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Motherboard Parts peripherals and connectors explained

Motherboard Parts peripherals and connectors explained

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Motherboard Parts Explained!

This motherboard parts introduction explains the main goal of your motherboard in your computer. The most important parts are explained with only a brief introduction to the technologies behind them not to bore the newcomer who may be confused. For those who are seeking more advanced information you will find links throughout the content and at the bottom as how to install a motherboard.

What Is The Motherboard Main Goal?

The main goal is to connect all the hardware together like hard drives, memory modules, CPU, etc... A computer mother board is made of several parts, and each one has a hardware that can be connected to it. On the right, the image is showing a modern motherboard with all its parts. If you click on the link under the image, you will find a larger image with the motherboard parts name. Learning about your motherboard parts help to understand how upgrade able it is.

The Processor Socket
Sockets are the home for your Central Processor Unit (CPU). Several types of socket exist, but only 2 of them are really used, and both of them are used by Intel and AMD. The Pin Grid Array (PGA) and the Land Grid Array (LGA).

CPU Socket

With the type PGA, the CPU will have pins to fit in the socket holes, but with the type LGA, the CPU will not have such pins and will just sit on the socket. To know the form of CPU your motherboard can use and the range of powers and FSBs, look in your motherboard's book. The book that comes with your motherboard has a chart about it in the socket or CPU chapter. That information will give you an idea to how far you can upgrade your CPU. • • CPU Socket Specifications How to install cpu step by step

Memory Slots
Memory slots also call memory banks are for Random Access Memory modules (RAM). Each memory bank can receives a RAM module designed for a specific pc mother board. Ranging from 2 to 4 banks, you will encounter single and dual-channel technologies.

Memory Banks

With single-channel, you can use 1, 2 or 3 Ram modules, and it should work perfectly. On the other hand, with dual-channel technology, if you fill only 1 bank, you will lose some strength from your module. To get the most of it, you need to fill 2 banks with the same module types, from the same manufacturer with exactly the same memory amounts.

If you want 1GB of memory, you need to use 2 512MB modules from the same manufacturer with the same technology type. This way, motherboards use the modules strength to its full capacity. Otherwise it may not work at all. Like the socket, to find out the type, the manufacturer and the total MB or GB quantity you can use, take a look in your motherboard's book. You should be able to find everything you need. • • Introduction to Desktop Computer Memory How to Install Computer Memory step by step

Main Power Connector And The 4 Pins Connector
The main power connector is uses to get the electric energy from the power supply which the motherboard require to function properly.

24 Pins Main Power Connector

There are 2 main power connector types for those motherboard parts. The 20 pins + 4 pins (2 separate connectors on the same motherboard), and the 24 pins. Not all power supplies have the 2 types, but it is possible to work around the problem if you run into an incompatibility situation. Which will be discussed in a future power supply guide about how to install it and where to plug the connectors. • Introduction to Computer Power Supplies

IDE, ATA And S-ATA Interface Connectors
Many interface standards have been created throughout the years, maybe too many for discussing about all of them. I will then talk about the ATA and the S-ATA only as the IDE is the same thing as the ATA, only the name has changed. Also I will be brief because it is more a hard drive topic than anything else.

IDE/ATA And SATA Interface

More motherboard content will be written on it. Floppy Drive Connector Floppy Drive Connector Plug your "3. graphic cards. it is highly boosting your graphics and video performances. AGP And PCIe 32 bit slots Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) are used to install sound cards. x4 or x8 technologies. 32 bit PCI Slots. . PCIe is a AGP standard at x16 and it is the #1 choice for gaming machines right now.5" floppy drive there. It is faster than the ATA and only 1 device can be attached to it. AGP or PCIe Ports The motherboard parts Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and PCI Epress (PCIe) focus on graphic cards only. Not really used now. AGP standards use x2. PCIe standard is even better than AGP standard. You can attach 2 drives on the same ribbon.The Advance Technology Attachment (ATA) interface is used to connect hard drives and optic drives. they are going to disappear completely very soon. The wire is thinner than his predecessor and surely help at the cooling process inside the computer case. In Comparison with his old brother PCI. Ethernet cards and modems. especially for graphic cards. it is day and night. 1 master and the other slave. and mostly the only one used right now. AGP 8 being the best. I cover the topic in more details in the What Is SATA Interface guide. and it supports almost all modern hard drives storage capacities. PCI. Some like to say. Modern computer mother boards have the new interface called Serial Advance Technology Attachment (S-ATA).

But it is just my 2 cents. AMD and Intel. Turion 64 with Dual-Core Dual Core 2 with Dual Core . SSE3 Pentium 4. CPU comes in 2 brands. Pentium D with Hyper-Threading Pentium M with Low Power Dual with Dual-Core Athlon 64. and processes data. then writes back the result. The CPU executes and interprets programs. with their own features. This gives you the big picture. AMD Processor Like a calculator It reads the information you give. only a personnel observation. nothing precise here. is the component installed in your motherboard socket. Intel tend to be more stable and AMD faster for games.Back Panel Connectors Back Panel Connectors What Is a CPU And What Your Computer CPU Does? Central Processing Unit. executes the equation. Computer CPU. I think. interprets it. Athlon XP with SSE2. Here some CPUs with their features from AMD and Intel: • • • • • • 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 32-bit 64-bit 64-bit AMD Intel Intel Intel AMD Intel Athlon. Both build equally good CPUs.

The Land Grid Array (LGA). As you can imagine.770. CPU's fabricants are working on the CPU core to enhance the speed. The chipset (northbridge and southbridge) allow the communication among all buses (memory. and each one has his reason to be that I discuss in more details in the CPU socket type page. waiting for the information to come. the socket grid has holes to receive the CPU pins. processing simple data and so on. computers had clock frequencies as low as 4. PCIe). is like putting your CPU on standby. But today's programs demand too much power from the CPU to be able to execute fast enough. Imagine the FSB as a booster for the CPU for managing programs faster. CPU Overclocking. The FSB Architecture And Motherboard Chipset The Front Side Bus (FSB). it is the opposite of the PGA form. Before the FSB architecture. As they are stuck with a frequency cap. Good Or Bad? . I guess it is due of circuits overheating too much. The PGA CPU has pins on its front to be fixed in the motherboard socket. In some way. is the data bus between the CPU and the motherboard's northbridge chip.For those who are seeking more advanced information you will find links throughout the content and at the bottom page as how to install CPU. faster the CPU can execute. CPUs were just fine.6 GHz start to be a hard task.000 cycles/second). but nowdays the standard is around 3 GHz (three billion cycles/second). For the introduction's purpose I will only give a general idea of the 2 most used forms as the LGA and PGA. Having a low FSB frequency. In the old days. The LGA CPU does not have pins like the PGA and it is landed on a socket grid that contains pins. Higher is the FSB. building CPUs with a clock rate frequency over 3.77 MHz (4. AGP. PCI. For now on. What Is The Computer CPU Speed And/Or CPU Clock Rate? The CPU speed is the clock rate frequency in hertz ( circles per second) at which the CPU executes standard operations like doing equations. Computer CPU Forms CPUs come in several forms. The Pin Grid Array (PGA).

piece of data stored in the memory are accessed in any orders. the CPU may die under a week. double-data-rate 3 synchronous dynamic random access memory . synchronous dynamic random access memory DDR SDRAM. In other words.It is possible to boost your CPU's overall performances by setting the clock multiplier and FSB higher than it has been built for. Unless you plan to buy a new CPU. RAM modules do not need physical reading heads to reach pieces of data. like those on the image. double-data-rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access memory DDR3 SDRAM. In the other hand. premature failures or the CPU that overheats or die sooner than it should. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memory R DRAM. I strongly disapprove the idea of overclocking. do not overclock. allow stored data to be accessed randomly. this is achievable. rambus dynamic random access memory DDR2 SDRAM. It is accessed in the best order possible according to the system requirement. instead they are transfered from integrated circuits. Why overclocking? Overclocking can be interesting if you feel your computer is a bit slow. Why taking risks if at the origin the CPU has been build for a certain power and not higher. regular errors from the operating system. In some case with a very high overcloking. RAM Modules Unlike disk drives. What Are Desktop Computer Memory Modules? The desktop computer memory modules. overcloking may cause erratic behavior such as. Many RAM types exist as: • • • • • SDRAM. Random Access Memory (RAM). It may help the computer performances with a small overclocking. From the motherboard's bios or from a software.

and demand less power.066 Billion 1. Standards SDRAM DDR-200 DDR-266 DDR-333 DDR-400 DDR2-400 DDR2-533 DDR2-667 DDR2-800 DDR3-800 DDR3-1066 DDR3-1333 DDR3-1600 Memory Clock 100 MHz 100 MHz 133 MHz 166 MHz 200 MHz 100 MHz 133 MHz 166 MHz 200 MHz 100 MHz 133 MHz 166 MHz 200 MHz Data Transfer/s 100 million 200 Million 266 Million 333 Million 400 Million 400 Million 533 Million 667 Million 800 Million 800 Million 1. If you do the math without using the last 2 digits of the front side bus clock rate. If the memory does not meet the CPU requirement. your computer will be slowed in comparison to its full capacity. you can use these general rules as reference. 1 GB should be more then enough Pentium dual-core 2 or AM2 for every day use.333 Billion 1. For those who are seeking more advanced information you will find links throughout the content and at the bottom page as how to install computer memory. 1 x 200.6 Billion Module Names PC-100 PC-1600 PC-2100 PC-2700 PC-3200 PC2-3200 PC2-4200 PC2-5300 PC2-6400 PC3-6400 PC3-8500 PC3-10600 PC3-12800 General Rules For Desktop Computer Memory Needs. What Is The Computer RAM Memory Bandwidth? The bandwidth is the transfer rate of the chips in conjunction of the system's front side bus. you get a bandwidth of 200 MHz. and the front side bus of your system is at 100 MHz. 512 MB should work just fine Pentium 4 or AMD for gaming. Depending your needs. The PC-1600 has a memory clock of 100 MHz. As example. • • • Pentium 4 or AMD for every day use. The DDR3 is mainly used on graphic cards so far. it will help you to familiarize with the module names and what they are standing for. Your CPU needs a certain amount of memory to function at full capacity. 1 GB is more then enough . In that case x2 as DDR double the clock rate. according to a 100 MHz front side bus. let say your computer ram memory is from PC-1600 modules.The DDR and DDR2 are largely used now as they are faster. With a front side bus of 300 MHz it would be 600 MHz. Take a look at the table below.

ATA Hard Drive And SATA Hard Drive Interfaces . The data are read by the RAM memory then managed by the hardware accessing these data like the CPU. 1 GB as minimum. In few words. Hard drives serve as data storage holding the operating system. What Your Computer Hard Drive Is All About? Hard disk drives are comparable in appearance to the disc jockey's turntables. but it will not be significant. 2 GB for heavy gaming Why Not Use More Computer Memory Than The CPU Needs? Using more memory than needed should up the over all speed of your computer. Do you see the obvious similarity? They usually are Attached to the ATA bus or SATA bus on the motherboard unless it is an external device.• Pentium dual-core 2 or AM2 for gaming. there is a reading head and a turning platter containing the data to be read. more memory does not justify the money spent for it. As a computer hard drive. softwares and any other data you may put in. Inside Hard Drive Take a look at the image on the right. For those who are seeking more advanced information you will find links throughout the content and at the bottom page as how to install hard drives. hard drives can be seen as a gigantic file cabinet reached by the rest of your computer hardware. I think.

The actual memory cache found on hard drives go up to 8 MB for a regular hard drive and up to 16 MB for a SCSI hard drive. Not to forget the most demanding of all. It needs so much storage space that a 200 GB hard drive is very common if not the standard in today's computers. You will also find a link to a detailed page about ATA cables that may help you to better understand the ATA evolution. Nowadays. When Pentium I started. it becomes obvious that the Serial ATA is the way to go right now. It is faster and better suited for today's needs. Terabytes. is what we call the memory cache. Here is the link for computer cables used to mount a computer. The memory cache is a temporary area where stored data are frequently accessed. hard drives to an around 10 GB became useable. The IDE has a low supported capacity. the IDE or EIDE interface are now called ATA and can use hard drives storage capacity as high as 200 GB and higher. Today hard drives hit the incredible mark of 1 TB. hard drives storage capacity was as low as 100 MB. When the EIDE hard drive interface saw the market. Data Storage Capacity Computer hard drives storage capacity has changed radically. . RPM And Memory Cache The hard drive's Revolutions Per Minute (RPM) determine the platter's rotating speed. game softwares and movie files. Hard drives with more than 500 MB could not be used with this interface. better the performances will be. With a thinner cable that permits a better cooling process plus the interface enhancement. is a standard interface for hard drives and optic drives (CD and DVD drives). (1024 GB). also known by the IDE abbreviation. faster the hard drive platter rotates. The actual speeds found on hard drives are 5400. The need for such storage capacity has been created by the more demanding softwares and operating systems like Windows XP and Windows Vista. It is faster to use memory cache than redoing the whole process again and again when a piece of data is frequently used. Another way hard drives are using to speed up the transfer rate. Computer Hard Drive Speed. The Serial ATA is the successor of the ATA interface. This enormous change in storage capacity is due to the fast evolution of computer technologies and the greatest change in hard drives storage capacity is due to the platters number and the platters density on a single drive. Of course. 7200 and 10000 RPM.The Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA).

To find out. The hardware inside your computer case require a certain amount of power. . In this guide I will explain to what hardware the connectors are plugged or where on the motherboard and an easy way for identifying good and bad power supplies. Why would you pay more when you do not need it. After a while the power supply will die caused by an overheating and in the process might damage the hardware. you need to understand how the energy is distributed throughout the hardware. It is ranging from 4W to around 80W for a single piece. This is the kind of question that comes up all the time. If you have 200W as requirement then a 300 Watt power supply is enough. Peoples tend to not understand how computer power supplies work.How Computer Power Supplies Work? Antec Power Supply Computer power supplies installed inside your computer case are the energy source for your computer hardware. Does 300 Watt Power Supplies Give Enough Power Or Should You Go With 400 Watt Power Supplies Or Even Higher? Did You Know? You could save money just by knowing how much power your computer require. What will happen if you have 300 Watt as requirement? Computer Power Supplies are not built to work at full capacity. Of course without the power supply your computer is plain dead.

the connector is small and very fragile. The fan connector is used for plugging the back/front wall or side panel case fans. Power Supply Connectors. I recommend caution when working with small connectors like this. Not all motherboards require the use of connector with 4 pins . you do not need to use all connectors anyway. Today's computers require more and more powers. be careful when working with them. . The Serial ATA connector is used for hard disk drives. Light power supplies mean they have few components inside.I recommand to have at least 75W over your computer requirements. It was the only connector for mass storage devices before the SATA. is to put the unit in your hand and to feel its weight. Where To Plug Them? Main power connectors are plugged to the motherboard. Fast And Easy Way To Identify The Best Power Supply Unit A nice little tip you can use to figure out if a power supply is good or not. That way your power supply will live older and your hardware will always have enough power. As fans do not require a lot of energy. The peripheral connector with 4 pins is used for optic drives as hard drives. Here too. do not bother. if it's the case. The connector with 20 pins may be used on ATX motherboards and the connector with 4 pins is used for extra power for CPUs and graphic cards. If your power supply does not have the required components to meet today's computers. and that is no good. your computer parts may die faster. The small connector with 4 pins is used for floppy drives. Having that connector on your power supply is a good thing as this technology speed up drives data transfer.

ATI Readeon Graphic Card Every pixels data at your monitor screen are managed by the card. Of course there is more than this to know about good power supplies. Watching TV at your monitor screen becomes possible with such connectors. a CPU. Should you buy a card or use the integrated controller chip that comes with your motherboard? It all depends of your needs.. a fan or a cooling system and connectors to plug other devices. 3D animations etc. What Is Your Graphic Card All About? The main purpose of your graphic card is to manage the data from images and videos displayed by your monitor screen. sometimes used as a display adapter or as a 3D accelerator for video games. Like a motherboard it has memories. Some cards even come with a TV tuner to plug your home TV. cards are installed in accelerated graphic buses like the PCIexpress and Cards commonly come with much more features than an integrated chip.Heavier power supplies have more components than lighter one. I like to imagine the card as a mini-motherboard focused at graphics only. even video capture becomes possible with the right connector. but without any knowledge this is the best tip I can give you. Today's motherboards have an integrated graphic chip powerful enough to satisfy requirements for an everyday use. But if you are working with 3D graphics or 3D animations or playing games. . a card will be better for meeting your acceleration requirements. In comparison with the integrated graphic controller chip on a motherboard. so better suited for today's computers..

Graphics Double Data Rate 4 SVideo. Double Data Rate DDR2 standard. It can simultaneously be written and read. SVGA and DVI Connector Graphic Card Connectors . 3D graphics rendering need floating point calculations and GPUs are just what it need for the job. If cards would not have such video RAM. today's cards have their own processor called Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Here the RAM standards used for cards from the oldest to the newest. the system would use the motherboard RAM to do the dirty works. It gives the advantage of calculating and send screen images to the monitor and start reading new images at the same time without bumping. It is the incorporated microchips with their mathematical operations that render possible graphics rendering and it is the efficiency of the microchips that will determine the graphic acceleration. The main feature of the video RAM is the capacity of dual-porting.Video Card GPU Like motherboards. Video RAM Video RAM (VRAM) is at the graphic card as RAM is at the motherboard. Graphics Double Data Rate 3 GDR4 standard. • • • • DDR standard. The core clock on a GPU is around 600 MHz and surely higher on the newest cards. Double Data Rate 2 GDR3 standard.

Imagine a lake with a castle close by. The Digital Visual Interface (DVI). makes your graphics look smoother. is used for digital devices like a projector. is a small connector with 15 pins holes to plug your computer monitor. And this is only a tinny part of what shader can do in a 3D environment. Otherwise when more and more textures appear. DVD player etc. Texture Filtering Texture filtering is a way to blend pixel textures together by slicing them. How a CD DVD Drive Works? What is its use? . Separate Video (SVideo). I doubt you can. Video Card Technologies Modern cards are designed with a ton of features to help accelerate and sharpen 3D graphics. Try to make a perfect circle with squares. Without the AA graphics look like they have been made from squares. It is the standard connector used for all monitors. Anti-Aliasing Anti-aliasing (AA).Super Video Graphics Array (SVGA). more realistic with texture filtering. it looks somewhat blurry. is the round connector used to connect your TV. object textures look smoother. As LCD monitors are digital display units. I am giving only a brief introduction because I want to keep the more sophisticated details for a future page about this topic. the castle reflection in the water is the kind of visual effect the shader technology can do. In a 3D environment. The shader make 3D effects in such ways that sometime I almost believe it is real. game console. Shader Model Shader is the one I prefer. I suggest using the DVI standard because it is design to enhance digital display. So here it is for the most important features to give you an idea about what modern cards are able to do in a 3D environment. the new LCD monitors come with the DVI connector.

Nowdays they are sold for the same price. less discs are damaged when doing multi-sessions due to a better buffer under-run. .382 GiB). If you wonder if you can still use your CDs. DVD-R has a storing capacity of 4. But it uses the same cables as hard drives to connect to the motherboard. DVD media The DVD+R has a better error management giving more accurate burning. Dual Layer also exists in this format with a capacity of 8.71 GB (4.and + is an optic disc format or media format if you prefer. create your own CD DVD movies that can be used on your TV CD DVD player. Also. It uses photo diodes to detect reflecting lights on optic discs and uses a laser to read or write data. What Are The DVD Media DVD-R And DVD+R? DVD .54 GB. so no need for a CD drive. Being the first one to hit the market. do system backups or transferring data from one computer to another. DVD+-R/RW drive DVD burner drives can be use to listen your music CDs like a CD player. DVD-R format were a bit cheaper than DVD+R at start.A CD DVD drive does not work like hard disk drives. The DL format must be fliped to use the 2 sides of the disc. know that DVD drives are backward compatible with CD media. As you can see. computer DVD drives can become very useful for many reasons.

then go for the DVD±R. Suggestion: If you do not have a DVD burner drive yet.It was tricky to determine which one was really better. the refreshing rate and how the image appears at the screen and more. • • • R stands for read and write RW stands for read. Media Types And Formats CD DVD media can be read. This way you have the best of both worlds and you do not spend more money than necessary. Both have different aspects and technologies. Until now. and there are 2 types of those monitors used for computers. Look around and try to find the format you will need the most. if you wanted your CDs or DVDs able to work in your CD player or your TV DVD player using different formats. The DVD+R offers better accuracy but the DVD-R was less expensive. Media---> CD-R CD-RW DVD-R DVD+R DVD-RW DVD+RW DVD±R DL DVD ROM Read Read Read Read Read Read Read DVD-R Write Write Write Read Read Read Read DVD-RW Write Write Write Read Write Read Read DVD+R Write Write Read Write Read Read Read DVD+RW Write Write Read Write Read Write Read DVD±RW Wrtie Write Write Write Write Write Read DVD±RW DL Write Write Write Write Write Write Write What Is A Computer Monitor And How It Works? In this introduction I will explain how a computer monitor works and I will provide a general description of the aspects such as: the viewing area. especially the LCD over the CRT as you will see along this page . Then buy more CD/DVD format than the other. Monitors are display units displaying images produced by the computer. I made a table to illustrate drives compatibility among media and their formats. meaning they can be erased and burned again. write and rewrite DL stands for dual layer Compare drives read and write compatibility with CD and DVD media. 1 for the +R format and 1 for the -R format. Look at your friend's computer or TV DVD machines you know you will share CD/DVD media with. write and rewrite by your CD DVD drive. you needed to buy 2 burning devices. the CRT and LCD one.

Dot Pitch Or Pixel Pitch Dot Pitch . How They Work? CRT Monitor The CRT monitor (Cathode Ray Tube) uses an electron gun that interacts with a RGB fluorescent screen. thus creating the colors. LCD Monitor The LCD monitor (Liquid Crystal Display) uses a crystal liquid matrix between 2 opposite polarizing filter sheets letting or not the light pass. pixels on LCD are formed using the RGB but made of crystal molecules instead of phosphors. pixel by pixel. The gun produces a beam when it hits the screen. Regardless the image phosphors will light up when hit by the gun producing colors. you can see the screen's pixels are formed by 3 colored phosphors. Thus creating the image. If you look at the image on the right.Computer Monitor Screens. excites the fluorescent screen producing images. As the CRT.

9" to 1.2" depending the monitor model or brand. Computer Monitor Size And Aspect Ratio CRT And LCD Viewable Area The CRT and the LCD monitor case are built differently. 16:9. . meaning the best quality on screen will come from a single resolution perfectly fitted for that monitor. A maximum resolution of 1280x1024 means.The dot pitch also called pixel pitch is the distance in millimeters between 2 pixels. the case covers a part of the screen reducing the visible area by 0. The pitch is what will represent the quality detail of the image on the screen. The monitor can adjust the electron beam to display lower resolution standards than the maximum resolution possible. CRT monitors are known for their multisync technology. not from the case edge. On widescreen monitors the aspect ratio would usually be 16:9. the monitor will display 1280 pixels width by 1024 pixels height. you will obviously get a sharper image. The diagonal length will be the monitor area size as the image shows above. If you have 100 pixels by inches instead of 50. When the monitor extrapolates it tries to blend pixels together to form the image and images made from extrapolation look fuzzy. LCD monitors are built with native resolutions. sharper the image is at the screen. To determine the monitor size. From one model to another the aspect ratio can be 4:3. Each RGB triad forms 1 pixel and the distance between 2 pixels is the dot pitch. calculate the diagonal length from the upper right to the bottom left corner of the screen starting from the inside. thus enabling a full view able area. On the image you have an example of how pixels are disposed on a screen. Computer Monitor Resolutions The resolution is the term uses to explain the number of rows and columns a monitor can display in pixels at the screen. On LCD. 16:10 or 15:9. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the width to the height of the display screen like regular TVs being 4:3. Setting the monitor to a lower resolution cause the visible area to be reduced or extrapolated. On CRT. the case does not cover. Higher the resolution.

wireless. etc. trackball. Computer Monitor Connectors All computer monitors use traditional analog VGA connector. USB or not. Higher the refresh rate. small or large.Here a Chart for CRT and LCD monitors standards. If a monitor is listed at 1024x768 with a refreshing rate of 75HZ.. eyes get fatigue when a refreshing rate is low. longer it takes to the eye to get fatigue. size and resolutions capacity. it means it is the best resolution to use to get the highest refreshing rate possible for that monitor. I strongly suggest using the DVI if your video card and your monitor supports it. It gives a better experience when watching videos or movies. It is the standard found on every video card. . right hand. Left hand. The DVI is a digital interface that enhances the overall quality of the image by making it look brighter and cleaner. Computer Mouse Review There is a computer mouse for every need. It is better for the eyes to have at least a refreshing rate of 75HZ+ if you intend to stay long period of times at the computer.. with wheel. Something important to understand about refresh rate is the eye fatigue over time in front of the screen. laser. Standard SVGA XGA SXGA SXGA+ UXGA WXGA (Widescreen) WXGA+ (Widescreen) WSXGA+ (Widescreen) WUXGA (widescreen) Resolution 800x600 1024x768 1280x1024 1400x1050 1600x1200 1280x800 1440x900 1680x1050 1920x1200 Size 15" 15"-17" 17"-19" 21" 19"-21" 17" 19" 20" 24" CRT YES YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO LCD YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES YES Computer Monitor Refresh Rate And Eye Fatigue The refresh rate is the number of times per second the monitor scans the entire screen at a given resolution. After a short period of time. Yes or no in CRT and LCD column means a monitor model exist or not in that category. LCD monitors may have a DVI connector besides the VGA one.

There might be a mouse you never saw before or even know it exists and could be just what you was looking for. Not very sophisticated.When the mouse is moved. It is the first mouse ever created for desktop computer. It had 2 or 3 buttons. the dust on the ball is transfered in part to the rotating rods. As you can see on the image. especially when the mouse wheel has been introduced to ease scrolling long pages of text. The end of the rolling ball stuck by the dust. It is easy to get lost when facing so many choices. When there is too much accumulation. the ball does not roll anymore being stuck by the dust on the rods.A very vast choice for every mouse types are found in computer stores. I created this review so peoples can have a better idea of all kinds of mice found on the market. Cons: The ball gets easily dirty making the mouse to slide instead of rolling. Pros:The only good aspect of this old mouse was the introduction of the mouse wheel. but it was effective. The ball was rolling on 2 to 3 rotating rods by moving the mouse naturally on the desk or a mouse pad. Rollerball Mouse Rollerball Mouse The rollerball mouse is defined by its rolling ball stuck inside by the closing ring. Optical Computer Mouse and Laser Computer Mouse Optical And Laser Mouse A new age began with the introduction of optical mice. the ball has been replaced by a LED. Throughout the page you will find pictures of mice with a general description and pro and cons if any. Instead of .

The light coming out the eye. Mouse pads are no more needed if the surface used is of light color. Better accuracy on laser mouse. In general the mouse requires 2 batteries easy to change by removing a small plate. the laser mouse came out offering better accuracy. The sign acknowledges the different images and interprets them by moving the cursor on the screen. Trackball Mouse Trackball Mouse .being rolled. then an image is captured of a small camera inside the mouse and analyzed by a numerical sign. no more wires in the way. thus creating greater accuracy. Few years later. That mouse uses radio frequency to communicate from the transmitter inside the mouse to a receiver installed on the computer. The laser mouse can do a better image with more details. Wireless Computer Mouse Also Called Cordless Mouse Wireless Mouse Finally. like the one found on remote controls. bounce on the surface used. Pros: Great accuracy making now the joy of every gamers and the end of rollerball mice. Cons: A small lag can be perceived while playing games and it can become frustrating when you have to change the batteries if you do not have any left. Pros: No more worries about the wire being in the way. The signal passes through objects making the choice by excellence for laptop and notebook lovers. the mouse is slid and can be used on almost any surfaces with great ease.

Trackball mice are stationary and the cursor is moved by manipulating the ball with the hand. We have to look at 3 things when we try to manage the computer heat: • • The area where is the computer The space inside the case . Cons: It takes some times to get used of it. Buttons are placed everywhere at the most convenient spots to ensure speed in the action. extremely smooth. perfectly accurate and with a greatly enhanced laser technology. but after a while. Do You Know When Desktop Computer Cases Overheat? Most peoples do not know when desktop computer cases have a normal temperature or are overheating. Everything has been thought for the best gaming experience possible. It's very easy to find out and you do not need a specialist for it. Usually mice like these have more than 2 buttons creating interesting new possibilities not seen before. the accuracy come with ease. Instead of being under the mouse. the ball is on the top. offered from the bi-directional USB wire. Comfortable textures. Click able mouse wheel. Pros: Ideal for small desks and interesting possibilities if more than 2 buttons. It takes some times to get used of these mice. Gamer Mouse G5 Gamer Mouse Gamer mice are the cream of the creams. Absolutely lag free with the very high reports/sec.Interesting idea for overcoming the dust problem. Weight adjustability also come in handy to get the perfect feelings while moving the mouse. these mice have every features you ever wished.

The fan will by no means pass through the heat fast enough to keep the computer case at a normal temperature. Imagine having a "3. all this produce some heat too.5" floppy drive in middle of them. are you? The only good point I can give to this old case. This is an old mini tower ATX. I will explain what a bad or good computer case may look like. ATX computer cases like this are very small and the room between the DVD cage on top and the hard drive cage on the bottom is too small. I would forget about the "3. your parts will fall apart. The Good Guys Always Win. motherboard. Observe the image on the right. it is the fan fixed to the back. graphic card. The Bad Guys Eat The Dust One Day Or An Other.5" floppy drive for getting a minimum of rooms. But even with the fan.• The fans inside the case With few images. The conclusion is! The parts of your computer suffer the most from the heat. No Space To Cool Down The DVD and the hard drive drive their heats on each other. the case will likely overheat. it is because I would build an old computer like a Pentium 2. And there is also the processor. Over time if the case is not adequate. . I think you got the big picture. The reason why I would buy such a case.

I know it sounds a bit lazy. but I recommend using desktop computer cases with an extra fan onto the left panel or onto the back of the case like the one on the image. 1 good fan should be enough. Personally I do not like 2 fans. Most cases have the USB connectors on the back panel. Enough Space To Cool Down In the hard drive cage there is enough rooms to mount 3 hard drives and 1 "3. computer cases come with USB connectors. regular computer cases with 2 fans are noisy.On this black desktop computer case image you see the difference of rooms in contrast of the other. Of course 2 fans is a good thing. Why I Like Desktop Computer Cases USB Front Panel Connectors? Nowadays. In most cases. By keeping things in a realistic way like mounting 1 hard drive and 1 optic drive instead of loading it to its full capacity. And 3 DVD drives into the other. but not a requirement. Of course I am not talking about top notch tech here and in general. you are running into problems. When you do not have an easy access to your back panel connectors. Fans on the back indeed help a lot on the cooling process. If you are not feeling safe with 1 fan. Most likely USB 2 technology. By loading that much drives. Where Is The Best Spot To Place Your Computer Desktop Case? . It is a matter of noises. it comes in handy to have the connectors on the front. you are keeping the computer case in good shape and avoid the heat problem. then go for 1 more. Of course it's wrong to do so. but some have USB connectors on the front too and this is just lovely.5" floppy drive. you will be happy to have it if you use USB devices on a daily basis. but after a while.

3. I am pretty sure.Your computer needs to breathe somewhat. no improvement at all. the ribbon cable has never changed. The standard drive ribbon has been the first to hit the market along with the floppy drive ribbon. Nowdays. they started to call the ribbon EIDE then ATA then PATA. Originally. When manufacturers started to enhance the technology. Use your judgment. So lets talk about what has been improved and what has changed something. Floppy Drive. the ribbon is called ATA or PATA. Here the link for ATA cables I explain in details. What Are The Computer Cables? In this introduction page I am talking about computer cables used to mount a computer as drive's cables and the USB cable to plug all your accessories and peripherals. it has the same configuration as the standard drive ribbon above except that it does not fit in an ATA bus on the motherboard. There are more cables used to mount a computer like the power cord of your computer case. . CD DVD Drive and Hard Drive Cables (flat ribbon cable) There are 3 types of drives cables. but those cables did not changed throughout the years. The ribbon cables are the only one that received support improvements over the years improving data storage and data's transfer rates for newer hard drives.5' floppy drives as we know them today. The ribbon for hard and optic drives. the inverted ways ribbon for floppy drives and the Serial ATA cable for hard drives. The ambient air must be able to go through the computer case. you will find the best spot. Ribbon Cable For HDD and Optic Drives The floppy drive ribbon is easily recognized by its inverted ways. ribbon cables were called IDE. Beside its inverted ways. Do not station the computer somewhere it cannot breathe.

The Firewire interface is better than the USB at a certain point. but nothing to be scare of. The USB interface fixed a major problem in PC computers. This SATA cable marks the end of ribbons. Take a look at that page for detailed infromation on SATA interface. More and more computers are built with the SATA interface. It is not a big lost for us PC users. enabling the use of serial or parallel peripherals without hardware's addressing problems. But nowadays we use several peripherals and this cause conflicts addressing among peripherals and other hardware. In the early days. Firewire being Apple. You can expect a fast disappearance of ribbon cables. I will not talk much about it. USB Computer Cable Universal Serial Bus (USB) is the design answer to Apple Firewire. PC computers were not built with lot of hardware. because this site is about PC even if Firewire did touch the PC market at some stages. . the cable is way thinner than his older friend and supports the high performance offered by the Serial-ATA standard. Mainly for hard drives. USB Cable And Firewire Cable Firewire and USB are both a serial bus interface standard.Inverted ways ribbon cable for floppy drives Serial-ATA Hard Drive Cable The new and very improved SATA cable.

The 18 inches is mostly the only one used and the 36 inches are more used for special reasons. I will explain how they are working with your drives. which standard you should use according to your drives and what is supported by cables made of 40 and 80 wires and more.The port adressing was used for the hardware to comunicate with the external devices like the mouse or the monitor. all ATA cables have a red mark pin 1. our modern computers would have lots of conflicts with the port adressing. This mark is made to help the user to figure out which side to plug the connector on the drive or the motherboard. By reading through the entire page you will learn how they are attached to your drives. but without the USB interface. You should be able to find 18 inches and 36 inches cables in computer stores. Note the red line on the image. 1 connector to each extremity and 1 connector close to the master connector if it is a cable with 3 connectors. Composition Each ATA ribbon cable has a flexible plastic ribbon that contains the wires where there is 2 or 3 connectors that are fixed to it. ATA Cable Explained The ATA cable is used to connect storage devices like hard drives and floppy drives. Computer Ribbon Cable Also Called IDE Cable The Ribbon. Thinking about all the devices we are using nowadays. I cannot imagine a computer without USB. 40 And 80 Wires .

it will still work. Note for both. then the cable with 40 wires will use the highest mode it can support. You can also use a cable with 2 connectors to plug only 1 drive. In that case Ultra-ATA/33 and your drive will run at UltraDMA/33 instead of Ultra-DMA/66. but the cable will not be able to offer the performance wanted. only connectors with 40 pins are used. Nowadays. To help you understand the differences between the 40 and 80 wires. in that case you have to set the drive to master and use the master connector only. See the different standards supported by both of them. there are cables of 80 wires and they are supporting higher standards. only a drive sets to master can be attached to the cable. 1 drive must be set to master and the other set to slave. A question lots of people ask me is what will happen if I use a cable with 40 wires on a drive with a standard supported only by a cable with 80 wires? In such case. This way all previous 40 wires are grounded. What Is SATA Interface? . Master And Slave Ribbon cables are made of 1 or 2 connectors for drives. If your drive supports Ultra-DMA/66. But with 2 connectors. With 1 connector. The cables with 80 wires are made of 40 grounds that are interleaved with the other 40 wires.At the beginning all ribbon cables were being made of 40 wires and were supporting a certain range of standards. otherwise it will not work at all. Cable Used 40 wires 40 wires 40 wires 40 wires 80 wires 80 wires 80 wires Standard ATA-1 ATA-2 ATA-3 ATA-4 ATA-5 ATA-6 ATA-7 Name ATA Ultra-ATA Ultra-ATA Ultra-ATA/33 Ultra-ATA/66 Ultra-ATA/100 Ultra-ATA/133 Transfer Mode DMA DMA DMA Ultra-DMA/33 Ultra-DMA/66 Ultra-DMA/100 Ultra-DMA/133 The Connectors. take a look at the table below.

offers a bandwidth of 1. it was a slight advantage. An other interesting feature from SATA interface is the possibility to hot swapping.5 Gbit/s. The SATA 3 is on the way and will offer a bandwidth of 6 Gbit/s. you can plug or unplug hardware without having to reboot the computer. It is more than twice than the ATA rate.SATA Connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA). The older cables used for ATA interface were cutting the airflow with their large ribbons and were frustrating to manipulate. Features And Improvements The interesting thing with the SATA is the new cable that uses only 7 wires. The SATA 2 called SATA 300 is the new generation working at the rate of 3 Gbit/s. With a frequency like this you can finally feel the difference between the 2 technologies. the SATA offers a faster transfer rate with features and improvements we will see throughout the guide. . In comparison with the ATA interface. It means. In comparison with the ATA/133. With only 7 wires the cable is thin and permits a better airflow inside the computer case. The first SATA generation was more used for its features than its bandwidth. This feature has been taken from the USB technology that already makes the use of swapping. SATA 1 And SATA 2 Standards The SATA 1 named SATA 150. No cable twisting problems like the ATA. The SATA interface is a design for transferring data among storage devices like hard drives and optic drives. With the SATA it is as easy as plug here and plug there. The ability of using more than 1 drives by cables should appear on the 3rd generation.

On the other hand. SATA 1 and SATA 2 are backward and forward compatible. This is only a speculation. If your motherboard does not support the SATA 300. Another way for adding more compatibility has been introduced by hard drive's manufacturers. a PCI extension card for SATA should do the trick. I did not investigate to see if they exist. I heard there are hybrid hard drives supporting both technologies. This says. You cannot plug a SATA drive in the ATA interface. .Compatibility The ATA and The SATA are not compatible. A jumper on SATA 2 hard drives can be set to force the drive to run under SATA 1.

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