundreds If not thousands of a group of players can campaign using forces The disadvantage of you really need two some players will find have armies separated years. Greeks and whatever other armies players happen to own. or even start afresh if they want to do so. CONQUER AND EXPLORE! STARTING A CAMPAIGN Most veteran players belong to a regular gaming group. or out.

from which to draw more horses. Each time two players fight a game they choose an army of 1. or else sources of some other precious material such as lapis lazuli.hill tribes and other wild communities providing the bulk of such troops.500 points. although a player must stick to tbe same army . but you can name these too if you like: Shrine of the Delphic Oracle. and attracts settlers and reinforcements from back home. Villages and other territories don't demand the 'Same degree of emotional attachment. N.nclude more unless the player controls fortresses. etc.imperial Romans. An army may include light infantry or light cavalry regardless of whether the player's territory includes mountains/forests or not. Mo. Mines produce occasional points value bonuses. Temple of Zeus. In ancient times fortresses included chariot compounds. and stables.An army cannot include war machines unless the player controls forests to provide materials to build machines and fuel furnaces. although you might wish to stan: with armies of 1. but players can agree a lesser or greater value as they please. the town of londin. NAMES AND PLACES When you generate a town. War Machines chosen [0 1500 points (or whatever size you have agreed) and larger standing armies can only be assembled by taking control of bridges. excluding any chariots driven by a permitted General or characters.500 points. This is the base or starter value of all the armies involved.unt Olympus. and so 00.An army can include no more than one unit of no more than ten cavalry.000 points if players do not have large established armies already. 1b begin with each player is restricted follows: in his choice as Characters/Leaders . jade or amber. it is not JUSt any old settlement.An army must be led by a General chosen from the army list.ARMIES Before the campaign begins the parrrclpating players agree a suitable points value to start with. 1b represent this armies are . wins local nobles over to hiS cause.finerruResouxces Mineral resources are mines which produce occasional windfalls of gold or silver.ium. The players may agree further restrictions amongst themselves for each battle as they wish.An army can include no more than five chariots. Skirmishers . roads and passes limit access for your armies. acquires riches. Cavalry .An anny may not include skirmtshers unless the player's territory includes mountains or forests . Strategic Features Strategic features such as bridges.r settlement real identity and character.500 points. After all. ports or fortresses. Chariorry . allowing you to increase the size of your army next lime you fight. and cannot i. A player may only field larger armies by conquering more terrltortes. A reasonable starring value is 1. Otherwise the army may not include characters or unit leaders unless the player controls villages. As the player expands his territories be also expands hts army. Armies are chosen from the player's Ancient Battles army list with the additional restrictions described below. A name from history or an appropriate sounding name you have Invented will give you. roads and passes. ARMY RESTRICTIONS The number and type of troops that a player can field is restricted by the territories be controls. port or fortress you should give it a name. Standards . .An army may not include either a Battle Standard or unit standards unless the player's territory includes shrines or a temple. it is the mighty fortress of Kadesh. excluding a mounted General or characters. Greeks. For purposes of explanation we'll assume players enter the campaign with 1. workshops. Persians. and cannot include more unless the player controls plains . Forces are chosen afresh for each banle. or the port of Tyre. [Owns.

POll rs total of your :umy for each Bridge under your can tIO I. allowing you 10 temporarily expand the size of your armies. me. R<. not a permanenr boost to the army's polnts value. 1b rep resent this add + 2 D6x 10 poi nts 10 the . The more plai ns your em pire j nclu des the more cavalry fOU can fleld_ . To represent this the value of Roads is doubled if you have s POrt. arm)' (le. prospectors have discovered a gold or silver mine amongstiae mcurualns . Roll '0 determine how many chariots are allowed when you generate the Fortress. This method of rolling TWO dice is referred to as 3 '066 roll'. con trol. An event is not a rerrlrorj.TERRITORY CHART (D66) Each player keeps a record of his territory from the beginning of the campaign. 63~64 Forest 31-35 U your empire Road Includes fl Road you can move troops more qulckly to meet the enemy. If you have ~ "lbwn under your control your heroic character. To determine which of the two player's empires is stricken by it both players roll a D6. 1 addnton you can recruit woodsmen. Each player generates three irutlal territories. Without Mou mai <15 O~ ForeSIS you cannot include such rroops in your army. entitling you to numerous leaders. Note that this is a one game bonus. If both players roll the same scores then both must roll for a separate event.. The Port encourages maritime contracts and provides a base for your "ary. 16-24 Village A Po rr em! tl es you (Q include a character ill lhe same way as a [Own. Roll when [he Pass is generated [0 fix its value. If you roll a 6 then the miners have s tru ek gold (or perchance silver) and cas h n ows I nto yo ur coffers! I'll e next rime yo ur army ftgh IS you may add D6x50 polnrs to irs value. See below for 3 desert p non of th e i\1ine rerrnorj. 11~13 Shrine 51~53 If your empire Mountains for each Shrine YOII control your army Can include D3 unit standards (Ie 1·2= I. "lb represent this add + D6xlO points to the permtued points total nf your army for each Road you have. so if you generate a Spy generate another territory trnmedtarely If generating a new cerrltory after a bante. Your empire can include several Shr: nes.-. Also. 10 represent 'bis add +3D6dO points [0 your army for each Pass under your control. Wltb the support of ships your armies can movel further and faster. Your empire can Include several Villages. for each Village under your control your armycan include D3 unit leaders. who then rolls On the Events table to determine what has befallen hls empire. n "lIo"'.you gain a Mine territory in addition 10 any territory won as a resuh of your victory. includes Mount'li" rerrtrory your army can include ski rrnish ers chcsen from yo ur army lis t. Wimout Mo. The first dice roll represents 'tens' and the second 'units' to give you 3 score of between 11 and 66.bich a Village is needed) Temple is required).mins or Forests you c nnot include such troops in your army. 66 Eve. If your Empire includes" Mine then there L. The event ha ppe ns to the lowest scorl ng player. n te rri tory you control you may i nclude a further 10 + D6 cavalry models in you. 14-15 Tem.. players can conveniently make all their rolls in the presence of their opponent after the gllme is finished. The more Forrresses your empire includes the more characters and chariots you can field. then its value increases by a further D6dO points [0 re present }'Ou r expan ding. If yo u control a Forest your aTInY ru-ess u enr supplies of wood ro include war machines chosen from your army list wuhout further resrrlcuon. When generating your Initial three territories "vents are Ignored ahcgether. n Pass you are able to move troops through to reach the enemy. but nor other Jende rs (for Or a Bartle Standard bearer (for which a more To\vns you howe the more characters A Trade Rome encourages fcrelgn coruacts and enables you to negotiate with local rrtbes and adjoinlngculrures. 3-1-2 & 5·6=3). You have a well establtshed network of spies and informers. 65 SpY 36·42 Bridge If you control a Bridge you are able [0 move [(OOPS rapidly imo stra teglc a reas. banle. If you Slake It as a territory in n bartle and win. As additional rolls are needed after each game. ·10generate a territory roll two ordinary 06's one after the other.ng you [0 include skirmishers in your army. The YOUl"army can include. Roll when the Road is generared [0 fix Irs value. A note book or campaign diary is ideal. Any further dice rolls required must abo be witnessed by another player. YOu can only re-rollone newly generated territory per rurn. 44~46 Plains A natu ". See the speclal ru les bel ow. 55-56 Trade Route 25 Town army can include a single ". for eacb PIa..nt 43 Pass If you control. and his dice rolls must be witnessed by at least one other player. then add + J 10 the number of standards your Shrine allows. .>IIwhen )'OU generate rhe Shrine \0 d erermi ne bow many stand ards it en ti rles you [0 have _I f you win a gam" and capture ·0.ple 54 Port YOur empire can only include on" Temple: if you generate a second either count It as a Shrine or roU again.1 have finisbed .I disas rer.<: Of more enemy standards. A FocO"'e~s enntles :lI1 army co inclu d e a fu rth er 10 + 06 charters (ie. Roll when the Village Is genen ated to determine how many leaders it entitles you 10. or some othe r U nexpecred event has occurred. n·l6} in ~dc!!ipll to the basic allowance of J O. and you niusr accept the result of the re-rott even if it is 'he same territory again. and can be used to keep a separate record of your troops' performance and anything else you may wish to remember. Roll a D6 fur each Mine after )'01. A Temple entules you to mclude a Battle Standard Bearer in your army. 1I·] 6). fortified towns permit < armies cntltled [0 them to include more chariots than the basic five IIIre ady allowed. Spies arc not tcrritory. Your ernpi re indud es Pial ns suitable for breeding and reari n g horses. bur the bonus for captured standards can "nly be ea rned by one Sh ririe ar a Lime. human ca tastro ph e. Roll [0 determine how many cavalry are allowed w hen Y"u ge nerare the PI al n. so if you roll an event generate another territory imm"diatdy.c 26 Fortress A Fortress is n rorrlfied [Own and enrnles you 1<> include a character in the army in me same ""'y as a Town. the spy is autornatlcally gained by the winner in addltton to a further territory. In addItion roU a D6 each time Y"u win a battle.. 1'''" 61~62 Min.. Roll wlren the 6r:!dge is generated [Q fLX irs value. On [be score ofa ·6. a chance it will provide extra wealth. Events only occur when generaung a new zerrlrory after a battle. The opportunltes rhus presented allow (Q re-rnll on this chan should you wish..

To generate an event roll 206 and consult the chan below.on the score of a 4 or more relations are back [0 normal and you may u e your roads again. or Caesar's horse (as you fancy) has reduced your foreign policy to ratters and sent allied ambassadors scurrying borne. An earthquake destroys your Temple. If the destruction leaves you with less than three territories. However.this penalty applies only for one game. burning and looting outlying serdernenrs and causing widespread unrest. Carrie and horses starve or die of thirst. If you have Pons then roll a 06 for each. roll for each Plains territory in your empire. and your VIllages and Plains remain useless. This is bad enough . Each time you lose a game the revolt spreads (Q one further settlement. 11 Corruption Corruption amongst self-serving officials siphons off money which might otherwise be spent on building programmes and on your army. 10 Earthquake 5 Fire! Fire breaks om in one of your Towns or Forrresses Jf you have more than one such settlement randomly determine which is affected The settlement is burnt to the ground. A scandalous incident involving a diplomat and the pharoah's daughter. anarchists. On the score of 6 or more the settlernenris rebuilt and is returned to your empire once more. Pons and Fortresses are reduced to VUlages on the 06 roll of a 6. toppling it to the ground. If you have no Temple the earthquake destroys one of your shrines instead.EVENTS (2D6) Events introduce the unexpected into your campaign! You cannot roll an event when generating your initial three territories. On the score of 4 or 5 the Pan is reduced permanently [0 Village srarus. Until it is rebuilr you canner COUll[ rhar Town/Fortress as pan of your empire. If you have several Shrines determlnc which is destroyed at random. and you cannot count it as part of your empire the next rime your army fights . hill tribesmen. POrts or Fortresses is destroyed. Bridges and Passes. next nme you win a game the revolt is crushed. Roll a D6 for each Village in your empire. . 12 Volcanic Eruption An eruption of unexpected and extreme violence destroys one of your major settlements. Crops fail and grasslands wither. your people really are revolting! The population of one of your Towns. The governor has been driven our. These territories are permanently lost. 2 or 3 the port's activities are temporarily disrupted. In addition you must abandon 03 territories of your choice. The corrupt officials must be rooted OUt and replaced by men who are honest and trustworthy. Roll a D6 and add + 1 if you WOn the game.it is lost to your empire! Also. Randomly determine which of your empire's Towns. Towns. If you roll an event which does not apply. herds are driven off. or nomad raiders run rior through your empire. or religious zealots (take your pick). chieftain's wife. Trade is suspended and armies muster on the borders. On the roll of a 1-3 the drought continues unabated. for example. you do not have the territory affected. republicans. then you have e caped its effects. On the score of a 6 it is destroyed completely and remains an abandoned ruin for the rest of rime. Continue {O roll after each battle you fight until the drought is ended.the territory is lost to your empire. Fortresses or Ports is up in arms. The Temple is lost to your empire. On the roll of a 4 or more the territory is plundered.you can choose which. tamping out corruption takes time. On the roll of a 6 it is destroyed. but SUbsequently an event can be generated on tl1Cappropriate roll after each battle. burned [0 the ground and its people massacred . 8 Drought 3 Pirates Pirates arrack sbtpping and raid your ports. 9 Mine Exhausted One of your mines is exhausted and must be abandoned.but to make matters worse the revolt can spread. and the settlement is now in the hands of a rival dynasty. Meanwhile it does not entitle you [Q include rhe usual characters or chariots in your army. Prolonged drought has spoiled the harvest. Pass or Bridge territory in your empire. After your next battle roll a D6. and aLI revolting settlements are brought back under your control. Randomly determine which 'lawn. Because the [Own is in revolt you cannot count il as part of your empire when choosing your army. 6 Revolt Yes. On a 1. whilst people flock from the countryside into the towns which have grain stores and deep wells. If you lose your next campaign battle the revolt spreads to another randomly determined settlement C[own/J>on/Forrress/Village). Whilst corruption reigns you lose the points bonus of all Roads. ext time you fight a campaign game you cannot count any of your Villages or Plains as part of your empire. decimating the population and laying waste to your empire. On [he score of 4-6 the drought has ended and your Villages and Plains are restored. if you have several mines randomly determine which is no longer of any use. Whilst [his siruarlon continues you cannot use any of your roads. burying it beneath tons of ash or sending it crashtng into me sea. rebellious lord. From now on each rime you win a battle roU a 06 . and giving rise to rumours of divine disfavour. Corruption continues to drain your resources until you have fought one battle for each each Road. For each battle you fight from now on you recover the bonus of one of the affected territories . Roll a 06 for each settlement territory in your empire. farms destroyed and the lands rurned into a barren wilderness . Test after each game you play to sec whether the Town/Fortress is rebuilt. 4 Raiders Brigands. 2 Plague 7 Diplomatic Scandal Bring our your dead! The plague has stricken your people. king's youngest son. then you must abandon any remaining territories and roll three new ones: your people migrate far away from the plague and lake up residence in a new land. Fortress or Pan bas been affected. Villages are destroyed on the 06 roll of a 4 or more.

even though their points values may be different because the players hold different territories. The number of terrttories held by each player indicates the slze and power of his ernpire. Your spy network is uncovered and destroyed. Should he acqutre a second it is ignored. The assassin strikes 03 automatic hits against the victim at Strength D6. if wou nded he starts the game with the number of wounds inflicted by the assassin. If slain the character is removed from [he enemy's army. If playing one of the battle scenarios which is not evenly matched to begin with. in a Last Stand the proportions are 2:1 so the attacker uses all his army and tbe defender uses half his army. paying him to hold back from the fight. represenungencouncers along their common borders. At the start of each turn the enemy must roll a D6.SPIES (D6) Spies represent agents and sympathisers in the enemy's ranks Of amongst his people. and outright wars of conquest. Note thar spies cannot be staked in this way . A saboteur in the enemy's camp hamstrings the horses and sets fire to the baggage. intrusions into their rival's territory. I Spy Uncovered 4 Sabotage Your spy is intercepted and slain. invasions of his empire. lf the unit is sktrmtshers or allies it will do nothing on a roll of 1 or 2. You have bribed an enemy officer who has a grudge against his General. Before the battle both players must choose one of their territories to stake. ff you have a spy network then you can use it to conduct acts of sneaky espionage before a battle. Nominate one enemy unit as being under the command of the bribed officer. Roll a dice before The first turn. Pick any enemy character as the target. If you wish you can determine [he effect of your spies at the stan of a game. At the start of hls first tu rn th e en e my rolls a D6 for each of his units.no effect. Lf the target is the General deducr 1 from your dice mil because he is better protected. 5 Bribery 3 Assassin A conspirator in the enemy's ranks attempts to slay an enemy character 011 the eve of battle. but nor until he hali revealed deratls of your entire spy network. For example. Roll a 06 to see whether your assassin gets past his bodyguard: 1-2 the assassin is discovered and killed . . Each player uses hls entire army for the battle. FIGHTING CAMPAIGN BATTLES Players are free to fight each other as they wish. Also. A unit which rolls a 1 is suffering from the effect of poisoned water and cannot move or shoot ill the first tum. Otherwise it is u naffec ted. For each model removed in this way the enemy can add one infantry model of JlO greater value to an existing infantry regiment. it is suggested that each player's army be reduced in proportion to the points values normally allowed. 3-6 you reach the target. 2 Steals Maps A treacherous servant in the enemy's camp steals maps belonging to the enemy general including plans of troop movements and supply lines. A5 players win games they will gain more territories as described below. Roll a D6 for eachcavalry model or chariot in the enemy's army On a roll of 6 remove the model. If you win the battle you are able to exploit this knowledge by annexing a valuable pan of his empire.on a roll of () it is destroyed. and 00 the roll of a 1 that unit will do nothing that turn unless it is alreadyengaged in hand-to-hand combat in which case it will fight normally.ooly territories. To represent this the enemy must change the territory he has staked to one of your own choosing. A player can only ever have one spy network at a nrne. 6 Poisons Wells Your agents have poisoned the wells in the vicinity of the I" ne my cam p. Each player nominates the terrttory to be staked before the game begins. TOU a D6 for each war machine in the enemy army .

or whatever your standard army size happens to be. this is a matter of prefer-ence rather than a strict rule. After all.BATTLEFIELD The territories staked by the players can be used as the basis for working out the terrain on the battlefield U players wish. supplying men and horses for the invading armies. To represent this incursion both players use armies with a total points cost of 1. THE PLAYER'S EMPIRE The player's territories encompass his growing empire. Ltis far too large and forbidding to be taken over by an enemy . Imagine how the battle is a clash along the players' common border. though he can choose which to keep and which to give up. and Rameses can match his wits against Ghengis Khanl STEPPE NOMAD ARMIES Ancient steppe nom. 10 SPECIAL CHARACTERS In a campaign it is a good idea to put special characters aside and let your own characters develop as the campaign progresses.ad armies are based around cavalry. through territories controlled by the rival armies. A campaign can conceivably go on indeflnitely. It cannot be staked when the army fights a battle.<1 campaign. In this way a winner can be declared. the two staked by the players at the start of the game and the new random territory. . Also. regardless of which territories are used to choose the armies. If the winner takes his rival's territory the loser is assumed to have been forced back into the newly generated territory. and it also makes it easier for a newcomer to join in the campaign later 00. ircannot be raided by underdogs as described later. and Saxons can fight Assyri ans . A player who wins more territories than the pre-set maximum must abandon excess territory. when choosing armies both sides are permitted to use only three territories. trough the enemy empire and retreats back into the raider's own land. and have . The player who wins the game retains his original territory and selects either of the two remaining territories to add to his own. then Caesar can cross swords with Alexander. so the enemy must be metwith troops drawn from the local area.representing the vastness of the steppes from which the horsemen come and to where they can return at will.<1 very difficult time acquiring them from the territory chart! To compensate for this. The steppe represents the massive hinterland that lies behind the advancing horde. and a fresh campaign can begin. If using the Scenery Generator table to set up the table. A good way of ending a campaign is to allow the first two players who acquire twelve territories to play a 'deciding battle' IO establish the ultimate victor. This can be his rival's territory or the new one. However. Ir is entirely up La the players to set a limit on the number of territories an empire can include. BIBLICAL ARMIES Biblical armies are based around chariots. you might allow each player to set up one item that represents his territory rather than rolling randomly. and such armies would find life very restrictive if they were permitted to field only one unit of cavalry. We suggest that players do not use the special characters described in the Ancient Armies supplements when playing . Once the winner has selected his extra territory the loser takes the territory that is left.e strange and will certainly affect the progress of the army! In a rald both players must stake one of the three terrttories used to choose their armies.500 points. This helps to even up battles between players with disparately Sized empires. and it is never affected by events. but often it is better to end the campaign once a player has established a dominant position. If both players have the same amount of territory roll a dice to decide who gets the new territory. These represent the path of the raid as it penetrates. if one player stakes a Bridge and his enemy stakes a Forest. then his enemy can raid his sprawling empire. RAIDS If a player has rwice as many territorlesas his opponent. WINNING TERRITORY After the game is over an extra territory is generated from the chart. and players can agree amongst themselves whether such characters will be allowed or not. We have found that twelve rerritories is a reasonable maximum for an empire. a raid the player With the fewer territories is assumed to be mounting a surprise raid upon the more powerful player's empire. For example. To get round this such armies begin me game with one special Steppe territory plus two randomly generated territories. There are now three territories in the melting pot. If the winner takes the new territory then the battle has determined which side will possess this new land. No extra points can be added to either side. They cannot stake another territory. In the event of a draw both sides retain their staked territories and the player with the least territory gains the new one. all biblical armies start off with a fortress as part of their initial territories. then the table might include a river and could reasonably be assumed to be heavily wooded. The presence of Julius Caesar or Alexander the Great in your campaign may seem a lirtl. The Steppe territory allows the army to include an unlimited number of cavalry models. depending on how long you want the campaign to last for and how large you want the forces to grow. if Hittites can meet Romans. The remaining two territories are generated randomly as normal. This unexpected raid gives no rlme for rhe defender to muster larger forces or to bring in special troops from elsewhere.

and an imaginative umpire can make a big contribution to a successful campaign. shipwreck or some other interesting place. ndoubredly the initial re trictions will penalise some armies more than others. representing the competing armies dashing as they head for their objective. An umpire can be one of the players. territories are raked and won in the normal manner. The umpire can interpret the rules and improvise new ones. and lists the players and the amount of territory they now control. A good way of doing thi is [Q wait for two players [0 win a predetermined number of territories and then have them playa game to decide the overall winner. Another option is for dtfferenr players to take it in turns to be umpire. The random acquisitions of territory will. Finally. bear in mind the campaign is not wholly fair or perfectly balanced. pairing off winners until a Single . but most players would agree things go better if a person is nominated as overall umpire. mocks the defeated. the umpire might announce the discovery of an ancient shrine. to encourage interest in the discovery. or he can be someone who devotes all his time to running 'the campaign and does not play himself. ruined city. Far example. POSITIVE UMPIRING An umpire can also ensure that players don't deliberately avoid fighting enemies they fear will beat them. and generally keep the campaign going.RUNNING A CAMPAIGN You don't need an umpire or controller to run a campaign as described. spread rumours. sharing the burden equally. keep the players informed about forthcoming battles. The ultimate winner receives the special territory instead of randomly generating a new territory as usual. He lnvents some suitable rules for the territory. The newsletter can also be used to announce local events and new discoveries. JUSt as in any other battles. victor emerges. and he can impose penalties on players who fail [Q show up for barnes. inevitably favour one side or another. whilst a good campaign umpire will be able to even things out without displaying blatant favouritism! CAMPAIGN NEWSLETTER The most useful thing an umpire can do is publish a regular campaign newsletter which summarises the battles fought over the previous week. Perhaps he can remove territories to represent the unopposed rampaging and pillagingl The umpire can also draw the campaign to a close once the players start to lose interest or one player gains ascendancy. The opportunity to play God is probably as much fun as actually fighting the battles. This does not matter too much. The e structured games can be set in specific places Invented by the umpire with special scenarios and rules concocted by him. Players who wanr to investigate are invited [0 submit their names to the umpire who then draws the players into random pairs. perhaps spreading different rumours to different players. and invent special events. Victorious players can place notices of [heir success and ridicule their enemies. Lt isn't and is not supposed to be.

wnw hotn ~irics wen! inJu{{ view eacH OCHer. much better! Of course. and gradually progress to become hardened veterans.5 tllld. LOSING STATUS Once a unit becomes veteran it keeps its status from game to game against all players in your group until it is broken as a result of defeat in hand-to-hand combat or until it is destroyed. ill fieariron!JJught ro the very wa{fs Ctesipko«. 4.f ro tfie veat oj a11 ampaeslic 1·{i!Jtfim. you cannot re-roll a lousy re-roll no matter how much you might want to! The most bonuses a unit can earn is three. the player takes the chance of I'Olling an even worse set of scores. Invent a name that will always act as a reminder of your opponent's humiliation! For example.jo(rOwea fian! on tlieir (jeers. tlie quicker 0111' ml!flJorceri rficl1Ise{ves inro die enemy's nne tlie (ess tHey were eryosed to the rianger from arrows. VETERAN UNITS If a unit of troops ends the game in possession of an enemy standard then it has proven its mettle in the heat of battle. 5 and 6 which equals (for the sake of argument) 5 hits. to the nCig{j6outill!J Our rrorys.Jairly miserable stuff from sucb a pouieefu! unit. Eattre versus Persians at Ctespfion . However. fiacking af tfieil' ( carves anri (jacks. 2. PigraHes. a cohort of 24 models might earn its veteran bonus and survive the game with 14 models intact. It will then revert to normal status automatically. ~--~--~~----~--~--------~~~. and Narses. and guards. The unit'S full strength is established at 24. CASUALTIES ON VETERANS Veteran units will suffer casualties during battle bur this does not reduce [heir status unless they are broken or wiped out for whatever reason. The demise of one of your old veteran units i always a sad occasion ~ aLthough nor necessarily for your opponent. All units start Out as basic trained recruits. with their own bonu es as follows. He fijnuc!f Itari been Hit ill tnt: shouMer 6!J at! arrow. 60tH S1riesJo U!J nt lia fIt(. aud ) fieJem'eri tnat if 01·11' met1 ill their maal'usH !Jot within ( rfie circuit'!! tne wa{{s (mri (ou{a_finri tro way out tfiey l\lOIl{ri have veen overWHe(mea 6!J sheel' weight rj Ill1ellfY IlII1t1VCrJ. three or more 'to hit' re-roils per game. They become veteran characters. representing the very best of elite troops. seasoned warrior. tlie SHrena. note down that the unit has an elite bonus on your army roster and tick it off or draw a line through it when me bonus has been used. ' courge of the Hittites'. 2. =» 0/ VETERAN CHARACTERS Just as an army bas its battle-hardened units its characters can also gain renown in the eyes of their troops and develop beroic qualities. the unir must re-roll all of its dice (nor just [he failures) and must abide by the second result. This will allow the unit tWO. 1. the Romans itl their gfealtli11g Cf·estea hc{mets arivanceri s{owry SWill!Jill!J rlicit' s{iie{rfs. and 6 scoring only 1 hit . In tHe emf. but it cannot ever be fielded at more than 24 models. tficy wourri have 6roketl into tfie city a(orrg witli tfie routed enemy.!pid yace. a veteran unit oj six Norman Knigbts roll 1. as !. 'Gaul Crusher" and so on. or fewer if me player wishes. only one bonus can be used at a time. 0/ 0/ BUILDING STATUS A veteran unit can capture more standards and become even more elite by gaining more bonuses. To help keep track of whether or not you have used a bonus.. wnirfing dourfs rfi~st GOveretf tlie wHofe Jiefri SfiOlHill!} tfieir tradlri0l1ar war-cries auri itlpireri v!J tHe Mare rj r-ru "pets. aHa arove tfie wno{e army witli its vest !]ulCrafs.. Thus. was hustj in rehyorcifl9 weaKyoints ana 1i011l1riill!} out {a!1!Janfs. The player decides to use his elite bonus and re-rolls tbe dice scoring 2. 4. The maximum size of any veteran unit is always tbe size it was fielded at when it earned its first veteran bonus. tnou!J{i GRewise exfrrHJsfcI{ 6!Jj!Jhlilz!J orz a 5cOI'diifl9y{afn Jrom riawl1 to riusk. or warriors of limited experience. This can be a very interesting process for a regular games group or club. wfio tOOK an active SHarI! ill thejghtillg aswdr as directing it. In the next' game the veteran cohorr can be fielded as a full 24 models once more.. PJter t1 y. to -ria 11ri witH pea). s{owf'y atJiI'st atlri tnc1I at a . Meallwni(e !!-IUall. [tlJaet.di~aw H swordS. 2. To represent this the regiment is given an 'elite' bonus together with an appropriate ride 'Bashers from Britain'. However. particularly when playing a new opponent who may nor be familiar with your battle winning 'hard-as-natls' veterans. Players hould alway agree before the game whether veterans are being used. and the rules are ideally suited for incorporation into a campaign as described in me previous section. 3.VETERANS The rule [hat follow allow victorious armies to earn bonuses in future games.'eNmitlal'Y riiscl1ar!1c missires vy tfie skirmisher«. fiari lIOt fAeir commr111acr' VictOl' restrained' tliem witfi fiallri si!J1'Iafs al1ri slioutS.~~----~ 0/ So. flie front Iin« if PersiaHs gave way (mri retreated. If a unit has an elite bonus it can re-roll all of its 'to hit' dice rolls once per battle either for hand-to-hand combat or for shooting. and so must use bis bonus carefully.

' E9!JP11all aC. Tliey aGaPlI{oneti rlleir horses alld chariot» cf fjo{d alld si{ver".r veteran characrer if he isn't named already.rIC tOWtl. FaT example. 06 Result 1 Beloved Commarrder ext time the army fights all units within 12" of the General may add a further + 1 to their combat result. if you prefer. 2 Leadership Bonus Next time the a. (oonl'!! tfie yoSSesSi0115 (It ! £f the cnel1l!J. after which the troops' confidence is shaken and the bonus ceases to apply. The character slays an enemy character of at least equal standing in a challenge (eg. 4 Inspiring Standard ext time the army fights the Bartle Standard will permit Leadership re-rolls for Break tests over a larger area than normal. If not dead he is assumed to be too badly wounded to fight any more.{rfo t/lis rime .m. 6 Victorious Troops The army is fired up by its victories and inspired to greater success. + 110 his Attacks once per battle. is heaped with riches by a grateful ruler and retires to live out his remaining days in peace . 2 Leader The character can add +] to his Leadership on one test made during the game. 3 Mad Dog General Next time the army fights. Once in the battle add + 1 to any combat result. The player must use this ability before rolling the test. The character is with a unit of troops when it captures an enemy standard. a character who has accomplished five beroicfeats can.not afterwards.his Strength characteristic for one turn during the game. You cannot use the bonus to boost a combat result once you've fought. The chart gives a victory bonus which applies the next time the army fights. If you win a battle roll a D6 and consult the chan below. King Slayer. A heroic feat is one of the following. Number Feats 1 VICTORIOUS GENERALS Generals gain veteran status in the same way as other characters. or. This bonus applies for the next battle against any player from your gaming group.Batt{e 0/M8!Jid'tfo You must name you. This does not allow the unit to reroll a failed re-roll from another source such as the army's Battle Standard . The player must declare that he is u ing this bonus before rolling the dice. A character who goes on to achieve further feats of arms may add to his veteran status as described below. Roll this dice at the start of the game to find out what your range bonus is for the duration of the battle. Arrack 3 The character can add + 1 to his Attacks characteristic once during the game. Add D6" to the norma112" effect range. The character kills the enemy Battle Standard Bearer in hand-to-hand combat. re-roll his hits three times per battle. 1. Once during the battle. 3. tlie yeoyfc Nad shut die Ijates. +1 to his Sl1'engtb once per battle. 50 tHey fio'/' dowll !]arments rff dothilT!] (tier{ toqethsr) to hoist tliem '9' into . of Bonus Gained Elite The character become a fearsome fighter and can re-roll all of his hand-to-hand combat or shooting 'to hit' dice once per game in me same way as a unit of veteran troop . . and + 1 to his Toughness once per battle.ll'ua Me!!i. the General can add + 1 to his own 'to hit' roils in hand-to-hand combar. This special ability lasts until a combat within 12" of the General is lost.. and you might like to give him a suitable tide to commemorate his fear of arms. This applies until the General takes a wound or is forced to flee. rne!J wOII{tf have ~ l "y.A character automarlcally gains a bonus each time he accomplishes a heroic feat. Now auf!} Ilis lIItgemj's arm!} flad nor !}il1el! I!)J llieil' hel!rTJ to 2. no actual dice are rolled and the player is not allowed to use the ability retrospectively once he has failed a test. after which the bonus is lost. he recovers from his wounds. a General slays a General). he can add + 1 to his Leadership once per battle. but in addition they can earn an extra bonus when they win a battle. Antonius Ttrus. one unit within 12" of the General will automatically pass a Leadership based test It Is required to take. 5 Toogtwess The character can add + 1 to his Toughness characteristic for one turn during the game. 5 Famous General Your commander's skills are an inspiration to all. The player must declare he is using [his bonus before rolling the dice.•. For example.'COImt 0/ tlie .re. you can re-roll a failed test but not a failed re-roll. The veteran character must be retired from your army or deemed killed in battle and buried with all due honour. You must commit your bonus before fighti ng the combat . The player must declares he is using this ability before rolling the dice. The player must declare he is using this bonus before hts opponent rolls to establish wounds. .rmy fights you can re-roU anyone failed Leadership based test. For each extra fear the character gains a further re-roll per battle up to a maximum of three times in the same way as veteran troops. LOSING VETERAN CHARACTERS If a character is killed in battle then he might not necessarily be dead.. 4 Strength The character can add + L to . g r( 'Tliey_f(eti (uatf(ol1!j to Me!Jititio witli Jaw cfJear.

The follOWing pages have been included wil:h just Ibis aim in mind. we know as well as anyone that when it comes down to it the only way to really appreciate the spectacle of a uiargame 'Ill action is 10 see it.THE WAR BEGINS 1'bu have nClW read all the rules for the Ancient Battles game. Our intention is that prospective players will have gained some idea of what a u/argame is and how it is played. Hou/euer. including some of tbe more detailed rules that allow armies to take part in enti-re campaigns of conquest: Along the u/ay we have discussed some ideas about painting and modelling. - . which we hope will have been of interest to old bands and beginners alike.

as well as numerous examples of painted armies.AT c CE! This section of Ancient Battles is devoted to the ancient army on the tabletop. circa AD 395 . cavalry guarding their flank against Median cavalry. Nigel Stillman. and Aly Morrison. It features models from the collections of the authors. On the following pages you'll find painting tips and hints on making scenery. circa 450 Be A Pictish clan defend their brocb against a later Roman punitive expedition making a foray beyond Hadrian 's Wall. supported A Phalanx by Thessalian of Greek Hoplites advances against Persian infantry. as well as fellow garners Dave Gallagher.

Roman Tribune Above: Roman units were identified mainly by their shields. carried oval shields Above: Roman officers such as this Tribune commanded a legion. The army is very well portrayed by the Legionaries. Auxiliaries and officers illustrated here. Auxiliaries with each cohort distinguished by a different colour and design. Left.EARLY IMPERIAL ROMANS T he Roman army of the early Empire around the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD was well trained. He wears a scarlet cloak. . RighI: This mounted while transverse Is clearly distinguished Centurion by his crest. professional and ruthlessly efficient. muscfed cuirass and while linen pterges. Each legion had Its 0 wn unique shield deSign. 98 Roman Legionafles were (jist/nguished by their large rec/angular shields that were designed lor fighting In a densely packed forma lion.

Troopers mighl have wom sI7vered brass helmets with tee tnec ctes ts and bronze scale armour. A Century of 80 men was equipped one of these bolt throwers. Left: A Legionary ballista and crew. Above right: Roman Auxiliary cavalry aspired 10 look dashing.Above: One way of making cavalry officers stena out is to give them while or black horses. Such forces often formed th e garrisons of trontier torts 99 . bul these are recruited from a western province Of have adopted breeches for service In a cold climate. These troooets have particularly striking shields. with This force could represent a small Roman task force or Vexillation. Such a force might have been made up of sections drawn from severa I COhorts and legions. instead of Ihe stands rd issue. Above: Roman Auxiliary archers. such as the Hamians from Syria might wear eastern long robes.