Designed & Developed by Jervis Johnson, Rick Priestley, Alan Perry & Michael Perry
With artwork by Alan Perry, Michael Perry & David Gallagher Production work by Talima Fox & Mark Saunders

Produced By Warhantmer Historical Wargames Ltd.
Warhammer is a registered trademark of Games Workshop Ltd. 'Scatter" dice are a UK registered design of Games Workshop Limited no .. 2017484. Used with permission © Copyright Warhammer Historical Wargames Ltd, 1998. All Rights Reserved. ISBN; 1872372 538 PRODUCT CODE: 60049999010

The idea for this book followed a conversation wirh Michael Perry. Michael explained mat he had just been putting me finishing touches to his late Roman and Pict ranges for me Wargames Foundry; and had promised [0 demonstrate a game using me two armies at the Partizan show in Newark. As we discussed the various rules sets then available we wondered what it would be like if we used the well-known Warhammer fantasy gaming rules. A version of these rules were cobbled together for me game at Partizan, and to our delight they worked very satisfactorily, Since then we've fought more battles than I can remember, each as entertaining as the game we played at Partizan, It soon became obviou that we really had [0 let more people know about Wa.rbammer Ancient Battles. Thus started an odyssey whieb resulted in me reading up about the different ancient armies, writing and revising rhe army lists and playing more than just a few games. This book is the result, and 1 hope that it provides as much inspiration and entertainment for you as producing it has for us. Be warned though, the Wa.rhammer Ancient Battle rules arc fairly complex, However, as Long as you rake the trouble to read the rules slowly and carefully, [think you'll find that they are easy to understand and - far more importantly - to u e. This being said I'd highly recommend that you starr off with a small skirmish using a dozen or so models a side before moving on to a full-scale battle (unlike one of our players, whose very first game involved over a thousand miniatures a side ... talk about diving in ar the deep end!). You'll find the game rules described in an informal style, with points of interest discussed along the way so that the reader can gain some insight into how and why certain aspects of combat are represented. This emphasis on the intent of the game ramer than the stricr interpretation of the rules may come as something of a shock to hardened players used to rules written in a quasi-legal style. Some fiercely competitive players may even find that this leaves rules open to exploitation (yes, that means YOU Xavierl). In my experience, even the most lawerly of game rules fall into this trap, so I've decided to keep the [ext in conversational English and trust to the player's native intelligence to resolve any potential misunderstanding that might arise. As a rule of thumb, if you try to do something and find yourself saying, "Well it doesn't say I can't do this in the rules!", you're probably bending the rules at best and at worst cheating completely! The final point I'd like to make is mat although I find ancient history fascrnating, and while these rules are based on a lot of careful reading, when all is said and done they have been written because I like playing games with model soldiers and they reflect that fact. Put simply, there's nothing r like better man seeing a few hundred well-painted miniatures Laid our on nicely made terrain. Or at least, I like nothing better than this except winning a hard fought battle with said minlarures (rare though such victories are!). This is the reason I started wargarning and wby I still do today. Have fun!

.. 51 5] f-ACING CAVALRY .... ....... BOLT TI-IROWERS 68 HAND-TO-HAND COMBATS HITTrNG WOUNDS THE COMBAT __ 28 29 30 BUILDINGS & FORTIFICATIONS 69 ENEMY To flit Wound ARMOUR REMOVING Chart Chart _ _ __ _ .. SnJBBORN WARBANDS . 38 LEADERS.. HATRED .. 32 RE-SULTS .. . 40 CHARACTERS MOYrNG CIiARACfER CHARACTERS SHOOTINGCHALLENGES HAND-TO-HAND WITH 41 MODELS ...... _ . . 53 53 ..... _ .. .....•. __ _ .... .. _ FRENZY.. _ 40 40 STANDARDS MUSICIANS _ ... Bonus Points Table PURSUIT REDRESS THE RANKS ..•. . _. 9 .. ..CONTENTS CAME RULES THE WARGAME ........J\IIOUR REMOVING Chart CASUALTIES _............. .. BASES ... .•. _ . ... ... 45 45 45 48 SHIELDS - 50 AND ARMOUR UNITS OF WARRIORS PSYCHOLOGY FEAR TERROR _ .. ....... .. .. _ _ . .. ... UNITS _ .. . __ .. . THE TURN MOVEMENT MOVING TROOPS .. ......._ . _ INFANTRY . ..•• 9 9 _ _ 10 11 14 15 52 52 52 _ ...... _ _ ..•..•.... ..... 30 _ 31 _3I 32 CASUALTIES .•... 17 18 20 CAVALRY A SKIRMISH FORMATION . ~ WEAPONS AND ARMOUR WEAPONS HAND·TO·HAND MISSItE ARMOUR AND _ WEA.•.PONS _ WEAPONS _ . .. .... _ ..... THE GAME CHARACTERISTICS WEAPONS SPECIAL RULES __ _ 6 7 8 8 8 _ __ . _. MARCHING .. ... LIGHT TROOPS SKIRMISHERS liGHT LIGHT ... ... . _ 25 25 26 27 THROWERS...... 33 33 35 36 PANIC..•. 61 64 66 _. 40 _ . . LEADERS _ _.......... To Hit Modifier'S Chart 24 . 56 ADOPTING 56 SHOOTING HITTING WOUNDS THE TARGET 21 23 CHARIOTS ELEPHANTS WAR MACHINES STONE 57 _.... _ ... ...... 41 41 42 42 42 AT CI-IARACTERS f[GHTING .... . 54 54 56 MANOEUVRE TERRAIN CHARGING. . . ..•.._ Wound AR........ .. STANDARD BEARERS & MUSICIANS. .


Carry the battle into India or westwards against Rome. 0.GAME RULES Using the rules and ideas in this book you can join the great commanders of tbe ancient w01'ld and reiiue again their dreams of conquest. March with Hannibal across the Alps and see if you can topple the power of Rome when! the Cartbaginians failed. Cbariots roar and crasb as the two greatest empires of biblical times struggle to establish their dominion over the Near East. the greatest emperor Rome never held. until now! If your sympathies lie with the Romans themselves then: . wars. the king of ktngs... Stride across Asia with Alexander and his Macedonians as he wrests control of the Persian empire from Darius. figbt tbe wars Alexander wouLd have fougbt had he lived. Pit YOW" wits against the greatest strategists of the Punic tubat greater adoensure than Caesar's conquest of Gaul. perhaps you'd take the fight to the nortb German frontier with Germanicus .. . Stand beside Rameses the Great at the Battle of Kadesb as he fights to rescue his armies from a devastating Hittite ambush..

Wargaming isn't only about refighting the huge and well documented set-piece battles of history. This eclectic mix of interests is one of the fascinating things about wargaming. the forces of the Greeks and Persians. We acknowledge that for every decisive battle there were hundreds of small actions and minor kirrnishes that are now forgotten. .vee nervous of ambush by the local Caledonians. Amongst their ranks can be found scholars dedicated to researching ancient armies. 1b those who are not already wargamers we extend our welcome to what is a challenging and rewarding hobby. and by the archeological record of outposts and fortification . e. avid collectors of model soldiers. skilled painters and modellers. As bodyguards of the Pharaoh's envoy we. In a wargame we can join Roman patrols north of Hadrian's wall. the Legions of Rome. For those wbo are already wargamers. this book provides a set of game rules which we hope you will enjoy reading and will be inspired to use. if we are feeling brave.THE WARGAME Wargaming is a hobby enjoyed by a growing band of devotees all over the world. barbarian hordes. as Roman soldiers use planks to cross the burning rooftops and fight the Cartbagintans in each room of every tenement. This book is about fighting tabletop battles with armies of model soldiers representing the warriors of ancient times. and expert tabletop generals. tracking down brigand bands or raiders. caught and forced to fight for our lives by advancing Vespansianic patrols on the eve of the Barrle of Cremona. by stelae and border stones erected by victorious arrnie . They are implied by lists of booty WOIl in foreign wars. might journey far southwards [Q punish bandits in ubia and exact tribute from their chieftains. Or we can become part of a foraging party from the illled armies of Vitellius. and the armies of the Dark Ages. of Alexander the Great and his successors. We hope to cover the chariot armies of the Pharaohs and the enemies of Egypt. Encounters along these lines are alluded to by ancient authors such as Tacitus and Xenophon. Warhammer Ancient Bartles is the first in a series of volumes that will eventually include separate source books covering further anny lists. and trust that you will feel sufficiently enthused to take the first step towards mustering an army of your own. Or. Whatever era or nation you choose we wish you victory! . others become proficient painters or modeller and yet more establish their reputations as unbearable commanders. we might join the savage house-to-house fighting in Carthage. for whilst some might aspire to be expert researchers. historical background and painting details for a variety of ancient armies.

one player acting as overall commander while the others help him to move troops and roll dice. and such a game can reasonably be resolved within an evening. Each book is intended to describe the different armies. Later on we shall describe how to go about collecting and painting an army. Alternatively. 4D6 is four dice added together. However. as many of the rules are designed [0 represent extraordinary circumstances.in which case feel free [0 do so. Each covers historically matched armies. weapons. THE BATTLE Battles are fought between two sides and each side is normally represented by a single player. and working out which side bas won are discussed after the game rules. but can still be fought in a long evening. To keep things fair. such as the Romans and their barbarian opponents. Or can be ordered directly from Games Workshop's Mail Order. We suggest that players familiarise themselves with the basic game mechanisms and then get stuck into their first batrle.000 points on each side. one covering Romans and one for their barbarian foes. or wears additional armour. If players are new to the wargamlng there is nothing wrong with simply using all the available . The army list defines which troops the army may have. what weapons they can carry. You can fight any size battle you like. camel or war elephant its points value is increased further. In me game rules and descripuons that follow we assume mat each side is represented by one player. it is usual for serious players to choose armies from an army list. These are referred to as D6 from now on. When fighting a battle both sides choose armies to the same total value. Tbe best 'Way to learn is to play. An army list is a list of all the different troops that form a particular army. When the text tells you to roll 2D6 it is instructing you to roll two dice and add the scores together to get a number from 2 to 12. Each player will also need a tape measure or ruler marked in feet and inches. and so on. 1·800· 394·GAME in America or (02) 9829 6111 in Australia. and if you make a few mistakes to start with. You may want to skip forward now . So. If it rides a hor-se. Scatter Dice and Artillery Dice Warhammer Ancient Battles makes use of rwo special six-sided dice: the Scatter dice and Artillery dice. level surface such as a tabletop. it matters very little and can be easily pur right next time.so long as they are roughly equal in number. Refer to the section on War Machines for more details.000 WHAT YOU WILL NEED TO play you will need two or more players.THE GAME The Warhammer Ancient Bartles game is very detailed and it would be a mammoth task if it were necessary to learn every rule before you begin to play. both sides must their forces. its palms value is increased. two miniature armies. In most games they will not be needed . 3D6 is three dice added together. the army list ascribes every type of warrior a points value. and as many ordinary six sided dice marked 1to 6 as you can lay your hands on. When the text tells you [0 roll a D6 it simply means roll a dice. and includes the army list itself. a Roman army has its own list. deploying the armies. from a few hundred points to many thousands if you have space and time! While discussing armies and points values we ought to mention the forthcoming Warhammer Ancient Battles Armies series of books. and a finn. a painting guide with shield and banner designs. These are used where stone throwing engines are employed as described in the game rules. The list describes the armour and weapons carried by troops of that time. as does a Persian army. detailed special rules for using them. In the same way. Three thousand points will give you a fairly big battle mat will probably last a full day. and machines of war. but this is only a convention adopted for convenience. Examples wargames_ of Ine differeot types 01 dice needed when playing . point battle will take a little longer. This short-hand way of referring to dice rolls saves a lot of space and repeated explanation in the text itself. The better fighter a model is the higher its points value. We have included two army lists in this rulebook. Phone the Games Workshop Mail Order hotllne on (0115) 9140000 in the UK.. as well as any special rules that apply to them in the game.1. a Greek army and so on. For the benefit of players who are new to the wargaming hobby. Fig 1. you can make your own Scatter or Artillery dke by painting the sides of an ordinary D6 white and marking the appropriate symbols on the faces with a felt rip pen. If a model carries more weapons. and their points values.Both dice can be purchased from any Games Workshop store. You can involve several players on a side if you want. SETTING UP THE GAME Suggestions for setting up scenery. A reasonably sized battle is provided by 500 [0 1. A larger 2. CHOOSING FORCES Before choose hobby models you are ready to fight a battle. Fortunately this isn't really the case.

The higher the BS. An ordinary warrior has a Weapon Skill of 3. a horse has no Ballistic Skill (8S) because it is quite unable to shoot a bow or throw a missile! Initiative (I) Indicates how fast a warrior can react. Generally speaking. Some creatures have been given a '0' for certain characteristics which means they have no ability whatsoever in that field. Later we will be describing special rules to reflect the differences between different types of weapons and armour. troops don't fight as a disorganised mob of individuals. or withstand physical damage and pain.. Strength (S) Sbows how strong a warrior or weapon is. In the Roman and Barbarian army lists induded later in rhe rulebook you will find profiles for the troops used by these armies. steadfast. from naked sword-waving barbarians ro armoured cavalry armed with lances and bows. In dose combat Initiative tells us the order in which warriors strike. or object's ability to resist damage. faster or braver than others. a warrior with a Move of 4 can move 4 inches per turn. the easier a warrior finds it to hit witb missile attacks. These are called characteristics. 4 or more. Others are equipped with spears or swords to use in hand-to-hand combat. to lead them. The tougher a warrior is the better he can withstand an enemy's blows. In addition to horses. Most warriors arrack onJy once.CHARACTERISTICS The ancient world witnessed the development of many types of warriors. WEAPONS AND ARMOUR Mosr warriors carry weapons and wear armour. of inches a warrior can move on the tabletop under normal circumstances. the more likely the warrior is to strike a hand-to-hand combat opponent. for example. and have the same weapons and armour. Some are armed with bows or other missile weapons enabling them to strike at a distance. beast. A warrior with a low value is the opposite! Warriors with high Leadership can lead others. as did man-made machines in the form of chariots. and self-controlled. A battle-hardened veteran might have a Weapon Skill of 4.nds (W) This is how much. Some war machines. Large creatures or war engines are often able to withstand several wounds thar would slay a smaller creature and so they have a Wounds value of 2. PROFILES Every warrior in an army has a characteristic profile which lists the value of its characteristics. All characteristics are measured on a scale of 1 to 10. For example. Models with a WS of 0 are hit automatically if attacked by an enemy model in hand-to-hand combat. They fight in properly organised units with officer:. damage a warrior can take before he dies or is so badly hurt he can't fight any more. Most warriors have a Wounds characteristic value of only 1. Although it's true that individual warriors in the same unit may v:ary in certain ways ~ some are probably weaker. The higher the score. All the models in a unit will be of the same type. a unit is made up of troops of the same type. The following example is the profile for a Roman Legionary. A puny warrior may have a Strength of 2 and a mighty elephant may have a Strength of 6 or even higber. or bow determined and vicious a fighter he is. for example. crossbows or even thrown rocks. Units march in disciplined ranks. Wou. UNITS OF WARRIORS On the battlefield Toughness (T) Toughness is a measure of a man.5 or even higher. and they are trained co manoeuvre as a solid block. this shows the number with a high Leadership value is courageous. A 3 Ld 7 Regular Legionary 4 3 3 3 3 Ballistic Skill (BS) Shows how good a warrior is with ranged weapons such as bows. bolt-throwers and stone-throwing catapults. Leadership A warrior (Ld) Mov~entAllowance(M) Often sun ply called move. warriors with a high Initiative score are much quicker and more agile. although some warriors of exceptional skill may be able to strike several times. The higher a characterisdc the better it is. 3. since faster warriors will be able to attack before slower ones. MWS8SS TW Weapon Skill (WS) Defines how accomplished or skilled a warrior is with his weapons. chariots and weapons have a higher Strength as we shall see. Warriors with a low Initiative score are slow or cumbersome. Attacks (A) Indicates the number of rimes a warrior attacks during dose combat. inspiring them to greater feats of valour. it could be a unit of warriors armed with bows and wearing Light armour. we assume that the differences average out over the unit as a. These are usually quite obvious. elephants and camels played their part. Most men have a Strength of 3. creatures and machines in the game we have nine categories which describe the various aspects of their physical or mental make up. To represent these troops. whole. .

rwo. 6eyour! d"aaur. If a unit ha a leader. Wounds.. standard bearer and musician to be in the front ranks. You don't have to use them if you don't want to. 6esid"es 110one (jar! chasm fiis !}l"Olma or yfl'lcca fris TI"OI!}JS more r!iscl"illlilfatiIl90. '1 s{jou(' l'(aa UI!JSCfJ 60tli 6ifore AkxflJlder and" 6ifore Pynfms and" 6ifvrc arr otlier !JtJ1cral"s..2. It is order [Q shoot or . a few millimetres here OJ" there is unlikely [0 make much difference.1. Units can change formation as described later in this book. BASES We recommend thar individual models are glued [Q card or plasti-card bases. The facing rule is shown in fig 2. A cavalry model is treated in all respects as a Single model. askill!] wlioll! HflllllIunf COI!sidill"cdInlra.!! tliar lie (TlII{ been rlic finr to teach rlie art r1 cam'amera1ion. To tfi. When leadership tests are required use me rider's Leadership value.. Wilen [Sepiol AjricatlllS asked" wlio. Base depths are not specified. lt is worth remembering this simple rule right from [he start as it becomes very important once the game is underway. require! . The base sizes below are suggested. so (Oil!)die master III dim (nuJ".1immsclrtufed limllllll liqpes. lie_possessed 11&0 the arttf wi til Iill!} mel! over to Him. and therefore determines how many troops will fight when it comes to close quarter combat. Firstly it stops them falling over. as to . Rg 2. ill Hmmilla('s !!I(IS rlie !p'elltllST gmera{. cliariors ute. Fig 2. ie only what Is in his line of sight. forward from the because a model in front of it. There are two reason for chis.1.e 111m a (IW!)fr mid said 'Wlinr WOll(rf !J0II say !f you Gar! rIifcamd me?' "TliclI.2. three..Xnrlaer. it allows us to standardise the space taken by a model in the ranks.!}illfS. say/I. Rmmil1a( s&ctet{ P!Jrrl1us. or more ranks. the smaller provides compact and denser looking units. tpinion Livy. and you should simply make me base deep enough to fit me model.20111111 wide As Li!)lir Ilgmltry allff Sklnnisliers Or{jer flgaIlN'!J War E. frc named Iiimse!f without liesiratiolJ.' . tandard bearer or musician these are placed in the middle of the front rank as shown in fig 2. Theil Scpio {llv/(. Each rank must have the same number of models except for the rear rank of a unit which may have fewer models than the ranks in from. charioteers. The mount's Toughness. Although horses have a separate profile. so dint tlie Iralii111 YGoy(es yrife1'l-ei me (Qrr!s/ip r:f aJord!)11 XiiI!) to tfrat t1 die Roltlal1l'ctp{e. when me model is attacked it's me rider's Toughness and Wounds that are used. BASE SIZES Cllvn{t"!J and MOlllltedTrol!Ps 20-25111111 wide 20-25111111 wide J5.e nm. FACING All models are assumed to face dlrectly front of their base. Rules for cavalry are discussed throughout the game where appropriate. and Leadership are never used. H(II1I!. rlie kitl!) tf tlie MnCl!lloU1allS. The archer can shoot at only what he sees.1I1i011l lie WO II(I rrmK secona. When we refer to cavalry we specifically refer to horsemounted troops (rather than camel riders. Elephants. WIiCll {je cOllril1lmf. but this takes time as we shall soon discover. Should the rider be slain the entire model is removed from the battle. Formation of a unit of troops allowing for the leader. Some annie also included huge elephants or fast moving chariots. This is important can only see things tbar lie in a 90" arc vital that troops can see their enemy in charge a described later. We recommend the following base widths for 25mm model (which is the scale of model featured throughout these rules. Two sets of sizes are shown... chariots and their riders are covered by special rules described later in this ruJebook. CAVALRY Most of the annie of ancient times included cavalry. If you have an army that is already based there's no need to change it. SecondLy. but are included on its profile because horses might conceivably appear on their own or as pack animal for example. Oil tfie conversation vcrween Joffowill!J Ranuivaf's aifent lit tlie tfie '!"iva( !]etJemfs n/rttfi: 1 Zama.Units move and fight in a formation of one..lie 'pflcrf. and the one we prefer). hectlltse witli 11 smarrjorce he uad"rrmtuf armies illfllwlI:m6te Iilla hum!sl! fie linr! tnll/crser! rlie 1II0st d"immr regions. etc). evell to see wliic.bl1( nallled" A(i!. [he other is more suitable for the larger 25mm figures made by figure manufacturers these days.

the sides .two against each models are Their metal player EXCEPTIONS There are exceptions to the general turn sequence wben things are worked our as they occur miller than in any strict order. with many different armies and endless possibilities. Each turn is divided up into phases during which me player moves all of his units. Inevitably there will be the ado occasion when events can be worked out in one phase or anomer with little real difference.THE TURN Battles are fought between two opposing armies pitting armed might and cunning other. 2_ MOVEMENT During the movement phase you may move your troops as defined in the rules for Movement. be prepared to interpret a rule or COme up untb a suirable rule for yourselves. you're playing to enjoy a cballengil2g battle with friends. START OF THE TURN The rules often call upon a player [0 make tests or actions 'at rile start of the turn'. If you forget.and reasonable solution and gel on with the game as quickly as pass tbie. Note that this is an exception to tile normal turn sequence in that both sides fight. When you come across a situation not flt/ly covered by the rulebook. Mighty war engines lob their cargoes of death towards their cowering foes and clouds of arrows darken the turbulent skies. explormg the ancient ioortd for tbemselves and taking tbe game far beyond the published rules if they wish. THE TURN SEQUENCE When it is your turn ie' up to you to keep track of where you are in the turn sequence. This is ineoitable. When a situation of contention arises agree on a fail. Each turn is divided into the four foi!owing phases. Quite often the actions of one player will trigger some special weapon or the sudden appearance of a particular trOOP type. This is ramer like plunging from a mountain path or Sinking into quicksand consequences resulting from movement which may be conveniently resolved mere and then. counterparts are commanded by you . One way oJresoloing a dispute is to roll (]I D6 to see whose interpretation applies and get on with the battle. and so on: each player taking a turn one after the other until [be battle is over. Eacb player rakes one completeturn. your opponent should be able to remind you. not just the side whose turn it is. 4. roaring with fury and bloodlust as they throw themselves upon their enemy. shoots all his missiles. BE PREPARED TO IMPROVISE Warhammer Ancient Battles is a challenging game. The fortunes of each side way throughout the battle as one side charges and then me other. Remember. and all actions in that phase rnu t be resolved before moving on to the next. These are mostly Psychology tests as discussed in the Psychology section. CLOSE COMBAT During the close combat phase all troops in hand-to-hand combat may fight. we represent this howling maelstrom of action in turns. in a similar way to chess or draughts. These are always completed in the order given below. then his opponent takes a turn. TI)fJ spirit of the game is more important than UJirmingat any cost. Afterwards sit down and discuss what bappened and see if you can reach an agreement in case the situation arises again. followed by me second player again. In Warhammer Ancient Battles. Nor would we want to trj. Player's should feel free to invent and improuise. In a real barrie lars of things happen at once and it is difficult to tell exactly how the battle is progressing at anyone moment. or a particular situation lies outside the rules as they are written. TIle first player then takes another turn. as we can't possibly give rules to cover euery circumstance. actions are performed in a fixed order called rile turn sequence. then resolves all hand-to-hand com bar and 0 on. Within the turn. 1. SHOO11NG During the shooting phase you may fire any missile weapons as described in the rules for Shooting. The forces represented by the commanded by kings and generals. 3. [n a game of this size and Level of complexity there are bound to be some situations where the rules seem unclear. .

The other unit of cavalry is facing the wrong way. DECLARING A CHARGE Fig 3. 3. This is referred to as [he unit's 'charge distance' as explained later. ENEMY INFANTRY Fig 3.2. units will charge. Hemember only one model needs to see the enemy for the unit to declare a charge. you might wish [0 declare that your spearmen are charging the enemy's archers. . like the turn sequence. The first unit of cavalry can see and declare a charge upon the enemy Infantry. you may move your faeces on the battlefield. A unit may only declare a charge if at least one model in [he unit can see at least one model in the opposing unit. To declare a charge you must indicate which of your units is charging. you are never forced to charge. the movement phase proceeds in a strict equence. other 5.to-hand combat without charging.you cannot simply move into hand. to a compulsory 4. The infantry lie within the 90' arc of sight of the elephant so il can see to charge them. REMAINING MOVES Move [he rest of your troops. COMPULSORY MOVES Move troops rthat are subject movement rule.the whole unit is assumed to have the enemy in Sight so long as at least one model can see. A unit can charge up to a maximum distance of double its normal move. However. An elephant charges against a unit of enemy infantry. When you declare a charge you must do so without measuring. It is nor necessary that every charger can see his foe . DECLARE CHARGES If you want any of your troops to charge you must declare this at the very start of the movement phase. charging is the only way troops are normally allowed to move into hand-to-hand combat.MOVEMENT During the movement or move phase. RAllY FLEEING TROOPS If any of your troops are fleeing you may arrernpt to rally them. For example. relying upon your judgement to estimate [he distance. DECLARE CHARGES AI the start of your move phase you must declare which MOVEMENT PHASE 1. so they cannot charge Ihe enemy infantry. If you want to attack an enemy then you must charge . MOVE CHARGERS Move charging troops and resolve movement resulting from the charge.1. and which enemy unit it is going to charge. EKCep[ in a few unusual circumstances explained later in the rules section. The chariot is faCing the wrong way! It can neither see them or charge Ihem. 2.

Work this out immediately . individual troopers bracing themselves for [he inevitable impact. Having declared charges and carried out any charge responses.RALLYING CHARGE RESPONSES Once you've declared all )low' cba7'gesyour opponent declares bow his charged units will respond. or because [hey are disorienrared or confused. block lines of advance and do all sons of other annoying things. MOVE CHARGERS Once any compulsory moves are complete. troops with a normal move of 4" per turn have a cbarge move of 8". Generally speaking a player can move his troops how he wishes within the confines of me rules governing movement. hold. The full rules governing fleeing troops are covered later in the Hand-to-Hand Combat section. [f tile fleeing troops fall their rally test and continue to flee then they are moved next With other compulsory movement. As fleeing usually results HOLD A unit can stand fast and receive the charge. which means the troops come to their senses and stop flecmg in readiness to fight once more. A unit with a move of G" Or less wilJ therefore flee lD6" and units with a move of over 6" will (lee 2D6". Troops are normally forced to flee when they are defeated in hand-to-hand combat or if something else equally traumatic has happened to them. In the rally phase of his turn a player makes a test to determine whether hi fleeing trOOP manage to rally. the player who e turn it is now has tile opportunity to rally any of his !TOOpSmar are currently fleeing. The fleeing unit is repo Itioned facing directly away from me enemy charging. sometimes troops go out of control for some reason. FIRE & FLEE If the charged unit is equipped wltb missile weapons and the chargers are more [han half their charge move away From them. This is the usual response of troops who are not equipped with missile weapons or who are LOa close to their enemy to shoot. The most common kind of compulsory move is fleeing. STAND & SHOOT If the charged unit is equipped with missile weapons and the chargers are more than half their charge distance away. thar it is fleeing it is moved directly away from me charging enemy by 2D6" if its movement rate is 6" or less. orneumes you may find yourself able to charge an enemy in the flank or rear. . the fire & flee option is a combination of both stand & shoot and flee. Work out the unit's shooting immediatdyrefer to the Shooting section for rules on missile weapons. AU compulsory movement is done now before other movement takes place. A charging unit's position at the start of the movement phase determines if it charges into the flank. then troops can shoot at the chargers before turning around to flee. Fleeing troops always flee away from their enemy or towards [heir own base table edge. as can happen if the enemy panics as a result of casualties uffered. either because they are overcome by sheer [error. and is likely [Q give you an advantage in combat. These are statld & shoot. flee. This double speed move is a charge move. then the barged unit" can shoot at the chargers as they advance. The player has no control over the movement of these troop and so these are referred to as compulsory moves. lmrnedlately move the fleeing troops the distance indicated by the dice roll. A charged unit bas four response options. and they always move a randomly determined distance. andfire & flee. However.when your unit sees the enemy thundering down towards tbem they are quite likely LO turn tail and run as fast as they can ill the opposite dlrectionl This is a rather desperate option as once troops begin to run they tend to carry on. This gives troops moving in this way the opportunity to get in the way. Unless the chargers are halted by their fire. The only difference is the number of dice roUed [Q see how far the unit runs is reduced by one to represent the time spent shooting. \Vhen troops charge they move twice as fast as normal. from hand-to-hand combat the rules for fleeing troops can be found in the Hand-to-Hand Combat section of this book. Once the unit bas fired it must flee unless its fire halts the charge. If the rroops rally then they remain where they are but may immediately adopt a new fighting formation facing towards the enemy. Fleeing troops are of no fighting value unless they can be rallied. In effect.refer to the hooting section for rules governing missile weapons. If the charge is successfully halted the shooters will Stand instead. or 306" if its mo e is more than 6". and m:ly run away from the battlefield altogether whether you want them to or nOL As soon as a unit declares COMPULSORY MOVES After the player has attempted to rally any units that are fleeing. rear or the front of the enemy target. it is time to make any compulsory moves that tile rules require. FLEE Flee means just that . the unit must flee after it has shot. representing a run or gallop. it Is time for the player to move any units that have declared a charge. See the Panic section for rutes regarding the effect of casualties. Chargers are moved towards their target in accordance with the rules in the next section. in which case it turns tail and runs as described above for fleeing. This is particularly good as an attack from an unexpected direction might throw the enemy into a panic. For example.

5. Or you can move them as short or great a distance as you like up ro their permitted maximum move distance.where possible charge your enemy in the sides or rear but whatever you do never present your vulnerable side or rear to the enemy! Fig 3. me encumbering effects of weighty armour. These rules apply ro all movement except where otherwise nored. and manoeuvring units on [he battlefield are covered on the following pages. A unit in fronl of its enemy will charge the front.4. obstacles to movement. flank and rear zones extend out from its corners forming four quadrants of 90·. and so cover charging and compulsory movement as well as ordinary moves. CH~~~ R~ FLANK • CHARGE FRONT CHARGE FLANK CHARGE FLANK FIg 3. ss units generally begin the game facing each other this is the most common situation.as we shall discover later! The lesson is .le.If the charging unit is in the target's frontal zone wh n the charge is declared it charges into the front. The rules governing movement.3. all enemy they can see. Although individual models can fight to their from. if in the rear zone it charges into [he rear as shown in the examples below. If Ihe situation is so close you can't determine where a unit should charge then roll a dice to decide. If the charging unit comes from the flank zone it charges into the side. Generally speaking. units which are attacked in the side or from behind suffer considerable disadvantages in combat . a unil to the side win charge the flank.3. Often the position of a charging unit straddles two areas. This ls an important consideration in baule because units can only declare a charge against an enemy to their Iront . REMAINING MOVES Once compulsory moves and charges have been resolved it is time to move the rest of your troops. EXAMPLES OF CHARGE MOVES FLANK ZONE FLANK ZONE REAR ZONE All units have a fronL a rear and flanks as shown in fig 3. sides and rear. hindering terrain. FIg 3. and a unit behind will charge in the rear. . A unit's front. in which case you must judge which area the unit is mostly in. you do not have to move troops at all if you do not wish to.

then it is good practice to agree what you are doing with your opponent before moving your troops. On the whole this need not cause concern during playas it is far better to keep the game flowing than worry about unavoidable imprecision It is recommended that where a move is especially important or an exact measurement is critical. You do not have to move the full rnovernenr allowed or even at all if you prefer. example. most warriors have a movement characteristic (M) of 4 and so may move up [0 4". For The nature of the game. or sii iefr. movement can be as challenging and satisfying as a game of chess. and often decisive part of the game. The odd fractton of an inch will inevitably drsappear as Lines are neatened and models are edged together. and fleeing [fOOPS are discussed separately Moving the armies is an important. Any exceptions that apply to chargers.IOW· NOIre -1" s(adi 1lI1f{flM)!!) Banfea Cmm(rlj AnnoUl' . The table on this page indicates the reduction in move distance incurred through wearing armour. When opposing commanders are well matched. During their move phase. including the movement of chargers and most compulsory moves. A horse without barding carrying a warrior wearing heavy armour and shield would move 7"_ ARMOUR REDUC'J"ION MOVEMENT IN Shidd. MOVEMENT RATE Normal movement rate is defined as the Movement (M) characteristic value of a model minus any reduction imposed for the effect ofencumberlng armour. Units which are charging or marching may move further (see below).a warrior witb no armour can move 4". units can move up to their movement race in inches. .I\fII.'IIH?llr aroue.f mlf{ Lignt . and the horse is wearing barding chen the knight moves 8"-1" for the rider's armour and shield. Light AnllOur or Hc(!v!} A.MOVING TROOPS The same rules govern almost all movement. the varied terrain it is fought over and the stability of the models themselves means it is impossible to be absolutely accurate about the movement of troops. which equals a move of 6". For example. and -1" for the horse's barding. A horse rider can normally move 8"_ If carrying a knight with heavy armour and shield. Because the weight of their gear impedes movement rroops wearmg a great deal of armour will move more slowly. with a shield and uieartng heavy armour he SUffers a penally of ·1" and so can only move 3".

the leading edge of d1C formation moves forward. Fig 3. Fig 3. When you turn a. called reforming. When a unit moves it must maiatain its formation.6. but are turned round through 90 or 180" to face their side or rear. When a unit wheels it counts as having moved as far as the model on the outside of the formation.8. but if it wishes direction then it must make a manoeuvre. F01· example you might wheel2" to tbe left and move 2" straight foru/ard 101' a total move of 4". to change There are three specific manoeuvres which enable a unit to turn about or rearrange its ranks. these models are always automatically repositioned back into the new front rank of the unit. A Fig 3.a unit with a move of 4" must give up 1" to turn for example. The formation can move straight forward as a body perfectly easily. TURN To turn a unit of troops all the models remain in place. turn or cbange formation. this unit has had to move and wheel three limes.7. In addition there is a fourth special manoeuvre.MANOEUVRE Troops move and fight in a tight fonnation of one or more ranks. pivoting round one of the from corners. unit can wheel several times during its move as long as it bas movement left and is not charging. The same unit of spearmen and Is now in three ranks of two. unit containing leaders. forming a unit which we might think of as a regiment of infantry or a squadron of cavalry. The units swings round rather like the spoke of a wheel and completes the manoeuvre facing a different direction. A unit of spearmen facing forward in two ranks of three. A unit which is charging is only permitted to wheel in order TO align itself to the enemy as described later. has turned to face Its flank . To avoid the wood. These are wheel. standard bearers or musicians. WHEEL To wheel. Once you have wheeled you may use any movemem the unit has left. which means thatindividual models are not free [0 wander off on their own. To make a turn a unit must surrender a quarter of its move .

.. Re-arrange the unit into as many ranks a you wish facing whatever direction you want.CHANGE FORMATION A unit can change formation by adding or reducing the number of ranks in which it is deployed. iT 111111111 UNIT ARRANGED IN TWO RANKS Fig 3. A unit whicb reforms cannot move that turn. A unit must surrender unit in two ranhs may increase its depth to three ranks by moving models from the front two ranks to form a half of its move to either add or deduct one rank. . a third line.. Changing forma!ion during a battle will slow down your units considerably. For example.. The order is issued to adopt a new formation. or all of its move to add or deduct two more ranks. and the troops mill about until they assume their new positions. . The player declares the unit is reforming and it regroups into a new formation.9. CU <? ~ UNIT SACRIFICES ITS ENTIRE MOVE TO ADD 2 RANKS UNIT SACRIFICES ITS ENTIRE MOVE TO SUBTRACT 2 RANKS REFORMING A unit of troops can change the direction in which it is facing and rearrange all at once by means of a manoeuvre called reforming. Reforming troops cannot shoot with missile weapons thar rum either . otherwise free to move as it wishes. A unit of troops can reform during its rnovernenr phase as long as i 's not in hand-to-hand combat and is . as it takes the entire movement phase to reform.

If a warrior has insufficient move Left to cross an obstacle he must halt in front of it. such as the following: Incredibly thick woods packed with briars and thorns. It includes terrain features such as rivers. Units can end their movement as long as both ranks are touching it. . steps or ladders. The warrior does not count as halfway across if he has 1" remaining. To simulate this terrain is divided into five types: open terrain. When the unit moves from this position the ranks must be returned to base-to-base contact. Rg 3. a further I" in this case. walls and trenches that troops must clamber over to cross. Where an entire unit of troops is attempting to cross an obstacle the penalty continues [0 apply wh i le any of the models are crossing. lakes. For example. It takes a warrior half of hi move to cross an obstacle. then they must surrender half their remaining move. Fords. Woods or dense foliage. Place the part of the unit which can cross on the far side of the obstacle and Leave the part that could not cross on the other side. hedge or fence ba a gale in il then as umed to be open unless otherwise agreed. If troops are moving at half rate of 2" acres difficult terrain. it is and IMPASSABLE TERRAIN Impassable terrain is terrain so difficult to move through thar it cannot be crossed during the course of a battle. difficult terrain. wreckage. Open Terrain Open terrain is clear ground that doesn't impede movement at all. loose rocks. very difficult terrain. Steep or rreacherou slopes. Marshes. This is fine. streams or shallow water. The penalties for difficult terrain type and obstacles are cumulative. Fractions are rounded up to the nearest half inch to prevent unnecessary complication. scrub and other clinging vegetarian. then their movement over open ground is at full rate and over difficult ground it is reduced exactly as normal. So if a warrior has a move of 4" he must surrender 2" [Q cross a hedge or a wall. It is perfectly possible for part of a unit to end up on one side of a Iinear obstacle and another part to be on the far side. Other types of terrain effect movement as described below. impenetrable swamps and sheer cliffs. Debris. to cross an obstacle. OBSTACLES Obstacles are things like hedges. so he now only moves a furtber 1" through the wood. So if your unit has a normal move of4" it can only move 2" through a wood. boulders. This is balued for tbe difficult terrain. Very difficult terrain reduces movement EO a quarter of the normal rate. If a wall. bogs or thick mud. a warrior moues 2" '{CrOSS open ground and then enters a wood. very difficult or impassable during the course of the conflict. fences. but players can always agree to make terrain features more or less passable if both ides prefer to. Fast flowing but still fordable rivers. on either side 01 an obstacle VERY DIFFICULT TERRAIN Very difficult terrain includes areas that are even more arduous to move through. oft sand. troop: may move through the gate as normal. Players may decide before battle whether certain terrain features will be difficult. Stairs. They will slow down if impeded by obstacles sud] as bushes or woods. Troops must go round impassable terrain. As long as the ranks on both sides are in contact with the obstacle this i perfectly acceptable. but otherwise hills are considered to be open terrain. This type of terrain can include hills if both players agree to it before the game. impassable terrain and obstacles. The unit still loses half of its move until all the ranks have crossed. Troops cross difficult ground at half their normal rate. The method of generating scenery described later can be used to determine whether scenery is dtfftcuk or very difficult. Difficult Terrain Difficult terrain includes the following: Brush. . [f troops move over open ground and difficult terrain during the same turn. He now bas 2" of his move teft. for example.10.TERRAIN Troops only move their full movement distance over unobstructed ground. Almost sheer slopes that need to be climbed on hands and knees.

other troops. and must men flee unless their enemy's charge bas been halted i. Tlie !fulcra( liiJltJlI!f gets arf tHe yraise. Chargers are moved at double their normal movement rate. If they are moving Duel' difficult terrain such as a mudd)' field tbey moue at half rate. A FAILED CHARGE If the chargers have estimated their move incorrectly you may find that chargers can't move far enough to reach [heir intended target.he enemy il halts and is aligned If it is impractical to align a unit properly because of interposing terrain. The unit is automatically wiped out in hand-co-band combat. This is why it is importanr to work OUt missile fire from troops who stand & shoot/fire & flee before moving chargers.CHARGING Chargers are moved after compulsory movement and before the rest of your troops. causing friends within . other models. and troops electi. For example. ALIGNING THE COMBATANTS Once the charging unit is in contact it is autornarically aligned against its enemy to form a battle line as shown in the diagram below. 'In {jan(!:. When a unit charges an enemy the player must endeavour to bring as many models into combat as is possible. Panic tests are explained later in the ru\ebook. directly cowards the intended target then comes ro a halt. rfrcre's. Units already engaged in hand-to-hand fighting at the start of their turn cannot move but must continue to fight in the hand-to-hand combat phase. Once the charger against the enemy unit touches t. wlie/! rne sofrfiers sI1for rniscrav{e aays. If this is the case the charge bas failed If a charge fails the unit is moved its normal move distance rather than its double speed charge. This represents the snooung troops holding their fire until the last possible moment before they ShOOL If your oppOnenL'i flee as you charge then du:y will move directly away from you either 06". See the rules for fleeing troops in the Close Combat section for more details. f Porexample.10. realised that it is impossible to cover [he distance and their movement has petered out as they lose their enthusiasm.. ' Ellt"!pid"es . execute the wheel and measure the distance rhey will need to turn. This can sometimes be achieved by moving the chargers straight forward.12" to take a Panic test. or whatever. distance charged. If the fleeing troops have not moved far enough away to avoid their attackers then they are in deep trouble! Move the chargers into contact with the fleeing troops. Once a unit has completed any required wheel it moves forward towards me enemy and stops as soon as the twO units touch. Your troops have begun to charge. 111is may result in your charge being brought to a halt before contact is made. But wliell if's Qvel~ and' llterory WOI1. This will count as parr of the total. If chargers need to wheel towards their target. whatever the range [0 the chargers at the beginning of their charge may be. caught with their backs turned as they attempt to flee.ng to stand & shoot have done so. Any shooting is counted as being at close range for tile weapon. Before you move a charging unit check that the enemy has declared his response and that troops electing to flee have been mov-ed.o' 6c done. MOVING ENGAGED UNITS Once opposing units are engaged in hand-to-hand combat they may not move until one side or the other breaks and is destroyed. mounted Knights baue a mouement rate of 6' and can charge 12". MANOEUVRING DURING A CHARGE A charging unit cannor turn or change formation. Troops which fire & flee wiU shoot: first. but must make rhe usual deductions for terrain and crossing obstacles.figlirill!J r. or until one side disengages as explained later in the combat rules. Maybe the fleeing troops move too far for the chargers to carch them. Fig 3. A unit that fails its charge can nor shoot "With missile weapons that turn. Make sure you have completed all of your charges before moving. bur often it will be necessary to wheel them slightly at the start of the charge to face the enemy. reducing their charge distance to 6'. CHARGE REACTIONS If your opponents stand & shoot or fire & flee it's possible they may cause sufficient casualties to force a Panic test as you charge in. then it is acceptable to re-align the charged unit as well (or instead) so that battle Lines remain neat. This extra alignment move is free. In the combat phase the entire fleeing unit is destroyed. in which case their charge has f-ailed and the chargers move their normal movement after the fleeing troops. as described later. if a unit can charge 12" it might wheel 4" to bring models to face the enemy and then cbarge up to 8" touiards them.nwhich case they will stand instead. 2D6" or 3D6" depending on their response and movement rate.

F1g 3. With his field of vision narrowed by his position in the ranks. . Panic tests are fully described later on in the rulebook. For example.REDIRECTING A CHARGE ODDBALL A charge can sometimes the enemy.for details of combat results and how rank bonuses work. A unit charged in the flank or rear will lose this advantage as me rearmosr warriors will be concentrating more on defending themselves then being able to help their forward comrades. unil behind.11. If the enemy has somehow got round behind him he might reasonably assume the battle to be lost. The cha rg ers can redi rect Ih a cha rge onto t ha secon d unit Under such circumstances the charger can declare that he will charge the newly revealed unit instead. from the front. t.. . The tatgel unit flees away from the charge revealing if the player wishes. but before moving any troops. Doubt will be sown in his mind and he may become disoriented and confused.-~--- CHARGING UNIT Fig 3. therefore it is only possibly co either flee or bold. the chargers will then be faced by the second unit that was behind it. If he is in hand-to-hand combat already he may panic and flee. Viking Berserkers will leap out of their units and attack as soon as the enemy approach within 8" of them.. COMBAT BONUSES If a unit is charged in the flank or rear by a unit of five or more enemy models then it lose any rank bonuses that it would otherwise have had in hand-co-hand combat. FLANK AND REAR CHARGES TARGET 2 Being charged from an area you cannot see and thought was safe is a frightening thing for even the bravest of troops. side TARGET 2 PANIC Troops who are attacked in the flank or rear while already fighting other enemy must take a Panic test to see if their nerve breaks. This test is taken as soon as it bas been established that the chargers are in range. nits ranked up in depth normally fight better because the troops in the rear ranks are able to phy ically support those in front lendlng their weight co the formation. .12.13. If this new enemy unit is within me chargers' charge move then treat tile situation exactly like a newly declared charge. . The unit of archers in the centre is charged and fear. CHARGING UNIT another Fig 3. r-L . The originallarget has now moved forward 10 reveallhe second unit The charging enemy may now declare that it will redirect its charge towards Ihis new unit if the player wishes. However. It is up to tbe player to say tbat he has out of sequence movements 01· actions to perform at tbe appropriate moment. trigger extra movement TARGET 1 FLEEING For example. thinking the enemy is upon his unguarded back. See the Close Combat rules . This happens out of the normal sequence. STUFF from If your opponent flees it can happen that another enemy unit i presented within your charge range. the average soldier bas only a limited knowledge of what is going on in the battlefield. if rwo enemy units arc placed so that one is directly behind another and the from unit flees. The charge is halted as soon as the chargers move within 8" and the Berserkers are moved straigbt away. me enemy unit may nor stand & shoor or fire & flee because his frontage is covered by his own troops as they flee.

INDIVIDUAL MODELS Models which move individually. Trailing models are placed so that they follow the path of the lead model. at what would be fast march rate for a normal unit. but take. and so forth. in a long Line with models Lined up one behind the other can manoeuvre very easily. a formation five wide by three deep tbey could not. SNAKING A unit on the march COLUMN cannot change formation.If a unit is attacking an enemy [0 their flank or rear it gains the advantage of fighting a formation unprepared to fight in that direction. a fast march is exactly the same as a march and all the rules for marching also apply to it. They can tight whether they are turned Of not. Marching troops move at twice their normal movement rate with weapons sheathed or shouldered. The cavalry unit has arranged itself into a snaking formation manoeuvre more easily round the enemy infantry. In the case of individual models their speed bonus is not due [Q marching in formation. A unit on the march cannot shoot rrusstte weapons during the shooting phase. MARCHING Marching at the double allows troops that are slightly removed from the main fighting zones to move more rapidly. This represents the swift movement of reserves. Except that it is faster than a normal march. can march move in the same way as units of troops.It!} to 1l1!) cOllnt!"!} and m!J c0ll1mal1!e1~' He tfirew f1imse!f into the sea an! stnrte! forward {roward" the snore! with the eag(c. Fig 3. any models couching the enemy may be turned round so that they can fight. such as character on their own. It isn't avery practical formation for fighting. '!ftcr menU!] 011 thc !]ois to Mess thc fc!Jioll tlirou!J/i /iis act. lt is unprepared for combat and any weapons carried are not ready to be used.they are far tOO cumbersome. the attackers receive extra combat bonuses as described in the close combat section.14. fIlcn! Jlln!}1. and helps to ensure that units don't get stranded away from the fighting. We call this snaking. to . at all!) rate.y! T. but in. snarr 10 1119I!. march within 8" of the enemy as they make their move. A unit deployed A marching unit cannot move through difficult or other obstructive terrain or cross obstacles. account of their freedom co move. however. srmu{nrl (iemccr r1 tlie Tlmtf1 Legi011. but it is very bandy for threading your way through buildings and other obstacles. " lllCius Caesar i. TURNING MODELS When a unit is attacked in the sides Of rear. They march at three times the normal rate. but {hey look a bit more hopeful if facing the enemy! Obviously the models may be turned back again should the attackers be dnven off or destroyed. The Lead model is not restricted by troops either side and so can choose a path which twists about. alii when tfte men in tHe next sliijJs saw diem the!) too qUickIy '1\( this criticnr t110mmt 1'(11' jo({owel dicit exan!yfc. This a special type of movement unique to long lines of troops. TNe res: were ~lot !}Oitl!} to dis!]rI1ce tfiemsefves. and the unit is assumed to march to the beat of his drum or blast of his horn. In order to make a fast march a unit must include a musician. They are literally going 'at the double'. This is called a fast march. as you might imagine a column of troops would wheel to follow a curving road. They may. FAST MARCH If a unit of troops is formed into a column no more than three models wide it can increase its rate of march to three times its normal movement rate. breaking into a fun. sliouttuf: 'Come all. 15 troops formed three figures wide and five deep could fast marcb. cliccrill!J wi(Iry they (cepeilowll. It can wheel as normal. Consequently. tt must stop if it comes to these features. heavy chariots and other large constructions such as wheeled siege towers cannot march . For example. avoiding scattered vegetation and hummocks in the ground. mrres! !)OU waHt to fietm!J !Jour stt11!dim( to the ene". War engines. A unit on the march is not prepared for combat so marching is not suitable for use close [0 the enemy Because of this troops may only march if there are no enemy within 8" of them ar the start of their move.

Towering over our miniature battlefield we ace unaware of all this but the troops represented by our models are not so lucky. He declares he is opening fire 017 the nearest enemy unit. The rules for these are covered in a separate section of the rulebook. Troops armed with bows. only the models in the from rank of a unit can shoot. It often happens that some shooters in a unit will be in range of their target whilst others are out of range. The unit of archers spearmen. When be measures the distance be finds the enemy are 17" away.\X1AIllJII RANGE Rg 4. CAVALRY NOMINATE 1 ENEMY TARGET ARCHERS Fig 4. Short range is up to half the maximum range of a weapon.\/'ON i\1. Because of this. can shoot at either the cavalry or the RANGE All missile weapons have a maximum range which is the greatest distance they can shoot. For example. Picture the woods and hedges that obscure vision. Sang ]avcfill 16" 24" 30" 30" 18" 8" .' aminate one of your units you want [0 shoot with and select the enemy target you wish ro sham at. ShoP" BolV CO"!posite Bow LOlIgBow CrossGoa. To represent this a target must lie within a 90" arc projected f. Common sense will [ell you a model cannot fire in one direction while looking in another. and therefore his shot. Long range is between half and (he maximum distance. There is no particular order in which shooting must be resolved. His hail of arrotus falls short of the sneering enemy troops. Models mounted on horses. except as rioted later. morning mists and the haze of dust. FOI· example: Short mnge 101'a short bow is up to 8". stone throwers or bolt throwers. WHO CAN SHOOT The direction an infantry model faces is assumed to be [he actual dtrecuon faced by the warrior it represents. 8" away counts as being at long range. is blocked if there is anything between bim and his intended target. Inrerposing models or scenery will therefore block his line of Sight. Once you have declared your target measure the range and resolve shooting using the rules below. or adler missile weapons may shoot at any enemy target they can see. that sudden fall of ground that hides your enemy and the distances mal blur friend with foe.rom the front of a shooter.2. Missiles lose power and accuracy Long before they reach maximum range so ranges are divided into shan and long. Ifth is is the case then only those mar are in range can shoot and the remainder automatically miss. \\'[. 1£ your declared target Lies beyond this maximum range because you have estimated the range wrongLy. crossbows. This is why you rnusr pick your target before measuring range. Just as their real life counterparts cannot see through hills or hedges we must assume char our models cannot see behind corresponding scenic features. Where models are on square bases this can be imagined easily by projecting a line through me corners. These ranges arc the maximum distances that me weapons can fire. elephants or in chariots are allowed [0 fire in any direction. As we shall see later. me For example: The player is using short bows wbich baue a range of 16". because the models behind them will nor be able [0 see past their friends co me target. Continue until you have shot with each unit or war machine. An infantry model can see within a 90· arc A shooter's line of Sight.1. there are modifiers that make it more difficult for a weapon to bit at long range. Imagine a real battlefield with its contours. then your shots automatically miss. A target whicb is more than. You may also shoot with any war machines such H.SHOOTING Once movement is complete it's time to work out your shooting. in the situation shown in the diagram below you might choose to have your archers shoot at the cavalry or at the unit of spearmen.

hit on your Side. it is not practical to be definitive about which kinds of build ing or terrain block sight. The u nit oj arche rs is ab 1 to sh 001 aI Ihe fool lroops b uI n 01 al e Ihe cava Iry un il be causa I hair 'Iina of sig h t is bloc ked by Ihe hed ge. On [he whole. Hedges and walls block sight over level ground. Not only can such troops see and shoot. HARD COVER Hard cover offers real physical protection as well as partially concealing the target from view. block Sight beyond them. lower buildings. it is impossible for us to say exactly what your model scenery looks like. It is not possible SHOOTING AND HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Troops engaged in hand-mohand fighting are fur [00 busy to use missile weapons and therefore may not shoot. . and under the clrcurnstances it is virtually impossible to tell friend from foe or get a dear view of your target. An Interposing hill or house will. It is only possible to see through 2" of woodland. Hills.A$. open wagons or cans and woodland all provide soft cover. Troops within woods autornancally count as being in soft cover.. However. mist free COVER Troops take advantage of cover to hide from enemy missile fire.ing a D6: a score of 1-3 means 3. Hedges. J. to the farthest you can see .. missile range is reduced.which is 2". ELEVATED POSITIONS Troops occupying elevated positions such as hills or the tops of buildings. You must be prepared to use your own judgement within the following guidelines. I .. to shoot directly through one model to hit another. of checking if a model can see another over the table and take a model's eye be reasonable about this though as it more difficult to see enemy troops on a than over a perfectly flat. You must would be much real battlefield gaming [able. The corner of a building. The easiest way is [0 get down view. while 4-6 means a hit on your enemy.3. A model positioned at the corner of a building so that he is peeking round is behind hard cover. Such a model can shoot but it can also be seen and shot at. This makes them harder to hit because they can duck back out of the way leaving arrows to splinter against a walJ or tree. exposing themselves to view. but they can also be seen and shot at because they are standing high up.\ ' ~'''' k' '- . large boulders and buildings block sight over level ground. This is posstble but not necessarily a good idea. Troops are permitted to shoot into combat if you wish but if you do so then hits must be divided equally between both sides. can see to shoot over the heads of models. walls and wooden palisades are all hardcover. SOFT COVER Soft cover partially shields a target from view but provides little actual protection against lncorntng missiles. as you are likely to hit the wrong target and kill a friend rather [han an enemy.(~ ~ . Troops in hand-to-hand combat are taking pan in a vast swirling melee. Models in trenches or pits are also counted as behind hard cover. shoot and he can also be seen and shot at. a large rock. Players may wish to shoot ar targets engaged in hand-tohand combat. so if a model is within 2" of the edge he can see out and. There are two sorts of cover. hard cover and soft cover. and obstacles. Woods block line of sight if the shooter and the target lie on opposite sides. 1i'oops. friendly or unfriendly. Troops positioned at windows and doors alsocount as being in hard cover. block your sight and prevent models shooting through it.. trees. over the tops of lower hills. it is not a good idea to shoot into hand-to-hand com b a i . If further inside the wood a model can neither be seen by models outside nor can he see them. Odd bits can be allotted to either side in some random fashion such as by roll. One of the most useful aspects of this is apparent when you have a unit deployed on a hillside: models in a rear rank higher up the slope can see over the heads of ranks in from of [hem and so can SbOOL This can enable many more models to shoot than is possible over level ground where only the front rank is able to bring its weapons to bear. You can hide behind a hedge bur a crossbow bolt or an arrow will go straight through it. a model placed directly behind an obstacle so that it is touching is assumed to have taken up a position where it can see and shoot over the obstacle with head and shoulders clearly visible. If both target and shooter are inside the wood. Fig 4.

[f you have a lot of models shooting you may have to roll several batches of dice. all the unit muse shoot at a ingle target. It is assumed that shooters w-ait until the last moment before drawing weapons or rurrung to flee. Fig 4. or BS. MASSED ARCHERY Bow armed warriors in the rear ranks of a unit can shoot over the heads of troops in from of them. me nits which shoot at chargers do so out of the normal turn sequence. The target must still be in range of [he model shooting. In such circumstances rnisstle troops in the rear ranks are allowed to fire overhead as described. Count bow many models in your unit are shooting. For example. archers are trained to lob shots (Q a predetermined distance under the direction of their officers. Infantry or cavalry armed with bows can shoot wid) models in the rear ranks of the unit so long as me unit did not move in its movement phase. This may occasionauy mean you are obliged to sham at one target rather than another. Generally the missile troops form the rear ranks of the unit. or fire & flee. When shooting at a charging unit an additional -1 to hit penalty is imposed. This means [hal in the shooting phase me regiment could take three shots with me rear rank of archers (half of six archers can fire overhead). ! ate that chargers who begin their move within half of their own charge distance of the enemy cannot be shot at. if If you score at least the number required you score less you have missed.SHOOTING AT CHARGERS A unit armed with missile weapons can stand & shoot. and roil mat number of dice.4. Although the chan covers scores of 1 or even less. Work out shooting at short range for the weapon regardless of the range at the start of the charge. 4. However. There is normally no such thing as an automatic hit. so you need a score of at least 4 to bit. darkening the skies with large volleys of arrows! me BS To Hit 1 2 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 7 8 9 10 6 5 0 -1 ·2 ·3 you have hit. In [his case you may divide your shooting between two enemy tat-gets if you want roo HITTING THE TARGET The chance of a shooter scoring a hit on his target depends on his Ballistic Skill. It is easiest to roll all me dice at once. me minimum dice roll needed to bit after modifiers have been applied is always at [east 2. the greater his chance of hitting. Therefore. To determine whether you hit you must roil a D6 for every model shooting. me number of models shooting from rear ranks is halved (rounding down) to simulate their decreased accuracy. and 6 tobicb equals 2 bits and 3 misses. and there is insufficient time for the unit to snoot at their enemy. However. at enemies charging them from more than half their charge eli ranee. it is often impossible for all the models to shoot at a Single target because no one target is visible to all shooters. They are simply too close. The [allowing table shows the minimum D6 score you will need to hit. The regiment could be formed six models wide and two ranks deep. although you don't have to do O. because a particular target can be shot at by all your troops while another may be in sight of only a few. . with the archers in the second rank. where possible. DIVIDING SHOTS A unit of troops always takes aim and shoots at a single target where possible. a roll of 1 always misses. For example: You fire with 5 archers tubo baue BS 3. and must be within its arc of fire. in the other side's movemenr phase before chargers are moved. The higher the individual's BS. such as a unit of enemy troops or chariots. To represent this tactic. 2. Although they cannot see their target. a regirnenr of rwelve warriors might have six: armed with spear and shield and Six armed with bows. 2. but as a mass [he effect can be devastating. 11'1 mixed unit of spearmen and archers the bowmen can a shoot over the heads of the unit in fronl. Individually they are not likely to hit. obeying the commands of their leader who is directing their fire. Certain armies combined bow-armed troops and shock infantry together into the same unit. You roll 5 dice and score 1. This represents the unnerving effect of the charging enemy upon the shooter's aim.

maximum range you are less likely to hit. -2 Target is behind hard cover ·1 Shooting at an enemy who is charging If you are charged and elect to stand & shoot at your attacker.the missile has Lost so much power it bounces harmlessly off the target. If this reduces the Strength to below 1 the attack has no effect . If the shooter moved during the movement phase then his chance of hitting is reduced. The bold archers are armed with short bows wbicb means their targets are at long range (short range is 8" or lessfor these weapons). one for each range. but the Strength of the attack is reduced by the amount shown on the table. such a range and cover. Elephants are large targets for example. Pactors other than your skill affect your chance of hitting.TO HIT MODIFIERS Shooting isn't simply a matter of pointing your weapon at the target and letting fly. The attacker must first roll a score of 6. All shooting [0 hit modifier are cumulative. The archers have a B of 3 and their targets are 10" away. So each archer needs to roll a 6 to hit as 6. Factor that make it easier are added to your dice roll. [f your target lies at over half your For example: Ten archers open fire.2 = tbe 4 required. Cavalry modeJs and light charters are nor considered to be large targets. See the section on Characters for a complete explanation of rules for shooting at character models. Tills modifier does not apply to models mounted in a moving chariot OC war wagon. If achieved then he can roll to wound the target as described below. This modifier does not apply when shooting at heavy or scythed chariots. Any enemy shooting at them therefore suffers a ·1 to hit penalty. -1 Shooting at a character mode] If your target is a single man-sized character model then this penalty applies. This means that with a BS of 5 you would need to roll a 4 to hlt tnsread o( the l as normally required. So. Sometimes you will find orne of the shooters ace within shorr range and some are at long range. -1 Target is behind soft cover If your target is behind soft cover then your chance of hitting is reduced. Even a simple turn or change of formation is enough to reduce his concentration and so counts as movement. but it does apply to cavalry. for example. then your chance of hitting your opponem 15reduced. or on the back of an elephant. Factor that make it harder are subtracted from your dice roll. and others that make It harder. if you are shooting at long range at a target behind soft cover your chance of hitting is reduced by ·2. ·1 Shooting at skirmish formations +1 Shooting at a large target A large target is anything which in real life would stand over approximately 10 feet tall or which is especially bulky. as explained next. -1 Shooting at long range If your target is behind bard cover your chance of hitting j drastically reduced. 7i:J malee matters worse. the unit is standing behind a hedgesoft cover. If this is the case you must roll two batches of dice. Skirmishing models are difficult to hit with missiles as they are relatively small. Most war machines are large targets. and so are heavy or scythed chariots. individual targets able to take advantage of whatever cover is available. while the vast majority of other types of troops are not. See the section on Light Troops for a complete explanation of rules for sklrmishers. Because tbeir BS is 3 the archers need a 4 to hit but since their targets are in cover and at long range tbis means thai they suffer a penalty of ·2.two hits. some of which make [1 easier to hit. There are other factors also. but the strength of me attack wiU be reduced. The player rolls ten dice and manages to get two 6's . whlch make them difflcult targets to hit with missile weapons. The strength of a hit is used to determine wbether the target is slain.' 7+ TO HIT Sometimes a roll of 7 or more is required once modifiers are taken into account. Such attacks will still hit on a roll of 6. While the enemy thunder towards you your aim will be distracted and your shot hurried as you abandon your weapon to take up a sword or run. Therefore troop firing at Iight chariots mat moved in the previous turn must subtract -1 from their to hit roll. TO lifT 7 8 9 10 11 0'· more STRENGTH MOD/FIEf{ Strengtfi -1 srYCll!Jrfi -2 SrrCII!]tfi ·3 SrrefJ!Jffi -4 5 n'eII!Jtfi -5 . -1 Shooting at a moving light chariot ·1 Shooting while moving Light chariots tended to move quickly and ill an open formation. and the penalty represents that difficult shots may not strike at full force. or fire & flee.

the target's Toughness '1" is Included on its profile bur is usually 3 in the case of an ordinary trooper. you must roll again to see if you wound him.... Continuing our example: the player in command of the archers.' vicrors IIC11e..rget's Toughne s.aze their rarget causing no real harm. They are included here as examples: the section on Weapons describes all missile and hand-tohand fighting weapons in more derail. while others will g.1. or are so resillern that they can ignore missiles sticking into their bodies. baving scored 2 hits against tbe enemy troops behind tbe bedge consults tbe table. first find the weapon's Strength and look down me row. mzl filllTe rhei. . Roll a D6 for each hir you scored and consult Wound Chan below." \\'EAPON STRENGTH Shorr Bow Bow LOII!J6ow 3 3 3 3 4 '!i 11 511"9 Crossbow . The number indicated is the minimum score on a D6 required [0 wound. z 2 2 2 2 6 5 4 3 2 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 <C LLJ 6 6 5 4 3 N 6 6 5 4 3: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 WEAPON STRENGTH The following table show the strength of various missile weapons. He mils a 4 and a 2." .. WOUND CHART TARGET'S TOUGHNESS 1 1 J: 2 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 6 5 5 N 6 N N 7 N 8 N 9 N N N N N 10 N N N N N 4 3 2 2 . The archers' short bows are Strength 3. To do this compare the weapon's Strength value with the target's 'roughness value.some may glance off armour or clothing. me To use the chart. 11 H~rorfon's . z e w U) 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 N N 6 N N N a: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 6 5 4 3 2 I- 4 3 2 en 0 D. The opposing troops are Toughness 3. mll{ /Tsjor tfie Iosers tfie!) 're wiyerf out. Then look across the column for your [.'!Jot l1IitfroUf lien!.""err. Once you have hit your foe..WOUNDS Not all hits will wound their target .~1aec{IITC IVII!' OlZ ellch other. The Strength values of common missile weapons are summarised below.· {jaH{e 011 it .'!} (asses. He now needs to roll 4 or more to wound. wounding one enemy trooper: "wlilrl! I Grelik.find. rfie!J 90 tnc to!Jttfier to rfie smoorhtst IIml {lI1w({est [jif gIV I!urf (ficy can .widi die ri1Su{t tfilll II1lell fli. Creatures such as elephants are so tough that arrows do not easily pierce their flesh.

Rules for different types of armour and shields are covered more fully in [he weapons section. If the rider is wearing armour then his saving throw will be 1. better than it would he if he were on foot. so the. A crossbousman bits a warrior in light armour untb shield. For example. This is shown by the table char follows. a warrior uieartng light armour and carrying a shield bas a saving throw of 5 + on foot and 4 + when mounted. For example: A trooper carrying a shield and wea'ring light armour has a saving tbrota of 5+. The player in command oj them rolls a 2. The enemy troops are wearing light armour and have a shield. For example: A crossbow has a Strengtb of 4.n mUl r Shidrf + Li5lir + Heav!:! sfri 5+ 5+ 4+ Aads +1 As Sliic[J Heavy ArmOl.z o ARMOUR Models that are wounded still have a chance [0 avoid damage if they are wearing armour. If you roll greater than or equal [Q the armour saving throw of the mode! the wound has been absorbed or deflected by its armour. This represents the extra protection afforded by his mounr. These models have an armour saving roll Or armour save. He must now roll 6 to save. ARMOUR SAVE MODIFIERS Some weapons right through are so powerful that they can punch armour." saving throw is 5 +. carrying shields or if they are cavalry. +1 [jilt 6+ 5+ Arml'w' Li!J Ii r A.II· Shiefrf Annour Cml/1(j-y witl! Bardi 119 Lm'!} c era Budirer 0110 counts in fil1l1rf-rl'-fimu( wmvm Cavalry models automatically have a saving rhrow of 6 even if the rider is wearing no armour. bts dice roll. because of the crossbow's enormous hit'ting power. If he had scored a 5 01' 6 [be arrow would have bounced off and tbe warrior would baue been unharmed. 1 is subtracted from. so armour provides less prorecrion againsr them. Normally tbe tuarrior would need to roll 5 or 6 to make his save and avoid laking tbe wound but. .\10 lIR SAl'E BY NOlie -1 3 or 4 LCH 5 6 7 .gly he has failed. Such weapons confer modlflers chat are subtracted from the foe's armour saving throw. STRENGTl-J OF HIT REDUCES AR. This means he must roll a 5 01" 6 to be saved by his armour: To continue our example from before: the archers have scored 1 wound on the enemy troops behind the hedge.2 .1/{AiOUR fNFANTRY f: o o :c VJ SAVE CrWALI~Y SAFE None Shiell None 6+ 5+ 4+ 4+ 4+ 3+ ArfdS +1 Atfrf. Not S/J1prisin. Roll a D6 for each wound your troops have suffered.3 ·4 -5 -6 -7 8 9 10 .

these are re-rolled and may score 2 wounds. rheyjenmealls qf esc'!)'c /ospfl/olS. these things can be safely imagined as models and their mounts are removed as a single piece.~ if despair. and some mounts are killed throwing their riders [0 the ground.Pc. wllire otlicrs drolle llie n:m"!J. fa wliieli . Each elephant model can endure 5 wounds in fact.fiile tfic Jews Cllcircred.{jCHI awl arm hecaus« tfi~!1l11e.fie [ews rC9Jomfcn witli UI(lI'-Crics a lid' !Jeffs if itltcrll1ill!Jred ddi!Jlillllln rage.um{ dow" into tile rallit.diem alia watcfieajor tfiCltl to C(llIIe alit.e {(j((e. sillc. wliieli rlie!:! k~pr Guau56 tlicy needed t.fie army on towarm Betfi-lionm.w. as described in the next section. Once the unit takes another 3 Wounds from other attacks it will have suffered 5 wounds and one elephant model is removed as a casualty. rj tlie tfescemfit'!JlVadiva!). MULTIPLE WOUND CASUALTIES Some models. Dice which score wounds are picked out and banded over to the opponent so he can take his saving throws. they may represent men temporarily knocked out. ". down rfie road. as it dispenses with the need for individual dismounted riders and 100 e mounts.oura 1101 nrfi1(lI l(t· ill Olrk. Imagine that a unit of elephants suffers 2 wounds from arrow fire.fI mlssiles. Then pick out any dice which score a hit and re-roll [bern to wound. The player who has suffered tbe casualties must remove slain models from the unit.·atfi. die 1 in die tlllrl'OIV n Vomfjlmfmenl r1 missi(es flie!) . . So. The number of wounds a model can sustain before it ralls casualty is indicated by its Wounds v-alue 0. lind if WilS ill!J'OSSiGrcJOI· fior-scs to duu'!}c die enemy '91 Thi' mll3f' s(t. or simply too badly wounded to carryon fighting. awl ttic 'allah'Y's simatio« was (vet! more nllll!JIlIVIIS fIIld yrecIlI'ious. ". but the same comments apply to any target which has rnulttple wounds.REMOVING CASUALTIES Most troops can only sustain 1 wound before they fall casualty Some models can take several wounds before they become casualties. 011 60r/i riles rFrere were djffi (Inri ravilles down wfiidi to CAVALRY CASUALTIES In the case of cavalry models all shots are worked am against the rider.1" 'W' on its profile. III t/iis jl05 j tim. CllC/l Tlie i'grill tr!J lIa 9 rcfIt ri!ffi CI{ ft!) in nifwtfi119 IhclJIscfvt'S. This is not enough to slay an elephant outright.riecl Cemus fltU{ fils Ctllll'C al'll'Y lVOllftf ahnos: certait1(!J Jial'c been ollcnvrrdlllea!f nigfit lina 1l0tjl1(rCll. from QUl· ten dice to bit four might ryplcally score hits. are sufficiently resilient to have several Wounds. The full rules for elephants arc discussed later. die!} were reduced in tlieir hc!p(esSllt'Ss to Ianwntntion IInri9"{)(UI. The most practical way of going about this is to take as many dice as you have troops shooting and roll them all at once.tferca tlie tfi9'osar 1 evel'!JtfriH!J rfint {UfI1pered trIC army. diu'illg which tfie ROil/fill were aMe ro escf911' 1'0 Bt-tli-fiorl!l'. representing troops gathering about their officers and standards.f ({ie IllI1fi:S ana tlie asses fIIU{ /1(( die rirtlll!Jfir tIIrimafs ex""p' for those wlikfi c(IITicrimissiles and ilrti((cr!:! yit. CASUALTIES Where [fOOPS have only a single wound. thei. For our purposes.fir column wi.c. fie o. such as elephants. So.1f ..HId". This same system applies when you work out hand-to-hand combat damage roo. If the rider is slain the mount is removed as well. horses bolt and run away. (jill when tlie Rowans weI" _Pflcf(ed to!Jetfier II a unit of troops is hir and uffers wounds which it is unable to save then for each wound suffered one model is removed as a casualty Casualties are not necessarily dead. Sinc« 110 one ccufef dlSCOller . so the player must make a note that it has taken 2 Wounds.. the result is always the same so we can consider all casualties as slain and remove them from the game.gr(lil rfiar rfie Jews /if igli t ''!JJtlIl'C diem (llid use rficlIJ a!}fli'llrt rfiCI!ISr{j'fs. You will have gathered by now that it is necessary to roll quite a few dice to resolve shooting . ti 0 II eri aLlo lie rfi e tm ITowert ylll't '!! tlir road yefred . Tiu: JeHls nifire fJlfldejeHlcI" aTTacks 011 t{je t. Although they would in reality fall amongsr rhe from rank it is more convenlcnr to remove casual lies from [he rear of the unit.re .. This is a convenient and practical way of repre enting cavalry. removed as follows: casualties are To ~pced' '!p tfieir retreat. However.Pell !JIVIIlId.whole handfuls at once in facd This doesn't take as long as you might imagine because all the dice are rolled together.1 01' if se!f-dtjeucf. Tirey rlierifo. sOllie [fie JClVS !Jot ill JI1J1fI (wd _Pl'l!lIcmrd· then: jrom Cllltwgil1g. if you're shooring with ren archers roll ten dice... JEwish war AD66 FAST DICE ROLLING Obviously some riders are slain.. alld tli e HI a iII Goa!) JJOS. di. This keeps the formation neat and represents rear rankers stepping forwards to cover gaps in the line as they appear. . If models are deployed in a single rank then casualties are removed roughly equally from either end. but these are the exceptions rather than the rule. Cestills tfilm r.

as described in [he following rules. COMBAT Regardless of whose [urn it is all models that are in contact with the enemy must fight. 6. REDRESS RANKS are tidied up ready for the following turn. forced to flee or disengages as explained later. in the following rules. Any unit failing its Break test is termed 'broken' rank models are turned round and moved askew to show this. 5.. BREAK TESTS I. CLOSE COMBAT PHASE 1_ FIGHT COMBAT Each unit involved in combat Hgb ts as explained results. PURSllE Units whose enemies have broken and fled. 7. 2 or more Each unit that loses in combat must take a Break test. regardless of whose turn it is. The losing side will have lost by 'points' as explained in the following rules. FLEE! UnitS which have broken or failed their Panic test must flee from their enemy as described Move all newly fleeing troops now. Units engaged in hand-mohand figbting cannot move or shoot. At the end of the close combat phase. Like me movement phase. that rum are allowed to pursue. 4. The close combat phase is an exception to the normal turn sequence in that both sides rake part in the ftghttng. but must stand toe-to-toe with their enemy until one side is destroyed. 3. the dose combat phase follows a set order or sequence as explained below. catch and destroy them. Fight all the combats before working au t 2 . RESULTS Work OUL which side has won each combat and by how much.HAND-TO-HAND Once all shoorlng has been resolved it is time to deal with the brutal cut and thrust of hand-to-hand combat or meh~e. as it's sometimes known. formations . PANIC TESTS if units have broken men other friendly units within 12" must take a Panic rest to determine and run. Take all Break tests now. and rear whether they panic in [he following rules. Take all required Panic rests now.

a huge fight between two units of pearmen. rut blows are struck in the order of Initiative (I). If opposing troops have the same Initiative value then the side which won the combat in the previous turn may strike first. for example. and the player who score highest goes first. II a model is touching more than one enemy model the player can choose which to arrack. models strike blows in a strict order. This means that some cavalry have two lots of attacks. The most example is the fierce warhorse. there are three separate combats: one between two units and an elephant on the left. or chose who have gained the extra impetus of charging into combat [hat turn. This illustration shows three separate combats. the rider attacks and his mount attacks as well. ® ® . which is [rained to kick out against the enemy. if faced with an. or. and if you wish they may be temporarily turned in the ranks to indicate that they are doing so. A cavalry mount WHO STRIKES FIRST In the desperate hack and slash of close combat the advantage goe to the best trained and most determined warriors. or you could take [be outside chance of fighting the character. bur ir is possible mac several units may become involved. CD Fig 5. one unit from each side as is tbe case wit" conflict @. Troops who have charged that turn will automatically strike first. which is why it is better to charge your enemy rather than allow him to charge you.COMBATS Work out combats one at a time . especiatly if they last for several turns when troops pile in to support tban theirfriends. two units of swordsmen and a chariot in the centre. if this doe sn't apply. Even models attacked in their side Or rear may fight. Combats frequently involve 1'I"100-e one unlt 01'1. Otherwise. For example. common A combat is oflen a fig"t between. A combat is usually a fight between one unit from each side. In the illustration at the bottom of the page. The important thing to remember is that all the units in each conflict are interlinked .1.resolve the fighting for all the troops involved in one combat before moving on to the next. enemy character and an ordinary enemy trooper you may decide to attack the trooper because you stand more chance of harming him. Models with the highest Initiative value strike first followed by models who have a lower value. and a combat between two opposing units on the right. Striking first is a big advantage.that is what defines tbe distinct combats.H separately using the mount's own characteristic values. tobereas in conflict @ there are two Greek units fighting uoo Indian units plus a chariot. In confiict CD two un its of Greeks arefighting em elepbaut. WHICH MODELS FIGHT A model can fight if its base is touching the base of an enemy model. To represent this. each side. roll a 06. This is important because if a model is slain before it bas bad a chance to strike it obviously cannot light back. These attacks are worked 0\. can also attack in some cases.

DEFENDED OBSTACLE Troops lined up behind a wall. Compare the Weapon Skill of the attacker with the Weapon Skill of his opponent and consult the chart below to find the minimum D6 SCQce needed to hit. If you look at 10 Hir chart below you will see that if your warrior's Weapon kill is greater than your foe's you hit him all. Otherwise you hit on a 4+.J . even though the obstacle lies between them. U you have more than one arrack (A) witb any of your models then roll a D6 for each attack.. is Inside a building.. though this is rare. An enemy that wishes to TO HIT CHART OPPONENT'S WEAPON SKILL 1 1 52 en . instead their front rank is positioned on the opposite side of rile obstacle to where the defenders are situated II attacking an enemy who is defending a waIJ Or a hedge.J 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 7 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 8 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 9 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 10 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 0 e. me attack the defenders can do so by charging them as normal. Attacking models do not have to physically cross [he obstacle. or behind some other defended obstacle you will require a 6 on a D6 [0 biro The penalty does nor apply [0 both sides.HITTING THE ENEMY To determine whether you score a hit roll a D6 for each model fighting. indeed they are unable to do so whilst it remains defended. After the attackers win a round of combat it is assumed that enough attackers have forced their way Over the obstacle to render it useless as a defensive barrier. CAVALRY When you are fighting against cavalry all blows are struck against the rider using the rider's Weapon Skill. Attackers must mount an assault in the face of their foe's sword points and spear rips. warhorses are the most notable example. z <t 3 4 5 6 7 w :: (J) a: w ~ 0 ~ 8 9 10 « . a 3+. and don't usually need to refer to the chart itself. The from rank is moved right up against the wall [Q show this. Defenders have the advantage of already raking up a good position With their weapons sticking Out or over gaps in the hedge or wall. The mounr may fight using its own '"'(feapon Skill if it bas its own arrack. unless his Weapon Skill is more than double yours in which case you require a 5+. The amount needed to score a hit on your enemy depends upon the relative Weapon Skill (WS) of the attacker and his foe... Players generally find it simple enough to remember this. hedge or other linear obstacle can defend it. This penalty no longer applies once the attackers have won a round of hand-to-hand combat.

Astute players will have gathered by now that in most circumstances.. Once you have hit your foe you must roU again to sec if your hits lnflict morral wounds. However. the .bur of course larger creatures such as elephants and machines such as chariots have a trength value which is considerably tougher.which is the standard for ordinary warriors . Infantry armed with doublebanded axes will gain a +2 bonus 10 tbeir Strength in band-to-band combat. These bonuses are discussed together with other special rules for weaponry in the section on Weapons & Armour later on in this book. cross referencing the attacker's Strength (5) with the defender's Toughness (T). e J: 2 3 4 5 6 7 z w en Z N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 N N N . Halberd armed infantry gain a + 1 bonus to their Strength. en a: 0 c.or no chancel WEAPONS MODIFIERS Unlike shooting it'S the Strength (S) of me attacker that is used rather than the Strength of the weapon. Consult the Wounds [able below.WOUNDS Not all successful ruts are going [0 harm your enemy some may rebound from armour or bounce off tough bide. Bod] values appear all. This procedure is exactly the same as described for Shooting previously. some weapons bonus on the attacker's carried Strength by troops confer a as in the following examples. Most troops have a Strength value of 3 .. ardor ' profiles. « w == 6 6 5 4 3 6 6 5 4 8 9 10 . average troops wi th S3 and T3 will always scare wou nds on a roll of 4+ The majortry of players find it a simple matter to remember score required after a few games me WOUND CHART 1 1 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 TARGET'S TOUGHNESS 3 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 2 5 N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 6 N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 7 N N N 6 6 5 4 3 2 2 8 N N 9 N N 10 N N N N N N . Where the table shows an 'N' this indicates that the target is simply coo tough for you to hurt. while others may cause only superficial damage. The chan indicates the minimum score on a D6 required to cause a wound.. where no bonuses apply.. N stands for no effect . Charging knights urub lances receive a +2 bonus on their strength.

This i shooting. when it comes to working au! who has won the combat you need to know how any casualties have been inflicted by each side. Firstly. and any feu ranker stepping into his place cannot attack that cum. ARMOUR SAVE MODIFIERS The higher an attacker's Strength the more easily Jr can pierce armour. as any casualties cau ed will reduce the number of enemy left [0 fighr back. This is importanr for two reasons. and the are wounded srtll have a chance to they are wearing armour or carrying exactly the same as described for same rules apply REMOVING CASUALTIES Close combat casualties are removed in exactly the same way as shooting casualties and you may wish to re-read iliac section at this point. This means that the side to strike first has a signiflcarn advantage. it is most convenient to assume that rear rankers will step forward to fill any gaps. If weapons give a strength bonus then this increases the strength of a hit making it easier to pierce armour. f For each wound suffered [he player rolls a D6. If he rolls greater than or equal to the armour saving throw of his troops then [he wound has been absorbed or deflected by the warrior's armour. In most circumstances it is therefore practical [0 remove casualties straight from the rear ranks of a unit. Although casualties would. In reality. Secondly. Models which fail as casualties are not removed from the tabletop immediately. This is the same as for damage from shooting.ARMOUR Combatants that avoid damage if shields. and this is much easier where casualties are left behind their units. fall amongsr the rank fighting. The chart below shows the reduction in the enemys saving throw compared to the attacker's strength. models which are removed before they have a chance to attack may not do so. but are placed behind their unit. STRENGTH OF /lIT REDUCES ARMOLIR NOlle -1 -2 -3 SAFE BY 30" Less 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 -4 -5 -6 -7 32 .

the bonus goes to whoever has the unit in the highest position. braver. Broken units will turn tail and flee once all combat on the entire battlefield has been worked out. up to a maximum of +3. including the number of casualties caused and bonus points. JUSt add them all up. These bonus points can make all the difference between winning and losing the combat. bearer then you If you have several standards you still only add not +1 for each tandacd. LOSERS TAKE A BREAK TEST The side that loses combat must take a test to determine if it stands and fights or turns tail and runs away. . Do not add up bonuses from all the units fighting. are The same applies as for a flank attack btl! to units attacking in the rear. The bonus can be claimed for an incomplete rear rank so long as it contains at least four models. as well as points for any wounds inflicted. because the difference in scores is only one point. a ide can claim extra bonus points under certain circumstances . The higher tile winner's score is compared to the loser's the bigger and more decisive the victory will be. Take the rest as follow. So if you are artacking in the side and rear you will receive a bonus of +3. a four deep formation gives a + 3 bonus. You need to take a separate Break test for every unit involved in the combat. temperamental troops are far more likely to run for it. and more professional are more likely [0 stand firm. Do this once all the units engaged in combat have fought. It does not matter which particular units suffered the wounds. Begin by adding up all me wounds caused by each side. Firstly say which. Depending on which units pass and which fail their rest some may break and flee. This difference in score is important because it is used when working our if a defeated enemy stands his ground or turns and flees. Remember only infantry units count this bonus . +1 Battle Standard + 1. then you may add a further + 1. +1 Flank Attack If you are fighting an enemy unit in the flank you may add a + 1bonus. Now add the difference between tbe winner's and loser's combat score.RESULTS For each separate combat you must determine which side has woo. some higher than others. An 8 points against 2 potnrs victory is extremely decisive as the difference in scores is a whopping six. Until all combat has been worked our Simply turn a few of the rear rank models found to remind you that the unit has broken. you may claim a rank bonus of + 1 for each rank of infantry behind the first at the Start of the combat. unit you are resting for. The table below summarises the bonus points. This bonus is lost if tile unit is charged in the flank or rear by an enemy unit of five models or more.cavalry do the the that not! TABLE High Ground +1 If you are fighting from a htgher pesitlon than your enemy you may add a + 1bonus. or is included in a unit of troops which is involved in combat. So for example. while wild. Once both sides have established their total points. So. Bach heavy chariot destroyed In combat adds + 2 to the opponent's combat result as well as points for any wounds inflicted. beating the enemy by 4 points to 3. This bonus and the bonus for a flank arrack are cumulative. The side which has inflicted the most wounds has won the combat. Troops which are better led. if both sides cause 3 wounds the result i a draw. If both have inflicted the same number of wounds then the result is a draw: However. while others may stand their ground. Each bonus point is added to the number of casualties you have inflicted. The other side has lost. compare the values to discover which side has won the combat. BONUS POINTS +1 Infantry Rank Bonus 1£ your formation is an infantry unit of at least four models Wide. An 8 points against a 7 points victory is only a light win for example. Rules for tandards described later. is attacking the enemy in the flank. If the total is greater than the unit's Leadership (Ld) value til en the unit is broken. +1/+ 2 Destroyed Chariot If tile army's battle standard i fighting in a combat. +1 Standard If both sides have troops attacking in the flank then the side with [he most number of flanking units gets the bonus. an infantry formation three ranks deep would give you a + 2 bonus. but if one side had a battle standard it adds + 1 to its score. so long as your entire unit numbers at least five models. Each Lighc or scythed chariot destroyed in combat adds + 1 to [he opponent's combat result.for example if it has a battle standard. or if it is fighting from higher ground. +2 Rear Attack If any of your units bas a standard may add a + 1 bonus. Roll 206 and add the scores together. This is called a Break test. If you have several units fighting in combat count bonus from the deepest unit. Do not forget to add the wounds taken by elephants or character models which have not been removed as casualties. The bonus is only applied once no matter how many flanking units are tnvolved. If you are defending a hill and several units are involved.

but the player may rearrange it formauon and rum it [0 face whichever direction he chooses. leading ro crumbling battle lines and possibly causing other units to flee as well. FLeeing models that would otherwise end up intermingled with friendly units are instead placed to the side or beyond them if this is tile only option. The archers must therefore take C/ Break test adding +2 to their dice score. Ibis is a compulsory move so fleeing troops are moved first once charges are declared (see the Movement section). If any models leave the table edge the entire unit is considered to have left the battlefield and is removed from play.its warriors are demoralised and only interested in escape. The result is the distance covered by tile fleeing troops minus any penalty for terrain or obstacles. In addition a fleeing unit will be destroyed if it is caught by pursuers as described under Pursuit. Where able to do so. The fleers are moved 2/3D6" just like any other fleeing unit. SUBSEQUENT MOVEMENT OF FLEEING TROOPS If it is not destroyed then a fleeing unit continues to move 2D6" or 3D6" towards its own side's table edge during its own side's move phase. and as eacb extra rank adds + 1 to the score this gives tbem 3 + 3 = 6points against the arcbers 4. For example. The troopers have scattered beyond recovery or have found places to hide themselves until the fighting is over. This is called a Panic test. If enemy troops charge a fleeing unit then the fleeing unit automatically flees from the charge assuming the charge is within reach. but with the extra +2 modifier on the dice the player will have to mil 5 or less to stand and fight. . This is called rallying and a unit that rallies successfully may reorder its ranks in preparation to fight once again. and full rules for panic are given in the following section. and the archers inflict 4 wounds on the spearmen. The unit continues to flee until j[ leaves the table or is destroyed. The spearmen have four ranks in their formation. of troops. A fleeing PANIC TESTS FOR BREAKS Once all defeated units have taken a Break rest then troops nearby must make a test to determine JlOW they react [0 seeing their friends turn and run. The unit must spend rhe remainder of the turn stationary and may not shoot or fight. RALLYING A fleeing unit may attempt to stop fleeing in irs movement phase by taking a Rofty test. It is worth bearing in mind at this stage that Panic tests must be taken once all Break tests are complete but before any fleeing troops are moved. blindly scrambling over the ground in their efforts to avoid the enemy. even though they have caused more casualties . They have a Leadersbip value of 7. Move the fleeing unit directly away from its enemy so that it is 2D6" or 3D6n away from them and facing in the oppostte direction. Fleeing models [hat have [heir retreat completely blocked by enemy models are destroyed. unit cannot fight or it wiU move including units towards enemy can do nothing else. If rne score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership (Ld) then the unit stops fleeing and has rallied. and have taken any necessary Panic tests. Should the fleeing unit encounter friendly troops they will push through them. Fleeing troops will nor move troops unless they have no other choice. Worn down by prolonged fighting and heavy casualties the unit breaks and flees without taking a Leadership test. it is time for broken troops to flee. units of troops reduced to less than five models are unable to function as a fighting unit and may not rally. it sham with missiles. It must attempt to get away from the banlefield as quickly as possible. The spearmen inflict 3 wounds on the archers. round obstacles that block it path.For example: A unit of archers is fighting a unit of spearmen. MOVE FLEEING TROOPS It is difficult to judge how far fleeing troops will run because they are no longer fighting as a unit but milling around in a frightened mob. Fleeing troop rum directly away from their enemy and run as fast as they can. Dice are rolled to establish how far the fleeing unit moves. Thearchers have therefore lost the combat. bring the troops to their senses and restore order. UNITS REDUCED TO LESS THAN FIVE A unit reduced to less than live models automatically breaks if it loses a round of combat. Rally tests are taken in the movemenr phase after charges have been declared bur before movement (see the sequence at the start of the Movement section). A fleeing unit that has suffered too many casualties will be unable to rally . 1b take a rally test ro1l2D6. 17Jeplayer rolls 2D6 and scores 7. This represents the efforts of leaders and brave individuals to call a bah to the rout. the +2 modifier brings his total to 9 which is greater than the unit's Leadership so the archers are broken: If the unir normally moves 6" or less roll 2D6.the vast numbers of spearmen pressing from the back baue ouerusbeimed them. To represent this. RALLY TEST FLEEING TROOPS Once you have completed all of the Break tests resulting from combat that turn. This represents the spread of panic amongst the army as friendly 'units collapse and mill tail. 1£ the unit moves more than 6" roll 3D6. They abandon their formation and run from their enemy in a complete rout. The charging enemy destroys tile fleeing troops if it catches them.

. The sigfrt rj kim fi«erf" tfie mell r1 die Guara witli terror jor his stife'!J. 01· at (east . hedgerow. though it may shoot and otherwise participate in the game as normal. .:e itlsiae rHtljOtTl"I)SS.sr1mell. but the player may attempt to prevent this by making a test against the unit's Leadersblp (Ld). and if the core is equal ro or less than the unit's Leadership then the test is passed and the unit may remain stanonaryinstead of pursuing. then [he victorious unit will normally pursue. die!) jormed" a ha!fci.. house. This is considered to be a new charge. lit exp(oit which wou(rf filfe I!}JOl1 tfie (!_p. pursuit is a Single bonus move which is made when a beaten enemy flees.. and the attacked unit must 'hold' as any attempt to flee or shoot amidst rile confusion of running bodies is impossible. Oll/.6y stayiu!J ftis wnere lie wa. hacking at [heir retreating foes as their backs are turned. Others _pressd within striking disranc». To tFrinK was to act . The pursuers are considered to be charging and so get all the usual benefits and bonuses as if they had charged that turn. That it was il1d"eerf" A{cxlllldel' WHOstood tfter1! was yrain to af( . march or move exactly like any other unit. To find out how fur they pursue roll 2D6 or 3D6 in exactly the same way as for fleeing troops.. victorious units may pursue.Tfie Ca1tpaigns of A{cxmu{cl' . rfien a secona.. The pursuers move the distance indicated by the dice roll straight towards and through fleeing troops if they move far enough. In their following turn they may charge. The pursuers are simply moved the distance indicated towards their broken enemy. the player may decide to pursue or not as he wishes. A yortl) Indians came tit him. Normally a unit must pursue if it is able to. if not all. A unit does not have to pursue Troops that pursue a fleeing enemy over an obstacle must halve their pursuit move as they cross the obstacle.wirliollr _fiu1Frer hesimtto» lie maac /iis recp. lie (AfexaHdcr) stood there Oil flie {jarr(cIHetits UrOtlc. overtaking and cutting them down as they run.kel!J1iH!Jthei!" distance. Scm tIIbfi ug Jor yrccerf"clIcc..ir. The resulting combat is worked out in the following tum. This applies even after the first round of combat. 0/ AVOID PURSUIT A player may decide that his unit should nor pursue. If the pursuers do not move far enough to overtake the fleeing troops then no further casualties are caused.mind" . tlie!J lIIaae II da. The tmit may not move other than ro position itself along the [able edge..their command"er PURSIDT INTO FRESH ENEMY It sometimes happens that pursuers move far enough to hit a fresh enemy unit. as tHe crown tf . . pursuit is a hectic and uncontrolled affa. aeatfr wou(a come .. ArrIml .His atmost (e!letlda!"!) courage ITO (ess dian /iis sliining al'lllOur_Pl"Ocfaimcd" him! Surf"d"e»0 a tliouglit (..VHt fie was die target r1 cver!) marKsmall i11 tHe neigHbouri1l!) towers. The pursuers are carried forward against the enemy unit as they chase their fleeing enemy. {jut }flit: (ety't down iuta the fortress rw migfit Ei!Jthat IIIlry act ~l'ead" conrrernatioll amol1g tfie cnemy. Assuming the pursuers do not encounter any fresh enemy they move as far as the distance indicated by their dice roll..de wliere h' stood aHd" hllrfed" at Him HlnatCl'lW missifes they {jad"or couM find".sli jor tlit: (llaael·S.lie too Jeff. Leave a reasonable gap to separate the two unitS if both roll the same distance. As pursuing would force the unit [Q abandon its secure position there is a great incentive to stay where they are. bur unrf"er tlie excessive (oad" rlicy broKe alia lil'flled' tlie cfi!llucrs to tFre gIVum{ No Imfian Ifen tu red to l!P_proflch Afexallaer as fie stood" on the jortress waf( . cmd"eff victims to j {lis sword". Roll 2DG. This represents the unit's leader calling his troops to hold. First om:. who tried to '9'yroad1 filw fie st'?}Jyetf witfi a weff-aimed stone. Note that unitS do not continue to pursue in subsequent turns. No penalty is imposed because of their pursuit move.Freyllt fris Eiac/'(to tfie wan(wa mad"e ready to fight. if it is defending a wall. as it is assumed some. 11« roo raslify.I"Ossed. me U the pursuing unit's dice roll is greater than that of the fleeing unit then the pursuers have overrun and completely destroyed the entire fleeing unit. Like fleeing. PURSUIT MOVE Once fleeing troops have been moved. and. The troops triumphantly surge forward.s {if migfir welT be lii«etf .{!Jaill to attaCK him nand-ta-liatla . so dice are rolled to determine how far the pursuing unit will move.·ushed"jol·wara. Note that a unlr may only pursue if all the troops it Is fighting break . PURSIDT OFF THE TABLE A unit which pursues irs fleeing enemy off the table returns to the same poinr in its foUowing movement phase. La this situation.. or a comparable obstacle or fortification. alia lie cut tfiem dow« . Afte:r tliat Plane ventured (.if one unit breaks and another stands and fights then the victorious troops do not pursue.PURSUIT ITa unit win a combat and all of the enemy it is fighting break and flee. of the victors will have [Q cross the obstacle to pursue their enemy.

REDRESS THE RANKS Once fleeing troops and pursuers have been moved it is time to tidy up the formations of fighting units in preparation for the next: phase. therefore affords the winning side the chance to adjust their formation slightly by expanding their frontage or lapping round the enemy's sides. EXPAND FRONTAGE ARCHERS ARCHERS IIIIIIII ENEMY SPEARMEN ENEMY SPEARMEN MOVE TO EXPAND THEIR FORMATION'S WIDTH BY TWO ON EACH SIDE.to move models from rear ranks and place them in the forward ranks to increase the width of the formation.4. The unit forms a rough block or mass of troops. and models are arranged in a higgledy pigglcdy manner to show their disorganised srarus. In this way it is possible to extend your line and surround an enemy unit completely. [f LAPPING ROUND U a unit wins the combat and irs formation already extends to the enemy's flanks. building or terrain. . thereby allowing more models to fight. as much depends upon the casualties inflicted and combat results.3. The opportunity to redress their ranks following hand-to-hand fightil1g. then models may be moved from the rear ranks round the sides of the enemy unit.units must maintain equal-sized ranks apart from the rearrnost rank. Once models have covered the enemy's flanks. EXPAND FRONTAGE a unit wins the combat it C. further models may be lapped around to the rear should they win a further round of combat. Fig 5. FLEEING UNITS nits which are fleeing abandon their formation and so have no opportunity to redress their ranks at this time. Fig 5. A unit may expand its frontage in this way by up to rwo models On each flank. Lapping models from the rear rank move 10 the enemy's Ilank. Lapping models from the rear rank move to the enemy's rear. Remember . Tills will not always be necessary. These extra models are described as Lapping round. assuming mere is room and thatthe flank is nor blocked by another unit. You may move up [Q [WO models around each flank. Fig 52. Remember that units engaged in combat cannot move in their movement phase. In this situation Ihe enemy spearmen win the combat and expand their formation by moving eight models to Increase [he width of the unil by two on each flank.

He sLl6stirHtc:rf _pdtaeJol' die round sliiefd'(6ectlHsc tHis diau!l'l t!i. '-~--""-~~~ . then a Leadership test rnust be taken as described above. This means chat in most cases it is well worth lapping round If your units are able [Q do so. Well trained 01' very manoeuurable troops can disengage reasonably sa/ely. before charging units are moued. If t. at the same time that you declare any charges. Cavalry a7'(J allowed to disengage from combat untbout taking a Leadersbip test. and if the score is equal to or less than the unit's Leadership value then the test is passed.ty 011 tfie 6attrific(rf ana ill tfieir IlI/COllUtel' Willi the tmCI11!:J.pmclIt. 0/ Lllenus Neyos __. In this case the dis8ngagemfmt has failed. DISENGAGING FROM HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Units engaged in hand-to-hand combat at the start of the turn. At the same time lie S116stitrrtlu( fimm (orsders Jor (juked bronz« ones. WHICH MODELS CAN FIGHT Bear in mind that all models touching base-to-base are allowed to fighr in hand-to-hand combat. This turn is free and has no effect on the unit's further movement. He aou/Hea rlie (e/lgtfi rf tlie pear ani (c'I1!Jtfietleatneir SI1. SHort rlinlSring syears alld smarr sword's. Roll 2D6.~--' 1 . units mat are lapping round do receive extra bonuses for flank and rear attacks so long as the entire unit consists of five Or more models. If any enemy troops are faster than they are. However. By tficse riforms fie made the soidters stir( 11101'11 mobife Jor he took care to y. Lapping round models in this way might therefore reduce your rank bonus by Ilmrnng the number of full ranks fighting.he test. Players might wish to physically tum the models round LO face their enemies in order [0 show this. then its enemy may pursue just as if the unit had broken In band-lo-band fighting. Units disengagingfrom band-to-hand combat are moved in the compulsory movement pari of the movement phase.. fIe clitll1gcd . although it is not strictly necessary [0 do so. HI: alit/a!)! yreva/red' (iccausc liis _praHuill!1 al1rf was so s~i1rca dint lie maae IW111!) If tbe test is passed the unit has suecessfully disengaged and may move up to double its normal movement rate away from tbe combat. TI4rn the models around through 180" to show tbis. so troops along the sides of 'flanked' units can fight back against troops that are lapping round.vvi/e st1fiticttt Sllcul'ityJol' dieir lioarcs at tfie mme time as fie o!Jfitwed dint _protection. if the disengaging unit fails its test and breaks and flees.1aIlN'!:J) so thur tne tr(JOYs Ii.1!/t1lltr!) c'1H!. 1 1 i~lIIovatjo~rs Ima il11_Pl'ovcUlents mlriraJ'!} lIT ucl1l1itjue. is failed then tbe unit breaks and flees. 01' 3D6" if its move is ouer 6'. mal' attempt to disengage from combat in their movement phase: Sucb l1'00PS are assumed to be taking advantage of a lull in the /igbting to retire in an ordered fashion. whilst poorly diSciplined troops rna)' find their O1'deT~')I withdrawal turning into a rout. The enemy has disengaged during a lull in the fighting. They have been driven off by the enemy and forced to regroup behind the unit's main body. However. Take a Leadership test for each disengaging unit in the same way described for avoiding pursuit.IOUfr( fiave lIlorc mobj(. Bifol'f fie was in COfllltltlru{. Units that are fighting an enemy that successfully disengages from combat are not allowed to pursue.e trooys Gecame ((!lown as_permst 1.. and the enemy leaps foruiards to exploit their mistake...COMBAT BONUSES Models which are lapping round the flank or rear are ignored for purposes of establishing a unit's rank bonus in hand-to-hand combat. but only if all of the enemy troops they al-e ftghtitlg are either slower or have the same movement as themselves. die Greek iI!lmrtl'!1 'i'ere acasnomed to !Ising ver!J (arge I'orma sliif(rfs.l0rl{j. Declare if any of your units will disengage from combat at the start a/the movement phase. Jleei11geither 2D6' if its move is 6' or less. DEFEAT IN COMBAT If a unit is defeated in hand-co-band combat then any models already Lapping round are immediately returned to the rear rank of the formation. !pflicnltes was exrml1llf'y experienced in lllal: ~e was l!itcm hi cammmu{ armies amf never d'ipra!:Jcrf YOO1' fllaamlitp.

nit of troops is led by a character then the entire unit can test against his Leadership value. so a well led unit will be Less prone [0 the effects of Panic. With your leader dead rumour of defeat spreads along the battle front like wildfire. in the same way as described in (1. Fleeing friends are destroyed by chargers within 4". when troops see their friends running away some will lose their nerve. and the extra attackers are easily absorbed into the general carnage. You must completely if one or is also make this test if a friendly unit destroyed in hand-to-band fighting . If there are only 6fleeing models tben no test is required. a few may waver. You will notice that a Panic test Is taken in the same way as a Break test in hand-to-hand combat and uses the same characteristic. If your army's General is killed then every unit in your army must rake an immediate Panic test. 4. If the result ts less than or equal to the unit's Leadership score the [est is passed and all is well. 1. Characters often have better Leadership [han ordinary troopers. No test is required for a unit that outnumbers its destroyed friends by at least two [0 one. Charged in the in combat. 2. 4. 3. Take this test once all charges are complete. If chargers are unable to reach the unit no rest is required. See the Character section for rules concerning characters and units. take a. . 5. not the number of fleeing models Within 4" of {be I esters. from a charge and is caught and destroyed. chariots and elephants. The General is slain. and units fleeing as a result of panic.PANIC 1t is an unfortunate fact that in the heat of battle troops often don't respond as you. Fleeing friends within 4" at the start of the turn. Fleeing friends destroyed by chargers within 4". Friends break from/or are destroyed hand-to-hand combat within 12". 6. Charged combat. regardless of how many broken or destroyed friendly units are within 12". in the game by Panic tests. use the highest value for [he test. The unitsuffers 25% casualties from shooting. 4" then you must test. The General is slain. If the enemy unit is smaller than five models no test is required as there ape assumed to be too few to cause panic.n order to avoid confusion between units fleeing after losing a combat. Troops with a high Leadership are much less likely to panic than troops with a low Leadership. and vice-versa. If tbere are 2 fleeing units of 6 models each. and soon the whole unit is fleeing away from the battle in blind panic. Some troops are steadier than others as indicated by their Leadership value (ld). TAKING A PANIC TEST A Panic test is taken as follows. This is important because some bonuses apply specifically to Break tests and ochers apply only to Panic tests. the riders' Leadership is used for Panic tests and not that of its mount's. Make this test as soon as chargers have declared their charge and are determined to be within reach. a Break test is not a Panic test. These factors are represented. then a test is needed as tbe total number of fleeing troops is 12. might want them [0. as a large unit takes comfort from its size. work out all combats first and men take alI resultant Panic tests.I. 3. You do not have to take this test if your unit outnumbers the fleers by at least twO to one. . but before hand-eo-hand combat starts. WHEN TO TAKE PANIC TESTS A unit must circumstances. Jfa charier or elephant has several crew. 11 is the number of models in the fleeing unit!s udncb is important. in hand-toIn in the side or rear whilsrengaged 5. Fleeing friends within 4" at the start of the rum. Make a test at the starr of your tum if there is a fleeing friendly unit within 4". Roll 2D6 and compare the result to the unit'S Leadership (W) value. If the result is greater than rhe unit's Leadership score then the test is failed. This is often the moment when battles are won and lost! .n particular. However. Note that only one Panic test is required. USING A CHARACTER'S LEADERSHIP If a u. Test if your unit is already fighting in hand-mohand combat and is charged in the flank or rear by an enemy unit of five or more models. in Test during the hand-to-hand combat phase more friendly units breaks within 12". For example. Friends break from/or are destroyed band combat Within 12".) above.I. chen all friendly units Within 4" of the final position of the fleeing troops must take a Panic rest unless they outnumber the destroyed unit by at least two [Q one. Panic test in the following ITa friendly unit flees. or fires & flees. I. namely Leadership. 2. side or rear whilst engaged USING THE RIDER'S LEADERSHIP In the case of cavalry. their commander. due to breakmg/destroyed frtends. ~fJ'ou have a unit of 12 models and tbere is a fleeing unit of 7 or more models toitbin. The sight of a few rag-tag stragglers is insufficient to cause panic.

The fleeing unit may be pursued if its enemy won the preceding round of combat. PANICKING IN HAND·TO·HAND COMBAT CHARIOTS AND ELEPHANTS When working out the number of models in a unit for these tests. All friendly units within 12" must take a Panic rest. A unit of 10 Romans . chariots count as the number of models equal to the number of crew. The infantry unit panics and must flee in the compulsory part of its movement phase. If a unit panics at the start of the turn because of fleeing friends within 4" it may not attempt [0 rally that turn. If both players agree. must test if it suffers 25% of its number as shooting casualties In the enemy's shooting phase. No Panic test is therefore required by non-skirmishing units on account of broken. even less than their Leadership of 5 so they bravely stand fast. Panic tests are taken before the broken unit flees. The barbarian warriors already fighting the Romans won the previous rum's combat. The barbarian cavalry continue their charge in the same way as if their foe had fled voluntarily ~~~k1~rJmf\-~~~~ Fig 6. perhap where ambushers spring a trap. See the Light Troops section for more details. each cavalryman (Cider and steed) counts as a single model. Jleeing or destroyed skirmishers. PANICKING AT THE START OF THE TURN A unit must also test if it is charging and suffers 25% casualties from an enemy who either stands & shoots. Unit of infantry confronted by fleeing f'riendly cavalry. SKIRMISHERS Skirmishers are lightly armed troops who are not expected to stand before fully armed troops . The Romans roll a rota] of 10 which is more than their Leadership so they panic and flee.other units take no account of skirmishers dashing about the battlefield. or in some other unexpected circumstance that the players have contrived. L below). The Romans take a Panic rest as soon as the cavalry declare their charge and are found to be wfthlnrange. then the normal flee & pursuit rules apply. This may result in the unit panicking before it contacts its target. The unit suffers 25% casualties from shooting. and consequently the fleeing unit can be destroyed in the same way as a unit which breaks following defeat in combat. A unit which is skinnishing cannot cause another unit to partie unless that unit is also skirmishing . Note that a unit that panics and flees from hand-to-hand combat does not lead to further Panic leSIS . test can be taken to represent unsettling situation the unit finds itself In. which in this case includes a unit of barbnrlan cavalry and a unit of skirmishers nearby. Example 2.the results of the flrsr rest stand for any further ca ualties inflicted. The infantry have a Ld value of 7.only units that arc defeated and break in combat cause Panic tests. This is most likely to happen if you are fighting a scenario you have invented. I. or fires & flees. Only one Panic test is required in the enemy' shooting phase on account of casualties . The skirmishers roll a remarkable -1. and elephants count as five or more models all on their own! If a unit is engaged in hand-to-hand combat and ie panics. AI the start of their turn a unit .of 1C!n infantry is confronted by a fleeing unit of friendly cavalry wirhin 4". a Panic. Both the barbarian warriors and the barbarian cavalry will flee from their enemy. ore that a unit which panics and flees from combat does not cause other units to panic on account of friends breaking from combat within 12". . in which case it has been forced ro flee from the hail of arrows unleashed by the defenders. The player rolls 2D6 and scores a 3 and a 5 adding up to 8. If the enemy did nor win the previous round of combat (or if the antagonists have not yet fought for sorne reason) then the enemy cannot pursue. but must flee during the compulsory movement parr of its movement phase.5 charged in the flank by a unit of 5 barbarian cavalry while fighting a unit of barbarian warriors to its front. The: cavalry roU a total of 9 which is more than [heir Leadership so they panic. example if CI unit of 12 troops takes tbree casualties it must test for panic to represent the disconcerting effect of massive casualties from intense missile fire. A test is onLy required for friends that are defeated in combat and broken as a result. During the hand-to-hand combat phase a unit of barbarian warriors ts defeated and broken.6. A unit FOI' distance of 2D6" obvious threat. ( ee Fig 6.their role is to barass and delay rather than to fight. even though the rules do not strictly require ir. VOLUNTARY TESTS lt is conceivable that a situation occurs where both players agree a Panic test is in order. See rules governing or 3D6" away from their enemy or most but the player is allowed to decide his troops will flee within these the Hand-to-Hand Combat section for fleeing troops. Example 3. Fleeing troops abandon their formation and are moved in a rough mass or mob a - me EXAMPLES OF PANIC TESTS Example 1. exactly where guidelines. TIley flee 2D6" away from their enemy. PANICKING UNITS A unit which fails a Panic test wilL flee in the same way as a unit broken ill hand-to-hand combat or a unit fleeing from a charging enemy. boulder are thrown from cliffs. and so pursue. As [he infantry have a leadership of only 7 they fail their test.

This section introduces rules for unit leaders, musicians and standard bearers. These warriors are not just viral as individual warriors, they can also be seen as representative of their unit's training, morale, and willingness to obey its orders or 'get stuck in'. by a standard bearer assumed to be armed and armoured like the other models in the unit and who fights in exactly the same way. Although the standard bearer has to carry a banner as well as fight, he is chosen from the meanest and most determined of warriors, and this more than makes up for any disadvantage mac carrying the standard may bring. The standard bearer model is placed towards the middle of the front rank next to the leader. A side that has a standard may add + 1 to its combat score when deciding who has won hand-to-hand combat. See the Hand-toHand Combat section for details. Unit standard bearer models are not removed as casualties unless there are no orher ordinary trooper models to remove instead. It is assumed that any surviving warrior picks up the standard should its bearer fall.

Any unit of troops can include a leader model, representing an especially able commander. The leader model is.always placed in the centre of the front rank of his unit. He remains in this position throughout the battle. charging, fleeing, fighting and moving along with his unit. Unlike the characters described in the next section, a leader can never leave his unit or act independently from it. Leaders are armed and armoured like the other troops in their unit. IIthe model itself substitutes a sword for a spear, or does away with a shield in favour of a dramatic gesture, then these differences are put down to artistic license and all fighting is worked out assuming the leader is armed in the same way as his men. If a unit has a leader it may roll an extra attack dice on his behalf. For example, a Leader with an Attack (A) value of 1 would normally roll one dice to hit, bur because of the leader bonus this is increased to two dice. Leaders are never removed as casualties unless all the ordinary troopers are already slain - a unit's leader is always the last to go down fighting!

If a unit flees from hand-to-band combat and the enemy pursue, or if a unit is wiped our in hand-to-hand combat, then the enemy will capture its standard. The player must give the standard bearer model to his opponent for the remainder of me battle (it is returned once the game is over thoughf). This is important because a player can claim bonus victory points for each standard be captures.

An army marches under its banners but it does so to the beat of drums and the call of blaring horns. A unit may include a musician model to accompany it into battle, either a horn blower, a drummer or some other worthy soul. The musician is assu med to be armed and armoured like the other models in the unit and fights in exactly the same way. Although the model has to carry an instrument as weU as fight, he is not only uncommonly valiant but also enjoys the support of troops around him, which is taken as compensating for any encumbrance suffered. The musician model is placed towards the middle of the front rank of the unit next to its leader, the normal arrangement is therefore: leader in the middle wtth standard and musician to either side. lf a unit bas a musician then an inspiring horn blast or rousing drum beat can turn a drawn combat into a win. \'({here a combat otherwise ends in a draw each side rolls a 06 for each musician model that it bas fighting. The side that rolls the highest indiviclual dice scare is the victor and wins the combat by 1 pornr, Jf one side has a musician and the other does not, then the side with the musician will automatically win a drawn combat by 1 point.

ometimes a leader can find himself stranded from a fighl - his men are fighting but he isn't. This is most Likely to happen where a unit is cbarged in the flank or rear, but it can also happen if the front of the enemy formation is too short to cover the leader model. When this happens the player is allowed [0 move the leader inro a position where he can fight in his next movement phase. Simply swap the leader for a trooper model that is already fighting. This can mean that the leader loses the chance to fight in the first [urn of combat. Although this rule allow a leader to move to join the figbting he may nor do so if already fighting someone else. He can't move ro fight an enemy attacking the rear of the unit if he is already fighting an enemy to the front.

A tandard is the focal point of a unit. Ir proclaims the unit's identity and defies its enemies. Standards also have a practical value: they are used to signal. direct movement, and provide a visible paint around whicb formation changes and manoeuvres can be made. The following rules represent the boost to a unit's fighting prowess due to its standard. A unit of troops may carry a standard in the form of a flag, banner. totemic idol, Or similar device. It is carried

with unit standard bearers, rnusicrans removed as casualties unless there are no trooper models to remove instead.

are nor ordinary

The ancient world would not be what it was without the presence of potent individuals, great heroes, mighty generals and the odd rorten-hearted scoundrel. These characters add an entirely different aspect to the game, often as valuable military commanders whose presence inspires other troops to feats of exceptional valour. However, a character might equally well be an Egyptian princess being escorted on her way to a dynastic marriage [0 the heir of a Syrian city Slate. Or it could be a rich merchant leading a convoy of goods and hired mercenaries across the desert. or perhaps an ordinary mao or woman who is destined to playa significant role in our game - a bribed sentry or a shepherd boy who happens to be a dead-eye shot with a sling. A character is a Significant individual in the game for whom we can Invent suitable special rules. The details and extra rules for characters are not given here as there are simply too many and space does not permit it. Instead each separate army list supplement includes a section giving the profiles for a range of types of character that can be used withthe army. If you refer to the rwo sample army lists as the back of this book you will find examples of characters for the Roman and Barbarian armies. Players should note that although characters can move more freely than unit, they are still bound by the normal rules for declaring and executing charges. A character may charge an enemy in the rear if he starts his move in front of it, and he may not charge an enemy he cannot see when charges are declared.

Character models can join units of troops and fight alongside them if you wish. To join a urut a character has only to move so that he is touching it. Once he bas joined, the character model is placed in the from rank next [0 rhe unit's leader. standard and musician if it has them. The character will inevitably use up a proportion of his move to reach the unit. If the unit has not moved then it cannot now move further than the character, as itS remaining rnnvernent has been wasted waiting for him. Although characters are normally placed in the front rank of a unit, if the unit is already engaged in combat then the character may be placed anywhere in order to fight the enemy - even at the sides or rear of the formation. Once the combat is over the character is returned ro his rightful place in the front rank. A character who is with a unit of troops might find himself unable to fight becau e there is no enemy facing him. The enemy line might fall short of his position or the enemy might be fighting to the side or rear of the formation, for example. In this case the character moves to join the fighting in his movement phase in the same way as a leader (see the rules for Leaders), If a character is travelling with a unit then his movement is dictated by the unit as a whole. He simply moves along like an ordinary member of the unit. If the character moves slower than the unit then the whole unit will have to slow down so that he can keep up!

Characters move and tight as individual units of one model, except chat a character can join a regiment and fight with it and, if he does so, his movement will be restricted as described later. Apart from models which have joined with other units, a character model is free to move in the movement phase. He must rake lora account any penalties to movement for crossing terrain and obstacles as normal, but he does not have to turn or wheel in order to change direction, the model is Simply moved to face whichever direction is required as the player wishes.



A character who has joined a unit may leave again during any subsequent movement phase. He may nor join and leave the same unit in a single rum, but he may leave one unit and join another if you wish. A character may not leave a unit while it is subject to some compulsory movement rule. For example he cannot leave a unit which is fleeing, declared a charge, has rallied that rum (because it cannot move) or which is engaged in hand-eo-hand combat. If a unit declares a Charge any characters which have already joined the unit must charge too and take part in the resulting combat. This means that once hand-tohand fighting has begun a character will nor be able to leave the unit he has joined until all the fighting is over and any compulsory rnovernenr such as fleeing and pursutr bas been resolved.

A unit accompanied by a character may use the character's Leadership value fOT any Leadership tests it is required to take. If a unit I,S joined by several characters use the highest leadership amongst them. This is a very important rule, as it provides units of poor troops with the Leadership they need. Leadership is used for Panic tests, rally tests, and Break tests in combat, as well as many of the special Psychology tests described Later, While the character is with the unit be is considered to be parr of iTin all respects. If the unit is forced [0 flee for any reason, because ofa failed Break or Panic test for example, then the character is forced to flee as welJ and at the same speed, and he may not leave the unit until it has rallied.

A character

and hopefully alerts the character in time for him to duck or cunningly avoid the hurtling missile, The missile slips past the character and hltsthe man standing beside or behind him, If a character is with a unit and is hit by missile fire, a stone thrower, or any kind of shot, then roll a D6. On the roil of 1 the character fails to hear the warning and is hit by the missile. Work out damage as normal. On the roll of between 2 and 6 the character is alerted IO the danger and avoids the missile. The character is not hit and the missile strikes another model instead - transfer the hit. to an adjacent model in the unit.

model may only be picked out as a target by enemy shooters if he is the closest target. This means that characterscan move around behind the battle lines without attracting an unrealistic and unreasonable amount of missile fire.

A character model that is with a unit may only be picked out as a target if the unit is the closest target and the character tstn the rank facing tile shooters. Note chat it is only characters who may be targeted in this way leaders, standard bearers and musicians may not as they would be replaced by another warrior in any case. When you are shooting at a character model there is always an additional ·1 to hit penalty. This is because the normal chance of hitting assumes the target is massed up in ranks. or is pretty large to start with. This is nor the case when you are shooting ar a single man, especially if there are other potential targets to distract the shooter's
atte n ti on.

When a unit closes with its enemies in band-to-hand fighting character models will inevitably find themselves confronted by enemy !TOOps.When a model is fighting it can strike its blows against any enemy model whose base it is touching. in the case of troopers confronted by character models they will usually have the option of striking at a character or an ordinary enemy, as bases will inevitably overlap slightly as you move the models into combat. Characters may sometimes come into direct combat against enemy characters. but the same choice applies to them - they may attack anyenemy whose base they are touching. The exception to this is [be challenge, as described below.

In addition, a character model who has joined a unit may be lucky enough to avoid death from a missile, thanks to a warning shouted by a comrade. Possibly one of his companions shoves him out of the way, or pushes him to ground. A trooper spots the fateful missile beading towards his leader, and shouts "Look Out Sirl" or some such warning,


In each turn before working our any hand- to-hand combat, each side is allowed to issue challenges. The challenge represents one-on-one combat between rival. characters, the final showdown between migbty adversaries in the midst of battle. A player may issue one challenge in each combat fought. As you will recall, a single combat can include several untrs on each side and so may involve several characters - however only one challenge can be made per combat. Where several combats are fought during the turn one challenge can be made in each, The player whose rum it is has the first opportunity to declare challenges, The player can issue a challenge with one character model from amongst those already engaged in each combae,

Note that a battle standard only allows units to re-take Break tests. A challenge might therefore last over several turns of combat. A unit which is fleeing may use the General's Leadership if he is within 12" when arternpting ro rally. such as Panic tests. Unlike with ordinary unit standard bearers the battle standard is nor passed on if irs bearer is slain. Also. If a character is riding a warhorse that has its own attack then the horse flghts during the challenge as well. This may be accepted or declined in the same way. Any unit within 12" of the General model may use the General's leadership value instead of its own when making a Leadership based test. he must set an example by standing firm himself REFUSED CHALLENGES lf a challenge is refused men the declining player must retire one character nominated by his opponent. note that a challenge cannot be issued unless there is a character to flght. This ability does not apply if rhe battle standard bearer is fleeing. This character may not fight or do anything else that rum. and the refnsing player must retire One of his own characters from the combat as described below The disappointed challenger fights normally in the combat phase. Normally troops fighting alongside their banners receive only + 1 no. then he must do so before any other units which have to take a Panic test at the same time. The (so-called) hero has chosen to hide behind his fellows rather than face the challenger one-an-one.His enemy has the option of refusing or meeting the challenge. Ordinary troopers cannot take up a challenge. If the models are in chariots it may be more convenient to remove them altogether and place them beside the fighting units. The General is important because he can inspire others to fight on where otherwise they might turn and flee. if a player accepts a challenge he elects one of his own characters from those already engaged in the combat to fight the challenger. it cannot be used for any other sort of Leadership test. This means that a unit near the General can lise his superior leadership when resting for fear. panic and other psychology. This simply reflects the fact that for other units to benefit from the General's Leadership. If the General should flee then he loses any influence over his troops whilst he continues to Dee. FIGHTING CHALLENGES Once a challenge is accepted the two rivals are moved in the ranks so that they are opposite each other. The retiring character is removed from the engaged rank: and placed at the back of the formation. Any unit within 12" of the battle standard may re-take a failed Break rest. . If he refuses then no challenge takes place. THE BATTLE STANDARD An army can also include an individual who carries either the General's personal banner or the battle standard of the army itself. or for Break tests in hand-to-band combat. Attacks from heavy chariot impacts are worked out against [he enemy unit before the rest of combat. no other models may attack [hem even if their bases are touching. but warhorses pulling the chariot may. but they will count towards the overall combat result. The character is in charge of the whole army and. See the rules for Standards. if the General has to take a Panic test (because a nearby friendly unit flees from hand-co-hand combat for example). A unit is only allowed to retake its test once per turn. more tban any other model. ARMY GENERALS An army can be commanded by a unique character known as the General. The character is returned to a fighting rank once the hand-to-band combat phase is over. and no other models may shoot at them. When combat is worked out these [WO will tight together. represents you personally. A battle standard can be captured in the same way as a unit banner. This character is known as the battle standard bearer. As these attacks are impact damage they don'[ COW1t rowardsthe challenge. If the ba ale standard joins a unit of troops then the unit receives an extra + 1 combat bonus when working Out who has won combat and is in addition to the usual + 1 for tile unit's own standard. Once the challenge is underway no further challenges can be issued in that combat until one character is slain or forced to flee. If the player whose rum it is does not issue a challenge in any combat then his opponent may issue one himself. However. If a character is riding a chariot then no other crew can fight. ready to fight in the next turn. This is the only time when an exrra banner confers a further bonus. matter how many banners are involved.

jar example). or because tbe battle bas some other unique feature (eg buildings. Because 0/ tbis you don 't really need to learn any of the jollowing rules until you playa game tbat requires their use there's not a lot oj point learning the rules jar chariots if you don't plan to play any games that include them. This being said it's well worth wbile scanning tbrougb tbe rules in this section so tbat you get an idea of what is included. 01' troops tbat figh« in a special/ormation).SPECIAL RULES You have now read all 0/ tbe most important J-ulesfor Warhammet· Ancient Battle. . but they are only used in special circumstances. either because a special troop type is being used in a battle (chariots or elephants. On the following pages are more rules. and t'hey will be used in just about every game tbat you play. for example.

For example. a warrior equipped with lighl armour ariel a shield would normally have an armour saving th1"OW of 5 or 6. No special rules are applied to these units on account of their weaponry. hammers and other similar weapons wielded in one band. Special rules for each different type of weapon are described below. HAND-TO-HAND WEAPONS Almost all troops are armed with a hand-to-hand combat weapon of some kind. knights armed with lances need to charge to use their weapons effectively so a player must be careful to manoeuvre them into position so that it is he. and are suited to certain styles of play. most troops carry a sword or dagger as well as their primary weapon. and so on. If a warrior carries a band weapon in each hand be receives one extra attack from his left hand.WEAPONS AND ARMOUR The game rules as already described allow for variation in [he Strength and Toughness of opponents. a warrior receives only + 1 attack from his extra weapon. but he bas an armour saving tbrour of 4. bur nor for the different kinds of weapons they might be armed with. 5 0·" 6 against an opponent armed with a dagger 01· improvised weapon. A urarrior who stands and fires as a cbarge response is allowed to change weapons. An enemy wounded by such a weapon receives a + 1 armour saving throw modifier. So. and if a minority carry other weapons these are counted as spear as well. clubs. except for Leaders. a warrior armed with a bow and jaueiin could fire one or the other in the sbooting phase. It is acceptable for a unit to include the odd model that is armed differently. and for differences in their armour. Such troops are obviously at a disadvantage when fighting troops armed with more efficient close combat weapons. not both. You will soon realise [hat differ-em weapons often imply different tactical options. This is an exception to the rule that a warrior may only use one weapon in hand-to-hand combat. troops armed with more than one kind of weapon are only allowed to use one ar a time. in a unit of spearmen most will carry spears. u. All the models in a unit should carry the weapons ascribed to them. 1.. 1WOWEAPONS Some troops are armed with more than one type of weapon. This is particularly effective with barbarian units as you wouldn't expect much uniformity amongst the masses. In a mixed weapon unit such as this. Once the basics of combat have been mastered you may wish to introduce further detail by using the following rules representing different kinds of weapons. DAGGERS AND IMPROVISED WEAPONS All U·ClOpS are assumed to be armed wid] a weapon of some kind. axes. ail models count as being armed with swords. while a spearman could lise either his spear or bis sword in hand-to-hand combat. who charges into combat. be it simply a dagger or a mighty double-handed axe. Some warriors carry a weapon in both hands so they can rain down even more attacks on their enemy. axes. Many players like to mix models in a unit. However. but it is irnportant that the unit's overall appearance is not misleading. WEAPONS Some types of weapons confer both advantages and disadvantages to the troops that use them. HAND WEAPONS Hand weapon is the term used to describe all swords. The difference between these weapons is slight and so they are all considered ro be comparable in terms of use and effect. Daggers and improvised weapons are easily deflected by armour. etc. rather than his enemy. It doesn't matter if his attack (A) value is 2 or more. FOI· . sing one to fire at the attackers as tbey charge and another in the ensuing combat. 1. a heavy double-handed axe or sword gives a buge Strength bonus but always strikes after the enemy. WEAPONS AND UNITS As a general principle every model in a unit of troops carries the same weaponry . musicians and standard bearers where this is impractical. Models that would not normally receive an armour save will save on a 6. example. For example. Most of the rules for combat have already been covered in the Hand-to-Hand Combat rules. some with spears.a unit of spearmen all carry spears. For example. arming some with swords. clubs or other hand weapons. be it a dagger or an improvised weapon such as a rock or rough dub. For example.

This means that a block of spearmen makes a very good defensive formation. As the enemy's armour save is affected by the strength of the hit. 3. so it is a very adaptable and extremely effective weapon for infantry. Any hits at trength 4 or more confer the usual modifier on the enemy's armour saving roll. It allows troops to hurl a deadly volley of missiles as they charge. Infantry armed with throwing spears may fight in two ranks in the first round of each combat. The steel blade has a palm like a spear as well as a heavy cutting edge like an axe. spears receive a +1 Strength bonus when they charge. 2. for example. 3. spears were sometimes formation. Up to four or five feet ill length. so this may be reduced as well. and were designed to be held and thrust at the enemy rather than thrown. making it an ideal defensive weapon. In the case of a warrior with a trength of 3 a halberd hit has a Srrength of 4 and -I to save. Double-handed weapons always strike last regardless of which side charges or relative Initiative levels. Spearmen fight in two ranks if the enemy charge them while they stand [heir ground. A blow from a double-handed axe can break armour apart and cur a foe dean in half. Troops equipped wield if and cannot If they carry shields backs or placed on with a halberd require both arms to use shields in hand-co-hand fighting. his total Strength will be 4 when he charges. swords. The disadvantage is that the weapon is very heavy to swing. 1. splitting them as the horsemen ride into their ranks. Lf rile bearer has a shield he may nor use it in hand-tohand combat. In addition the rear ranks of an infantry unit can aid their companions by hurling their spears over the heads of the troops in from and into the enemy ranks beyond. and highly effective in dose combat. Infantry armed with thrusting spears may fight in two ranks of troops because warriors in a second rank thrust thelr weapons forward past those fighting in the from. If rile wielder'S Strength is 3 then aU hits from a double-handed weapon will be at Strength 5. This enables models directly behind front rank fighters to fight as welt. Thrusting spears used by the Persian Immortals and their Greek Hoplite enemies both fall into this category. Because of this throwing spears have different rules depending on whether they are being used by infantry or cavalry. often 10 feet long or more. 1. A man with a Strength of 3 therefore bits with a Strength of 4 if fighting with a halberd. such a the for such formations can lists for the troops that 2. Par example in the case of a StrengtJ:J 5 hit the sewing tbroui drops by -2. If they charge their careful formation is affected and they may only fight in a single rank that rum. but are less welt suited to arrack.l-lalberds therefor-e confer a + 1 Strength bonus on all hits. 1. for [hat matterl quick. the throwing spear was (and is. The following rules reflect the advantages of foot and mounted soldiers equipped with thrusting spears. either when they charge or when they receive an enemy charge. hammers and clubs which are so large that they must be wielded with two hands. THROWING SPEAR Throwing spears were one of the most common type of weapon used by ancient armies. so a warrior may be slain by a more nimble foe before he has a chance to strike. this will be reduced also. it's assumed they are slung on their the ground before flghting begins. [nfamry armed with thrusting capable of fighting in a special Greek Hoplite's phalanx. However. Cavalry armed with thrusting 2. This allows warriors directly behind front rank fighters to attack as well. Double-banded weapons require both hands [Q USe. 1. but they are used differently byeach.DOUBLE-HANDED WEAPONS This category includes all axes. Double-handed weapons are heavy [0 swing and leave the user vulnerable to a more lightly armed foe. Alternatively. The Strength of a hit affects the armour save of the target. representing both the warriors in the rear THRUSTING SPEAR Thrusting spears are fairly long weapons. HAlBERDS The halberd is a heavy bladed weapon mounted on a sturdy shaft. this advantage only applies as long as [he spearmen do not move. It is held in both hands and used to chop as well as thrust. and then follow this up with a hastily drawn sword or axe. A cavalry unit armed with thrusting 'pears can employ them like Lances to ride down enemy troops. If the wielder's Strength is 3. Thrusting spears are useful weapons for troops on foot or riding a horse. Halberds are heavy weapons and a mighty swing can cause considerable damage. If both sides are armed in this way chargers strike first followed by the side with the highest lnitlative. Rules be found in the separate army are allowed to use them. Double-handed weapons confer a + 2 Strength bonus on all hits. simple and cheap to produce. It must be Left on the ground or slung on his back during me fighting. ote [hat this bonus only applies when the cavalryman charges and it only applies for that rurn. as would [he Xyston used by Alexander [he Great's Companion Cavalry. the spear can be held on to and used in band-co-hand combat. . A foot unit with thrusung spears is able [0 fend off the enemy with a mass of spear points.

regardless of Initiative and even if the opponent charged. The rules for cavalry armed with thrusting spears also apply to cavalry armed with a kontos. making it an ideal defensive weapon. or the unit can Stab at the enemy using the kontos' superior reach ro make it difficult for the foe to strike back. such as the Macedonian phalanx. When they storm through enemy ranks their steel tipped lances rip through armour and £Iesh. but they easily penetrate an opponent's armour or shield when they hit. 1. regardless ofInitiative and even if [he opponent charged. This category includes tile famous Sarrissa used by Alexander the Great's plkemen. splitting them apart as horsemen ride into their ranks. Heavy throwing spears may only be used by infantry units. The lance rules represents the heavy lance that is designed to be couched and used in a Charge with tile full weight of the rider and his mount behind it. it does not use lance rules. 1. 2. In addition troop equipped with pikes alway strike first when fighting an opponent with a shorter weapon. . except that they receive a +2 Strength bonus when they charge rather than + 1. In the second and subsequent rounds of combat only [he front rank can fight. ate that if an infantry unit gets involved in a second combat later in [he same barrie. LANCE Cavalry armed with lances are the ultimate shock troops. 2. or replaced with new spears supplied from stocks at the army's camp. or else he continues ro use the butt of the lance [Q punch at his foe. Infantry in skirmish formation and aU cavalry armed with throwing spears may re-roll any to hit dice that miss at the first attempt in the first rum of each combat. thereafter me warrior either drops his lance and fights on with a sword. The pike is longer than all other weapons apart £rom other pikes. this represents the troops first hurling their spears at me enemy and then following up with a hand weapon if the spear misses its mark. HEAVY THROWING SPEARS Heavy throwing spears are similar in length to ordinary throwing spears bur have a longer and heavier metal spear head. Rules for such formations will be covered in the separate army lists for the forces mat use them. then u can use its throwing spears again. 1. smashing bones and flinging foes to the ground. Troops armed with pikes are often capable of fighting in a special formation. Also. except that they add + 1 to their Strength in [he first turn of each combat. Any spears chat were thrown earlier are assumed to have been picked up again. ore (hat this bonus only applies when the cavalryman charges and only for the first turn of each combat. but longer than anything else. The kontos is shorter than a pike. Note that although the kontos looks a lot like a lance. It also cover other heavy throwing weapons. cavalry armed with a kamas always strike first when fighting an opponent with a shorter weapon. lnfantry armed with heavy throwing spears are treated in exactly the same way as infantry armed with throwing spears. Also. his total Strength will be 5 when he charges. but is mOST famously represented by the Roman pilum. KONTOS The kontos is the cavalry equivaleur of the pike. It is very important that lance-armed cavalry successfuUy charge the enemy rather than allowing themselves to be charged. such as the Frank and Viking throwing axe. Cavalry armed with lances use the same rules as cavalry armed with spears. 1. Any hits at a Strength of 4 or more confer the usual modifier on the enemy's saving roll. The category include weapons such as [he Frankish angon and panish saunlon. for example. They are considerably more difficult and expensive to produce then ordinary throwing spears.ranks hurling their spears at the enemy and the missile attacks made by the from rank as the enemy charge in. and that needs a special saddle and stirrups to stop the rider being knocked off his horse by the impact. A cavalry unit equipped with rile kamas can ride down enemy troops. lances are only effective as they charge. PIKES Pikes are extremely long spears as much as 20-25 feet in length. the weapon's great length means rhar rroops will invariably get in the first attack while the enemy attempt to get past the bristling hedgehog of spear points. but in the case of lancers this is greater than for any other troops. IIthe wielder's Strength is 3. The charging side always has an advantage. An infantry unit armed with pikes is able to fend off enemy with a mass of spear points. The rules for infantry armed with thrusting spears al 0 apply (Q infantry armed with pikes.

1. SHORT BOW The short or self bow was one of the most common missile weapons used In the ancient world and was made of a flexible branch of wood and a suing of sinew or fibres. !f yo is II st7'ellgtfi. me 1. We have already looked at me rules for bows. but we have gathered them here to be complete Some of rhese weapons have additional special rules. ao if atJllff all'1 1lI1l!J distil!! t. they were used as a secondary weapon by troops that fought in close formation. 2. me Wise 9cllemfsfi!p CQlIsisrs in (ltrncirill!] il1 lilliI'll! rfie Ifrtfllllj wen ~est. Use the Strength of the warrior who throws the javelin or dart to work out damage from hits. This category also includes weighted darts such as the Roman rnartiobarbuli. Both these types of weapon are thrown by hand and the effect depends upon the skill and strength of the caster. fixed together [0 create a flexible. In addition the -1 to hit. . 1. even slIIylilS jf rli'c yo r !:ie so III e atrllc~ ~ecrilZ!J '!f victol'!J never cnllsen to yrevaif.Egypt and Assyria. in which case onLy one or twO javelins would be carried. The javelin has no strength of its own because its effectiveness depends on how bard it is thrown.!) ~f remorse. {1culIlse n COl11Ufl'01' OtIC_paz'. It was not as sophisticated or difficult to make as a composite bow. and is srill in use today amongst primitive or isolated tribesmen. in which case each man carries a large bundle of javelins with which to pelt an enemy from at long range. Javelins and dans have such a short missile range that the usual -1 penalty for shooting at targets over half range does not apply. nits armed with composite bow may use massed fire as described in Shooting rules.MISSILE WEAPONS By using missile weapons it is possible to strike down the enemy while still our of range of his hand-to-band combat weapons. strong weapon with considerably greater range than a simple short bow. their enemies trampled asunder and pierced by a muitirude of arrows. Javelin and darts were used in two main ways.. . JAVELINS AND DARTS The javeli n is a light spear which is [00 flimsy to be much use in hand-to-hand fighting but is perfectly balanced for throwing at the enemy. Units armed with short: bows may use massed fire as described in the Shooting rules. COMPOSITE BOW The composite bow is constructed of several materials. The bow was depicted on the rock paintings of Stone Age man. Secondly. The rules for catapults and boll throwers can be found in their own section later in the rule book. The rulers of these mighty empires are depicted driving chariots and drawing such bows. penalty for moving and shooting does not apply because a warrior throwing a javelin or dart would usually make a run-up in order to gain the momentum to throw the weapon. crossbows and other missile weapons in the rules for Shooting. The composite bow was major weapon of the armies of the ancient ear East . Firstly they were used as a missile weapon by light troops operating in skirmish formation. but was considerably cheaper to produce. and these would be burled at me foe prior to fighting band-to-hand combat.

It can fire an arrow substantially further than an ordinary bow. This means that a crossbow inhibits the movement of its users compared to a bow. This reduces the range but enables the slinger to sham far faster. snidas alld fou!Jht flkc all arm!! !Ulder sicge. It is very difficult to draw back the string of a eros bow once it has been fired: the shooter must either brace the weapon against the ground with his feet while he heaves the string up. Tlic slIccesifll( olltcome 1these ill!}lortrwt e._ftritl!J their arrollls]rolll ITff sirfes aT tlie et1circkd soWers. In addition the much heavier arrows it fires greatly increa e it armour piercing ability. Hit aurf wOlwd"crf]rom eve!"!) sMa. A unit of stingers may fire twice in their shooting phase if they do nor move in their movement phase. Units armed with long bows may use massed fire as described in the Shooting rules. The sling requires a very large 'wind-up' area compared to other missile weapons. die Persians 1II. it was not ensy to rew(r (Jllorfil!r n. As a result. aile ill wfiic/i (I !Jl'cnt army IVIlS d"estt'O!Jca. but it! tfic eni aff Hlere kiffctf. Therefore slings may only be used by troops in skirmish formation (see the rules for light Troops). . and then the sling stone is released in the direction of [he target. ContenT meTdy to }.vents encollm!Jca die Persia» kill!) to anticiPate Gettel' tllifl!)s iu tliefima·e.. but it is much more powerful and has a longer range. SLING 1. 2. where tfiey lIIade a wa(r I!f tliei. in the same phase you are 1 Herodian '1 LONGBOW The Long bow is a powerful bow favoured by experienced archers. or be mu r employ some kind of mechanical device such as a windlass or lever. typically requiring 2-3 times as much space.rorecr tficlIIsdvcs. or fire & flee. Tfie ROlllans sl1ferea /I sta!J!Jel'ill!) dimsw'. they !ida ou r 61'11 I/efy as (Oil!] ns tliey (Ourrr. The sling is linle more than a looped strip of cloth or Leather into which a srone is placed. 1.'1(0 olle par. 1. alT tfie RomaltS werr drivell . against a charging enemy as there is insufficient time. r/icy c1fc1'ca 110 resistance. f1l1tllulIIGcmf the Romans were unaGfe TOSTem rile urrack the Pel'Siall frorse.CROSSBOW TnI:' king mtITCktdlnle.1SSlTcred who(e ITrllly.!pcctedl"y wirli liis clllireJorce mid tmyyed Hie ROImms IIke_ftsh ill a net. You cannot move and fire a eros bow so if you move in your movement unable [0 fire that turn. The sling is whirled about the slinger's head until it reaches a certain momentum.ke it. tfie!) IIsed theil' sli ierdS to _prImer tliose yam ~f their 60dies C>yosen to rlie Persian III'YOHIS. r1 The crossbow is a more complex device than an ordinary bow. The one advantage of the sling is that the rate of fire can be varied by releasing the Ilng shot before you have worked up full impetus. turn.-s o(a. Note that sltngers cannot fire twice when [hey stand & shoot. all arm!) h!foriol" ill srrclI!}t/i rmn aercrmirrmioll to 110m I!! rlie armi. Their range is reduced to half (9") if they fire twice. Yfi.

Buckler The buckler Is a small shield that is light and easy to handle. HEAVY ARMOUR This isa completely enclosing suit of armour as worn by a knight. SHIELD This is a standard sized described in the rules.ate some or all of the damage suffered in a turn. However their greater size and bulk meant that they could not be used by skirmishers or light troops who relied on mobility and speed of movement in battle. and may also be increased if the warrior has a shield or is riding a barded horse. 2. Troops wearing heavy armour receive an armour saving dHOW of 5+ against any wounds that they suffer. a warrior uiearing Ugbt armour riding a. large shields confer a + 2 save modifier rather than the + 1 save modifier for a normal shield. 1. Troops in skirmish formation can always use a buckler if carrying one. 1. and may also be increased if the warrior has a shield or is riding a barded horse. and may also be increased if the warrior is riding a barded horse. Armour and shields provide a model with a special armour saving throw tbat can neg. The mort: heavily armoured troops are. as described earlier in the rules. +1 f01· being cavalry. and -l. If used on its own it provides an armour saving throw of 5+ for tnfaotry Of 4+ for cavalry.1 for tbe horse's barding). 1. breastplate and helmet. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry as described earlier in the rules. Troops wearing light armour receive an armour saving throw of 6+ against any wounds that they suffer.ARMOUR AND SHIELDS Most troops wear armour and carry shields to protect themselves from [he savage blows of their enemies. . Tills save is increased by + 1 for cavalry. LIGHT ARMOUR Troops may wear a metal breastplate. !fused on its own it provides an armour saving [brow of 6+. We have also included new rules to cover large shields and budders. it provides an armour saving throw of 6 +. Cavalry riding mounts that have barding their armour save by + 1 point. BARDING Barding is armour made for horses. shield of the type already L A shield confers a + 1 armour saving throw to the model carrying it. This makes it ideal for light troops armed with rnrssile weapons who are able to unsling the buckler quickly when engaged in hand-to-hand combat. These are described as light armour because they offer slightly less protection than heavy armour and weigh less. camels or elephants. It can be made of metal or can take the form of a. . The buckler confers a + 1 save modifier. 2. There is a disadvantage though to wearing a great deal of armour . Most of the rules for armour saving throws have been covered already in the shooting and hand-to-lund combat rules. increase For example. Large Shield Some warriors used very large shields that offered considerably greater protection than an ordinary shield. It is made from metal plates and is very heavy and cumbersome. An en dosing suit of chain mail armour can also be classed as heavy armour. chainmaU or a scale armour coat.because metal armour is so heavy troops wearing a lot of it will move slower than unarrnoured troops. so the definition is not completely rigid 1. and may also be increased if the warrior is riding a barded horse. but we have gathered them all here for completeness. Troops wearing heavy armour and carrying a shield Or large shield subtract 1 from their movement tate. as described earlier in the rules. barded borse would have an armour saving tbrous of 4 + (6+ JOt· tbe ligbt armour. but other troops can only use a buckler against hand-to-hand attacks and not against missiles. Including the +1 cavalry bonus. Armour greatly affects a warrior's chance of survival and so influences tbe outcome of combat. 1. thick quilted coat with a linen covering bearing the knight's coat of arms. the harder they are to kill. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry. 1f used on irs own. Cavalry horses wearing barding must subtract 1 from their movement rare. This save is increased by + 1 for cavalry as described earlier in the rules. or a full panoply of armour including greaves. 111is penalty does not apply to warriors wearing heavy armour and carrying a buckler. Cavalry wearing heavy armour and carrying a shield or large shield subtract 1 from the mount's movement characteristic.

A unit defeated in hand-to-hand combat is amomaticaJly broken without a Break test if it is outnumbered by feared enemy.. The entire unit is either affected or not at all. UNIT PSYCHOLOGY AND CHARACTERS In gene raJ. or rules. If the result is less than or equal CO the unit's leadership score the rest is passed and all is welt If the result is greater than the unit's Leadership then the test has been failed. unfamiliar Situations or large bizarre creatures such as elephants. See the Hand-to-Hand Combat section for details of Break rests and fleeing troops. hatred. well equipped and drilled to fight in battle . stubborn. The psychology rules in this section introduce cultural characteristics for individual races and As the comritander of your army it is your dury about these things and take them into account plans. and even religious backgrounds of the warriors that fought in them. IT the feared enemy does not outnumber the unit men a Break test is taken as normal. if be is forced to charge because of frenzy. to know in your FEAR Fear is a natural reaction to unnerving. However. Roll 206 and compare the result to the unit's Leadership (Ld) value. For example. the unit may not charge and must remain stationary for the turn. where a psychology test of any kind is required it is taken on behalf on an entire unit of troops.frenzy. that governs the behaviour of affected troops on the battlefield. dangerous as individuals but often difficult to control or unpredictable on the battlefield. If a unit is compelled by a psychology rule then any associated character must remain with the unit. terror. and i affected by the psychoLogy rule that applies to him as an individual This might cause a character to separate from me unit be is with. ate that it makes no difference whether a fear test as described above has been passed or not. a character does not benefit or suffer from any bonuses or penalties from a psychological rule unless he is affected by it himself. Many troops are not affected by these rules at all. These are fear. If a unit wishes to charge an enemy that it fears then it must pass a Leadership test as described above to overcome its fear. troops who fear Iheir" opponents will be reluctant to attack them. If you do not you may find that you are before you even begin.PSYCHOLOGY Ancient cultures were fabulously diverse and ancient armies necessarily reflected [he sociaJ conditions. If a unit is charged by an enemy that it fears then it must test against its Leadership to determine if it overcomes its fear. Other. a unit and character may be affected by different psychology rules! Where a character is affected by rules that do not apply to the unit. It can happen that a unlt is joined by a character who is unaffected by a particular psychology rule. and most. and usarband. a unit is automatically broken if it is defeated by an enemy that czxises fear and which outnumbers it. If the test is failed me unit will automatically flee if outnumbered by the charging enemy.nce because be is warband. where they are affected. . A unit must take s fear test in the following situations: 1. If the test is failed. For example. are affected by only one. more tribally-organised societies produced brave bur Ill-disciplined warriors. bur must roll 6's to score hits in the first turn of combat. Each of these is represented by a special rule. military traditions. defeated PSYCHOLOGY RULES \'iTe represent me more extreme and Interesting tendencies of troops by means of what we call psychology rules. he rakes any necessary tests on his own. or obliged to advc. Societies with a strong military caste and deeply embedded sense of social duty produced good officer-Led armies. foOl'example. different nations. moving as it moves or staying put if it halts. He cannot leave the unit whilst it is bound by the rule. although he must accompany them as they charge. and if attacked tbemselues may decide to flee. camels cause fear in enemy horses. Even more co nfuslng . 2. If not outnumbered the unit will fight as normal. This means a character does not go into efreney JUSt because he is with a unit char does so. as horses find the sight and smell of camels unnerving. compelled to pursue due to hatred. This test is taken once the enemy declares his charge and is found [0 be within his charge distance. 3.

in which case terror might also be caused by lions.lf the result is less than or equal to the unit's leadership SCOre [be test is passed and all is well.TERROR Terror rules represent creatures so huge and threatening rhar they are even more frightening than those described by the fear rules. and all the rules described above apply. They do n. 3. Frenzied troops always pursue a fleeing enemy whether the player wants to or nor. A unit must test to overcome its terror if charged by or wishing co charge an enemy that causes terror. Thetr exuberant. tigers. although Break tests are still taken in hand-to-hand fighting. 3. 2. This bonus only applies in the first turn of each combat and represents the unit venting its flatted all. As you only ever take one terror test in a battle. FRENZY Some outlandish warriors can go into a fighting frenzy. The following rules apply.just take a terror test: if you pass the terror test then you automatically pass me fear test too . Tbis means they will not break u mess they fOU 11 or more on 206 or unless their enemy are a u/arband Of cause few' etc. However. They flee exactly like other troops. Frenzied troops never panic and are not affected by other psychology r'ules.the unit will automatically declare irs charge.. a whirlwind of destruction or raging fury in which all concern for their own personal safety is ignored in favour of a blood-letting. rival ry. They cannot attempt to avoid pursuit by testing their Leadership as other troops can. Troops who bate their hand-to-hand. 1. Frenzied troops must charge if there are any enemy within charge reach when charges are declared. and have worked themselves up into a frenzy with loud chanting and screaming. you never have to rake a terror and afear test from the same enemy or situation . grudges borne w over centuries of racial animosiry. it is conceivable that other large wild creatures might feature in your games. If the result is greater man the untr's Leadership score then the test is failed Should they fail tbey will be completely overwhelmed with horror and reduced to gibbering wrecks. Should they subsequently rally they may continue to fight but they are no Longer frenzied. and of irreconcilable feuds leaving generations of dead in their wake. Unlike other troops they may nor attempt to hold back as dley are far too crazed with blood lust. and therefore break [hem automatically. Troops only ever test for terror once in a battle. 2. 4. Troops with 1 Attack therefore have 2. A unit which fails its terror test will flee immediately. this value regardless of the combat results and bow many casualties they have suffered.. No Panic rests are required for frenzied eroops. If frenzied troops are broken in hand-to-handcombat their frenzy is automaticaUyended. adversaries take any Break resrswirh a Leadership value of 10. 1. If a creature causes terror men it automatically causes fear as well. After [be first round of blood-mad hacking they lose some impetus and thereafter fight as normal. Troops confronted by creatures that cause terror must test to see if they overcome their terror. These creatures cause terror. In practice the most common example by far is the elephant. The player has no choice in the matter .t orld is fulJ of hatred and. flesh-tearing attack. Troops who bate their enemy must always pursue them if they flee. Frenzied troops figh [ with double their normal number of Attacks (A) in hand-to-hand combat. the foe. Troops fighting in hand-to-hand combat against a hated foe may re-roll any misses when they first attack. . Many of these frenzied warriors are drugged or tranced. crocodiles. exactly as if it had failed its Break test in band-to-hand combat. 5. However. HATRED Hate is a powerful emotion and the history of me ancie I1. or decided to flee from a charge. 1. 2.ot reduce. and so on . any subsequent encounters with terrifying enemy will simply count zs fear. A unit must test for terror at me starr of its turn if there is an enemy which causes terror within 8". Roll 2D6 and compare the result to the unit's Leadership (U:I) value. Such warriors will fight almost to the death rather than flee from [hem. crazed frenzy has been beaten out of them and they continue to fight just like other troops. troops with 2 Attacks double up to '" and so on. Once they have overcome their terror they are not affected again.

Having ignored their first Break rest they take all further Break tests normally. if things do go wrong and they panic or break. then a warband would often find itself at a disadvantage against a more disciplined." or charging warband). increasing it from 5 to 8. we recommend that you turn the unit's standard bearer through 90" or move him to the other side of his leader [Q signify this. 1. and must move at least 4" if possible. This does not mean that such troops lack bravery and under the right circumstances they can prove tenacious and stout-hearted opponeots. roll a D6. then they can prove extremely difficult to fatly. They pass the test automatically without any dice being rolled. the unit will surge forward in an undisciplined manner. then bis Leadersbtp would count as a very respectable 9. The warriors in a warband lack any sense of discipline and will tend to advance over confidentJy in the face of the enemy. On the D6 roll of 2-6 the unit remains under control and may move normally that rum. however.1b represent these qualities Warbands add their close combat rank bonus to their leadership value for all Leadership based tests. on a roll of 1-3 stubborn rroops areautomatically broken (the special rule for the enemy troops applies). If stubborn troops lose a round of combat against an opponent who would automatically break them (i. If the enemy is not within charge reach the unit must move towards [he nearest enemy. on a roll of 4-6 they automatically hold (the special rule for stubborn troops applies). If the unit's movement is blocked by friendly troops or terrain it will move as far as it can before stopping. A unit obliged to surge forward in this way must charge the nearest enemy if any are within reach. rerrifying opponent. or less exhausted foe. Warbands wblch are not otherwise bound by a compulsory movement rule must therefore take a special [CSt at the start of each turn. Note thar although units are referred to as Warbands these rules are used in some army lists to represent troops that are poorly trained militias or civilian mobs rather than what we might think of as warbands of warriors as such. Stubborn troops cannot be defeated easily. If Warbands are fleeing or skirmishing no rank bonus would normally apply. If the Warband was led bJI a chieftain with a Leadersbip of 6. The following rules J apply to stubborn troops. The extra three ranks after the first add +3 to the lTIarband'sLeadership value. or determined zealots fighting for their lives. Roll a 06 for each unit. Stubborn <- . These troops are almost always undulled barbarian warriors. hardened mercenaries. a u/arband witb a Leadership of 5 is formed up four ranks deep. and so they don't get a Leadership bonus either] . cooler-beaded. all of whom could rightly be described as stubborn. It the unit i facing away from its nearest enemy ~t will rum or wheel to face them and move as far as it can towards them.STUBBORN Stubborn [[OOPS are uncommonly tenacious warriors who have a reputation for carrying on fighting where other [[OOPS would run away They may be professional warriors. who lack the unthinking obedience of regular troops trained to act on orders without a second thought. fearful. If the initial charge could be checked. On a roil of a 1 however. Note that stubborn ll·00PS only ignore their first Break test . a unit of stubborn troops thaI toere cha1"gedin the [lanle would still have to take a Panic lest. In case you have any dLfficulty remembering if a unit bas taken a Break test before or not. troops do not have ro take a Break test the Brst time they lose a round of combat in a banle. For example. WARBANDS Some troops are more confident in large warbands where their morale is bolstered by the presence of [heir comrades. and will only break and run after they have suffered heavy casualnes. See the Hand-to-Hand Com bar section for details of Break tests and fleeing troops. { 2.To represent this a unit that is defeated in band-to-hand combat is automatically broken without a Break test if it is outnumbered by a Warband which charged that rum.they cannot ignore panic or otberpsycbology tests.e. The charge of a warband could often bowl over an enemy by its sheer ferocity. If the Warband does not outnumber the unit then a Break test is taken as normal. However. while a Warlord with a Leadership of ioould count his Leadership as 10/ 2. The unit can move faster than this if the player wishes and assuming thar the unit is allowed to do so. 3. For example.. 1. This means a warband will receive a + 1 to their Leadership for every rank after the first up to a maximum bonus of +3.

spears and other close combat weapons. a warrior can step aside to avoid incoming missiles. closely formed units in hand-toband fighting. so that they could chase off their more lightly armed counterparts. over steep hills or across rivers to occupy important positions that dose order troops found difficult or impossible to reach. or deflect them with his shield. There is no waU of overlapping shields [0 shelter behind. . Constantly moving. After movement is complete.Whilst the lightest skirmishers carry nothing more than a Sling or a few javelins and tend to avoid hand-to-hand combat altogether. each warrior is able to take advantage of localised cover. Unimpeded by their fellows these flexible groups can easily move into or through rough terrain or woodland and into built up areas. The best counter to skirmishers was other light troops . a few carry sword and shields. Instead [hey fight as a loose group or rough line with open space between each model. such as the avage Huns.LIGHT TROOPS In ancient times battles were mostly decided by the heavily armed fighting units. Skirmishers are loosely organised bands of troops who move and fight in a dispersed or open formation. or as raiders pillaging enemy territory. Models are positioned up to 2" apart so that they are nor touching each other. rhe speed and mobility of skirmishers makes it almost Impossible for less mobile troops to do much about this. and bows. SKIRMISHERS Before describing rules fOI'skirmishers ir is won:h taking a broad look at the role played by light troops In ancient armies. but cavalry are obviously unable to enter buildings. Arnues almost always included lightly armed infantry and cavalry. Indeed some armies. fought entirely in (hi manner.0 movement penalties either for crossing obstacles or for moving over difficult ground. In a dispersed skirmishing band each warrior fights as an individual. in battle. either getting their first taste of war or serving in the only way open to them. Their role in a full-blooded battle might be less significant than their overall value as a policing force. Unconstrained by formal rank and file. and include all troops described as skirmishers as well as light infantry and light cavalry. However. very often carrying weapons with which to harry the foe from a di ranee such as javelins.1. and individual models are simply turned about freely as [hey manoeuvre. or should individual models become divided from it for some reason. Light infantry and lighr cavalry can fight in either formation. MOVING Skirmishing models are moved individually. Indeed. Although these units were the most important. it is a simple matter for skirmishers to barry such units by lobbing missiles Irorn a short distance. Models in a skirmishing unit are arranged so that they are not touching. WHO CAN SKIRMISH 10 a battle onJy light troops are allowed to skirmish. and can change formation as described later. slings. Whilst illequipped to take all. Skirmishing models move around obstacles or over rough ground much more easily than troops in a tight formation. SKIRMISH FORMATION Troops fighting in skirmish formation do nor move or fight in a rigid formation of ranks and tiles. Any unit of cavalry can also adopt a skirmish formation [Q move through a built up area. they were not the onJy types of troops used by ancient armies. Many were nothing more than young or poor citizens. crouching or dashing from point-to-point. and light cavalry. Should tile group be split as a result of casualties. These troops are indicated in their army list. Thi ection of the Warhammer Ancient Battles rule book describes rules for three different kinds of light troops. Troops described as skirmishers in their amlY list must fight in this formation . the unit must still form a cohesive group with models up to 2" apart.they cannot form up in a conventional formation. any unit of infantry can adopt a skirmish formation in order to enter buildings as described in the section on buildings. skirmishers.. skirmishers were deployed to creen the main army from enemy missile troops. or to make swift advances through woods. The unit does oat turn or wheel. nor a comrade behind him ready to take over once he Is exhau ted or wounded. 211 APART Troop' in skirmish formation are arranged in a loose group or rough line. such as a courtyard. He does not enjoy the upport of other warriors at his side as be would in a convenrional regiment. scouts. Fig 7. regiments of infantry or cavalry lighting shoulder ro shoulder and armed with swords. light infantry. They suffer 0. aturally it would be possible to write far more about the myriad types of light troops. then tile player must rectify this in his next movement phase. bur a general overview will serve our purposes well enough. It is worth remembering [hat not all skirmishers were professional soldiers. This does not reduce the distance they can move in any way.

All models in reach are moved individually towards their foe and arranged into a fighting line. Models are moved as no charge is declared. They are simply running roo fast. LEADERSHIP TESTS Skirmishers are scattered across a broad area and their leaders are unable to see all their troops. they can also be shot at by the enemy. Similarly the unit cannot be charged in the flank or rear whilst engaged in combat. This Is one of the disadvantages of skirmishing: troops are unable to benefit from me presence of potent leaders. Their standard move characteristic is still used to resolve pursuit and fleeing. Models not already fighting subsequent rums if they can pan of ordinary movement. Thi means the enemy cannot receive a bonus for attempting to attack these positions. Skirmishing units have no flank or rear in combat. They simply move at double pace all the time. Individual warriors may be unaware of what is happening to the unit as a whole. and do not have time to Stop and shoot at the enemy. Such ranks cannot fight in combat regardless of their armament. and charging. more than 4" if their movement value is 4. Skirmishers do not double their 'doubled' move [Q march or charge. See the Shooting section for details. Any models that are unable to reach their enemy are placed loosely behind or beside those fighting so that the unit remains in a clump Or line with models up to 2" apart. Skirmishing troops receive no advantages for having additional ranks in their formation. In this case any models not fighting the enemy are allowed to move in their movement phase and shoot at suitable targets in their shooting phase. ENGAGED SKIRMISHERS When skirmishing units are engaged in hand-to-hand combat. so no Panic test is required for this. me models do not count as must move into combat in do so. FORMATION IN COMBAT Skirmishing troops lack the formation of ranks and files and so lose some of the normal bonuses that apply to such units. So a skirmishing unit with a movement characteristic of 4 moves up ro 8" rather than 4".DOUBLE PACE Because they are unrestrained by the closeness of their formation skirmishing troops move at double pace. SHOOTING AND MOVING Skirrnlshing units that move faster than their standard movement characrerisdc value. and offer no combat bonus when working our which side has won.s visible to at least one member of the unit when charges are declared. The enemy i not obliged to randomly allocate hits between friend and foe as is normal when shooting into a combat. are assumed to be concentrating on moving and are unable ro shoot that turn. . SHOOTING AT SKIRMISHERS An enemy shooting at skirmishing troops suffers a -1 to hit penally in the same way as if they were shooting at character models. 1£ a character is fighting as part of a skirmishing -1 penalty is applied onLy once and nor twice. unit the HAND~TO-HAND COMBAT Skirmishing units may charge an enemy that i. SHOOTING AT SKIRMISHERS IN COMBAT Just as individual skirmishers who are nor fighting are able to move and shoot. le. separated as they are by distance and cover. it is possible that some models will be fighting while others are left out of the combat.

Skirmishers cannot test on the General's Ld if he is within 12". or wiped om in band-to-band combat. When formed up in close order. See below for rules for changing between skirmish ro ordinary formations. skirmish formation all me rules described above will apply to them. lists as light shoulder to can fight as formation as SKIRMISHERS AND PANIC Troops that are arranged in a normal formation of ranks and files do not have to take a Panic [est due to a unit in skirmish formation fleeing. ADOPTING A SKIRMISH FORMATION A unit permitted ro do so may adopt a sklrrnrsh formation either as it deploys or during the battle assuming it is free ro move normally. and so it does not surprise or worry them when they are I light cavalry are nimble. Simply move the models apart to form a rough dump or Line with each model moving its usual 'double pace' skirmish move as described later. breaking from. Light infantry can either fight shoulder to sboulder like ordinary troops on the battlefield. and the unit regroups into a conventional formation centred upon the position of its leader. If a character joins the unit then his Ld cannot be used to rake tests.A unit of skirmishing troops makes any Leadership based rest against its own Leadership (Ld) value. See Adopting a Skirmish Formation for rules on changing between ordinary and skirmish formation. Skirmishing troops who can do so can readopt a conventional formation so long as their unit includes a drummer.hich means that they do not benefit a much from the security and mass that extra ranks confer to a formation. Close order troops expect light troops in open order to be defeated in combat. and me character is bound by the results of any tests taken by the unit as a whole. light infantry are judged to be in a slightly looser formation than that adopted by regular infantry. hom player or other musician model. or they can fight as skirmishers by adopting a skirmishing formation. When light cavalry fight in skirmish formation all the rules described above will apply to them. lightly armoured cavalry who are able to manoeuvre mud) more easily than slow ponderous cavalry encumbered by weapons and armour. light infantry have a maximum rank bonus of only + 2. or they skirmi hers by adopting a skirmishing already described. LIGHT INFANTRY Some troops are described in me army lists as light infantry. The musician sounds the call to reform. To represent this. LIGHT CAVALRY Some troops are described in the army cavalry Light cavalry can either fight shoulder like ordinary troops. See me rules of Reforming in the section on Movement. compared to the normal maximum rank bonus of +3 for ordinary infantry. -___ . In all these cases the unit of skirmishers is judged to be so dispersed that the chances of all the men seeing or hearing the commands of one individual are virtually non-existent. w. and cannot re-roll Break tests due to the army's Battle Banner being within 12". When Light infantry fight in.

CHARIOTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD Chariots are treated as a single model in much the same way as a mount and rider. although they were rarely fielded in vel)' great numbers except in Britain. but not all that effective for charging the enemy directly so rend to be used as mobile missile platforms. but they were increasingly replaced by cavalry and had all but disappeared by the 2nd and 3rd centurie Be. or else were trained to open lanes for the chariots to pass through harmlessly.CHARIOTS Chariots were much used in the early period covered by these rules. and often the driver would bail our of the chariot before it smashed into the enemy's ranks. These troops could form solid blocks capable of resisting chariors. and one for the warrior on foot. like heavy chariots. Persians and the armies of Alexander the Grear's successors made use of heavier chariots drawn by [WO to four horses which were designed to smash into an enemy unit and cause as much damage as possible. \Vhen an individual warrior can fight on foot or in a chariot. This being said chariots continued [Q be used in out of the way places like Britain and Ireland uncil considerably later. cavalry were able to carry out all the battlefield roles that chariots previously performed. are designed [Q engage the enemy directly and generally have a larger crew with which to fight in close combat. heavy and scythed. COMBAT RESULT BONUS Each light or scythed chariot destroyed in a combat adds + 1 to the opponent's combat result. ie a unit charged in the flank has to take a Panic test if it is charged by five or more enemy models. Most chariots had at least rwocrew members. Specific details of chariots used by those armies that had them are included in its army List. A chariot has characteristics in the same fashion as other models. limits their manoeuvrability. Each heavy chariot destroyed in combat adds +2 to the opponent's combat result in addition to the points for any wounds inflicted. bULare primarily designed to smash at full pelt into the enemy. Chariots became less effective as trained and disciplined heavy infantry appeared on the battlefield. and were nor hampered by dense terrain to nearly the extent that chariots were. FEAR Any type of chariot causes fear in enemy infantry. The heavier vehicles were often fitted with scythes designed to increase the carnage as they smashed into enemy formations. Scythed charters are much . as described in the psychology section of the Warhammer Ancient Battle rules. Sometimes however. one for the warrior riding in the chariot. whose job it was to drive the chariot into an enemy unit at break-neck speed! Needless to say this was an extremely dangerous job. Their sturdy construction though. in addition to the points for any wounds inflicted. causing considerable damage as they do so. Chariots are split into three broad types: light. In the case of chariots this would mean that the unit would have to take a Panic rest if charged by a unit of chariots with five or more crew in total. Some typical examples are shown here. The Egyptians and early Greeks used light chariots drawn by two horses with a crew comprising driver and bow or spear-armed warriors. but as chariots varied widely in design the list is by no means complete. Light chariots are fast and manoeuvrable. two sets of characteristics are included. In any case. scythed heavy chariots would be fielded with only a heavily armoured driver. The Assyrians. both to their opponents and themselves! M WS BS tight Charlot Heavy Chariot cytbed Chariot 8 S 3 4 5 T W 1 A 4 Ld 8 8 6 7 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1 4 3 2 4 1 7 NUMBER OF MODELS Chariots are considered to be equal to the number of crew for the purposes of any rules specifying a certain number of models. Light chariots of this type were also a powerful element of Celtic barbarian armies. one to control the team pulling the chariot and the other CO fight. Heavy chariots though.

if a chariot crew carries shields. Models in [he same squadron cannot be turned to face different directions once they have moved. To represent these tacncs some chariots are also allowed to carry additional warriors as well as their own crew. or it careers headlong through a wall. 1f they carry sbields and fight armour the save is 3+. British chariots were almost certainly used in this way. For example. If a charier ends its move so that it is touching another chariot. enabling them to charge enemy through 3600 in their following rum. Some players feel tempted to arrange their chariots facing different directions because chariots fight in a dispersed formation. CHARIOT SQUADRONS All chariots are organised into special units called squadrons. chariots are less manoeuvrable. the chariot has a save of 5+.bur not for chariots. A chariot compelled for some reason to move over rerrainit cannot normally cross is likely to be damaged as its wheels strike rocks. If the crew are completely unprotected. If forced by circumstance inro dtfficulr terrain or over an obstacle. and some do not. heavy and scythed Fi g' 8. The rules for chariot colltstons are explained below. This saving throw is increased to represent the extra protection offered by the chariot. its body becomes emangled in undergrowth. In addition. there is a chance of them colliding. However . Chariots cannot t1ght in a eighr formation of ranks and files. with all the models in the squadron facing roughly the same direction or forming a column moving along the same path. the cbariot has a save of 4+. for example if they are forced to flee from dose combat. the warriors dismounting when the time came to fight.chariots are not skirmishers! By doing rhls. Models carried in this way are represented by free- MOVING CHARIOTS Light chariots are allowed to march at double speed. and cannot derive any bonuses for additional ranks. Chariots always operate in a loose formation forming a rough line or dump with each chariot within 2" of another chariot in the same group. Heavy and scythed chariots are too big and bulky to move ar march speed. Chariots models must always be placed slightly apart so that they are not touching.1. and the distance moved by a model is halved if it does not move directly forward in a straight line. then use the best protected individual to work out the chariot's armour save. Chariots cannot move over obstacles or difficult terrain. as ordinary troops such as infantry can. a heavy or scythed chariot will be des rroyed on a D6 roll of 1-3. However. TRANSPORTING TROOPS In many armies chariots were used to transport [fOOPS quickly round the battlefield. skirmishing units gain the ability to effectively 'see' all round. Similarly there is much evidence [hat the Hittites used 'charter runners' who would ride in the chariot and then dismount to skirmish with the enemy when they were dose enough to use their weapons. Where this is permitted it is noted in the army list. representing the chariots breaking lnto a high speed gallop. each consisting of three or more models. Pasltion ing an add itiana I warne r on a ch arlot . A word of explanation will belp to clarify this rule. and the model is free to turn or pivot as it moves with no penalty to the distance moved.ARMOUR SAVES Chariots have a saving throw based on the armour worn by their crew in the same way as cavalry models. Sometimes chariot models touch accidentally or unavoidably for some reason. Chariots sometimes have to cross obstacles or difficult terrain for reasons beyond their control. If some warriors ina chariot have armour an d/o r shields. for Caesar notes in his commentaries on [he Gallic Wars that [hey combined the speed of cavalry with the solidity of infantry. although they can charge at double-rate normally. a light chariot on a roll of 1. models must end "their move facing in the direction they have travelled. except to cross a river at a bridge Of a ford. Each model is moved individually. This is similar to skirmishers who can arrange models to face different directions at the end of their mow. whether friend or foe. This is right and proper for skirmishers . and in the case of chariots this adds +2 to the save.

and once these have gone the entire chariot model is removed from play. As each model dismounts from a chariot it is simply left behind at a point along [he chariot's path. Dismount the unit's leader into a suitable position and form up [he rest of the unit around him. To reflect this.Patrok. causing as much damage as possible. Opponents fight against the chariot itself they cannot attack any additional warriors it is carrying. ani sliovelliim over on liisJace. and all on board are treated as a Single target for the purposes of missile fire and hand-to-hand combat. allowing the chariots to move off on their own after their riders have dismounted. A chariot can sustain a number of wounds. To represent this. For example: if {he chariot uses up half its movement before its rider dismounts. in much the same way that a horse and its rider are treated as a single cavalryman. You cannot choose to lose the runner rather than the chariot. outrush tfiulII:fenmsfy.{os comil19 dose u]' to him stabbed witfi a penr-tnru:rt at tfie rigfit side if die jaw a t1d' drove it all tftrou!Jfi die teeth. fit alia Parrokfos 111 his lIext Thestor. am! as hejer{ the Tqt liim. Scythed chariots were capable of inflicting even greater damage. No roll to hit is required. Enl!Jl's ron. as ajisfiennan wHo sits alit ON tnejut if a racK with line and !flittcrin!J bronze hOOK dj'a!Js afori. but only against a target [he unit could see when charges were declared. They strike blows in normal initiative order. This is because it is easy to disable a chariot by killing a single horse. On the other hand they do not constitute large targets either. rye L ILIAD j . mainly because they were meant ro smash at full-speed into the enemy. sides or rear. Place any transported models to the l-ear of the chariot's base. Chariots cannot duck and weave like an individual mao. troops firing at light chariots that moved in the previous turn must subtract -1 from their to hit roll. (ben be counts as baving damage suffered by the chariot and are automatically lost if their chariot is destroyed. He jefr. and must be dismounted close together to facilitate this. CHARIOT COLLISIONS If a chariot ends its movement in base contact with another charter there is a chance they'll collide. Dismounting warriors must form into a single unit. Roll to wound using the chariot'S trength characteristic. Warriors carried in this way cannot be used to satisfy any fiis ckarior. moutli Of/HI to thc bright peal~ out 0/ the chariot. Note thar although they fight in a dispersed or loose formation. In most cases a chariot's number of wounds is actually less than the number of crew. Once models are dismounted they form a separate unit. So fie fiaufcrf him. these hits are automatic. although this would almost invariably lead to the destruction of the chariot as well. For example.standing models rather than models glued [0 the chariot itself. Light chariots especially are quite small and can move very quickly making them difficult to hit when on the move.J . being rather too small and fast moving. Additional warriors transported by a chariot which becomes involved in hand-to-hand combat must fight from the chariot using their own attacks and weapon skill. heavy & scythed chariots cause a number of automatic hits when they charge their enemy. HEAVY & SCYTHED CHARIOTS Heavy chariots are large and strong enough to cause considerable damage as they charge. out if dio wnfer. who HuddTeainrirfe CHARIOTS IN HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT Chariots fight against enemy in contact with the chariot whether to the front. but it can also happen when chariots from the same side are touching. Due to this players should be careful [0 leave a small gap between chariots once they've moved. However the charier itself is destroyed if the D6 roll is 2 or marc. he haa Iost {lis Nerve. automatic hits. A. t{UIn {WOKe' muf tfra!J!Jcd fiim lIIith tlie peal' oller tfie ralr. ATTACKING CHARIOTS A chariot model including its superstructure. charging scythed chariot causes D6+2 used up half his movement as well. On a roll of 1 [he scythed chador survives [be collision. who is thus loomed. and the crew fight as normal from then on. but are only caused if the chariot charges that turn. shrunK /Jack. Models may move on the turn they dismount. as [hey may need to move away from the chariot during the battle. A charging heavy chariot inflicts D3 automatic hits (ie half the score of a D6) in the first round of combat as well as any bits inflicted by the crew. chariots are not judged to be difficult to hit with how shots in the way thar skirmishers are. and arrack first during a charge. This always happens when a chariot charges into an enemy chariot. alia j1'01n his fiandS tlie rohrs sf!!ye' . Models cafried by a chariot squadron may dismount from their chariots at any point as the unit moves. bur their move is reduced by the proportion of the distance the chariot had gone when they dismounted. Warriors are allowed ro dismount and charge in rile same turn. or by reducing the crew to a single man who would not be able [0 do anything other than drive the chariot. the sheer size of the vehicle and its horses bowling opponents over and crushing them under its wheels. if a Hittite chariot carrying a chariot runner suffers a wound then botb are lost. the horses pulling it.

If the test is failed then the unit must fight any chariots that smash into it. Obviously you will need an appropriate foot model to represent rhccharacter.Wbt-re chariots are touchtng other charters in [his fashion roll a 06 on behalf of each chariot. use the weapon carried by the majority of tbe unit when working Out which special rules apply to the chariot's arcades. Tbe character automatically suffers a wound. If all the dice rolls are the same. The exception [0 this is that chariot warriors armed wirh bows or javelins are allowed to fire twice in the shooting phase rather than once.2. as shown in Fig 8. DRILLED TROOPS ln the army lisrs some troops are described as drilled. These warriors are able to concentrate all their attentions on shaming allowing them to achieve a higher rate of fire than would normally be posstble. 1£ the test is passed then place the chariots on the other side of the unit. If a chariot touches two or more other chariots roll a 06 for each. These troops are especially well trained or experienced. This tactic may not be used against chariots attacking a unit from its flank or rear. then rbey all collide and are destroyed in a multiple plle-upl Character models with two or more wounds [hat are mounted in a chariot can survive a crash. Fig 8. To allow a scythed chariot to pass through its ranks a unit must first take a Leadership test. They may move and figbt normally from the following rum. heading for any gaps and hurtling out the other side. If you refer to the Roman army list at the back of this volume you'll find out more about drilled troops as well as some examples. They Tn tum move out the way to avoid being killed. Characters that survive a crash cannot attack or be attacked in the combat phase when the collision took place. FLEE AND PURSUIT Heavy and scythed chariots flee and pursue 206". Light chanors pursue 3D6". even if this would exceed its normal movement. and if you don't have one he is assumed to have been killed in the collision. and are more manoeuvrable than ordinary warriors. . no matter how many chariots are attacking the unit. [hen touching chariots with matching scores are removed. They take advantage of the fact that chariot horses will try to avoid a solid block of troops if they can. Where the crew of a chariot are armed with a variety of hand-to-band combat weapons. and is placed on foot in the position where the collision took place. Take one test. The charlot driver launches himself off his chariot as it crashes through enemy troops. If any of the dice rolls match. Drilled troops are allowed to open their ranks if a scythed chariot attempts to smash into its from. U there is stin a choice the player may choose which weapon to use.2. If both scores are the same then the chariots crash and are destroyed. The reduced move for Light chariots as they turn and flee simply represents the ran that it is difficult to [Urn a chariot round quickly in order to run away! WEAPONS USED FROM CHARIOTS On the whole weapons used by warriors fighting from chariots are treated in the same way as weapons used by cavalry. bur flee 2D6" when they break and 306" as they flee in subsequent turns. No combar is fought against chariots that pass through a unit in this way.

Two different breeds of elephant were used in the ancient world: me Indian elephant and the African forest elephant. and once an opponent knew how to handle them they were surprisingly easy to defeat. Elephants continued to be used in battle for hundreds of years. line of sight. Elephants are tall creatures. They can or Low obstacles. Alexander's successors learned this lesson quickly. M WS BS 0 0 2 T W A Ld 4 4 7 7 African Elephant Indian Elephant Mahout Crew 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 6 3 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 6 1 1 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 1 1 LEADERSHIP o long as he is alive any tests against Leadership are always worked out using the Leader hip value of the Mahout rathe. from the front. / / / " / / -. For elephants protected by barding add + 1 to their armour save. Although Alexander was able to defeat the Indians' elephants. and mainly used their elephants to protect the flanks of their armies against enemy cavalry. If some members of the crew have armour or shield. There is no need to rum or wheel. only to be revived hundreds of years later by the Sassanid Persians. They do not form into units as such. If the Mahout is dead [ben any tests are made against [he elephant's own Leadership value. who rides on the elephant's back just behind its head. they must have made quite an impression because they were used by his successors in the numerous wars fought after his death. but remember they do not receive tile additional + 1 as do cavalry riding smaller creatures However. Arcs of fire on an elephant.r than the elephant. This represents the fact that the elephant's thick skull makes it invulnerable to all but the heaviest form of attack. javelins or bow . The forest elephant was smaller than the Indian elephant and considered to be rather less effective in direct combat with ns Indian cousin. it from me flank. Riders may save for their armour. In addition to the mahout the elephant carries a crew of two or more warriors armed with long spears. Although the Romans made some use of elephants (the Roman army that invaded Britain in 43 AD included a number of the beasts) their use declined after the Punic wars. Elephants are always treated as individuals. particularly if the enemy were not well trained. " "". Against well drilled armies elephants bad a lot less success.1. ARMOUR SAVES Elephants were at their most effective against troops meeting them for the first time. " " " Fig 9. The warriors either ride sirting on the elephant's back or inside a howdah. giving them an armour saving throw of 3+ to the from and 6+ from any oilier direction.. as only they bad the speed and manoeuvrability to work round behind an elephant and attack. if the elepbanr turns at all irs movement is halved. Thi may well be wby light infantry were considered so effective against elephants.ELEPHANTS The use of war elephants was confined to the Far East until Alexander the Great came up against them when be invaded India in 326 Be. most famously when Hannibal included them in the armies that crossed the Alps into Italy during his war against Rome. and can upon over the heads of inrervening also be seen over intervening hedges but trees and buildings will block the be seen and fired troops. However. " ELEPHANTS IN COMBAT Elephants are controlled by a driver called a mahout. whose horses were terrified of the huge creatures and would not go near them unless trained to do so. ELephants cannot march although they double their move when charging in the same way as other models. The African elephant used in ancient times is now extinct. and is not the same animal as the much larger plains elephant that survives in Africa today. . always use the most heavily armoured to work out any armour saving throws. riders inside a howdah (as opposed to riders on the elephants back) are treated as being protected by a large shield (+2 armour save). When you move an elephant model simply measure me distance and make yuur move. as the elephant is able [0 tum freely as it moves to face any direction you wish. However both types were almost equally effective against any infantry or cavalry unfortunate enough to get in their way! Elephants have an armour saving throw of 4 or more on ID6 against attacks from the creature's front.

Because of this. or the me Work our wounds eparately on the riders elephant.2. Only one Leadership rest is made. If an elephant loses a round of combat it does not flee but will automatically stampede instead. The confusion caused by the elephant breaks up cohesion of all the units. adding + 1 because the elephant is a Large target. no matter how many wounds the elephant suffered in [he shooting phase. as if the riders and elephant were rwo different models. the enemy fights against the WS of the elephant. The elephant attacks using its own characteristics. Once any htts have been worked out they are randomly divided between the elephant and its crew in the same way as hits from shooting.SHOOTING AT AN ELEPHANT When shooting at an elephant roll to hit as normal. Tbe Elephant. Roll to wound [he elephant as normal. The mahout is always assumed [0 be [he last member of the crew to be slain. COMBAT RESULTS If an elephant is fighting in a combat then no units from either side may add rank bonuses to their combat score. and are likely to go uncontrollably wild if he is slain. 1_ If the test is passed the elephant remains under control and aU is well. 3. elephants and their crew are considered to be immune to all the rules for panic and psychology and will never nee from combat. negating the usual benefit of extra ranks. RoU to wound as normal. that loses a round stampede as described of combat will below. even if it doesn't suffer any wounds itself. and the score required to hit will depend upon the relative values of die elephant'S weapon skill as with all band-to-hand fighting. As the elephant and riders are likely to have different Initiative values they may strike their blows at different times. many pin-prick wounds or [be loss of its mahout could cause it to become u ncootrollably wild and as great a danger to irs own side as to the enemy. 2_ If an elephant's mahout is slain [hen the elephant must immediately make a Leadership test to see if it stampedes. though difficult to kill. under certain circumstances elephants must make a test to see how they react.6 The Riders. Arracks are worked out exactly as normal. STAMPEDE MOVEMENT A stampeding elephant Thereafter the elephant compulsory movement Once it bas starred stampeding for [he rest the table. to stampede ir continues of the game or until it leaves . 5. Once you have established how many hits have been scored you must apportion them between me riders and the elephant. These blg creatures were often hand-reared by their mahouts. An HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT In hand-to-hand combat the enemy is faced with an elephant and ns crew. No Break test is taken. If the test is failed then the elephant stampedes. elephant auromarically test is taken. No Break STAMPEDING ELEPHANTS An elephant has one major disadvantage as a weapon of war. Apart from these circumstances.3. and so is subject to two lots of attacks. Take a Leadership test at [he end of tbe shooting phase. These attacks are worked OtH in the usual fashion. For each hit scored roll a D6: 06 Score 1. moves 2D6" immediately. or the elephant's Leadership if the mahout is dead. and the riders attack separately using their own characteristics. If an elephant takes one or more wounds from enemy missile fire it might stampede. moves a further 2D6" in the phase of its own side' rum.4 What Is Hit When it comes to attacking back. using the mahout's Leadership value if he is still alive. Take any saving throws as normal.

then turn it away from the enemy and roll again on the Stampede template.ry that are used to elephanrs are not allowed to charge them. See [he diagram in the Chariots section. If any troops belonging to either side get in the elephant's way it will stop and attack them.lephams are noted in their army list. as described below. This includes when an elephant stampedes into the unit as described in the Stampede rules. 9_2 Stampede template This tactic may not be used against elephants attacking a unit from tcs flank or rear. Infantry mat are used to elephants do not fear them. Stampeding elephants cannot rally! A stampeding elephant always moves in a straight line directly ahead. Most elephants will try [Q avoid smashing into a solid block of troops if they can help it. 'USED TO' ELEPHANTS 2 5 6 In some armies prolonged contact or special rrauung allowed troops to get used to elephants. They csuse fear in infantry and terror in cavalry. while cavalry fear them instead of being terrified of them. and can be enticed to move th-rough a gap and out the other side where they can be dealt with by reserve troops. no matter how many elephants are attacking the unit. If stampeding out of dose combat it first rums 180 so that it is fadng directly away from its foes and then roll a dice and move the elephant as shown all. including those on their own side! In addition cavalry and chariots are not allowed to charge elephants. Stampeding elephants that leave the battlefield return (thank goodness!). Troops described in melt army list as drilled as well as used to elephants are allowed to open up their ranks if an elephant charges towards their front so that it has an opportunity to pass through them. 0 WEAPONS FROM ELEPHANTS On the whole weapons used by models who are riding an elephant are treated in [he same way as weapons used by models riding cavalry. do not NUMBER OF MODELS For purposes of any rules [hat specify a certain number of models. If a stampeding elephant attacks a unit and loses the combat. as they are able to concentr-ate all their attentions on shooting allowing them to achieve a higher rate of fire than would normally be possible. In order to allow elephanrs to pass through its formation.. If the Leadership test is failed the unit must fight any elephants as normal. Breale tests etc. For example an Af. . No combat is fought againstelephents mat pass through the ranks of a unit in this way. However. Elephants [hac stampede from close combat are not considered to be . Only take one test. The types of troops that are considered to be used [0 e. in which case it will head off in a random direction determined by the roll of a Scatter dice. and if charged by an elephanr must choose to enher flee or fire & flee as their charge reaction. TERROR Elephants are huge creatures and terrifying opponents. It will only deviate if it encounters impassable terrain. although its riders do not have to join in unless they want to! If a stampeding elephant breaks an opponent it will pursue 206". Fig. and men continue to stampede in the same direction in its next movement phase. Note that elephants causefem' and terror to all such troops. The only exception [0 this is that any elephant crew member who is armed with either bows or javelins is allowed to fire twice each shooting phase rather than once. note that even caval.When [he elephant stampedes roll a D6 and refer to the Stampede template shown below to determine the direction the elephant moves in. and must still flee or fire & flee if charged. even though they may have won the combat. The elephant will continue 10 stampede in this same direction unless it is forced to change direction. a unit must first take a leadership test. the Stampede template.fleeing and their enemy cannot pursue. If the {est is passed men place the elephant on (be opposite side of me unit in the same way as you would for chariots passing through.ican elephant counts as tbe equivalent of five models for the purposes Of Panic tests. elephants are considered to be equivalent to melt initial Wounds value.

ThL~ is [he usual way in which war machines are deployed. The crew figures are based separately unlike with a chariot or elephant where [he crew or rider are likely to be physically glued to the chariot or elephant. The two most common types of war engine were stone throwers and bolt throwers. HITS ON CREW/CHARACTERS Usually a machine's crew are identical. especially in small armie that might have only one or two machines. so it i not necessary to determine which is bit. The models are still moved individually but must remain together fQC the duration of the game. Once hits have been established randomise where they strike as shown below. However. When fighting in a battery each machine must remain within 5" of another machine in the same battery forming a rough line or clump. 5-6 Character: EFFECTS OF DAMAGE OR CREW LOSS If a war machine is damaged or loses any crew then there's a chance it will not work properly If you wish [0 fire a war machine [bar has suffered ally damage or lost any crew then you must first roll a 06.3.. a war machine tbat lost one oj its crew and bad talsenL point. MODELS A war machine model comprises of the machine itself plus a crew usually of two or three models. even if it has crew remaining. if the rnachine Lies under the template it is hit. WAR MACHINES IN COMBAT The crews of the machines described here all fight in the same way. oj damage must roll a 3 to [ire.roll to wound me machine. More specialised war machines are described in the special rules section of the army book for armies [hat use them. Characters do not actually become crew when they join a machine.e. In the ca e of batteries. The unit will benefit from the associated character's Leadership value in the same way as would a unit of troops. Or flee. and should all be slain me machine is useless. If an army includes several war machines of the same type these can be organised into units called batteries. However if a character is with a machine be may be hit by shots directed ar it. HITS FROM TEMPlATES Any shots from stone throwers. the character must be positioned with a specific machine for purposes of allocating damage from shooting hlrs. Bult throwers were powerful torsion devices that could send a spear-sized bolt dean through several ranks skewering each in turn! These are all relatively common war machines that can be found in several armies. 'tone throwers were used to lob boulders high into the aLI to come crashing down upon enemy formations or behind clry walls. In order to fire you must roll a score greater than the total of the damage it bas suffered plus ally crew tosses. Machines of the same type are automatically assumed to be formed into a battery when deployed within 5" of each other. Once all crew are slain. or any weapons that use a template. By the same token a W31' machine requires at least one crewmen to work. achine. and are never hurt should a machine malfunction. In this case. D6 Score 1.4 5 or 6 Hit Tbe machine . i. randomise any crew bits to determine if the character is bit. BATTERIES Each war machine can fight as a single unit of one model ramer like a chariot or an elephant.WAR MACHINES War machines are an important part of many armies in the ancient world.hit. This i necessary because a war machine's crew can be forced to flee from [heir machine. are worked out as described later. either because they are broken in combat or because they panic. A cretoman= roll to wound a crewman. SHOOTING When shooung at a war machine shots are worked out against the enrire model and any hits scored are randomised against the crew and rn. if a crewman lies under the temple he L<. Obviously a war machine that is destroyed may nor fire. or once the machine is destroyed. only a crewman can operate a machine. They sensibly keep a safe distance between themselves and the dangerous mechanism.. further hits do nor need to be randornised but will strike a crewman or rhe machine as appropriate. For example. 34 crewman B. For example where there are two crew and a character roll a D6: 1-2 cretuman A.2. a character cannot operate a war machine. . Machines and their crews constitute a Large target (more man 10' high or broad in real terms) and so the shooter benefits from a + 1 to hit bonus. CHARACTERS A character model may join a unit of machines in rJ11:: same way as he mighr join a unit of troops. so rather than repeat ourselves the rules have been collected together for ease of reference. This is essentially me same as for shots at elephants.

ATTACKING A MACIDNE A machine attacked in hand-to-hand fighting is assumed to have a WS of 0 and is therefore hit automatically. An enemy FLEE If a machine's crew flees from a charge then [he chargers can either continue to charge past the machine in order to destroy its crew or. The machine itself does not flee as such. and must either hold or flee from the charge. HOLD ln hand-to-hand combat crew that defend their machines are automattcally repositioned so that they can fight enemy in contact with the machine. No combat results are worked out and the attackers are free to move away from the machine as they wi h. they can stop when they reach the machine and attack it. Consequently. Crew models will not fight away from a machine and if they are charged whilst not serving as crew they will always flee. . \There machines fight in a battery the entire battery must declare the same response. Note that once separated from their machines crewmen become individual models. the number of crewmen fleeing is used as the basis for Panic tests on friendly troops nearby: For purposes of rallying the original number of crewmen is considered to be the original size of the unit. Enemy models can divide attacks between crew. Thus six crewmen fleeing from a battery of machines would cause a Panic rest in friends nearby (as there are five or more) even though they may have abandoned only three machines. The victors must ignore it in order co pursue unless the player elects [0 restrain pursuit and passes the required Leadership test to do so. characters or machines that they are touchlng. If several machines are organised into a battery all the crew from the machines plus any characters wid) them can group together to fight. ABANDONED MACHINES An abandoned machine can be re-crewed by crew members from any other war machine from the same side if their own machine has been destroyed or abandoned. bur is abandoned by its crew and any associated Characters. Individual crewmen and characters can not move further [han their normal move distance to reach an enemy [hough. FLEEING CREW II crew flee from hand-to-hand fighting their machine is abandoned. The machine itself does not 6ght. if the player prefers. Crew may deliberately abandon a war machine in order to crew another. attacking an abandoned war machine is not considered to be engaged in combat. a war machine's crew can either hold or flee bur cannot srand & shoot as machines are [00 cumbersome to allow this.CHARGE RESPONSES If charged.

thell the Jour more {e!}iOHS. 'lo decide if the missile land where you have aimed it roll both the Scatter dtce and the Artillery dice. Scatter dice (Islt). next. If you roU a HIT then the numbers are ignored. You will need the results of stone throwing in the shooting to make a round 3" diameter missile template that has a 1" hole in the centre.1)0IVIlJeH. If the Artiliery dice bad been a misfire tben the whole shot would have been messed up (JS indicated on tbe Misfit·e table. in fron. while models whose bases are only touched or grazed are ignored. If you roll an arrow then the missile veers in the direction shown by the arrow.10 and 1'V1ISFlRE.the number indicates that nothing is amiss and the shot lands exactly where you aimed it. 4. The template represents the area of impact itself.roll Rg 10. Iwl Gerlllan tluxi{aricsfa/Towel by U III II 011Hted. You will have to use your judgement to decide exactly which models He under the template . Nor all were built in the same way by any means: some used a massive counterweight to catapult their missile into the air whlle others used torsion power like a giant crossbow. the larger the rock it could throw and the more damage it could do.1. mal'chedJonvara it! tIle jo{{olVil19 onicr:jirst Gam. and the 1"6111(1. TheArtillery dice SC01"f! is 4 . a 06 and consult Artillery dice (right). the Misfire [able. Move the template the distance indicated in the direction shown by [he arrow..2. 'I1u: design for this is shown below. of you. don't worry . 6. The Scatter dice shows a HIT! 1 11m have landed bang on target. Stone throwers have a strength and usually wound on the roll of a 2+ against most human or Similarly sized targets. Many armies of the ancient world used these devices. misfired. Models that lies directly under the hole is hit automatically . The t. damage is worked out. I. sending them crashing through enemy ranks crushing limbs and armour alike. You make your guess and declare that you are [iring 28" directly touiards the centre of tbe spearmen Having made your guess measure 28" towards your target. engine. The largest stone throwers could hurl a projectile big enough to knock down buildings or even City walls! The Artillery dice is marked 2. For example: You are firing a stone tbrotuer at a unit of spearmen. to judge precisely.note that only one model can lie under the hole and if there is any doubt it is the model that is under the exact centre. If you roll a HIT then the missile lands exactly where you have aimed it.sometimes it is nor cas. 8. cadi Jjrought 69 fight i'1alltry allli mOlmreti bowmen to livisioIJa( strenqtfi. 1/ not.0ays were a{elT alld ready to d~p(o!]Jrolll column tUG rcfi into b(Jttfe ort{er anll!] The Roman rf Tacticus . The bigger the. As a rule of thumb a model can be considered as a potential hit if at least half of its base area lies under the template.STONE THROWERS Stone throwers are powerful and destructive weapons that lob large boulders higb lnto the air. 1m roll both dice. (wd Germt"lIJicus with two Gattaflons ~f Gllanis mrd"yick. The Scatter dice is a dice marked with arrows on four sides and the word HIT on two sides. a number simply indicares that the shot has nor. Refer to the Damage chart for derails. DAMAGE Once you have established where the stone lands.Qrget. OUl Work For example: You guessed exactly right and the template lies directly in the middle of your chosen. and it can be made from card or plasticard."9 auxififim"!J liattaflom. Models whose bases lie under the rest of the template are hit on a D6 roll of 4+. If you roll a number on the Artillery dice then this is the distance in inches the missile veers off target as shown by the arrow on the caner dice. if you have made a good guess the template will lie over your intended target. Now. Jaw· Roman (cqi0 1fS. Once your each high you have worked OUt which models are struck by missile work out damage in the usual way: Roll for target lO see if you wound. You must guess the range as accurately as you can. A misfire roll automatlcally cancels out the whole shot regardless of the Scatter dice result. plus the surrounding radius over which shards of sharp stone can strike nearby troops. you JI roll a misfire then something has gone wrong . Stone thrower template. without measuring the distance [0 your target.11. Once you have made your guess place the template directly in front of the stone thrower the distance you have guessed. Pivot the stone thrower model on the spar so mat it is pointing in the direction you wish to shoot. FIRING THE STONE THROWER phase.there's still a chance the stone may veer off course and hit something. declare how far you wish to fire. Fig 10.cti ca JltI (I'!j.

Generally speaking. Bm tfie IIumgQlu( shoots 5tOtll?<. it's possible tor them to be the target of other machines or warriors armed with doublebanded axes who can chop them apart.some are bigger than others. f Tfiey usea 10 cn« "SCf1piOIlS" wliat nJ'l t"'W . . 11 rfrrows "11r'io. tlie!:} were so llaUlea liecallu tfjc!J dtarfi witli t{. No r:Jpc torsiOIl CII!}ill( more YOHlttjllr rfim! tlicse 11110"!lPfS isfOlma. The Gcsill!Jea nl"e to t!ifclll{ US.iggt. The move rate is the speed the stone thrower moves with tts full crew ..the (ollgel' II1'1US ir fillS.l1Iu. 6.c flll1l:hiflC is. The single model in the exact centre is hit. big ones.. It is.(r is strutlg wilfi royer sillrw. Work out hits as normal."!Tea 1IU1I11!li(l((jmu. Details are given below for typical examples. 3. .. Remaining models under the template are hit on the 06 score ofa 4+. A machine cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. 4.. If the Artillery dice shows Misfire table.MISFIRE TABLE FOR STONE THROWERS 1·2 DESTROYED! The engine cannot stand the strain placed upon it and breaks under tension as it is fired. the stone tumbles to the g7"01II1d splintering tbe engine and tbrounng debris into the ail: Tbe engine is destroyed and its crew stain or injured. Tfie cllt. ATTACKING STONE THROWERS Being large.ifl. A crewman drops the stone as be lifts it into position. A hit from a stone thrower causes either D3 (ie half the score of a 06) or 06 wounds depending on its size. When a big rock lands.· t{. maybe a ratchet jams or a rope loosens. we shall divide them into three types. but as rna t targets have only 1 wound it is not necessary [Q take this dice roll. In addition. Ve!JCriIiS 1 i'gna . a MISFIRE refer to bas PROFILES Stone throwers vary in design . 4". 2. stone throwers have such a long range that it is pointless moving them about. useful when attacking characters. 5.rketf om irs mll!]e ill aall/.. riu!1 darts. Otherwise . ilymermtes wliutcvcr it hits.er it shoalS wotll CClJltrillllHce."!! clIttJy"rrs. and huge ones. t/iCIIlSefIlCJIIg{linsr diesc 1I111( "''''piOns''. However. solid devices stone throwers are difficult ro destroy. or tbroum higb into the air in lieu of the stone! 5-6 MAY NOT SHOOTl A minor fault prevents the machine shooting this turn. Stone throwers therefore have a profile with a Toughness value and a number of wounds they can sustain. A rope snaps and lashes about wildlJ~ a crewman sets the machine up wrongly so tbat it pulls itself apart. No saving throw is allowed for armour. but a typical stone thrower has the following values. Bits of wood and metaifly all around.~.!?. Ullt! size'!! rlie stoller it liflrfs (ike 11 r{lIlI1ler17o(r. lIud.1 iI ruued in IICCOmlltlCe wirh IHccfilll1im( <liT 1111. As with other details these may vary in pecific cases. Maximum Strength Wounds Save Range You may guess Stone Thrower 48" If the Scatter dice shows an arrow [he stone has landed 2". you are squashed regardless of what armour you're wearing! STONE mROWER 1. ordinary sized ones. lfic (. To belp you remember it is a good idea to turn the machine round to face away from the enemy. If the Scatter dice shows a HIT the stone struck home. and cannot fire next turn either while the damage is repaired. however. if lIiffWtf . 6 7 8 03 None None None Big Stone Thrower 48" Huge tone Thrower 48" D6 06 7.1rtr.. 3·4 DISABLED! Tbe normal smooth running of the machine and its crew is disrupted by some accident or freak occurrence. or maybe a careless operator becomes entangled in the mecbanismt Tbe engine does not shoot this turn. SUMMARY Declare target and guess range. maugollff"s 1 all ITS. Models are allowed no saving throw from a stone thrower." or 10" in the direction away from the aiming point as shown on the Artillery dice.s wCigfitr ill yrI!PQf7iOJ1 to tire lit! tliiokuess rif rfio sinew. some are positively monstrous! Basically.caught by a snapping rope. one of tbe crew is slain . however. 8. POSition template and roll Scatter & Artillery dice. The machine is unharmed and may shoot as normal next turn.. chariots and bulldings. entangled in tbe machinery.. 6".if any Crew are slain its speed is reduced proportionally. Remove tbe engine and its crew.. elephants. rfiar is.( Gy {cpr-lieneed men wlla lIall~ Ivo. tfie Jl. before being destroyed.

To determine if the boLt strikes its target roll a D6 to hit using the crew's B in the same way as bow shots. TIle chan below shows its details. However. Deduct -1 from the Strength for each rank that the bolt thrower has already pierced. me The move rate is the speed the bolt thrower can move at with its full complement of crew . of other machines or warriors armed with doublehanded axes who can chop them apart. Continue to work our damage as the boll pierces and slays a model in each rank. SUMMARY OF BOLT THROWERS 1. 4. 0 save is allowed lf the target is slain roll damage against the second rank at Strength 4. The boLt travels straight forward and hopefully hits the first target tn its path. . To shoot your bolt thrower first turn it on the Spot so that it points towards your intended victim (no penalty to hit is applied for this). As with other details these might vary in specific cases. like a spear. crossbows. A boll thrower is easily able to take out more than one of your en emy's ran ks In battle. 5. often with wheels so that they can be pivoted easily A crew of two or more is required to wind back the powerful torsion arms and position the huge bolt ready for firing. If you score a bit work out damage as described below. resolve damage with a Strength of 3. ArmOUJ· saves are 110l allowed for hits from a bolt thrower. see the Shooting section for details. the missiles are so fast and deadly mar any type of armour can be pierced along with irs wearer. which means rhar even an elephant or another war machine can be hurt or even slain by a hit from a bolt thrower. A m del damaged by a boll thrower sustains nor I but D4 wounds (use a sided dice or roll a D6 and roll again if you get a 5 or a 6). All the usual modifiers apply other than the machine can pivot without penally. If the second rank trooper is slain then a model in third rank is hit: Being large. Generally speaking. and other missile weapons. Bolt throwers therefore have a profile with a Toughness value and a number of wounds which they can sustain before they are destroyed. deducting -1 from the strength for each rank pierced. lf the model is slain then the bolt hits the trooper in the second rank directly behind: resolve damage on the second model with a Strength of 4.BOLT THROWERS Bolt or dart throwers are large crossbows that shoot a missile like a heavy arrow. it is possible for them to become the target. but atypical bolt thrower has the values shown here. Resolve damage at Strength for a bolt thrower. Align bolt thrower on target and roll to hit. iliac causes Considerable damage. engines of war have such a long range that it is pointless moving (hem about. If you hit then resolve damage against the target using rhe bolt thrower's full Strength of 5. On the whole these weapons are nowhere near as large or cumbersome as stone throwers. FIRING BOLT THROWERS Bolt throwers are fired in (he shooting phase alongwith other missile weapons. solid devices bolt throwers arc difficult to destroy. They are mounted on their own stand. PROFILES The bolt thrower hurls a sharp tipped missile.3. 2. there is therefore no need to roll the D4 [Q decide the number of wounds. 3. Fig 10.if any crew are slain its speed is then reduced proportionally A machine cannot move and shoot in the same turn except to turn to face its target. If you miss then the bolt hits the ground or sails into the air and comes down harmlessly somewhere else. ATTACKING BOLT THROWERS WORKING OUT DAMAGE FROM HITS A bolt thrower is a powerful weapon that can burl its bolt through several ranks of troops piercing each warrior in turn. Because saves are not taken a target with only 1 wound will be slain if it takes damage. Continue rolling for damage until you fail to slay tile target or run out of ranks.

Models that have shot missiles from windows can be seen and may be shot at by enemy in their turn. or something else along these lines. and can shoot from windows or move out through doors as convenient. MOVING INTO AND AROUND BUILDINGS It simply isn't possible for rigid formations of troops to move around a building. and allow you to enact sword fights within temples and palaces and full scale assaults against mighty fortresses. and you may find it easier . instead they may shoor as individuals. Buildings provide interesting features on the battlefield. or the storeys divide. ie. A5 a guide. The following section therefore provides rules for using buildings on the battlefield. For example. but they are also importaru from a tactical point of view. Models may enter a building in their rnovernent phase by moving through an unguarded doorway or window. this is not always very practical. if your buildings are really huge. You must weigh the tactical considerations for yourself. balconies. allow as many models into the building as can fit into its ground area. if you have a building that is 48" long it would be silly to allow a model to move into tbe building at one end and then out the other side moving 48" 111 tbe one turn! Should you u/isb to use buildings of such extreme dimensions then you will baue to record movement inside them. Of course. towers and watch posts. Models on flat roofs. Models inside buildings wiU benefit from the advantage of being behind hard covel' (-2 to hit) as well as being in skirmish formation (a further -1 [0 hit. Although only specified types of troops can kirmish on the battlefield. Towers may overlook a wide part of the battlefield and provide an excellent vantage point for archers. and so only troops that are in skirmish formation may enter such terrain (the rules for skirmish formation can be found in the Light Troops section). then this leads [0 unreasonable situations. at only do they look attractive. but are not allowed ro enter and exit a building on the same turn. You can decide exactly bow many models a building can bold before the game begins. bigger than 6" along any edge. or such-like can also shoot as normal. while the rest of the unit is outside Models can leave a building through any unguarded doorway or window. parapets.BUILDINGS AND FORTIFICATIONS The Warhammer rules are extremely flexible. noting down where troops are on a piece of paper each turn SHOOTING FROM BUILDINGS Models inside buildings can shoot missiles from arrowslits. If the building bas several storeys then if will be able to hold more models. An elephant i ju t tOO big to get into a peasant hurl Some players like to make their buildings a that the roofs actually lift off. this goes somewhat beyond the scope of this ruLebook where we are concerned with tabletop battles over fairly open rerrirory. Up to two models may shoot from each opening. to simply remove models from rhe [able as they enter buildings and place them somewhere om of the way.However. A unit may be positioned so that some models are inside a building. Unless your buildings are really huge you will not need to move troops about inside. and other large models cannot enter buildings that are too small for them. the rule that follow certainly allow you to do so. Any troops deployed inside a building will be hard to winkle out. windows or doors. But a good general knows that it is not always profitable to occupy buildings just because they are there. allowing you to place model inside. shooting from a particular window at targets they can see. Cavalry. and so may be able to defend it against far Larger numbers of enemy. chariots. However. villages. any troops can skirmish in or around buildings. The number of models you can get into your buildings will depend on the building'S size. as it is easy £0 wa te vital time taking a village that the enemy then simply ignores or circumvents. if you wanr to build a whole city [Q fight over then u's up to you. Troops in buildings do nOI all have to shoot at the same target. either isolated farmsteads. However. Note down on a scrap of paper how many models are in the building if you wish. Models in the building can be assumed to be wherever you wish. and decide whether or not a particular building ha any tactical value.

The foHowing chart lists types of building and suggests values for Toughness and damage points. drawbridges and so on. This could conveniently be divided into three parts for recording damage points and for rnO"l)ing troops untbin it. and the attackers will therefore require a 6 to bit regardless of their weapon skill unul they have won a round of combat (see the combat rules).. but must stop if a defender guards the en tran ce. You can invent your own special rules [0 incorporate unusual buildings into your games. but this shouldn't stop you making models as varied as you please. a winding stairway might take half a ttUTI to climb. When deciding which side has won a combat in a building. so that they can move through doors and windows more easily IO get Inside. and don't have to be too accurate JUSt so long as they are about the right size and show the approximate position of important features like doors. We can't anticipate every variation of architecture that you might want to design. You could divide up large buildings into several smaller sections each with its own damage points . For example. SPECIAL RULES Everybody wbo makes their own model buildings likes to include features which appeal to them. When both sides have models inside the same building It is necessary to have a floor plan. windows and interior walls. Buildings therefore have a Toughness value and can sustain a number of wounds before they are destroyed. flank attacks. Floor plans can be quickly drawn up on a piece of scrap paper. . Wounds and damage polnts are exactly [he same thing. If a building is very large it rnay not be appropriate to destroy it all at once."ooaCn S(jIlCKs. Attacking models can enter the. Up to two models per side may fight through each window or door.FIGHTING INSIDE BllLDINGS An attacking T!lpt: ~ Bllifd"ing MIIf{ or straw (juts. you might baue a manor house with a main section and two separate wings. and so forth. or a tum if it is very long. Keep the floor plan on a suitable flat surface near the battlefield. (wick OJ' Toug{mess Dnmttgt unit has ro be in skirmish formation to assault 11 building. a treacherous ledge might reduce movement [Q half rare with a 1. building through unguarded doors and windows. For example. We have included values for heavy doors and fortress as you may wish to fight games that involve defenders locking shut the doors of their tower or castle wbile the attackers attempt to batter down their defenses. and simply transfer models to it as they enter the building. terraces. This is entirely up to you. as you need to be able to tell where the models are in order [0 establish who can fight who. balconies.[iricK 10 7 If a building SUstains its fuU quota of damage points tr collapses. The defenders cou at as fightIng behind an obstacle. Ally models inside must make their basic armour saving roll or they are trapped inside and slain. A narrow passage might aJ10w room for only four models per runt. Domestic doors are not sufficiently substantial [0 withstand a determined defender and so offer no resistance to attack. count up casualties. DESTROYING BllLDINGS Elephants and war machines may be capable of destroying buildings. It is a bit confusing to refer to wounds when talking about buildings so we shall caLI them damage points instead. but ignore the usual bonus for fighting in ranks. Obviously. gates. Po ill t)' 7 2 5 1 5 5 10 5 {og IiOHS. in 6 chance of falling if you move faster. Models that pass may be fanned up outside the building. As most garners make their own buildings you may prefer to tailor each building's values to its appearance. gatehouses. (ig(jt . if you have a model building with a removable roof you will nor need floor plans.·chgOl'ua door Aforti-us !late ot"fortificatiofJ huts or houses Stone 1i0l/S8 StOHe rower MIII(. and so forth.outhouses Timlizw.. standards.C 8 6 8 9 A Iic(lvi0 .

it is not necessary to do everything at once. The most important thing to do when you want to start playing is to have a few painted figures with which to play out a battle with. This may sound daunting to a newcomer. Although you may eventually amass an army oj hundreds of models. b . but don't worry./ Iii ) COLLECTING AN ANCIENT BATTLES ARMY Toplay Warhammer Ancient Battles you must first buy an army. only a few are needed to begin. paint it and then organise your models into battle-ready units. Over the next Jew pages is a guide giving you hints and tips on how to go about painting your a1'1nyand there are also some ideas of scenery you can use in yOU1' attles.

Their adverts appear regularly in the wargarnes press. if anyone wanted [0 make a start in Ancient Battles they could do worse than choose 20mm. the practice of painting. Old campaigners will need little guidance when it comes ro deciding which scale or manufacturer to choose . but also 25mm model designers. on the tabletop lt is possible for Pharaoh's chariots to meet the legions of Rome. may find the following summary useful. This is a great advantage when it comes to organising and participating in competitions or finding new opponents. warriors. 'Micro' scales. Germans. me MODELS There are now many thriving manufacturers offering model warriors of the ancient period in different scales in both metal and plastic.THE WARGAMES ARMY A wargames army is a collection of models representing [he military formations. reliving Caesar's campaigns in Gaul. to metal models of a different scale later.[he chances are that [he reader will already have a collection or will have a favourite scale and preferred make. At the other end of the scale. relative stability of military technology over this era means that players with armies from widely different historical periods can fight each other quite easily. Even if you witch. Prospective players. This is not a scale used much by adult wargamers these days. technology and society changed a great deal. which is a pity because the plastic sets combine low cost with ready availability. However.10mm . and war machines of a historical counterpart. Certainly. Almost as long established as 25mm. assembling. For this rea on it is traditional for wargamers ro lump aLI armies prior to the Middle Ages together as 'ancient'. Amongst wargamers there are devotees of almost every army of ancient times. once a popular size but now somewhat neglected. Slightly smaller than 25mm models are those in the 20mm range. which simply means the average warrior stands about 25mm tall. such as 2mm and 5mm are used to represent very Large forces for sieges and such like. We enjoy collecting and palming our armies just as much as gaming. Dacians and Parthians. These are followed by a minoriry of garners who usually have armies in 15mm or 25mm scale as well. This size of model is available from many manufacturers.char aims to combine the ability to represent large forces with sufficient detail to make the models recognisable for what they are. The models shown in this book are 25mm models from the collections of the authors and are manufactured by the Wargames Foundry. An army of 25mm models looks spectacular and is the preferred scale for most serious collectors. however. newcomer. but even so the nature of warfare remained broadly comparable. and especially youngsters who may not have [he means to buy metal models to begin with an army of 20mm plastics. However. Over such a long and varied period of histOry. or for Alexander the Grear to lead his Macedonians against King Harold's Saxons. or Hannibal' battles against the Romans of an earlier time. and readers are referred to the magazines currently available. Indeed. and commanding an army will hopefully inspire you co continue wargaming for many years co come. to give just two examples. Most readers will be familiar with thts scale as it is the size of Airfix. but the game rules have been devised using our 25mm collections. The principal advantage of 15mm is that the individual models are cheaper. Revell and Esci plastic soldiers. Some of the most popular of them all are the legions of Rome and her enemies. taken the step from buying other people's models to making their own. so to speak. The scale is popular amongst competition garners rather than collectors. having. Warhammer Ancient Bartles can be used in conjunctton with models of any scale. but there are very few compared to the 15mm or 25mm Jzes. It would be unfair of us to recommend one scale or manufacturer over another without first making it clear that the authors are not only 25mm garners. from ancient Egyptians to Dark Age Vikings and Saxons. is the smaller 15rnm scale. . There is a new scale . in the case of Michael and Alan Perry. This size affords plenty of scope for accurately modelled detail and rewards careful painting. and for this reason prefer the 25mm scale with its wealth of de mil and pleasing weight in the hand. A small range of metal models is also available in this scale. are the larger 30mm models. including Gauls and Britons. The most well established of the popular scales is known as 25m01. at this size the model have only nominal detail and are really Little more than tokens. Some players find it more satisfying to fight games with historically marched opponents. We should at least mention some of the other scales available. Although this is [he scale favoured by the authors we would recommend an. Large ranges are available from several companies.

EQUIPMENT A minimum selection of paint and modelling equlpmenr is required. The movement of the armies and unfolding of events amidst the carefully rendered scene is every bit as important as which side wins or loses. light brown. so there is no need for turps or white spirit. In addition it is useful [Q have lit least one good file and a pair of clippers for cleaning mould lines from miniatures and removing plastic models from their sprues. Those who wish to know more are referred [0 the many modelling and wargarnes magazines available. blue. However. and it is recommended you stick to one or the other. SETTING UP A PAINTING TABLE Before starring to paint anything a minimum of basic equtprnenr is required as weU as paint and brushes. scenery. Indeed. A typical painting table .PAINTING A WARGAMES ARMY There is far more to wargaming man winning or losing battles. This section of the book aims to describe how to paint a wargame army and is primarily intended [0 provide beginner with enough information to have a go for themselves. These paints are thinned with warer and brushes are also cleaned in water. Remember. For the record. applying glue. All of the tools mentioned above are available from specialist modelling shops or. so a layer of card or hoard might be necessary too. but the main reason for painting is to prepare arrnies for the even greater spectacle of battle. Many people find a sheet of hardboard makes an ideal surface with. Each game is also a stirring spectacle. Once a brush is [00 worn for regular work it can still be used for painting bases. Sufficient space is required for paints. ideally a table or desk where projects can be left in place from one day to the next. [f you want to paint during tile evening a desk lamp is essenual . of finding somewhere IO paint. art shops. A desk or [able by a window is ideal for the daytime. green. There is nothing more wasteful or frustrating than having to constantly pack away and set up a work area. Size] brush or craft knife (old mug) Superglue A modelling A palette Waler container for mixing painr (old plate or ceramic tile) Tissues or kitchen rowel Spray can of matt white or white primer undercoat To this list it would be sensible [0 add at least one more brush. flesh. This brings us to one of the most important principles of the wargame and one which is almost never said openly because experienced player take it for granted . We suggest you start with the following selection of equipment: Acrylic paints: white. all ofwhich are up to the job.preferably with a colour corrected 'daylight' bulb which shows me true colours of the paints. It is nor a definitive guide. Certainly. PAINT We recommend water-based acrylic paint for painting models. and other jobs where a fine point is not necessary. black. Painting models is very hard on brushes so the brush fibres gradually wear out. in the case of brushes. Purring the final touches to a unit of newly painted troops is a satisfying morneru for the wargame enthusiast. proudly displaying their forces in glass cases or on shelves where they can be admired in all their glory. and there is no reason why these cannot be used instead. you cannot mix acrylic and enamel paints together. Several manufacturers produce acrylic paint for modellers. There is also the mane. Some modellers may have already developed a preference for old-fashioned enamel paints. there are wargarners who enjoy painting and modelling so much that they game rarely if at all. Although you can do without etcher of these tools for a while. silver and bronze. yellow. you will be cutting onto the surface as well as painting. t:he added advantage [hat the whole lot can be picked up and moved. It is a good idea to lay down a good thick layer of newspaper to protect the tabletop beneath your work area. red. it's definitely WOrTh investing in both as soon as you can. and old hands will undoubtedly have already evolved their own preferred technique and style. Many people find that they already have household items or tool which are useful. the models shown in this book were painted using Citadel Colour acrylic paints available from Games Workshop and developed by the authors (amongst others) specifically for painting metal and plastic miniatures. a size 0 brush for painting small areas and fine detail. brushes and modelling materials as well as for the models themselves. a nicely painted model does make an impressive display.models need to be painted before they are ready to [oin your armies.

This is called a mould line. Paint one colour at a time. UNDERCOAT Your models are now ready for their first coat of palm which is the white undercoat. although more time consuming. Models call be glued to their base using a suitable contact adhesive such as Bostik. Bases can be made from thick card or plasticard cur to the required size. You can also buy a mod eller's version of the same thing from model shops. Once complete the models can be prized from their temporary base before the shields and weapons are attached and each model is fastened to its proper base. Suggestions of bow to go about this are discussed separately. Obviously. you might start with all the flesh. then go on to the main runic colour which might be red. You may also find strands of metal or small blips where vents in the mould let out air. Whatever type you choose. There are several good ways of doing [his. BASES Models must be mounted on the correct sized bases as described in the rules. When undercoating with spray paint place the models in a cardboard box or something similar to contain the spray. and is infinitely superior to the alternative of applying white paint with a brush. Shields and separate weapons are best omitted until they are painted. Ln this way any mistakes you make early on are simply painted over later. The best thing to use for this is a spray can of white primer as sold in Halfords for use On cars. and so all. finishing off with weapons and details. standard bearer and a musician. is to cover the base with a textured filler or fine sand which is then pai Il ted. In the ca e of cavalry models the separate horse and rider can be glued together before palming. These are not a fault but a good sign. Some players prefer ro mount models in multiples to make it easier to move whole units. sufficient 'singles' must be left to facilitate removing casualties from the unit. You'll find that by the time you've finished the last model of your unit the first will be dry and ready for its next coar of palnr. Many people find it is easier to paint troops from the 'inside out' starting with the flesh. To complete [be model rhe base can be textured and painted to represent ground.green dyed sawdust available from model shops and commonly used by railway modellcrs. PREPARATION Having decided which anny you are going to collect the first step is to buy and paint a unit. and it is easily removed using a file or by scraping it lightly with the edge of a modelling knife. Models may be mounted on individual bases leaving individual models free [Q adopt a looser 'skirmish' formation if required. whilst card. no matter how thick does tend to distort slightly over time. completing each colour on every model before painting the next colour. An even better method. then the next layer which might be armour for example. Once all the areas on the models have been painted you can add shading or highlighting. as (hey ind icate the mould has filled fully. For example. probably about twenty models in all including a leader. the simplest method being to paint the base green and leave it at that! A more pleasing effect can be obtained by covering the base with flock .The undercoat must be thoroughly dry before you begin to paint. A light coating over the entire model is all that is required and to achieve this it is often best to apply a couple of very ligbt coats from different directions. For example. where infantry are mounted on 20 x 20mm ba e (Celtic tribesmen for example) you might mount three onto a single base 60 x 20mm. PAINTING Citadel has developed a wide range of paints especially for use on plastic and metal miniatures. Metal models are cast in rubber moulds and consequently you will tine! a fine line where the mould halves join. Superglue is best for sticking metal to metal. The chances are that you will have chosen a unit of core infantry such as Roman legionaries Of Celtic tribesmen. These strands can also be removed with a knife and the resulting scar scraped or rued flat. the flat white coating will provide the ideal surface [0 rake paint. Most people find it convenient to temporarily glue models to a strip of card prior to painting. Go outside to do the actual spraying. then the layer of clothing next to the skill. Although it is not strictly necessary to shade or highlight models it does enhance their appearance and is worth arternptlng. Plasticard is best in that it does not warp. Begin by lining up all the models on your painting table. j . If you glue four or five models to a strip of stiff card it makes them easier [Q handle wbilst they are being painted and means you can put them down without them falling over.

If it is too thin it will run right out againl Practlce wiil soon establish the ideal consistency. This technique is sometimes called 'lining in' or 'black lining'. A quick shake will remove all tile surplus sand leaving a layer on the base itself For those prepared to lavish attention on their miniature warriors small tones can be added ro represent rocks. because the surface is irregular. bare ground. For example. it is easy to apply highlightS by gently brushing over (he surface with a lighter coLour. You can choose whatever colour you want to represent grass. but painters already confident with the basic process will find it well worth mastering the technique. If the result is highly visible it is worth the few seconds it takes [Q paint a dark coloured or even black Line around me join to define the edge. on a bronze helmet paint a silver highlight around the helmet bowl. Highlights are painted ustng a lighter shade of the underlying colour or. To apply sand the base top is first painted over with PYA glue and the sand is sprinkled on. So long as the bases are all the same colour the unit will look like a coherent and purposeful group on me tabletop. The simplest way to finish a base is to paint it allover in one colour such as a mid-green. BASES A unit stands or falls upon the appearance of its bases. This consists of shan fibres glued on in me same way as flock. COLOUR Black Wbite Red Yellow Blue Lt Brown SlfADE Add BLack or Light Brown Add Black and/or Red Brown Add Red Brown Add Dark Blue Add Dark Brown Add Dark Green Add Reel Brown Add Black Add Dark Brown HIG-HLIGHT Add White and/or AddYeUow Add White Add White Add While Add White Add White Silver Blue Green Flesh Silver Bronze . Take or mix the highlight colour on your palette. These finishes must then be painted and. hlghlighting accentuates raised creases in clothtng and other details. troops based neatly in a uniform colour will look pleasing on the tabletop no rnatrer how simply they are painted. or a mixture of PYA glue and sand. whilst brtstles from a brush or broom can be glued on for rufts of grass.y of representing grass. Begin by raking or mixing a suitable dark shade of the base colour as shown on the accompanying chart. A popular choice is to flrsr paint the base and then glue flock onto the rop surface using PYAglue dabbed ()nLO the surface with an old paint brush. This is quick to do and has the advantage that it will cover over the gap between the model's metal base and the card ba e. if the colour is very pale. with white as indicated on the accompanying chart. Rather than referring to anyone manufacturer's range of paints we have described the colours in generaJ terms. More ambitious painters may texture the bases using either a ready prepared filler such as 'Ietrion. or where any area butts against another. Experienced painters will often pay extra artennon to edges where hands meet weapons. A more satisfying finish can be obtained by applying some kind of texture to represent grass or broken ground. It is nor essential to shade your models at all and it certainly requires a little practice to get it eight. cuffs meet hands.SHADING AND HIGHLIGHTS ADDING SHADE Shading is the process of painting darker colours into creases and other recesses to represent shadows. IDGHLIGHTS Highlights are raised areas where the light catches and brightens a colour. Just as shading deepens the appearance of the model. SHADING AND HIGHLIGHTING CHART This chart provides a handy reference tor mixing shades and highlights. sand or whatever. If the paint is sufficienrly thin it will run into cracks and crevices considerably aiding me process. Apply it to the high points of raised derail. Another wa. if bases are poorly finished the army will look dlsappointtng even if the models themselves are painted to a prize winning standard. Thin the paint with water so that it flows freely and carefully paint it into creases and folds. either in small patches or as an overall finish is to use artificial 'electro-static grass'. Conversely. This creates a sense of depth to the model and helps to distinguish adjoining areas from one another. on a heavily folded cloak paint a thin line along the raised part of the crease.

a unit of j 0 auxiliary cavalry would bulk out the force by a further 200 points. visitors will also have worked our their own army.· ".:''''~\~ ". a unit of front line infantry will number 20 to 30.... Not only does the host have to wait while his opponent gets rea. to recommend which troops to buy. To this solid core you can add one or two units of cavalry or light troops and a general [Q create a small army.. \.000 points. Aim to have at least 1. after which choosing an army to any points total is a doodle. characters.. An army which consists entirely of lightly armed infantry will be a very large a. .'S 5 "\" W 0 ~ ~ \ ()1(<6) s.-. 16 archers. the points value per model. An example of a filled out. you'll probably need to assemble about 100 models before you have a force that can be fielded in battle.''''''"l'IItD I I p. IdeaUy.tlxiliaries. Only the most strong willed individuals settle upon their ideal army straight away and restrict their collecnon accordingly.. an army is chosen as much because of the way it looks as the way it plays....as you can. Each unit of rroops. but garners will enjoy more success with armies that suit their tactical preferences. It may be possible to sit in on a game or even borrow someone else's army before you commit yourself to a particular force. Although [he number of models you'll need varies from army to army. The method described here is one way of organising your army and garners are welcome to adopt this or use any means they find convenient. It is a self-evident fact that different armies appeal to At the end of the book you'll find a suggested 1. 3. whilst skirmishers Or light troops might fight in units of 10 to 20. musician and Leader this is noted as well. Britons and most other 'barbarians' fight in huge unruly mobs.:>·0 AR. Methodical planners appreciate reliable.:1:> (.-c:. Once the army has acquired its core troops and essential you can start to add some of the more irueresring trOOP types such as a unit of heavy cavalry or exotic infantry.. Typically. when it comes to expanding your collection. Fortunately. deciding which models will form 2. \ln I .\8.COLLECTING AN ARMY Deciding whlch army to collect is me first big decision a new player must make.000 potnt Barbarian army worked out from the army lists that are also in this book. whilst an army of heavily armoured cavalry will be relatively small. winch are unreliable but also deadly when thrown straight forward in a mass. or whatever total has been set for the game. It 0 . It is well worth getting your army's points value properly organised using file cards or something similar.'\"'L~P M wS ~. Although this requires some effort you only have to do it once. 404 24I-€G'o'. and war machines is recorded on a standard file card. There is nothing more frustrating than for a player to turn up and then proceed co choose his army before the game can begin.. plus 10 cavalry and of course a general. characters ORGANISING AN ARMY 'When arrtving at a feIJow player's house for a game you'll probably find he has the table set Out and has already chosen his army.000 point Roman army and a suggested 1. and for Romans this means field baillstas or scorpions which will add 34 points each to the army's value.~O ""'<. a unit of 16 a. n"~'(.oo~~ File cards provide a ready means of keeping track of your forces. ~JI. In the case of duo Romans. A core unit of. If the unit bas a standard.. Another option is to add a few war machines.F\~. All pertinent derails are recorded on the card. steadfast troops like Imperial Romans.. and the total points value of the unit.000 points complete as soon as possible. In addition you'll definitely need a general to command the army... Most players will buy and paint a few models from several armies before finally deciding how to expand their collection into a sizeable force.000 points.. When choosing an army one of the most important considerations is the number of models required .-.:I ""Ta. Laser on.. a scorpion and its crew. A small Roman army might comprise of 2 units of 24 legionaries."' ..dy but precious [i111e is wasted which could otherwise be spent gaming. so it is a good idea to add him as soon . and to explain how to use them in battle. On the other band Gauls. including the troops' profile. By this we mean solid fighting troops such as Roman legionaries or Celtic tribesmen. time is less important because you already have a force that can fight whilst reinforcements are underway.. say 24 Roman legionaries will provide about 400 points.OIl'Plo-J. \"II11enonsidering your first army the time it takes c coger a playable force together is important because you'll undoubtedly want to begin gaming as soon as possible .rmy indeed. and cavalry can usefully be fielded as units of between 5 and 10.)rl\I 1'tll\""\00Jt I'" .. me different players.\1"1" HS <. As you can see an army can grow quite quickly once the bulk or the core troops has been assembled.file card is shown below me MUSTERING YOUR FORCES A good Start for any army is to assemble a couple of uni ts of core troops.. Inevitably.both from the point of view of cost and also the effort needed to palm them. most wargarners are only too pleased to talk about their armies.:>C>-\lOEo \ "DQ.

Each unir can be blue-lacked down onto us move tray and the whole tray placed inside its box. This is because the card has details for the entire unit. Some players find them roo cumbersome. especially when HUed [Q the brim with a metal army. card or board cut to a size so that an infantry or cavalry unit will stand upon it when arrayed in its usual fighting formation. For example. If you have gone over the permitted [oral (and you'll probably find you have) then removing the odd model from your larger units.Once a card has been prepared for every unit in your army the whole stack can be placed together in a card index holder or simply kept witb your army When you add a new unit it takes a matter of moments to add a new file card. gripped safely within the surrounding foam casing.army. pets and confused relatives can have a devastating effect upon your collection if they manage to get their hands. The file cards can be used during the game to check characteristic values if you like. This means it is necessary to pick each model out one at a time which is rather impractical for a large army. A better solution is to obtain a modern style plastic tool box which is not only lighter bui also somewhat larger and has more room for taller models. generals. others use them all the time. A high shelf will serve to keep the army together. such as whether to field a unit with or without maruobarbuli (throwing darts). Whilst a single move tray per unit may be convenient for smaller units. For example. in cases such as this the option can be noted on the file card as a us eful reminder. and more delicate conversions. imagine a unit of Gauls 40 strong arrayed 4 ranks deep. MAKING MOVEMENT TRAYS Wbe!:her to use move trays or not is entirely up to you. or you might want to reduce rile size of the unit to meet your permitted poinrs total. None the less these cases are the safest way of transporting models. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT As your army grows me you will soon discover a need to store it somewhere our of harm's way. Copy over the unit's profile and any other details you need onto the roster sheer. The formation measures lOx4 models and as the bases are 20mm square the entire unit will fit upon a base 2 OOx8Omm. ntis enables you to easily remove the unit from storage when required. stored in a cupboard or on a shelf. it is often a better idea to split a large unit onto several trays. will usually bring you back wit:bln your limit. but you might want to field [he unit without its leader. The tray can also be used ro store the unit Simply by placing the entire tray into a box or drawer. It could just as easily be fastened to four trays each 100 x 40mm containing ten models in rwo ranks of five. A move tray is nothing more than a sheet of reasonably stiff green plasticard. paws or teeth on it. as models can be dusted with a soft brush (a make-up brush is ideal) bur it is still preferable to put the army in a box or drawer. They have the added advantage that they can be moved about. In addition you can note down wounds suffered by characters on the roster sheet in pencil so that the sheet can still he used again if you want. but it is better [0 copy the derails over onto a single sheet of paper or roster sheer.d most players use them for their special models. You will also find the internal trays of the steel cases are nor very tall and this restricts the type of models you can pur inside. the unit of 40 Gauls occupies a huge tray 200 x 80mm. 0 the roster sheet is well worth keeping until the next game. The tray is used during the battle until the unit wishes to break its formation or sustains so many casualties that it i more convenient [Q abandon the move tray. Move trays are most useful if your army includes big infantry units as they do away with the need to move each model individually. Copy over all the units required to form the army and add up the total to make sure you are within the agreed points Limit. This is just as easy to move and has the advantage that the formation can be changed without necessarily having to remove all the models from their trays. Old fashioned steel boxes are very heavy. You now have a complete list of the army which will serve as a useful crib sheet during the game. Some players keep their armies in transportable rool chests. The roster sheet can also be used to make nares and summarise special rules which apply to YOlU. and can be stacked on top of each other. standard bearer or musician. bur will not protect the models from dust. II the models are blue-tacked on a the move tray or secured with double ided tape then they won't fall off but can still be removed as casualties occur. If you arc particularly successful with an army you can use it over and over again. When it comes to choosing your army referring to the card will reveal the total COStof the unit. Children. The disadvantage of these foam-filled cases is that the models are held individually. an. or sacrificing a musician or standard in favour of an ordinary trooper. This isn't necessarily a problem. Foam-lined tool cases are also available. . You may be permitted options which are not necessarily bound to the appearance of models. Several sturdy lidded boxes probably provide the best and most convenient way of storing your models. and to an extent it depends upon your army.

it is possible to ensure armies are as equally matched as possible. 8. 0 G) UJ m . 12" . 4. Each scenario is intended to be used in conjuncuon with army lists as the scenarios uti lise tile poi nts values of the troops as the basis for working Out the OPPOSing forces. However. then the space available to deploy is less. 1. Pitched Battle Meeting Engagement It is clearly useful to have a means of choosing evenly matched armies. Of course. {mrf (IS lIIucfi tifrajtf rjJllffitl!J r1f as fie i.-. . )'oiserfoll Mis steer!. the Hittites attacked an unprepared Egyptian column. {jone. of Kadesh. 12" CJ) w CD w w 0 0 0 24" m m Scale diagram of an 8')(4' wargames table. Two army lists have been included in this volume for JUSt this purpose: one covering Barbarians and another covering lrnperial Romans. and can. In this section you will find options for different barrie scenarios. 2. Ar the Bartle. 3. 5. By allotting a strict polnts value [Q each kind of warrior.. 'For 110 mml everj'el"isfierf --. war engine and by choosing armies to a fixed poinrs total..' Xe1Upfion .. uniform details and army lists for a wide vartery of ancient armies. but it is our intention to publish separate volumes covering the history. 7. For purposes of explanation the rules assume thai each army is represented by one player. for ins ranee.. be employed to enact many kinds of conflict from chance encounters and skirmishes to full-bloodied battles. but the indicated distances remain the same. perhaps with one acti fig as overall commander while the others are allotted portions of [he army to control. 6. In the meantime players are referred to the two lists at [he back of this book Wben players arrange [0 playa game it is necessary to decide what kind of battle to fight.---.s '!!rait! rjdie tmc1If!J. but mere is no reason why several players shouldn't play on the same side. Surprise Attack Flank Attack Break tbro ugh Ambllsb Last Stand Ski1'lnish PLAYER 1 EDGE PLAYER 1 DEPLOYMENT ZONE 12" . The two armies deploy no closer than 12" to the side edges. character and. in which case players can either field everything they have or agree to use two armies of roughly equal size. There are various ways of doing thts. Either pick a scenario to play or randomly select a scenario by rolling a dice.. The game rules govern movement.SCENARIOS Battles are fought between two opposing armies. and no closer than 24" 10 each other. showing the standard deployment areas. Before the barrie begins players must select their forces. Players new co wargaming will probably want to use their entire army against their opponent'S. caustng immense destruction before falling upon the Pharaoh's encampment. or fadet{ GYII fit1l'tfiw ill {jrmrefivm GellI£! {iirren die Joot solifler CIII! strike {/. If your table is smaller. The foUowing scenarios glve different sorts of games of which the most straightforward is the Pitcbed Battle. wno is yrccariomf:. many barnes were formal affairs where both sides deployed facingeach other and proceeded to fight according to the tactical plans of (heir commanders. shortage of space prevents us including further lists. PLAYER 2 EDGE .12" • PLAYER 2 DEPLOYMENT ZONE .fit! with trner ai fIl rfillt! tile horsemlln. shooting and combat.Anabasis Scenarios In the ancient world battles were fought in all kinds of circumstances other than straightforward encounters where both sides drew up in from of each other.

= = = WHO GOES FIRST.e. t [ ~ '''9n91:11I1'11( o/'c. SCENERY.. PITCHED BATTLE Tfiougfi i. at the bortom of the list) . Players set up the scenery agreeable manner. See the standard deployment map at the beginning of this section. 3-4 = 5 turns.Pitched Battle armies deploy one unit at a lime and [he opposing generals can decide how to react to their enemy' dispositions at they go along. all skirmishers including light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation.nnres find tlOIU rniw(liis saber tI!]lTillst A li'XlIIIIlfrjrolll.r witr.)0 6ecnlls. VlCTORY. DEPLOYMENT. '!! Aninn ~~ " _ ~~ _ __ ~ __ ~h 2. Players take it in turns to choose and deploy one unit at a time starting with the side which has the most units.hler6nJ!~ tm. = WHO GOES FIRST. 3-4 5 rums.• 1. Character models are alway' listed together as one entry and musr be placed last in the column of march (i. See the separate Victory Points schedule. ~irr. wlii{e rfi. mrti''!Pllterl fiim mltl srmeK fiim in flit: sfitlllfifc. die Mnw{ouiall5 tr!}iug to dimS! tlie PCrSill1J5 Dllce ow{ JOI' Ilff JI'OI)l die . Both players roIL a dice. AU characters are deployed last as a single choice. (jilt efeltlls. Each player makes a rough sketch of the battlefield upon which he indicates where his various units will be deployed. Once both sides have completed deployment. JOIl ~fDI'llpines. Unlts can be placed anywhere on the player's own half of the table but not within 6" of the centre line or within 18" of an enemy unit that has already been placed. but models can be positioned in different locations as required. 1l0l'Scs ami IIICII wrre t1l1lJII!Jun witli I'ndi m otfier lit tfie stI'1I99fi:. the winner is rhe player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. Once both players have completed their maps they are revealed to their opponent and the armies are set out as indicated on the map. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated.( to Yf(P their e''CIssiIJ9 mrd ra tfil'usr tfit· Macefi'ouinlls 6ncK Irgnil1 illra tlie ri)ICY: III tfiis O'11'Ollllr&r A[extmler's Jorce iVlU jJl'tvoifllllj liar 0. roll a D6 to decide how many rums to play..(III(I{r~1 6nl1fi: it . 5·6 6 turns..rmies arc chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. See the separate Victory Points schedule. then his opponent places the first unit from hls list. Once players have completed their marching order the player wnh the most units places the first unit from his list. tlidr sttetl!Jrfi (!tid c:g:m·iellcc. The players continue to alternate placing units from their list until they reach the lase entry which will always be the characters. may be moved 4" further onto [he table. alternatively. When It comes [0 placing characters these are all placed at once. The player who deployment first takes the first rum.( down illlo die ))(aitl. turns. in any mutually ARMIES. cornet wood fiwCt's n!JlliliSt jnllcnlls . The armies begin to deploy into barrie lines ami fight immediately..' Persians lII'tCllprq. of turns turns to 5-6 = 6 The players elect [0 play for an agreed number or. This is the quickest way to set up a game. alternatively. A score of 1-2 4 turns. DEPLOYMENT. lI'itfi his SIVo. !iehind. Before the game begins both players make a list of aU [he units in their army. The highest scoring player chooses whether to go IirS[ or second. A score of 1-2 4 turns. This game combines the need ro make a good barrie plan with placing units one at a time."i.d nlll cut il tff.'escmli((d· /Ill itgillltr!) Ln e. The game continues limit each side has taken the number of rurns indicated. MEETING ENGAGEMENT In a Meeting Engagement rival armies meet whilsr they are still in a column of march. !ill r 11[50 Gemll!C tlie!) Jorl!Jr. SECRET DISPOSITIONS Some players prefer to deploy their armies secretly using a map rather than simply placing their units one after the other. lIIas n (. or until one player concedes. ARMIES. In a Meeting Engagement tbe players set up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner. Each player's list represents his marching order. Troops already weary £rom their long march must attempt to deploy inro the best positions as rapidly as possible. The first player to complete his deployment adds +L to his dice roll. 01' until one player concedes. the winner Is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. Unless one player concedes beforehand. completes his VICTORY. SCENERY. Another way of deploying in secret is to erect some kind of barrier across the table so that troops can be arranged unseen by the opponent. Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges. T RNS. box lids and cereal packets wil1 do just fine. TURNS. Unless one player concedes beforehand. This doesn't have to be anything fancy. Armies are chosen £rom the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. . with the units at the top of the liSt at the front of the column and units at the bottom of [he list at the back.. A. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums or. roll a 06 to decide how many play.

then further units may be brought onto the same flank in the movement phases of subsequent turns once [here is room for them to deploy.e. or until one player concedes. possibly by means of a side valley. equal points value agreed before the game. deployed no closer than 24" and no closer than 12" to the side edges . roll a D6 [0 decide how marry turns to play. Once born sides have completed deployment. 3-4 := 5 turns. FlANKERS. for example in a 3. He can move different units or he can move the same unir several times if be wants. He can place as many units as he can along one side edge. TURNS. The players elect to play for an agreed number of turns or. all skirmishers including light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. WHO GOES FIRST. no scenery may be placed within 12" of the shorr sides of the table edge except for a river tbat may run off the edge. Units deploying onto the battlefield at the stan of the movement phase may take a normal turn but may not charge as they will have missed tile opporruniry co declare charges that rum. or until one player concedes. bridge. '111e player who deployment first takes the first rum. In a Flank Attack the number of turns played makes a big difference to the outcome of the game with a short game favouring the smaller force and a longer game favouring the flanking player. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an. A score of 1-2 = 4 turns. VICTORY. completes his 4. Each rime it is his rum to 'deploy' the player can move anyone unit in this way. as described for a Pitched Battle. See the separate Victory Points schedule. This repre ems two separate forces converging upon an enemy from different directions. Armies are. ARMIES. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated. In a Surprise Attack the players ser up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner.ttack is a variant of the straightforward Pitched Battle. If mere is not enough room ro deploy the entire flanking force in one turn. See the separate Vicrory Points schedule. DEPLOYMENT. TURNS. bur where a small professional army faces a large force of poor quality barbarians a surprise attack by the former can pay dividends. 5-6 = 6 [urns. . The flanking player deploys only his frontal force onto the table at the starr of the game. The highest scoring player chooses [0 go first or second. but no advancing units may be moved within 8" of enemy troops. roll a D6 to decide how many rurns to play: 1-2 = 4 turns. Born players roll a dice. Where armies are of equal size and capability tbere is little opportunity for a successful surprise attack. but no closer man 12" ro either player's table edge.000 paint army each force must contain at lease 1. The flanking player divides his army into two separate forces: a frontal force and a flanking force. However. or other route. Alternatively. Flanking units are placed on the battlefield in [he movement phase of the player's turn three. no more than lOOmm Of roughly 4"). The unit moves 4" regardless of its own movement rate. WHO GOES FIRST. alternatively. may be moved 4" further onto the table.some deploying to the front as usual whilst others attack from one side. ARMIES. DEPLOYMENT. 3-4 = 5 turns. pass. Unit formations must not be so deeply arrayed that they intrude more than the depths of twO ranks of cavalry onto the table (i. 5-6 = 6 turns. When it is his turn to place troops me player who has completed his deployment can move anyone unit a further 4" onto me battlefield. Each force muse contai n at least a third of his roral points. SCENERY. but starting with the player who rolls me highest score on a D6. It differs in thar the commander who completes his deployment first is allowed to move troops onto the battlefield whilst his opponent continues to deploy. VICTORY.see the deployment map at the stan of this section.3. Each side chooses and deploys a single unit at a rime. Both armies are deployed one unit at a time as described for a Pitched Battle. FLANKATTACK In a Flank Attack one of the armies comes from two different directions . The game continues until each side has taken me number of turns indicated. In a Flank Auacte battle the players set up the scenery they have in a mutually agreeable manner. but must take into account obstructive terrain and obstacles. Unless one player concedes beforehand [he winner is the player who bas accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. SURPRISE ATTACK A 'urprtse A. This enables him to occupy tactically advantageous ground or to set up a devastating attack in the first rum. The first side to complete its deployment gains the advantage of surprise and is allowed ro advance onto the battlefield whilst me enemy is still deploying. Unless one player concedes beforehand the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at me end of the game.000 points. SCENERY. Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown on the standard deployment map. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums.

The Victory Polnts schedule explains bow these are worked out. The side attempting the break out then deploys its entire army. VICTORY. .5. The players elect [0 play for an agreed number of turns or. or maybe plundering Assyrians fighting their way round the Citiel of Syria. the player attempting the breakthrough 12" 4 receive + 30 extra Victory Points for each unit of five troops or more which breaks through before the game ends. In an Ambush the players set up the cenery in a mutually agreeable manner leaving a dear path 12" wide extending rtghr across the edge of the defender's side of the table. such as patrols. ln addition. A score of 1·3 = 5 rums. 4 Otherwise. A score of 1·2 = 4 turns. roll a D6 to decide how many rums to play.'. Once the ambushed player has finished his deployment the ambusher deploys his army no closer man 18" to the defender's set-up area and no closer than 12" to the side edges. The 1110stfamous of all ancienr battles of chis type was Kadesh where an Egyptian army was caught on the march by Hittites. WHO GOES FIRST. Such a battle might represent an army chasing and catching marauders. TURNS. A unit which reache the opposing table edge and which is nor engaged in combat is automatically removed and is deemed to have successfully broken through. Players ser up the scenery agreeable manner. but note that no victory points are awarded for pas essing table quarters in a Breakthrough game. SCENERY. unless one player concedes 12" beforehand. or a royal prince dear [Q his father. Both players roll a dice. all skirmishers including Light infantry and light cavalry deployed in skirmish formation. TURNS.LOYMENT. These were large battles. See the separate Victory Points schedule. The game automatically ends and the player arternpting the breakthrough wins if he gers three units of at Least five models off the opposing player's table edge or rwo such units plus the general.a rival to the throne.000 points. 12' 18' AMBUSHER'S DEPLOYMENT ZONE 4- 12" . perhaps a rampaging horde of Saxons in Gaul. Armies are deployed no closer [han 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side in me same way as in Pitched Battle. but one can imagine that ambushes were more common where small forces were involved. Armies are chosen from [he army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game. or until the player attempting the breakthrough has successfully moved three units of at least five models. If your table is very wide (more than 4') you may allow longer. AMBUSH In an Arnbush one army is arrayed in column whilst his enemy attacks unexpectedly from prepared posirtons. This is the path along which rile ambushed army is travelling. The ambushed army is deployed along the clear path along the edge of me table no further than 12" from the edge and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown below on the map below. in any mutually 6. DEP. The player with the highest score may choose to go first or second.for example ambusher 2. either to prevent them reaching a vital objecnve or to contain and destroy them. SCENERY. ARMIES. 3-4 = ') turns. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated. AMBUSH MAP 12' t AMBUSHED ARMY DEPLOYMENT I ZONE . The ambushed side is allowed half as many points again as the ambusher . alternatively. off [he opposing [able edge.roll a dice to determine which). The side that is attempting to stop the break Out deploys irs entire army first. Another well known example is Teutoberger Wald where an entire Roman army was destroyed when attacked in column of march. alternatively. ARMIES. DEPLOYMENT. foraging parries. The ambushed player deploys his entire army first.000 points ambushed 3. VICTORY Unless one player concedes beforehand the winner is me player who has accumulated the most victory points at [he end of me game. facing in the direction of travel (either [0 the Leftor right . and where no record of the battle survives. 4-6 ==6 turns. Once both sides have completed deployment.. ore that this is longer than most scenarios to give sufficient time for [he army attempting the BI'eaktbrough to reach the opposing table edge. The players elect to play for an agreed number of rums 0. WHO GOES FIRST. or lWO units plus the general. or one player concedes.. Armies are chosen from the army liSIS [0 a points value agreed before the game. or until one player concedes. Alternatively the army breaking through carries vital information or is guarding an important individual . The ambusher takes the first rum. The defending army sets up as the enemy approaches and braces itself for the attack. The game continues until each side has taken the number of turns indicated.. the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game. BREAKTHROUGH In the Breaktbrougb one army arrempts [Q break through the opposing lines whilst the enemy tries to stop them. may be moved 4" further onto the table. a civic or tribal leader sympathetic to a foreign power. . His units must be formed into columns no more than three models wide. or accompanied messengers. 5·6 = 6 turns. roll a D6 to decide how many turns to play.

ARMIES. DEPLOYMENT.for example attacker 3. Because a skirmish is quite small it is quite feasible to play [0 the death! WHO GOES FIRST: The first player co complete his deployment goes first. VICTORY. the attacker deploys his army anywhere on the table that is not within 8" of the defender's set-up area. No scenery at all can be placed within a band that extends 6" beyond the defender's deployment area. roll a D6 to decide how many terns to play. The game will continue until each slde has taken the number of turns mdicated. SCENERY. the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory points at the end of the game or who annihilates his opponent! See the separate Victory Points schedule. Otherwise the Victory Points schedule is used as norma!. The attacker is allowed twice as many the defender . Armies are deployed no closer than 24" to each other and no closer than 12" to the side edges as shown on the standard deployment map at the beginning of this section. ARMIES. lists to a the game points as points - . or until one player concedes. To introduce a random elemem each player rolls a dice and me side with the highest score places one unit. LAST STAND In the Last Stand one player is occupying an encampment.. The defender sets up his entire army within an 18 x 18" square that is centred upon the middle of the table. The defender has 50 automatic victory points so long as he has at least one unit of troops still fighting at the end of the game. SCENERY. Armies are chosen from the army lists to an equal points value agreed before the game and up to a maximum value of 1. The other player can then place any remaining units. as shown on the map below: This is the defender'S set-up area as described above and all defenders are deployed within it at me beginning of the game. The players elect [0 play for an agreed number of turns or. SPECIAl. Unless one player concedes the winner is the player who has accumulated the most victory pomts at the end of the game. or perhaps a situation where a patrol encounters bandits. troops clashing as they forage or search for water. NormalLy only troops specified as being able to skirmish can do so. small township. 8.I e. fortified hill or similar chosen position which he must defend against overwhelming odds.. Armies . Players set up the scenery in any mutually agreeable manner. A score of 1·2 =: 4 turns.. but in this game all units can. VICTORY. In the Last Stand the players set up the scenery in a mutually agreeable manner.000 points. All models in the defending army increase their Leadership score by +1 up to a maximum of 10. - DEPLOYMENT. except that the defending player can set up scenery as he likes inside his own deployment area.500 points. alternatively.na:: ~« a:: IW Wz ~O G~ «>«.. playuntil one player concedes or until all of his units are destroyed or fleeing. SKIRMISH. In a Ski.. The players elect to play for an agreed number of turns or.are chosen from the army points value agreed by the players before begins. both players roll again and the highest roll places a unit. usually between lightly equipped troops.. The defender rakes the first tum. SKIRMISH A Skirmish is basically a small action. Unless one player concedes beforehand. LAST STAND MAP « r. The game represents two scouting forces meeting unexpectedly.'misb it is often more satisfying to set roe game up around a farm house or ruin. This represents their dogged determination to fight to the end. In a Skinnisb aU units involved are allowed to skirmish as described in the rulebook. RULES. W DEFENDER'S ARMY 18x18" 8" 8" o . raiders or renegade barbarians. 3·4 := 5 turns. Once the defender has deployed his forces. so thar tbe troops can take full advantage of the cover it affords. 5·6 = 6 turns. TURNS. TURNS. alternatively. WHO GOES FIRST.000 defender 1. and so on until one player has placed all of its troops.7.

then bam players roll a dice and the highest scorer positions it. Each player continues to lay down scenery one item at a time. Many players find it convenient to use a scenery generator system when setting up the battlefield. Scenery is not placed on [he other player's side of the table unless it is a plain hill. Once there is one river or stream on the tabletop any further 'river/stream' results are re-rolled as it would obviously be inconvenient to have a battlefield crisscrossed with rivers! One type of scenery can be placed over another where appropriate to produce. Unless he passes the player places the scenery somewhere on his own side of the table. or you might prefer ro devise something similar using your Own scenery as a basis. The battlefield is then complete! If both players are in agreement scenery can now be moved around or removed if it is felt a better battle will result. PlACING SCENERY The authors' favoured method is to firsdy decide which table edge the armies will start from. after which each player chooses and places one item alternately until the table is complete. the scenery can be laid out in any way you find agreeable. For example. All these are perfectly good methods and there is no reason why players shouldn't experiment until they find a method they like. Players can make use of the Scenery Generator tables in any way they please. The player can either place that piece of scenery or 'pass' and place no scenery at all if he prefers. Then each player rolls a D6 and the highest scorer starts to place scenery first. you might allow your opponent to remove a wood from his side of the table if he lets you reposition a hill. say. and so on. just re-rollunnl you get a result you can lise. -' r: . Another method is for a player to choose a piece of scenery. in which case it can be placed straddling the dividing line. The other player then has the option of generating and placing one more piece if he wishes. Tills ensures that the scenery is laid our in as even-handed manner as possible. A method which works well for Pitched Battles or Meeting Engagements is for one player to lay the scenery out while the other player chooses which side be will fight from. then both dice to see who positions it. You may wish to use the chart on page 84. you might decide how much scenery you want and then roll randomly to determine what ir is. For example. A further advantage is that it is possible for the host to set up the game in advance so that it is ready to play once his opponent arrives. To generate a piece of scenery roll 2D6 and consult the Scenery Generator table. If you decide to USe the version printed here don't worry if you generate terrain you don't have. Once each player has placed at least one piece. after which the lowest scorer chooses another irem. wooded hills or hillsides with walls. either player may declare he is satisfied with the scenery as it is instead of generating and placing a further piece.SCENERY There is no hard and fast rule about how players set up the battlefield.

If you place a river it must have at least one bridge or ford. deep rivers do not make for entertaining fast moving games and players might prefer to avoid using themaltogerher in favour of either shallow rivers or a lake. 12 Very Difficult Ground Choose a feature that is very difficult to cross such as a steep sided quarry. . A river must always include at least one bridge or ford somewhere along irs length. If the river extends over more than half t. If it extends over more than half the length of the table it must include twO crossing places one of which is chosen and positioned by the opposing player. Rivers can be particularly problematic if one side is determined to playa whoUy Static. not ro impede movement to tile extent where armies are unable to get anywhere. This makes for a rather dull battle. but this does not apply to streams. Obstacles can be crossed but troops are slowed down when t. debris. a thick wood or parch of dense briars. preventing shooting. 7 Bill or Wood Choose either a hill or a wood. as we assume players are going to use scenery they have made themselves. 9 Walls/Hedges or Fencing Up to 12" of continuous walls. We have not defined the size of hills or woods. Even with this restriction in mind. Cliffs are impossible to move over and act as a barrier to movement. A river may not extend over more than half the length of the table unless your opponenr agrees that it may do so. Troops move across difficult ground at half their normal speed. Should the river extend over more than half the table length then the opposing player can place a bridge or ford as described on the chan. hedges.hey do so (losing half of their coral movement distance that turn). 4 Difficult Ground Choose an area of difficult terrain such as a marsh. shallow pit or area of loose rocks.is to provide an lnteresring andentertainlng banle. A river must be placed so that it flows onto the battlefield from one side and our from either the same or another side. Walls and hedges are useful defensive positions as troops may be placed behind them where they will be protected from enemy arrack. Remember the objective of setting up terrain .i. A lake is A deep river cannot Hills do nOTslow down troops but they provide excellent vantage points where you can position archers or station troops.£ficulrto move over (troops move at half speed). fences. 5 A Steep Hill A steep hill is d. soft sand. Very difficult terrain may be crossed at quarter speed. be crossed anywhere along its length except at a ford or bridge. ditches or other linear obstacles. A stream may havea single crossing place along its length if you wish. 10 A Farmhouse or Watch Tower 3 A Shallow River or Stream Choose either a shallow river (which can be crossed ar quarter speed) or a stream (which may be crossed at half speed) The river or Stream must enter and leave at a table edge. The village may have up to 12" of adjoining walls or hedges. impossible to cross. If neither player is satisfied with the terrain once it has been generated then start again. 11 A ViUage or Small Settlement A village is represented by several buildings (2-4 is enough). defensive game.SCENERY GENERATOR TABLE (Ro1l2D6 Score Result A Deep River Or Lake Score Result A Hill 2 8 Choose either a deep river or a lake. boulder strewn ground.he table length it must include two crossing places one of which is chosen and positioned by the opposing player. Obviously it would be silly for a wood to extend over the whole table! As a general rule no terrain feature may be bigger than 12" across. area of scrub. and may have cliffs on one or more sides. 6 A Wood Woods slow troops down (to half their normal speed) and they also act as a barrier to sight. Hills are useful defence points in hand-mohand combat as it is easier [Q win a combat if you are uphill of your opponent. It cannot spring from nowhere and it cannot simply end. swamp or sheer cliffs. A single house or tower that may have up to 6" of adjoining walls or hedges. so a river is never placed over more [han half the length of the table unless both players agree to do so. Rivers cannot extend over more than half of the table length without your opponent's consent.

fleeing or fled unit.my unit or character either. bur often the result will be in doubt even in the final turn. The Victory Points schedule listed below is used for most games. Each unit standard Army standard captured 100 victory points in addition for any points already for the General a a destroyed. the dice rolls are designed to give a battle anywhere between four and six turns. G-rCCkversion 1 who fights fie VICTORY CHART Each ene.VICTORY Either agree beforehand for bow long you will play or roll a dice as described in the scenarios. However. Refer to the chan below and add up the points gained by each side. but 1 have save. or having fled the table. war machine or elephant cannot occupy a quarter . destroyed fleeing or having fled from the table. and for this reason we suggest players fix the number of turns before the game begins. shier. A5 you will notice. Divide the table into four equal quarters through its middle.000 point battle a difference of 50 points or less is a marginal win.' m!:Jfjfe. a victory of 500 or more points is a resounding thrashing for your enemy! If both sides score the same points the result is a draw. AtlO tfi e r dt. 200 victory points.only a unit of troops or chariots may do so. including [he scenarios described above.g. Once the battle is over both players calculate their victory points to decide who has won. Each full table quarter wholly occupied by your own side. or 'sudden death' objectives where the game ends as soon as an objective is met.some Saian now Has jay if it. The usual method of deciding who has won is to calculate victory points for each side. A character model. 100 victory points. A unit which costs 325 points is worth 325 victory points to your enemy. 100 victory points. The difference in victory points is a good indicator of how decisive the victory has been. ometimes it will be obvious who has won. Victory points equal co the points value of the unit or character separately E. I 6eliitu{ a liusfi. The number of rums affects the way the game plays. The Breaktbrough scenario is an example of this where the player attempting the Breakthrough automatically wins and the game ends if he gets three units off the opposing table edge.in aua runs away! Q. fleeing.!J J' rr £iu!J 0' /I e. because 1 must" It's 110tthe _poor tfiin!:j's }'III(t . determine which side has won at the end of rhe final turn. in a 3. with one side decimated or running from the table. Characters are accounted for victory points even if they join with units of troops during a battle. Unless one player concedes before the allotted time. My fifr Arclil(ocli1lS . The side which has the most victory points has won. captured . Enemy General slain. If a quarter is occupied by at least one of your units of troops and no enemy then you can claim 100 extra victory pain ts per quarter. just as !J DOt!. an invented or historic scenario might tneroduce new victory conditions. Wfiatcare 1jar tliat siiieftf? A yarti1J!j CW'se 011 it.

Of course.and I have to say the result was enjoyed by all those who took part. North Africa. it is well worth declding which specific campaign or period of hiStory you want to represent.000. decisive. for many players tile challenge is [0 recreate the events of an entirecampaigo with irs particular circumstances and actual characters. In real life. battle. Then. Although we already had plenty of models each player succeeded in enlarging his own army during the course of the campaign. 1. type and number of troops available to both sides in the final. a sure case of history repeating itself. and the supplies needed to keep the growing armies on the battlefield. INSPIRED BY HISTORY Though our Dyrrachium campaign was based upon history. as a group of players . Our reason for choosing this series of battles was straight forward enough . if the Pornpeian player does better ar Corfiniurn than his historical counterpart. The war involved thousands of men (Six thousand of Pompey's men died and 24. At our refight of Pharsalus each Legion was represented by a single unit of Legionaries . so that by the time ir came to the final game we had all that 'was needed to fight a very large battle indeed! Whether you or your fellow players have armies already or whether you intend to begin new ones. This series of battles began when Caesar crossed the Rubicon and ended in the Dyrrachium campaign and the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus. In OUI refight we allowed the player representing Pompey to decide whether to support or abandon Ahenobarbus at Corfinium. . but our irutial games of Ancient Battles wert: fought during the Roman Civil War between Caesar and Pompey. the war was fought to control the resources of the various regions.20 ro 30 models standing in for 5. with the winner gaining the coffers and recruiting ground of Italy. being divided into five preliminary battles and culminating in the final battle at Pharsalus. the most obvious change to history is that we refought the battles with much smaller forces. The real barrle was bardly a battle at all because Pompey refused to move north to support the local commander. Pompey mustered 36.000 legionaries to fight at Pharsalus bardLy a practical proposition for a wargamel When refighting a real battle you'll probably have to scale down the number of troops involved in order to represent the fighting Oil the tabletop. FOf example.we already owned several Roman armies. timing pLayed an important part in Pompey's decision. The idea behind the campaign was to fight each of ow: chosen battles one ar a time in chronological order.. In fact OUI Pompey followed the historical precedent and abandoned Ahenobarbusl In our refighr Ahcnobarbus was soundly defeated once more.000 were captured at Pharsalus alone . access to veteran legions Of local troops. leaving it to US to invent or extrapolate events for ourselves.. it doesn't matter. so we introduced the chance that Pompey's troops would arrive late in (be day. Of course. The important thing is to scale down both sides. Without wishing to embarrass the man unduly. or nor at all. so that a game between a few hundred models can represent a battle between many thousands. There must have been countless skirmishes where a few dozen men fought on each side. Unfortunately. Ahenobarbus. according to Caesar). DYRRACHIUM Jervis Johnson researched and masterminded OUI Dyrrachium campaign . Our recreation of the war was conducted somewhat more briefly. and the veteran legions chose to side with Caesar as in reality: HISTORIC CAMPAIGN The authors' interests lay in varied periods of ancient history. In a smaller battle we might let a unit of the same size represent 2. men the Pompeians retainconrrol of the crack Legions which in reality went over to Caesar following the Pornpeian's defeat. It wouldtake roo long to describe how we adapted all of the six battles bur Corfinium is an interesting example of the method. Historically. With four players regularly involved we divided into two sides. Faced with Caesar's approach the troops at Corfiniurn (two crack legions) wisely switched sides and Italy was won for Caesar pretty much without a fight. who in rum refused TO retreat southwards to join Pompey.you can collect contemporary armies which will enable you to refight conflicts based upon and inspired by the historicaJ background.FIGHTING CAMPAIGNS players it is enough to fight their armies against another op ponenr of an ancient era. We were prepared to ignore some things altogether. we made many assumptions andchanges so that we could play it as a series of wargames. Por some We represented the course of the campaign by allowing a general who bettered his historical performance in a battle to recruit more or better troops. However. If the battle was 10s[ Pompey would lose not only Ahenobarbus but also the bulk of his Italian army. for the final battle at Pharsalus. not all barnes invoLve thousands or even hundreds of men. and the Balkans.000 or 500 men. ancient authors rarely record such minor sklrmlshes except in the briefest terms.. The results of the preliminary conflicts were judged to affect [he mix. regardless of whether the two armies are contemporary counterparts or if they are divided by many centuries and thousands of miles. La the end Pompey abandoned Ahenobarbus to his fare and embarked his army for Greece.000 men. the importance of naval forces. such as the more complex aspects of supply.. I think Jervis' approach serves as an excellent example of how to go about refighting a historical campaign. and [he politicaL negotiations which continued throughout the war. The real campaign featured a number of large battles and took place over three years in Spain.

either a formal club or an informal group of friends who routinely get together to fight battles. A player's territories represent the key strategic places in his empire. witH n tfrrust to rhe centre ~ liis /Jdfy. We have already described how go about refighting a historical based on historical counterparts. cities. and can be thoughr of as being Linked together by hinterlands of plains and farms. Lf Assyrians can meet Norse raiders in a single battle. the situation can be thought of as more realistic [han a campaign fought over accurate modern maps which were in reality unavailable to ancient generals. Celtic Britain and Saxon England. In this sense. We have found this very loose format is a great advantage when playing large campaigns. Greeks and whatever other armies players happen to own. Republican Rome.15 lie was reririn9 am! Jt!'Uck fiim In rfie chest over tlie "!pyre. The campaign may be thought of as taking place on a newly discovered but suitably Large island or in some sparsely populated and generally unexplored land. then why not in a campaign. The rules tbat follow take a different approach than the strictly historical campaign. although the actual territory fought over has no basis in reality. Then Peirus breatli rift fiim in neatli. and makes it possible for players to participate 00 an occasional or temporary basis. painting and scenery making. Players can drop in. However. Each player must keep a record of his territcrtes on a sheet of paper or in a notebook which will serve as his campaign diary. Each player's goal is to build an empire. Players can swap troops amongst themselves. These territories represent settlements geographical features and resources which constitute the player's empire.II!] His shmy swora. or out. and newcomers can come along and learn the skills of generalship. Draw. The fighting takes place over a fictional or imaginary land. instead players discover. Once the campaign is underway new players can join at any time simply by generating three new random territories from the chart. each player generates three random territories from the chart shown over the page. and annex [owns. and why nor in a sprawling competition pitching these cultures against Romans. die Aetafimt. but no historically based campaign could posstbly accommodate such a diverse selection of force. and whilst their armies suitable. of the campaign at any time. or even start afresh if they want to do so. and other strategically important features called territories. The more territories a player controls the bigger and better armies he can field. To begin the campaign. Imagine that a group of players have collected armies representing cultures and periods as diverse as the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. defend. TfrDIIS c(Jmc to dose lJuarter's am{ wrcndiea tfir: freav!J pear jromfii> victim's CHest. it is still possible for players to compete against each other over a campaign so long as all involved are happy to accept the necessary abstraction. No map is used to fight the campaign. THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICT Our campaign is deliberately arranged in uch a way that players can use armies from any period of ancient hlstory. . These players can still fight each other using the Ancient Battles rules. One of the most entertaining group activities is to organise a campaign or league. ILIAD The campaign is also arranged to allow those taking part to play each other as and when they wish. many will by hundreds If not thousands of a group of players can campaign using forces The disadvantage of you really need two some players will find have armies separated years. CONQUER AND EXPLORE! STARTING A CAMPAIGN Most veteran players belong to a regular gaming group. He fd((etf (jim. without any obligation to playa set number of games 01" against any particular opponents. this sort of campaign is that contemporary forces. Tli/: bronze YOirtt stuck in His (II"!!. defeating his enemies in order to expand his own dominions. There are many advanrages to forming an association with other players. but it's worth taking a look at one way in which such things might be arranged. and the more varied are the types of troops he is allowed to recruit. It would cake a fairly substantial book to explore these in any detail. mrew fiis penl' at Peinu .Then Thoas. For example. you can pool resources to buy scenery or pay for the hire of rooms. and encompassing large areas of wilderness. Campaigns of exploration into (he unknown were undertaken on more than one occasion by the ancients themselves.

In ancient times fortresses included chariot compounds. A player may only field larger armies by conquering more terrltortes. and so 00. or else sources of some other precious material such as lapis lazuli.nclude more unless the player controls fortresses. Chariorry . Villages and other territories don't demand the 'Same degree of emotional attachment. etc. An army may include light infantry or light cavalry regardless of whether the player's territory includes mountains/forests or not. Mo. For purposes of explanation we'll assume players enter the campaign with 1. The players may agree further restrictions amongst themselves for each battle as they wish. War Machines chosen [0 1500 points (or whatever size you have agreed) and larger standing armies can only be assembled by taking control of bridges.imperial Romans. the town of londin. Temple of Zeus. roads and passes. A name from history or an appropriate sounding name you have Invented will give you. Persians. acquires riches. but players can agree a lesser or greater value as they please. After all. Greeks. Strategic Features Strategic features such as bridges.500 points.r settlement real identity and character. wins local nobles over to hiS cause. ports or fortresses. excluding any chariots driven by a permitted General or characters. As the player expands his territories be also expands hts army. Mines produce occasional points value bonuses.000 points if players do not have large established armies already. jade or amber. Each time two players fight a game they choose an army of 1. but you can name these too if you like: Shrine of the Delphic Oracle. . Armies are chosen from the player's Ancient Battles army list with the additional restrictions described below. port or fortress you should give it a name.ium.An army can include no more than five chariots. workshops. or the port of Tyre. and cannot i.finerruResouxces Mineral resources are mines which produce occasional windfalls of gold or silver.An anny may not include skirmtshers unless the player's territory includes mountains or forests .An army can include no more than one unit of no more than ten cavalry.An army may not include either a Battle Standard or unit standards unless the player's territory includes shrines or a temple.500 points. Standards . [Owns.hill tribes and other wild communities providing the bulk of such troops. 1b begin with each player is restricted follows: in his choice as Characters/Leaders . roads and passes limit access for your armies. Skirmishers .An army cannot include war machines unless the player controls forests to provide materials to build machines and fuel furnaces.An army must be led by a General chosen from the army list. ARMY RESTRICTIONS The number and type of troops that a player can field is restricted by the territories be controls. 1b represent this armies are .unt Olympus. This is the base or starter value of all the armies involved. allowing you to increase the size of your army next lime you fight. although you might wish to stan: with armies of 1. A reasonable starring value is 1. although a player must stick to tbe same army .from which to draw more horses. it is the mighty fortress of Kadesh. Forces are chosen afresh for each banle. N. excluding a mounted General or characters. and stables. and attracts settlers and reinforcements from back home. Cavalry . NAMES AND PLACES When you generate a town.500 points.ARMIES Before the campaign begins the parrrclpating players agree a suitable points value to start with. and cannot include more unless the player controls plains . it is not JUSt any old settlement. Otherwise the army may not include characters or unit leaders unless the player controls villages.

10 represent 'bis add +3D6dO points [0 your army for each Pass under your control. 65 SpY 36·42 Bridge If you control a Bridge you are able [0 move [(OOPS rapidly imo stra teglc a reas. entitling you to numerous leaders. so if you roll an event generate another territory imm"diatdy. If yo u control a Forest your aTInY ru-ess u enr supplies of wood ro include war machines chosen from your army list wuhout further resrrlcuon. Roll when the Road is generared [0 fix Irs value. Wltb the support of ships your armies can movel further and faster. The YOUl"army can include. n Pass you are able to move troops through to reach the enemy. arm)' (le.ple 54 Port YOur empire can only include on" Temple: if you generate a second either count It as a Shrine or roU again. 1 addnton you can recruit woodsmen. Your ernpi re indud es Pial ns suitable for breeding and reari n g horses. Note that this is a one game bonus. If you Slake It as a territory in n bartle and win..nt 43 Pass If you control.bich a Village is needed) Temple is required).you gain a Mine territory in addition 10 any territory won as a resuh of your victory. human ca tastro ph e. for each Village under your control your armycan include D3 unit leaders.1 have finisbed . Roll [0 determine how many cavalry are allowed w hen Y"u ge nerare the PI al n. YOu can only re-rollone newly generated territory per rurn. n·l6} in ~dc!!ipll to the basic allowance of J O. 44~46 Plains A natu ".. 1b rep resent this add + 2 D6x 10 poi nts 10 the . Any further dice rolls required must abo be witnessed by another player. If you roll a 6 then the miners have s tru ek gold (or perchance silver) and cas h n ows I nto yo ur coffers! I'll e next rime yo ur army ftgh IS you may add D6x50 polnrs to irs value. but nor other Jende rs (for Or a Bartle Standard bearer (for which a more To\vns you howe the more characters A Trade Rome encourages fcrelgn coruacts and enables you to negotiate with local rrtbes and adjoinlngculrures.TERRITORY CHART (D66) Each player keeps a record of his territory from the beginning of the campaign. prospectors have discovered a gold or silver mine amongstiae mcurualns .ng you [0 include skirmishers in your army.-. bur the bonus for captured standards can "nly be ea rned by one Sh ririe ar a Lime. You have a well establtshed network of spies and informers.. con trol. Roll a D6 fur each Mine after )'01. 63~64 Forest 31-35 U your empire Road Includes fl Road you can move troops more qulckly to meet the enemy.<: Of more enemy standards. n "lIo"'. This method of rolling TWO dice is referred to as 3 '066 roll'. 1I·] 6). 66 Eve.mins or Forests you c nnot include such troops in your army. and his dice rolls must be witnessed by at least one other player. ·10generate a territory roll two ordinary 06's one after the other. See the speclal ru les bel ow.>IIwhen )'OU generate rhe Shrine \0 d erermi ne bow many stand ards it en ti rles you [0 have _I f you win a gam" and capture ·0. Without Mou mai <15 O~ ForeSIS you cannot include such rroops in your army. "lb represent this add + D6xlO points to the permtued points total nf your army for each Road you have. a chance it will provide extra wealth. Each player generates three irutlal territories. In addItion roU a D6 each time Y"u win a battle. and you niusr accept the result of the re-rott even if it is 'he same territory again. An event is not a rerrlrorj. The first dice roll represents 'tens' and the second 'units' to give you 3 score of between 11 and 66. not a permanenr boost to the army's polnts value. me. If you have ~ "lbwn under your control your heroic character. Your empire can include several Shr: nes. includes Mount'li" rerrtrory your army can include ski rrnish ers chcsen from yo ur army lis t. Spies arc not tcrritory. 11~13 Shrine 51~53 If your empire Mountains for each Shrine YOII control your army Can include D3 unit standards (Ie 1·2= I.. If both players roll the same scores then both must roll for a separate event.. 14-15 Tem. Roll wlren the 6r:!dge is generated [Q fLX irs value. See below for 3 desert p non of th e i\1ine rerrnorj. allowing you 10 temporarily expand the size of your armies. 16-24 Village A Po rr em! tl es you (Q include a character ill lhe same way as a [Own. and can be used to keep a separate record of your troops' performance and anything else you may wish to remember. To represent this the value of Roads is doubled if you have s POrt. A Temple entules you to mclude a Battle Standard Bearer in your army. To determine which of the two player's empires is stricken by it both players roll a D6. who then rolls On the Events table to determine what has befallen hls empire. A FocO"'e~s enntles :lI1 army co inclu d e a fu rth er 10 + 06 charters (ie. The opportunltes rhus presented allow (Q re-rnll on this chan should you wish.POll rs total of your :umy for each Bridge under your can tIO I. The more plai ns your em pire j nclu des the more cavalry fOU can fleld_ . The Port encourages maritime contracts and provides a base for your "ary.c 26 Fortress A Fortress is n rorrlfied [Own and enrnles you 1<> include a character in the army in me same ""'y as a Town. The more Forrresses your empire includes the more characters and chariots you can field. 3-1-2 & 5·6=3). .I disas rer. The event ha ppe ns to the lowest scorl ng player. Wimout Mo. 55-56 Trade Route 25 Town army can include a single ". n te rri tory you control you may i nclude a further 10 + D6 cavalry models in you. then its value increases by a further D6dO points [0 re present }'Ou r expan ding. As additional rolls are needed after each game. Also. Roll '0 determine how many chariots are allowed when you generate the Fortress.. On [be score ofa ·6. for eacb PIa. players can conveniently make all their rolls in the presence of their opponent after the gllme is finished. so if you generate a Spy generate another territory trnmedtarely If generating a new cerrltory after a bante. then add + J 10 the number of standards your Shrine allows. fortified towns permit < armies cntltled [0 them to include more chariots than the basic five IIIre ady allowed. banle. or some othe r U nexpecred event has occurred. A note book or campaign diary is ideal. Roll when [he Pass is generated [0 fix its value. If your Empire includes" Mine then there L. R<. 1'''" 61~62 Min. Roll when the Village Is genen ated to determine how many leaders it entitles you 10. the spy is autornatlcally gained by the winner in addltton to a further territory. When generating your Initial three territories "vents are Ignored ahcgether. Events only occur when generaung a new zerrlrory after a battle. Your empire can Include several Villages.

Bridges and Passes. 12 Volcanic Eruption An eruption of unexpected and extreme violence destroys one of your major settlements. and giving rise to rumours of divine disfavour. Roll a 06 for each settlement territory in your empire. Fortress or Pan bas been affected. If you roll an event which does not apply. and aLI revolting settlements are brought back under your control. Randomly determine which of your empire's Towns. burned [0 the ground and its people massacred . On a 1. rebellious lord. but SUbsequently an event can be generated on tl1Cappropriate roll after each battle. The governor has been driven our. For each battle you fight from now on you recover the bonus of one of the affected territories . If you lose your next campaign battle the revolt spreads to another randomly determined settlement C[own/J>on/Forrress/Village). From now on each rime you win a battle roU a 06 . On [he score of 4-6 the drought has ended and your Villages and Plains are restored. republicans. Pass or Bridge territory in your empire. next nme you win a game the revolt is crushed. 11 Corruption Corruption amongst self-serving officials siphons off money which might otherwise be spent on building programmes and on your army. Whilst [his siruarlon continues you cannot use any of your roads.but to make matters worse the revolt can spread. for example. If the destruction leaves you with less than three territories.on the score of a 4 or more relations are back [0 normal and you may u e your roads again. burning and looting outlying serdernenrs and causing widespread unrest. Pons and Fortresses are reduced to VUlages on the 06 roll of a 6. 10 Earthquake 5 Fire! Fire breaks om in one of your Towns or Forrresses Jf you have more than one such settlement randomly determine which is affected The settlement is burnt to the ground. king's youngest son. On the roll of a 1-3 the drought continues unabated. This is bad enough . herds are driven off. Trade is suspended and armies muster on the borders. 2 Plague 7 Diplomatic Scandal Bring our your dead! The plague has stricken your people. On the score of 4 or 5 the Pan is reduced permanently [0 Village srarus. decimating the population and laying waste to your empire. However.it is lost to your empire! Also. The Temple is lost to your empire. Crops fail and grasslands wither. If you have Pons then roll a 06 for each.this penalty applies only for one game. On the score of 6 or more the settlernenris rebuilt and is returned to your empire once more. Until it is rebuilr you canner COUll[ rhar Town/Fortress as pan of your empire. toppling it to the ground. Because the [Own is in revolt you cannot count il as part of your empire when choosing your army. farms destroyed and the lands rurned into a barren wilderness . Prolonged drought has spoiled the harvest. your people really are revolting! The population of one of your Towns. If you have several Shrines determlnc which is destroyed at random. if you have several mines randomly determine which is no longer of any use. chieftain's wife. ext time you fight a campaign game you cannot count any of your Villages or Plains as part of your empire. If you have no Temple the earthquake destroys one of your shrines instead.the territory is lost to your empire.you can choose which. Roll a D6 for each Village in your empire. or Caesar's horse (as you fancy) has reduced your foreign policy to ratters and sent allied ambassadors scurrying borne. and the settlement is now in the hands of a rival dynasty. Carrie and horses starve or die of thirst. Towns. An earthquake destroys your Temple. Fortresses or Ports is up in arms. The corrupt officials must be rooted OUt and replaced by men who are honest and trustworthy. 4 Raiders Brigands. burying it beneath tons of ash or sending it crashtng into me sea. Corruption continues to drain your resources until you have fought one battle for each each Road. In addition you must abandon 03 territories of your choice. then you must abandon any remaining territories and roll three new ones: your people migrate far away from the plague and lake up residence in a new land. then you have e caped its effects. and your VIllages and Plains remain useless. POrts or Fortresses is destroyed.EVENTS (2D6) Events introduce the unexpected into your campaign! You cannot roll an event when generating your initial three territories. Randomly determine which 'lawn. hill tribesmen. On the roll of a 4 or more the territory is plundered. Each time you lose a game the revolt spreads (Q one further settlement. 6 Revolt Yes. On the score of a 6 it is destroyed completely and remains an abandoned ruin for the rest of rime. tamping out corruption takes time. and you cannot count it as part of your empire the next rime your army fights . roll for each Plains territory in your empire. 8 Drought 3 Pirates Pirates arrack sbtpping and raid your ports. Test after each game you play to sec whether the Town/Fortress is rebuilt. 2 or 3 the port's activities are temporarily disrupted. These territories are permanently lost. you do not have the territory affected. Roll a D6 and add + 1 if you WOn the game. On the roll of a 6 it is destroyed. or religious zealots (take your pick). . anarchists. Continue {O roll after each battle you fight until the drought is ended. To generate an event roll 206 and consult the chan below. whilst people flock from the countryside into the towns which have grain stores and deep wells. After your next battle roll a D6. Whilst corruption reigns you lose the points bonus of all Roads. 9 Mine Exhausted One of your mines is exhausted and must be abandoned. A scandalous incident involving a diplomat and the pharoah's daughter. or nomad raiders run rior through your empire. Villages are destroyed on the 06 roll of a 4 or more. Meanwhile it does not entitle you [Q include rhe usual characters or chariots in your army.

3-6 you reach the target. in a Last Stand the proportions are 2:1 so the attacker uses all his army and tbe defender uses half his army. 5 Bribery 3 Assassin A conspirator in the enemy's ranks attempts to slay an enemy character 011 the eve of battle. The number of terrttories held by each player indicates the slze and power of his ernpire. If you win the battle you are able to exploit this knowledge by annexing a valuable pan of his empire. TOU a D6 for each war machine in the enemy army . represenungencouncers along their common borders. At the start of hls first tu rn th e en e my rolls a D6 for each of his units. Each player uses hls entire army for the battle. 2 Steals Maps A treacherous servant in the enemy's camp steals maps belonging to the enemy general including plans of troop movements and supply lines. The assassin strikes 03 automatic hits against the victim at Strength D6. Should he acqutre a second it is ignored. lf the unit is sktrmtshers or allies it will do nothing on a roll of 1 or 2. Roll a dice before The first turn.ooly territories. and outright wars of conquest. Nominate one enemy unit as being under the command of the bribed officer. You have bribed an enemy officer who has a grudge against his General. Your spy network is uncovered and destroyed. Pick any enemy character as the target. invasions of his empire. Roll a 06 to see whether your assassin gets past his bodyguard: 1-2 the assassin is discovered and killed . If playing one of the battle scenarios which is not evenly matched to begin with. To represent this the enemy must change the territory he has staked to one of your own choosing. if wou nded he starts the game with the number of wounds inflicted by the assassin. A player can only ever have one spy network at a nrne. intrusions into their rival's territory. For example. A unit which rolls a 1 is suffering from the effect of poisoned water and cannot move or shoot ill the first tum. 6 Poisons Wells Your agents have poisoned the wells in the vicinity of the I" ne my cam p.no effect. Also. ff you have a spy network then you can use it to conduct acts of sneaky espionage before a battle. even though their points values may be different because the players hold different territories. . A saboteur in the enemy's camp hamstrings the horses and sets fire to the baggage.on a roll of () it is destroyed. A5 players win games they will gain more territories as described below. At the start of each turn the enemy must roll a D6. For each model removed in this way the enemy can add one infantry model of JlO greater value to an existing infantry regiment. Otherwise it is u naffec ted. but nor until he hali revealed deratls of your entire spy network. I Spy Uncovered 4 Sabotage Your spy is intercepted and slain. Roll a D6 for eachcavalry model or chariot in the enemy's army On a roll of 6 remove the model. Before the battle both players must choose one of their territories to stake. Note thar spies cannot be staked in this way . If slain the character is removed from [he enemy's army. it is suggested that each player's army be reduced in proportion to the points values normally allowed. If you wish you can determine [he effect of your spies at the stan of a game. FIGHTING CAMPAIGN BATTLES Players are free to fight each other as they wish. and 00 the roll of a 1 that unit will do nothing that turn unless it is alreadyengaged in hand-to-hand combat in which case it will fight normally. paying him to hold back from the fight.SPIES (D6) Spies represent agents and sympathisers in the enemy's ranks Of amongst his people. Lf the target is the General deducr 1 from your dice mil because he is better protected. Each player nominates the terrttory to be staked before the game begins.

After all. The remaining two territories are generated randomly as normal. RAIDS If a player has rwice as many territorlesas his opponent. A player who wins more territories than the pre-set maximum must abandon excess territory. or whatever your standard army size happens to be. BIBLICAL ARMIES Biblical armies are based around chariots. then his enemy can raid his sprawling empire. though he can choose which to keep and which to give up. and have . and it is never affected by events. A good way of ending a campaign is to allow the first two players who acquire twelve territories to play a 'deciding battle' IO establish the ultimate victor. so the enemy must be metwith troops drawn from the local area. you might allow each player to set up one item that represents his territory rather than rolling randomly. These represent the path of the raid as it penetrates. The Steppe territory allows the army to include an unlimited number of cavalry models. This unexpected raid gives no rlme for rhe defender to muster larger forces or to bring in special troops from elsewhere. If the winner takes his rival's territory the loser is assumed to have been forced back into the newly generated territory. the two staked by the players at the start of the game and the new random territory. In the event of a draw both sides retain their staked territories and the player with the least territory gains the new one. WINNING TERRITORY After the game is over an extra territory is generated from the chart.500 points. If both players have the same amount of territory roll a dice to decide who gets the new territory. Once the winner has selected his extra territory the loser takes the territory that is left.representing the vastness of the steppes from which the horsemen come and to where they can return at will. There are now three territories in the melting pot. In this way a winner can be declared. depending on how long you want the campaign to last for and how large you want the forces to grow. this is a matter of prefer-ence rather than a strict rule. A campaign can conceivably go on indeflnitely. Ir is entirely up La the players to set a limit on the number of territories an empire can include. However. then Caesar can cross swords with Alexander. and players can agree amongst themselves whether such characters will be allowed or not.<1 campaign. trough the enemy empire and retreats back into the raider's own land. and Saxons can fight Assyri ans . but often it is better to end the campaign once a player has established a dominant position. if one player stakes a Bridge and his enemy stakes a Forest. We have found that twelve rerritories is a reasonable maximum for an empire. and such armies would find life very restrictive if they were permitted to field only one unit of cavalry. regardless of which territories are used to choose the armies. a raid the player With the fewer territories is assumed to be mounting a surprise raid upon the more powerful player's empire. To represent this incursion both players use armies with a total points cost of 1. Imagine how the battle is a clash along the players' common border. when choosing armies both sides are permitted to use only three territories. To get round this such armies begin me game with one special Steppe territory plus two randomly generated territories. They cannot stake another territory.e strange and will certainly affect the progress of the army! In a rald both players must stake one of the three terrttories used to choose their armies. supplying men and horses for the invading armies. and Rameses can match his wits against Ghengis Khanl STEPPE NOMAD ARMIES Ancient steppe nom. if Hittites can meet Romans. all biblical armies start off with a fortress as part of their initial territories. ircannot be raided by underdogs as described later. This can be his rival's territory or the new one. It cannot be staked when the army fights a battle. 10 SPECIAL CHARACTERS In a campaign it is a good idea to put special characters aside and let your own characters develop as the campaign progresses. The player who wins the game retains his original territory and selects either of the two remaining territories to add to his own. through territories controlled by the rival armies. Ltis far too large and forbidding to be taken over by an enemy . . We suggest that players do not use the special characters described in the Ancient Armies supplements when playing . then the table might include a river and could reasonably be assumed to be heavily wooded. Also.<1 very difficult time acquiring them from the territory chart! To compensate for this.ad armies are based around cavalry. This helps to even up battles between players with disparately Sized empires. If using the Scenery Generator table to set up the table.BATTLEFIELD The territories staked by the players can be used as the basis for working out the terrain on the battlefield U players wish. The steppe represents the massive hinterland that lies behind the advancing horde. No extra points can be added to either side. The presence of Julius Caesar or Alexander the Great in your campaign may seem a lirtl. and it also makes it easier for a newcomer to join in the campaign later 00. If the winner takes the new territory then the battle has determined which side will possess this new land. and a fresh campaign can begin. THE PLAYER'S EMPIRE The player's territories encompass his growing empire. For example.

Perhaps he can remove territories to represent the unopposed rampaging and pillagingl The umpire can also draw the campaign to a close once the players start to lose interest or one player gains ascendancy. ndoubredly the initial re trictions will penalise some armies more than others. sharing the burden equally. An umpire can be one of the players. Lt isn't and is not supposed to be. Players who wanr to investigate are invited [0 submit their names to the umpire who then draws the players into random pairs. or he can be someone who devotes all his time to running 'the campaign and does not play himself.RUNNING A CAMPAIGN You don't need an umpire or controller to run a campaign as described. He lnvents some suitable rules for the territory. A good way of doing thi is [Q wait for two players [0 win a predetermined number of territories and then have them playa game to decide the overall winner. The e structured games can be set in specific places Invented by the umpire with special scenarios and rules concocted by him. pairing off winners until a Single . This does not matter too much. and an imaginative umpire can make a big contribution to a successful campaign. Finally. mocks the defeated. inevitably favour one side or another. and generally keep the campaign going. to encourage interest in the discovery. and lists the players and the amount of territory they now control. bear in mind the campaign is not wholly fair or perfectly balanced. territories are raked and won in the normal manner. The ultimate winner receives the special territory instead of randomly generating a new territory as usual. victor emerges. The newsletter can also be used to announce local events and new discoveries. ruined city. Victorious players can place notices of [heir success and ridicule their enemies. spread rumours. and invent special events. Far example. perhaps spreading different rumours to different players. keep the players informed about forthcoming battles. JUSt as in any other battles. The umpire can interpret the rules and improvise new ones. whilst a good campaign umpire will be able to even things out without displaying blatant favouritism! CAMPAIGN NEWSLETTER The most useful thing an umpire can do is publish a regular campaign newsletter which summarises the battles fought over the previous week. The opportunity to play God is probably as much fun as actually fighting the battles. representing the competing armies dashing as they head for their objective. POSITIVE UMPIRING An umpire can also ensure that players don't deliberately avoid fighting enemies they fear will beat them. the umpire might announce the discovery of an ancient shrine. but most players would agree things go better if a person is nominated as overall umpire. The random acquisitions of territory will. shipwreck or some other interesting place. Another option is for dtfferenr players to take it in turns to be umpire. and he can impose penalties on players who fail [Q show up for barnes.

If a unit has an elite bonus it can re-roll all of its 'to hit' dice rolls once per battle either for hand-to-hand combat or for shooting. 1. aud ) fieJem'eri tnat if 01·11' met1 ill their maal'usH !Jot within ( rfie circuit'!! tne wa{{s (mri (ou{a_finri tro way out tfiey l\lOIl{ri have veen overWHe(mea 6!J sheel' weight rj Ill1ellfY IlII1t1VCrJ. 'Gaul Crusher" and so on. To help keep track of whether or not you have used a bonus. VETERAN UNITS If a unit of troops ends the game in possession of an enemy standard then it has proven its mettle in the heat of battle. 0/ 0/ BUILDING STATUS A veteran unit can capture more standards and become even more elite by gaining more bonuses. LOSING STATUS Once a unit becomes veteran it keeps its status from game to game against all players in your group until it is broken as a result of defeat in hand-to-hand combat or until it is destroyed. you cannot re-roll a lousy re-roll no matter how much you might want to! The most bonuses a unit can earn is three.f ro tfie veat oj a11 ampaeslic 1·{i!Jtfim.di~aw H swordS. but it cannot ever be fielded at more than 24 models. 60tH S1riesJo U!J nt lia fIt(. tlie SHrena. and 6 scoring only 1 hit . ill fieariron!JJught ro the very wa{fs Ctesipko«.jo(rOwea fian! on tlieir (jeers. and the rules are ideally suited for incorporation into a campaign as described in me previous section. In the next' game the veteran cohorr can be fielded as a full 24 models once more.. All units start Out as basic trained recruits. flie front Iin« if PersiaHs gave way (mri retreated.5 tllld. wfio tOOK an active SHarI! ill thejghtillg aswdr as directing it. and Narses. s{owf'y atJiI'st atlri tnc1I at a . tficy wourri have 6roketl into tfie city a(orrg witli tfie routed enemy. or warriors of limited experience. PJter t1 y. The unit'S full strength is established at 24. Thus. Invent a name that will always act as a reminder of your opponent's humiliation! For example. This can be a very interesting process for a regular games group or club. [tlJaet. PigraHes. three or more 'to hit' re-roils per game. Meallwni(e !!-IUall. 3. a cohort of 24 models might earn its veteran bonus and survive the game with 14 models intact. They become veteran characters. fiari lIOt fAeir commr111acr' VictOl' restrained' tliem witfi fiallri si!J1'Iafs al1ri slioutS. note down that the unit has an elite bonus on your army roster and tick it off or draw a line through it when me bonus has been used. The demise of one of your old veteran units i always a sad occasion ~ aLthough nor necessarily for your opponent. and gradually progress to become hardened veterans. much better! Of course. 2.VETERANS The rule [hat follow allow victorious armies to earn bonuses in future games. was hustj in rehyorcifl9 weaKyoints ana 1i011l1riill!} out {a!1!Janfs. particularly when playing a new opponent who may nor be familiar with your battle winning 'hard-as-natls' veterans. However. To represent this the regiment is given an 'elite' bonus together with an appropriate ride 'Bashers from Britain'. ' courge of the Hittites'.. aHa arove tfie wno{e army witli its vest !]ulCrafs. The maximum size of any veteran unit is always tbe size it was fielded at when it earned its first veteran bonus. a veteran unit oj six Norman Knigbts roll 1. fiacking af tfieil' ( carves anri (jacks. tlie quicker 0111' ml!flJorceri rficl1Ise{ves inro die enemy's nne tlie (ess tHey were eryosed to the rianger from arrows. Players hould alway agree before the game whether veterans are being used. the Romans itl their gfealtli11g Cf·estea hc{mets arivanceri s{owry SWill!Jill!J rlicit' s{iie{rfs. 4. the unir must re-roll all of its dice (nor just [he failures) and must abide by the second result. wnirfing dourfs rfi~st GOveretf tlie wHofe Jiefri SfiOlHill!} tfieir tradlri0l1ar war-cries auri itlpireri v!J tHe Mare rj r-ru "pets.'eNmitlal'Y riiscl1ar!1c missires vy tfie skirmisher«.. 2. seasoned warrior. only one bonus can be used at a time. to -ria 11ri witH pea). wnw hotn ~irics wen! inJu{{ view eacH OCHer. the player takes the chance of I'Olling an even worse set of scores. and guards. and so must use bis bonus carefully.!pid yace. 5 and 6 which equals (for the sake of argument) 5 hits. =» 0/ VETERAN CHARACTERS Just as an army bas its battle-hardened units its characters can also gain renown in the eyes of their troops and develop beroic qualities. 4. This will allow the unit tWO. representing the very best of elite troops. In tHe emf. Eattre versus Persians at Ctespfion . or fewer if me player wishes. as !. CASUALTIES ON VETERANS Veteran units will suffer casualties during battle bur this does not reduce [heir status unless they are broken or wiped out for whatever reason. However. to the nCig{j6outill!J Our rrorys. He fijnuc!f Itari been Hit ill tnt: shouMer 6!J at! arrow. with their own bonu es as follows. ~--~--~~----~--~--------~~~.~~----~ 0/ So. It will then revert to normal status automatically. tnou!J{i GRewise exfrrHJsfcI{ 6!Jj!Jhlilz!J orz a 5cOI'diifl9y{afn Jrom riawl1 to riusk.Jairly miserable stuff from sucb a pouieefu! unit. 2. The player decides to use his elite bonus and re-rolls tbe dice scoring 2.

5 Famous General Your commander's skills are an inspiration to all. no actual dice are rolled and the player is not allowed to use the ability retrospectively once he has failed a test. The player must declare he is using this bonus before hts opponent rolls to establish wounds.r veteran characrer if he isn't named already. Roll this dice at the start of the game to find out what your range bonus is for the duration of the battle. . Antonius Ttrus. 6 Victorious Troops The army is fired up by its victories and inspired to greater success. and you might like to give him a suitable tide to commemorate his fear of arms. he recovers from his wounds. 2 Leader The character can add +] to his Leadership on one test made during the game. If not dead he is assumed to be too badly wounded to fight any more. The chart gives a victory bonus which applies the next time the army fights. of Bonus Gained Elite The character become a fearsome fighter and can re-roll all of his hand-to-hand combat or shooting 'to hit' dice once per game in me same way as a unit of veteran troop . Now auf!} Ilis lIItgemj's arm!} flad nor !}il1el! I!)J llieil' hel!rTJ to 2. The character is with a unit of troops when it captures an enemy standard.m. Once during the battle. King Slayer. 1. 3.his Strength characteristic for one turn during the game. . This special ability lasts until a combat within 12" of the General is lost. you can re-roll a failed test but not a failed re-roll. (oonl'!! tfie yoSSesSi0115 (It ! £f the cnel1l!J. 2 Leadership Bonus Next time the a. rne!J wOII{tf have ~ l "y. A character who goes on to achieve further feats of arms may add to his veteran status as described below. 4 Inspiring Standard ext time the army fights the Bartle Standard will permit Leadership re-rolls for Break tests over a larger area than normal. +1 to his Sl1'engtb once per battle. For each extra fear the character gains a further re-roll per battle up to a maximum of three times in the same way as veteran troops. This does not allow the unit to reroll a failed re-roll from another source such as the army's Battle Standard . Number Feats 1 VICTORIOUS GENERALS Generals gain veteran status in the same way as other characters.not afterwards.. For example. a character who has accomplished five beroicfeats can. but in addition they can earn an extra bonus when they win a battle. after which the bonus is lost. 50 tHey fio'/' dowll !]arments rff dothilT!] (tier{ toqethsr) to hoist tliem '9' into . The player must use this ability before rolling the test. You cannot use the bonus to boost a combat result once you've fought. tlie yeoyfc Nad shut die Ijates. if you prefer. This applies until the General takes a wound or is forced to flee.rIC tOWtl. LOSING VETERAN CHARACTERS If a character is killed in battle then he might not necessarily be dead. after which the troops' confidence is shaken and the bonus ceases to apply. is heaped with riches by a grateful ruler and retires to live out his remaining days in peace . 06 Result 1 Beloved Commarrder ext time the army fights all units within 12" of the General may add a further + 1 to their combat result. + 110 his Attacks once per battle. The player must declares he is using this ability before rolling the dice.rmy fights you can re-roU anyone failed Leadership based test. 5 Toogtwess The character can add + 1 to his Toughness characteristic for one turn during the game.. A heroic feat is one of the following. This bonus applies for the next battle against any player from your gaming group.ll'ua Me!!i. The character kills the enemy Battle Standard Bearer in hand-to-hand combat.{rfo t/lis rime . a General slays a General). Add D6" to the norma112" effect range. Once in the battle add + 1 to any combat result.'COImt 0/ tlie . 4 Strength The character can add + L to . FaT example. 3 Mad Dog General Next time the army fights. and + 1 to his Toughness once per battle. The character slays an enemy character of at least equal standing in a challenge (eg. re-roll his hits three times per battle. g r( 'Tliey_f(eti (uatf(ol1!j to Me!Jititio witli Jaw cfJear. he can add + 1 to his Leadership once per battle. Arrack 3 The character can add + 1 to his Attacks characteristic once during the game. or.Batt{e 0/M8!Jid'tfo You must name you. If you win a battle roll a D6 and consult the chan below.•. The veteran character must be retired from your army or deemed killed in battle and buried with all due honour. Tliey aGaPlI{oneti rlleir horses alld chariot» cf fjo{d alld si{ver". the General can add + 1 to his own 'to hit' roils in hand-to-hand combar. ' E9!JP11all aC. You must commit your bonus before fighti ng the combat . The player must declare he is using [his bonus before rolling the dice. one unit within 12" of the General will automatically pass a Leadership based test It Is required to take.A character automarlcally gains a bonus each time he accomplishes a heroic feat.re. The player must declare that he is u ing this bonus before rolling the dice.

Our intention is that prospective players will have gained some idea of what a u/argame is and how it is played. The follOWing pages have been included wil:h just Ibis aim in mind. - . we know as well as anyone that when it comes down to it the only way to really appreciate the spectacle of a uiargame 'Ill action is 10 see it. including some of tbe more detailed rules that allow armies to take part in enti-re campaigns of conquest: Along the u/ay we have discussed some ideas about painting and modelling.THE WAR BEGINS 1'bu have nClW read all the rules for the Ancient Battles game. which we hope will have been of interest to old bands and beginners alike. Hou/euer.

It features models from the collections of the authors.AT c CE! This section of Ancient Battles is devoted to the ancient army on the tabletop. circa AD 395 . supported A Phalanx by Thessalian of Greek Hoplites advances against Persian infantry. circa 450 Be A Pictish clan defend their brocb against a later Roman punitive expedition making a foray beyond Hadrian 's Wall. and Aly Morrison. On the following pages you'll find painting tips and hints on making scenery. cavalry guarding their flank against Median cavalry. as well as numerous examples of painted armies. as well as fellow garners Dave Gallagher. Nigel Stillman.

Auxiliaries and officers illustrated here. 98 Roman Legionafles were (jist/nguished by their large rec/angular shields that were designed lor fighting In a densely packed forma lion. RighI: This mounted while transverse Is clearly distinguished Centurion by his crest. Each legion had Its 0 wn unique shield deSign. professional and ruthlessly efficient. . The army is very well portrayed by the Legionaries. Auxiliaries with each cohort distinguished by a different colour and design. He wears a scarlet cloak.EARLY IMPERIAL ROMANS T he Roman army of the early Empire around the 1st and 2nd Centuries AD was well trained. carried oval shields Above: Roman officers such as this Tribune commanded a legion. muscfed cuirass and while linen pterges. Left. Roman Tribune Above: Roman units were identified mainly by their shields.

Such a force might have been made up of sections drawn from severa I COhorts and legions.Above: One way of making cavalry officers stena out is to give them while or black horses. Above right: Roman Auxiliary cavalry aspired 10 look dashing. Above: Roman Auxiliary archers. A Century of 80 men was equipped one of these bolt throwers. bul these are recruited from a western province Of have adopted breeches for service In a cold climate. Troopers mighl have wom sI7vered brass helmets with tee tnec ctes ts and bronze scale armour. with This force could represent a small Roman task force or Vexillation. Left: A Legionary ballista and crew. such as the Hamians from Syria might wear eastern long robes. instead of Ihe stands rd issue. Such forces often formed th e garrisons of trontier torts 99 . These troooets have particularly striking shields.

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