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Unit 6

Problem: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow, blue, green and red. What are the chances of landing on blue after spinning the spinner? What are the chances of landing on red? Solution: The chances of landing on blue are 1 in 4, or one fourth. The chances of landing on red are 1 in 4, or one fourth.

Top of Form Bottom of Form

This problem asked us to find some probabilities involving a spinner. Let's look at some definitions and examples from the problem above.

Definition

An experiment is a situation involving chance or probability that leads to results called outcomes. An outcome is the result of a single trial of an experiment. An event is one or more outcomes of an experiment. Probability is the measure of how likely an event is.

Example

In the problem above, the experiment is spinning the spinner. The possible outcomes are landing on yellow, blue, green or red. One event of this experiment is landing on blue. The probability of landing on blue is one fourth.

In order to measure probabilities, mathematicians have devised the following formula for finding the probability of an event.

Probability Of An Event

P(A) = The Number Of Ways Event A Can Occur The total number Of Possible Outcomes

The probability of event A is the number of ways event A can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes. Let's take a look at a slight modification of the problem from the top of the page. Experiment 1: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow, blue, green and red. After spinning the spinner, what is the probability of landing on each color? The possible outcomes of this experiment are yellow, blue, green, and red. P(yellow = # of ways to land ) on yellow = 1

Outcomes: Probabilities:

total # of colors P(blue) = # of ways to land on blue = total # of colors # of ways to land on green = total # of colors # of ways to land on red = total # of colors

4 1 4 1 4 1 4

P(green) =

P(red)

=

Experiment 2:

A single 6-sided die is rolled. What is the probability of each outcome? What is the probability of rolling an even number? of rolling an odd number? The possible outcomes of this experiment are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. # of ways to roll a 1 total # of sides 1 = 6

Outcomes: Probabilities:

Top of Form Bottom of Form

P(1)

=

P(2)

=

# of ways to roll a 2 total # of sides

1 = 6

P(3)

=

# of ways to roll a 3 total # of sides

1 = 6

P(4)

=

# of ways to roll a 4 total # of sides

1 = 6

P(5)

=

# of ways to roll a 5 total # of sides

1 = 6

P(6)

=

# of ways to roll a 6 total # of sides

1 = 6

P(even) =

# ways to roll an even 3 number == total # of sides 6 # ways to roll an odd 3 number == total # of sides 6

1 2 1 2

P(odd) =

Experiment 2 illustrates the difference between an outcome and an event. A single outcome of this experiment is rolling a 1, or rolling a 2, or rolling a 3, etc. Rolling an even number (2, 4 or 6) is an event, and rolling an odd number (1, 3 or 5) is also an event. In Experiment 1 the probability of each outcome is always the same. The probability of landing on each color of the spinner is always one fourth. In Experiment 2, the probability of rolling each number on the die is always one sixth. In both of these experiments, the outcomes are equally likely to occur. Let's look at an experiment in which the outcomes are not equally likely. Experiment 3: A glass jar contains 6 red, 5 green, 8 blue and 3 yellow marbles. If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar, what is the probability of choosing a red marble? a green marble? a blue marble? a yellow marble? The possible outcomes of this experiment are red, green, blue and yellow. # of ways to choose 6 red = == 2 total # of marbles 2 3 11

Outcomes: Probabilities:

P(red)

# of ways to choose 5 green P(green) = = 2 total # of marbles 2 # of ways to choose 8 blue = == 2 total # of marbles 2 4 11

P(blue)

P(yellow = # of ways to choose ) yellow =3

total # of marbles

2 2

The outcomes in this experiment are not equally likely to occur. You are more likely to choose a blue marble than any other color. You are least likely to choose a yellow marble.

Experiment 4:

Choose a number at random from 1 to 5. What is the probability of each outcome? What is the probability that the number chosen is even? What is the probability that the number chosen is odd? The possible outcomes of this experiment are 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. P(1) = # of ways to choose a 1 total # of numbers # of ways to choose a 2 total # of numbers # of ways to choose a 3 total # of numbers # of ways to choose a 4 total # of numbers # of ways to choose a 5 total # of numbers = 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 2 5 3 5

Outcomes: Probabilities:

P(2)

=

=

P(3)

=

=

P(4)

=

=

P(5)

=

=

P(even) =

# of ways to choose an even number = total # of numbers # of ways to choose an odd number = total # of numbers

P(odd) =

The outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are equally likely to occur as a result of this experiment. However, the events even and odd are not equally likely to occur, since there are 3 odd numbers and only 2 even numbers from 1 to 5.

Summary:

The probability of an event is the measure of the chance that the event will occur as a result of an experiment. The probability of an event A is the number of ways event A can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes. The probability of an event A, symbolized by P(A), is a number between 0 and 1, inclusive, that measures the likelihood of an event in the following way: • • If P(A) > P(B) then event A is more likely to occur than event B. If P(A) = P(B) then events A and B are equally likely to occur.

Which of the following experiments does NOT have equally likely outcomes? Top of Form . Which of the following is an outcome? Top of Form Rolling a pair of dice. Select your answer by clicking on its button. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 3. All of the above.Exercises Directions: Read each question below. None of the above. Choosing a marble from a jar. Landing on red. 1. Choosing 2 marbles from a jar. If you make a mistake. Feedback to your answer is provided in the RESULTS BOX. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 2. Which of the following is an experiment? Top of Form Tossing a coin. Rolling a single 6-sided die. choose a different button.

What is the probability of choosing a vowel from the alphabet? Top of Form None of the above. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 4. A number from 1 to 11 is chosen at random.Choose a number at random from 1 to 7. Choose a letter at random from the word SCHOOL. What is the probability of choosing an odd number? Top of Form . Toss a coin. None of the above. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 5.

nine. What is the probability of landing on purple after spinning the spinner? Probability: It is impossible to land on purple since the spinner does not contain this color. blue. 4 tens. and king. and red. In the second experiment. Picture cards include jacks. three. Each suit has 13 cards as follows: ace. it was not possible to land on purple. eight. deuce. There are no joker cards. the teacher is certain to choose a girl. which consists of 4 suits: hearts. 3 P(girl 0 =1 ) =3 0 Unit 6 Top of Form Bottom of Form In the first experiment. The next experiment will involve a standard deck of 52 playing cards. for example. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form Certain and Impossible Events Experiment 1: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow. choosing a girl was certain to occur. What is the probability that the student chosen is a girl? Probability: Since all the students in the class are girls. clubs. diamonds and spades. queen. . four. This is an example of an impossible event. jack. six. 0 P(purple = =0 ) 4 Experiment 2: A teacher chooses a student at random from a class of 30 girls.None of the above. queens and kings. seven. ten. green. This is an example of a certain event. five. There are only 4 of a kind.

. This is an impossible event. symbolized by P(A). 0 =0 = 5 2 P(joker) Experiment 4: A single 6-sided die is rolled. 6 P(number < 7)== 1 6 Experiment 5: A total of five cards are chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. What is the probability of rolling a number less than 7? Probability: Rolling a number less than 7 is a certain event since a single die has 6 sides. 0 P(5 aces)= =0 5 2 Top of Form Bottom of Form Experiment 6: A glass jar contains 15 red marbles. What is the probability of choosing 5 aces? Probability: It is impossible to choose 5 aces since a standard deck of cards has only 4 of a kind. What is the probability that the card chosen is a joker card? Probability: It is impossible to choose a joker card since a standard deck of cards does not contain any jokers. This is an impossible event. inclusive. 1 5 P(red) =1 =1 5 Summary: The probability of an event is the measure of the chance that the event will occur as a result of the experiment. what is the probability that it is red? Probability: Choosing a red marble is certain to occur since all 15 marbles in the jar are red. If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar. numbered 1 through 6.Experiment 3: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. This is a certain event. The probability of an event A. is a number between 0 and 1. that measures the likelihood of an event in the following way: • If P(A) > P(B) then event A is more likely to occur than event B.

RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 2. If a jelly bean is chosen at random from the jar. Choosing a blue jelly bean. A glass jar contains 5 red. then P(A) = 1. If event A is certain. then which of the following is an impossible event? Top of Form Choosing a red jelly bean. Choosing a yellow jelly bean. A spinner has 7 equal sectors numbered 1 to 7. Exercises Directions: Read each question below. choose a different button. If event A is impossible. 3 blue and 2 green jelly beans.• • • If P(A) = P(B) then events A and B are equally likely to occur. Landing on a number greater than 1. then which of the following is a certain event? Top of Form Landing on a number less than 7. then P(A) = 0. RESULTS BOX: . Landing on a number less than 8. 1. If you spin the spinner. None of the above. None of the above. If you make a mistake. Select your answer by clicking on its button. Feedback to your answer is provided in the RESULTS BOX.

17. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form . 5. 11.Bottom of Form 3. 13. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 4. 7. If a number is chosen at random from the following list. 3. What is the probability of choosing 14 hearts from a standard deck of 52 playing cards? Top of Form 1 0 None of the above. 19 Top of Form 1 0 None of the above. then what is the probability that it is prime? 2.

blue. red} 1 P(yellow)= 4 1 P(blue) = 4 Top of Form Bottom of Form Sample Space: Probabilities: . blue. Rolling a zero. 1 P(head)= 2 P(tail) = 1 2 Definition: The sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes of that experiment. The sample space of Experiment 1 is: {head. Rolling an even number. What is the probability of landing on each color after spinning this spinner? {yellow. If a single 6-sided die is rolled. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form Experiment 1: Outcomes: Probabilities: What is the probability of each outcome when a dime is tossed? The outcomes of this experiment are head and tail. tail} Experiment 2: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow. green.5. green and red. then which of the following events is neither certain nor impossible? Top of Form Rolling a number less than 7. None of the above.

If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar. yellow} 1 = 1 0 Sample Space: Probabilities: P(red) P(green) =3 . 2 blue and 4 yellow marbles. 4. what is the probability of each outcome? {red. 2. green. 6} 1 P(1)= 6 1 P(2)= 6 1 P(3)= 6 1 P(4)= 6 1 P(5)= 6 1 P(6)= 6 Top of Form Bottom of Form Sample Space: Probabilities: Experiment 4: A glass jar contains 1 red. 3 green. blue.1 P(green) = 4 1 P(red) = 4 Experiment 3: What is the probability of each outcome when a single 6-sided die is rolled? {1. 3. 5.

the sum of the probabilities of each outcome is 1.1 0 2 1 P(blue) = = 1 5 0 4 2 P(yellow)= = 1 5 0 Summary: The sample space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes for that experiment. There are 52 possible outcomes in this sample space. choose a different . Select your answer by clicking on its button. This is no coincidence. The probability of each outcome of this experiment is: 1 P(card)= 52 The sum of the probabilities of the distinct outcomes within this sample space is: 52 1 52= Exercises Directions: Read each question below. Feedback to your answer is provided in the RESULTS BOX. The sum of the probabilities of the distinct outcomes within a sample space is 1. If you make a mistake. The sample space for choosing a single card at random from a deck of 52 playing cards is shown below. You may have noticed that for each of the experiments above.

15} {2. 3. 11} {1. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 3. What is the sample space for choosing a prime number less than 15 at random? Top of Form {2. 7. 6. 13} All of the above. 4. 11. 6. 7 blue and 2 green jelly beans? Top of Form {5. 5. 5. 5. 11. 13} {2. What is the sample space for choosing 1 jelly bean at random from a jar containing 5 red. 7. 7. 1. 2. 8. 10. 5. 9. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 2. 9 11} None of the above. 3. 7. 10. 3. 2. 3. 9.button. 3. 3. 13. 11 {1. 4. 11. 2} . 7. 5. 5. 9. What is the sample space for choosing an odd number from 1 to 11 at random? Top of Form 1. 7. 8. 7.

i. e} {1. v. u} {v. 3. green} None of the above. i. o. RESULTS BOX: . What is the sample space for choosing 1 letter at random from 5 vowels? Top of Form {a. 2 green} {red. i. l} {1. d. 2. 5} None of the above. e. 4. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 5. i. e. e} None of the above. o. What is the sample space for choosing 1 letter at random from the word DIVIDE? Top of Form {d. 7 blue. 2. 6} {d. 5. 3. RESULTS BOX: Bottom of Form 4. blue. v. w.{5 red. 4.

the probability of each of the 4 outcomes in the sample space above is one fourth. green. The probability of landing on a sector that is not red is the same as the probability of landing on all the other colors except red.Bottom of Form Complement of an Event Experiment 1: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow. What is the probability of landing on a sector that is not red after spinning this spinner? Sample Space: {yellow. The complement of event A is represented by Rule: (read as A bar). Definition: The complement of an event A is the set of all outcomes in the sample space that are not included in the outcomes of event A. blue.P(A) You may be wondering how this rule came about. blue. we learned that the sum of the probabilities of the distinct outcomes within a sample space is 1. Given the probability of an event. For example. Let's look at Experiment 1 again. Experiment 1: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow. the probability of its complement can be found by subtracting the given probability from 1. landing on a sector that is not red is the complement of landing on a sector that is red. red} Probability: P(not 1 P(red) red) =1 =1 4 . blue. green and red. using this subtraction principle. Thus. In the last lesson. green. the probability that an outcome does not occur is exactly 1 minus the probability that it does. blue. P( ) = 1 . What is the probability of landing on a sector that is not red after spinning this spinner? Sample Space: {yellow. 1 11 3 P(not += red) =4 4 4 + 4 Unit 6 Top of Form Bottom of Form In Experiment 1. yielding a sum of 1. red} Probability: The probability of each outcome in this experiment is one fourth. green and red.

What is the probability of rolling a number that is not 4? Probability: P(not 1 P(4) 4) =1 =5 =6 Experiment 4: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. What is the probability of choosing a card that is not a club? Probability: P(not club) 1 P(club) = 1 = 3 9 =5 2 3 =4 13 52 1 6 4 52 Top of Form Bottom of Form . What is the probability of choosing a card that is not a king? Probability: P(not king) 1 P(king) = 1 = 4 8 =5 2 1 2 =1 3 Experiment 3: A single 6-sided die is rolled.3 =4 Experiment 2: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards.

what is the probability that it is not red? Probability: P(not red) = 1 -P(red) = 1 -1 =0 Note: This is an impossible event. The card chosen can be a 5. Unit 6 Possibilities: Experiment 2: Possibilities: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. In Experiment 2. What is the probability of choosing a club or a king? 1. or a king. 2. If a marble is chosen at random from the jar. These events are mutually exclusive since they cannot occur at the same time. These events are not mutually exclusive.Experiment 5: A glass jar contains 20 red marbles. they have no outcomes in common). the card chosen can be a five or a king. A single 6-sided die is rolled. The card chosen can be a king. In Experiment 1. The card chosen can be a king and a club (i. 2.e. but not both at the same time. What is the probability of rolling an odd number or an even number? 1. These events are mutually exclusive.. or both at the same time. Definition: Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time (i.e. The number rolled can be an odd number. The card chosen can be a king. The number rolled can be an even number. the king of clubs). What is the probability of choosing a 5 or a king? 1. The card chosen can be a club. the card chosen can be a club. 2.. 3. Experiment 3: Possibilities: Top of Form Bottom of Form Events: . Mutually Exclusive Events Experiment 1: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards.

e. The number rolled can be an odd number (1. the probabilities of events A and B are represented by two intersecting sets (i. A single letter is chosen at random from the word SCHOOL. The letter chosen can be an O 2. 3. The letter chosen can be an O. Mutually Exclusive Events Two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur at the same time (i. These events are not mutually exclusive since they can occur at the same time.. . What is the probability of choosing an O or a vowel? 1. they have no elements in common). In the Venn Diagram above.e. they have no outcomes in common). In this lesson. the probabilities of events A and B are represented by two disjoint sets (i. What is the probability of rolling a 5 or an odd number? 1. The letter chosen can be an S 2. Experiment 5: Possibilities: Events: Experiment 6: Possibilities: Events: Summary: In the Venn Diagram above. we have learned the difference between mutually exclusive and non-mutually exclusive events. The letter chosen can be a vowel.e. These events are mutually exclusive since they cannot occur at the same time. These events are not mutually exclusive since they can occur at the same time. The number rolled can be a 5.. 2. Non-Mutually Exclusive Events Two events are non-mutually exclusive if they have one or more outcomes in common. The number rolled can be a 5 and odd. 3 or 5). The letter chosen can be an O and a vowel. What is the probability of choosing an S or an O? 1. they have some elements in common).Experiment 4: Possibilities: Events: A single 6-sided die is rolled. A single letter is chosen at random from the word SCHOOL.. 3. We can use set theory and Venn Diagrams to illustrate this difference.

the probability that A or B will occur is the sum of the probability of each event. What is the probability of rolling a 2 or a 5? Possibilities: 1. The number rolled can be a 5.Addition Rules for Probabilit y Experiment 1: A single 6-sided die is rolled. Events: These events are mutually exclusive since they cannot occur at the same time. Probabilities: Unit 6 Top of Form Bottom of Form How do we find the probabilities of these mutually exclusive events? We need a rule to guide us. A and B. 2. Experiment 1: A single 6-sided die is rolled. The number rolled can be a 2. What is the probability of rolling a 2 or a 5? Probabilities: 1 P(2) = 6 P(5) = 1 6 P(2 or 5) = P(2 P(5 + ) ) = 1 6 2 6 + 1 6 = . are mutually exclusive. When two events. P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) Addition Rule 1: Let's use this addition rule to find the probability for Experiment 1.

= 1 3 Experiment 2: A spinner has 4 equal sectors colored yellow. blue. What is the probability of landing on red or blue after spinning this spinner? Probabilities: 1 P(red) = 4 Top of Form Bottom of Form P(blue) = 1 4 P(red or blue) = P(red P(blue + ) ) = 1 4 2 4 1 2 + 1 4 = = Experiment 3: A glass jar contains 1 red. 2 blue. green. what is the probability that it is yellow or green? Probabilities: 4 P(yellow) = 10 P(green) = 3 10 P(yellow or green) = P(yellow P(green + ) ) 4 + 3 = . If a single marble is chosen at random from the jar. and 4 yellow marbles. and red. 3 green.

Experiment 5: Probabilities: In a math class of 30 students. Experiment 4: A single card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. Let's apply this rule to some other experiments. Addition Rule 2: When two events. What is the probability of choosing a king or a club? P(king or P(king P(club P(king of = + club) ) ) clubs) Probabilities: = 4 52 16 52 4 13 + 13 52 - 1 52 = = In Experiment 4. The addition causes the king of clubs to be counted twice. If a student is chosen at random from the class. A and B. the events are mutually exclusive. On a unit test. are non-mutually exclusive. so its probability must be subtracted. a different addition rule must be used. Let's look at some experiments in which the events are non-mutually exclusive. P(A and B) refers to the overlap of the two events.P(A and B) In the rule above. the events are non-mutually exclusive. 4 boys and 5 girls made an A grade. what is the probability of choosing a girl or an A student? P(girl or P(girl P(girl and = + P(A) A) ) A) = 13 + 9 5 . 17 are boys and 13 are girls.10 = 7 10 10 In each of the three experiments above. When two events are non-mutually exclusive. the probability that A or B will occur is: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) .

the probability of a person having a car accident is 0.P(intoxicated and accident) ) 0. there is some overlap between these events. The probability of a person driving while intoxicated is 0.32 0.09 0. Each pair is folded together in a matching set. white and black. brown. What is the probability of a person driving while intoxicated or having a car accident? Probabilities: P(intoxicated or accident) = = = Summary: P(intoxicated + P(accident) .30 = 17 30 30 30 Experiment 6: On New Year's Eve. are nonmutually exclusive.15 To find the probability of event A or B.32 and probability of a person having a car accident while intoxicated is 0. we must first determine whether the events are mutually exclusive or non-mutually exclusive. You reach into the sock drawer and choose a pair of socks without looking. The probability that A or B will occur is the sum of the probability of each event. minus the probability of the overlap.P(A and B) Independent Events Experiment 1: A dresser drawer contains one pair of socks with each of the following colors: blue.26 + 0. the probability that A or B will occur is the sum of the probability of each event. Then we can apply the appropriate Addition Rule: Addition Rule 1: When two events. You replace this pair and then choose another pair of socks.09. red. A and B. A and B. are mutually exclusive.15. P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) . What is the probability that you will choose the red pair of socks both times? Unit 6 . P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) Addition Rule 2:: When two events.

AND then rolling a 1 on a second roll of the die. Choosing a pairs of socks from the drawer. You reach into the sock drawer and choose a pair of socks without looking. choosing a red pair on the first try has no effect on the probability of choosing a red pair on the second try. Some other examples of independent events are: • • • • Landing on heads after tossing a coin AND rolling a 5 on a single 6-sided die. AND then choosing an ace as the second card.There are a couple of things to note about this experiment. You replace this pair and then choose another pair of socks. replacing it. these events are independent. are independent. A and B. Choosing a marble from a jar AND landing on heads after tossing a coin. Rolling a 4 on a single 6-sided die. Since the first pair was replaced.) Now we can apply this rule to find the probability for Experiment 1. are independent if the fact that A occurs does not affect the probability of B occurring. What is the probability that you will choose the red pair of socks both times? Probabilities: 1 P(red) = 5 P(red and red) = P(red P(red · ) ) = 1 5 1 25 · 1 5 = . Note that multiplication is represented by AND. A and B. replacing it. Choosing a 3 from a deck of cards. red. white and black. Experiment 1: A dresser drawer contains one pair of socks with each of the following colors: blue. This multiplication rule is defined symbolically below. brown. Each pair is folded together in a matching set. the probability of both occurring is: P(A and B) = P(A) · P(B) (Note: Another multiplication rule will be introduced in the next lesson. and then multiply the probabilities. To find the probability of two independent events that occur in sequence. Definition: Two events. and then choosing a pair again from the same drawer is a compound event. Multiplication Rule 1: When two events. find the probability of each event occurring separately. Therefore.

What is the probability of choosing a jack and an eight? Probabilities: 4 P(jack) = 52 P(8) = 4 52 P(jack and 8) = P(jack · P(8) ) = 4 52 16 2704 · 4 52 = . It is then replaced and a second card is chosen.Experiment 2: A coin is tossed and a single 6-sided die is rolled. Probabilities: 1 P(head) = 2 P(3) = 1 6 P(head and 3) = P(head · P(3) ) = 1 2 1 12 · 1 6 = Experiment 3: A card is chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards. Find the probability of landing on the head side of the coin and rolling a 3 on the die.

If three students are chosen at random with replacement. What is the probability of choosing a green and a yellow marble? Probabilities: 5 P(green) = 16 P(yellow) = 6 16 P(green and yellow) = P(green P(yellow · ) ) = 5 16 30 256 15 128 · 6 16 = = Each of the experiments above involved two independent events that occurred in sequence. a second marble is chosen.= 1 169 Experiment 4: A jar contains 3 red. what is the probability that all three students like pizza? . After replacing it. Multiplication Rule 1 can be extended to work for three or more independent events that occur in sequence. there was replacement of the first item before choosing the second item. 2 blue and 6 yellow marbles. In some cases. 5 green. A marble is chosen at random from the jar. Experiment 5: Probabilities: P(student 1 likes pizza) 9 = 1 0 A school survey found that 9 out of 10 students like pizza. This is demonstrated in Experiment 5 below. this replacement was needed in order to make the two events independent.

Accordingly.72)(0. a second card is chosen. we will address how to handle non-replacement in a small population. The outcome of choosing the first card has affected the outcome of choosing the second card. Two events are dependent if the outcome or occurrence of the first affects the Definition: .72) = 0. Dependent Events Unit 6 Experiment 1: Analysis: Conclusion: A card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards.P(student 2 likes pizza) 9 = 1 0 P(student 3 likes pizza) 9 = 1 0 999 P(student 1 and student 2 and student 3 like =· · = pizza) 111 000 729 1000 All of the experiments above involved independent events with a small population (e. then the second card is chosen from only 51 cards. what is the probability that all three like pizza? Solution: Let L represent the event of randomly choosing a person who likes pizza from the U. Problem: A nationwide survey found that 72% of people in the United States like pizza. If 3 people are selected at random. P(L) · P(L) · P(L) = (0. This is illustrated in the following problem. A 6sided die.72)(0. the probability that the second card is a jack given that the first card is a queen is 4 out of 51. However. making these events dependent. When a small number of items are selected from a large population without replacement.S. What is the probability that the first card chosen is a queen and the second card chosen is a jack? The probability that the first card is a queen is 4 out of 52. a deck of 52 cards). Without replacing it. if the first card is not replaced.37 = 37% In the next lesson. the probability of each event changes so slightly that the amount of change is negligible.g. a 2-sided coin.

The probability of choosing a jack on the second pick given that a queen was chosen on the first pick is called a conditional probability. we can find the probability of the dependent events in Experiment 1 by multiplying the probabilities of each event. To find the probability of the two dependent events. The notation used above does not mean that B is divided by A.outcome or occurrence of the second so that the probability is changed. The notation for conditional probability is P(B|A) [pronounced as The probability of event B given A]. Now that we have accounted for the fact that there is no replacement. A and B. a second card is chosen. Definition: The conditional probability of an event B in relationship to an event A is the probability that event B occurs given that event A has already occurred. the probability of both occurring is: P(A and B) = P(A) · P(B|A) Let's look at some experiments in which we can apply this rule. Experiment 1: A card is chosen at random from a standard deck of 52 playing cards. . are dependent. Without replacing it. we use a modified version of Multiplication Rule 1. dependent events. What is the probability that the first card chosen is a queen and the second card chosen is a jack? 4 = 5 2 Probabilities: P(queen on first pick) 4 P(jack on 2nd pick given queen on 1st = pick) 5 1 44 P(queen and jack) 1 6 4 =· = = 2 55 6 21 5 2 663 Experiment 1 involved two compound. Multiplication Rule 2: When two events. It means the probability of event B given that event A has already occurred. which was presented in the last lesson.

a nine.Experiment 2: Mr. Parietti needs two students to help him with a science demonstration for his class of 18 girls and 12 boys. What is the probability of choosing 3 aces? P(3 aces) = 24 4 3 1 2 · · = 5 5 = 132. What is the probability that all three are defective if the first and second ones are not replaced after being tested? P(3 defectives) = 3 2 6 1 1 · · = 1 1 = 684 20 1140 9 8 0 Four cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. What is the probability that both students chosen are girls? Probabilities: P(Girl 1 and Girl P(Girl P(Girl 2|Girl = and 2) 1) 1) = 18 30 306 870 51 145 · 17 29 = = Experiment 3: Probabilities: In a shipment of 20 computers.175 1 0 9 . Three computers are randomly selected and tested.525 1 0 600 Experiment 4: Probabilities: Experiment 5: Probabilities: . 3 are defective. What is the probability of choosing a ten.497 52 812.400 Three cards are chosen at random from a deck of 52 cards without replacement. 52 5. He then chooses a second student from those still seated. He randomly chooses one student who comes to the front of the room. an eight and a seven in order? P(10 and 9 and 8 and 7) = 25 4 4 4 32 4 6 · · · = 5 5 4 = 6.

A and B. Commute the equation. Divide both sides of equation by P(A).Conditional Probability Problem: A math teacher gave her class two tests. the probability of both occurring is: The formula for the Conditional Probability of an event can be derived from Multiplication Rule 2 as follows: Start with Multiplication Rule 2. 0 60% First) Second) = 2 = . Cancel P(A)s on right-hand side of equation. What percent of those who passed the first test also passed the second test? Solution: P(Second| = P(First and 0. In the last lesson. What percent of those who passed the first test also passed the second test? Analysis: This problem describes a conditional probability since it asks us to find the probability that the second test was passed given that the first test was passed. Now we can use this formula to solve the problem at the top of the page. = . 25% of the class passed both tests and 42% of the class passed the first test. 25% of the class passed both tests and 42% of the class passed the first test. Problem: A math teacher gave her class two tests. the notation for conditional probability was used in the statement of Multiplication Rule 2. are dependent. Multiplication Rule 2: Unit 6 When two events. We have derived the formula for conditional probability.

P(Black and 3 0 White) = 4 . P(White|Black) = = = 72% P(Black) 0.47. 5 2 Solution: Example 2: Solution: Example 3: At Kennedy Middle School. The notation for conditional probability is P(B|A). What is the probability that a student is absent given that today is Friday? 0. Example 1: A jar contains black and white marbles. The probability that a student takes Technology is 0. and the probability of selecting a black marble on the first draw is 0. = 3 = = 15% Friday) 1 P(Friday) 0. The formula for conditional probability is: The Venn Diagram below illustrates P(A). the probability that a student takes Technology and Spanish is 0. 3 6 8 Summary: The conditional probability of an event B in relationship to an event A is the probability that event B occurs given that event A has already occurred. read as the probability of B given A.34. What is the probability that a student takes Spanish given that the student is taking Technology? Solution: 0. P(Friday and 0 0 P(Absent| = Absent) . the probability that it is Friday is 0.P(First) 5 0. given that the first marble drawn was black? 0. P(Technology and 0 0 Spanish) 8 = . 6 4 0 2 Let's look at some other problems in which we are asked to find a conditional probability. What two sections would have to be divided to find P(B|A)? Answer . What is the probability of selecting a white marble on the second draw. Two marbles are chosen without replacement. P(Spanish|Technology) = 7 = =13% 1 P(Technology) 0.68. P(B). The probability of selecting a black marble and then a white marble is 0.087.2. Since there are 5 school days in a week.03. 7 4 2 7 The probability that it is Friday and that a student is absent is 0. and P(A and B).

P(A ∩ B) = P(A) * P(B) = 4/52 × 4/52 P(A ∩ B) =1/169 (ii) (Card is not replaced) • In the first draw.Question 1. Therefore A and B are not independent they are dependent events. Two cards are drawn from a pack of 52 cards in succession. Since the king.33 Z scores from normal distribution table is 0. What’s the probability that the total weight of 8 people exceeds 600kg? Solution: Here X = 600kg m. The total weight of 8 people chosen at random follows a normal distribution with a mean of 550kg and a standard deviation of 150kg. B be the event of drawing a king in the second draw. . in the second draw there are only 3 kings and 51 cards in total. Z = (600 – 550)/150 = 50/150 Z = 0. Find the probability that both are kings when (i) The first drawn card is replaced (ii) The card is not replaced Solution: Let A be the event of drawing a king in the first draw. drawn at the first draw is not replaced. there are 4 kings and 52 cards in total. P (B/A) = 3/51 P (A ∩ B) = P(A) * P (B/A) = 4/52 x 3/51 P(A ∩ B) = 1/221 Question 2. Therefore the first event A affects the probability of the occurrence of the second event B. Therefore P (A ∩ B) = P(A) * P(B/A) P (A) = 4/52. (i) Card is replaced: n(A) = 4 (king) n(B) = 4 (king) and n(S) = 52 (Total) Clearly the event A will not affect the probability of the occurrence of event B and therefore A and B are independent. the mean = 500kg s.3707 This is the probability that the weight will exceed 600kg. the standard deviation = 150kg.

so the number of ways = 17C4. 8 bulbs are defective. 2 bulbs are drawn at random. out of 25 bulbs. n(E) = 17C4 Out of 17 bulbs we have to choose 4 bulbs randomly. Find the probability that at least two of these is defective. n(E) = 17C4 n(S) = 25C4 P(E) = 17C4/25C4 = 238/1265 Probability of at least two is defective + probability of two is non defective = 2 P(E) + p(E) = 2 238/1265 + p(E) = 2 P(E) = 2292/1265 Example 2: A bag contains 8 red and 6 orange bulbs. Solution: Let S be the sample space Number of ways for drawing 2 bulbs out of 8 red and 6 orange bulbs = 14C2 = 91 n(S) = 91 Let E = event of getting both bulbs of the same color Then n(E) = number of ways of drawing (2 bulbs out of 8) or (2 balls out of 6) = 8C2 + 6C2 .Answer: The probability that the total weight of 8 people exceeds 600kg is 0. Solution: Out of 25 bulbs. Example 1: A bag contains 25 bulbs.37. E = event for getting no bulb is defective. Find the probability that they are of the same color. 4 bulbs are chosen at random from this bag. 8 bulbs are defective. 17 bulbs are favorable bulbs.

What is that probability of getting i) All heads? ii) Two heads? iii) One head? iv) At least 1 head? Sol : In tossing three coins. Q 1: A coin is tossed.H1. TTT} And therefore n(S)=8. B3. therefore. Sol : Filet red balls named as R1 and R2.H4.TB2. TTH. Answer: 1/4. Then. . HHH} and. HTH. Therefore P (getting 2 heads) = P(E2) = n(E2) / n(S) = 3 / 8. and the black balls be named as B1. n (E4) =7. HTT. E4= {HTT. (i) Getting all head Let E1 = event of getting all heads. Therefore P (getting all heads) = P(E1) = n(E1) / n(S) = 1 / 8. if ti shows a head. E2= {HHT. E3= {HTT. HTH. P (A|B) = P (A ∩B) P (B) Hence. n (E1) =1. Question 1: Find the probability of drawing 4 bulbs out of 6 bulbs in bag. Tr2. the sample space is given by S= {HHH. HHT. Answer: 2/3 Question 2: Find the probability of drawing 2 bulbs out of 4 red bulbs and 4 orange bulbs in a bag.H2. therefore. n (E2) =3. If it shows a tail we draw a ball from a box which contains red and 3 black balls . THT. Then. TTH} and.TB3. HTH. TB1. THH. (iii) Getting one head Let E3 = event of getting one head. therefore.H6} Q 2: Three unbiased coins are tossed once.H3. These questions are very easy to solve. THH. Q 1:If P (A) =7 P (B) = 2/15 and P (A ∩B ) = 4/15. we throw a die. (ii) Getting 2 head Let E2 = event of getting 2 heads.H5. Sol:From conditional probability definition we know that. Therefore P (getting at least one head) = P (E4) = n(E4) / n(S) = 7 / 8. Then the sample space is S={TR1. n (E3) =3. evaluate P(A|B). THT. Therefore P (getting one head) = P (E3) = n(E3) / n(S) = 3 / 4 (iv) Getting of at least 1 head Let E4 = event of getting at least one head. THT. HHT. B2. THH} and. E1= {HHH} and. Then.= 28 + 15 = 43 P(E) = n(E)/n(S) = 43/91 Practice Questions Solve these practice questions. TTH. therefore. Then.

8. mixed up thoroughly and then one card is drawn randomly. It is known that out of 430. 6. What is the probability that an employee chosen randomly works in finance section given that the chosen employee is a woman?Solve using conditional probability. 9. 6.. We have to solve P(A|B). P (B) = and P (A ∩ B) = From conditional probability definition we know that. out of which 430 are women. Q 1: Ten cards numbered 1 to 10 are placed in a deck. 10} Then A = {2. Now. 5. 4. 10} Also P (A) = . Q 2: If P(A|B) = 6 . P (A|B) = P (A ∩B) P (B) P (A|B) = = . Find P (A ∩B ) .43 . 10}. the sample space of the experiment is S = {1. P (A|B) = P (A ∩B) P (B) 6= P (A ∩B ) = 8 x 6 = 48 Word Problems on Solving Conditional Probability Questions Solving word problems conditional probability questions is simple .P(A|B) = = * = = . then plug in the values . 9. 6. 7. 10% of the women works in finance section. Now we have to solve P (A|B) We know that . 3. Q 2: In an industry. Sol: Let A denote the event that an employee chosen randomly is work is finance section. 6. what is the probability that it is an even number?Solve using conditional probability. B = {4. and B be the event that the randomly chosen employee is woman. 8. 7. P(B) = = 0. 5. 4. Sol:Let A be the event ‘the number on the drawn card is even’ and B be the event ‘the number on the card drawn is greater than 3’. 8. P(B)= 8 . 8. 10} and A ∩ B = {4. Sol:From conditional probability definition we know that. If it is known that the number on the drawn card is more than 3. first we convert them to the simplest form . there are 1000 employees. 2.

Experiment 2: Tossing a die Possible outcomes are the numbers 1.1 Study about Probability Questions Experiment 1: Tossing a coin Possible outcomes are head or tail. S = {1.43 = 0. If a marble is strained at chance from the box. S = {head.62 = 0. what is the probability that it will be (i) White? (ii) Blue? (iii) Red? Solution: The question says that a marble is drawn at chance is a short way of saying that all the marbles are equally likely to be strained Therefore. and 4 red marbles.043 P (A|B) = P (A ∩B) {from conditional probability definition} P (B) = 0. tail}. 5. Question 1 for Preparation: . Sample space. John and Jim. 2. (ii) P (B) = 3 / 9 =1/3 And. 5. 6} Study some Probability Example Questions Question 1: Two players.043/ 0.62. (i) The number of outcomes favorable to the event W = 2 So. P (W) = 2 / 9 Similarly.38 Question 2: A box contains 3 blue. play a tennis match. We can assume S and R as the events that John wins the match and Jim wins the match. The probability of John’s winning = P(S) = 0. the number of possible outcomes = 3 +2 + 4 = 9 Let W represent the event ‘the marble is white’. What is the probability of Jim winning the match? Solution: In this question. respectively. 4. 4. 2.(iii) P(R) = 4 / 9 Note that: P (W) + P (B) + P (R) = 1. Probability Sample Question for Preparation of Exam: Here are few examples for probabilty preparation. It is known that the probability of John winning the match is 0. 3. { 10% of 430} = 0.62 (given) The probability of Jim’s winning = P(R) = 1 – P(S) [As the events R and S are complementary] = 1 – 0.1 P(A|B) = 0. 2 white.P(A ∩ B) = Then . B denote the experience ‘the marble is blue’ and R denote the event ‘marble is red’. 3. and 6 Sample space.

In a set of 6 numbers, (1) Find the probability of an even number (2) Find the probability of an odd number. Exam the probability of each of these events. Solution: Probability P( E ) =

P( E1 ) = = 0.5 P( E2 ) = = 0.5 Question 2 for preparation: There are 200 values in the Diary. The frequency distribution of 8 at their unit place digit. Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Frequency 23 27 21 20 22 9 15 27 15 21 The number is chosen at random. Exam what is the probability getting the unit place is 8? Solution: The probability of digit 8 is the unit place. Probability P( E ) = = P(E) = 0.135

**Probability Exercises Questions for Preparation of Exam:
**

1). A rubber company kept a record of covering distance before when tyre needed to be replaced. Given data shows the results of 1000 cases. unit more than 13000 8001 to 13000 3000 to 8000 less than 3000 Freq 445 325 210 20 If you buy a tyre of this company, calculate the probability that : (i) replaced before it has covered 3000? (ii) more than 8000? Answer: (i) covered 3000 (km) P(E) = 0.02 (ii) more than 8000 (km) = 0.77 2). The percentage of marks of a student in the unit tests are Unit test I II III IV V Percentage 77 52 76 90 56 Exam what is the probability of the student gets more than 70% marks in a unit test. Answer : more than 70% marks P(E) = 0. Each and very letter MADAM is written on a card. A card is select at random from the container. Find the probability of getting the letter M? Solution:

The card is selected randomly; it means that each card has the same probability of selected. Sample space S = {M, A, D, A, M} = 5 There are two card have the letter M Let E= event of getting the letter M = {M1, M2} = 2 Probability formula = Number of favorable outcomes of an event Number of total outcomes Number of favorable outcomes of an event = 2 Number of total outcomes =5 P (E) = Question: Each and very letter MADAM is written on a card. A card is select at random from the container. Find the probability of getting the letter D? Solution: The card is selected randomly; it means that each card has the same probability of selected. Sample space S = {M, A, D, A, M} = 5 There are one card have the letter D Let E= event of getting the letter D = {D} = 1 Probability formula = Number of favorable outcomes of an event Number of total outcomes Number of favorable outcomes of an event = 1 Number of total outcomes =5 P (E) =

**5th Grade Math Probability Example Problems
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Question: Each and very letter HELLO is written on a card. A card is select at random from the container. Find the probability of getting the letter L? Answer:

Question: Each and very letter HELLO is written on a card. A card is select at random from the container. Find the probability of getting the letter O? Answer:

n a bakery, there are 50 biscuits, 20 bread packets and 70 cakes. What is the probability of buying biscuit or bread? Solution: Given:

Number of biscuits = 50 Number of bread packets = 20 Number of cakes = 70 Step 1: Total = 50 + 20 + 70 n(S) = 140 Step 2: P(A) – buying Biscuits P(A) = = = Step 3: P(B) – buying bread packets P(B) = = = Step 4: P(buying biscuit or bread) P(A = = =2 Answer n a Jewellery shop, there are 50 bangles, 40 studs and 60 rings. Write the probability of the following options. a) P (Not selecting a ring) b) P (Selecting a bangle or stud) Solution: Given: Number of bangles = 50 Number of studs = 40 + B) = P(A) + P(B)

Number of rings = 60 Step 1: Total = 50 + 40 + 60 n(S) = 150 Step 2: P(A) – Selecting bangles P(A) = = = = Step 3: P(B) – selecting studs P(B) = = = Step 4: P(C) – selecting rings P(C) = = = a) P(not selecting a ring) P(C) = 1 – P(C’) = 1 – P(C’) P(C’) = 1 – =

Answer: P(A') = P(B') = In a shop there are 7 bikes and 3 cars. Find P(C') Answer: P(A') = Problem: 2 P(A) = . If one vehicle is selected at random and then a second vehicle is selected at random. P(A B).= = b) P(bangle or stud) P(A or B) = P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) = = = + Practice Problems to Preparation for Probability Rules Exam: Problem: 1 P(C) = . Find P(B') . P(B) = and A and B are independent events. what are the chances that both of vehicles will be bike? Solution: Total number of bikes = 7 Total number of cars = 3 Total number of vehicles n(s) = 7 + 3 = 10 For the first time. there are 6 chances in 9 vehicles Probability for the second chance P2= Probability for both chance to get a bike = P1 * P2 . there are 7 chances in 10 vehicles So probability for the first chance P1 = For the second time.

all possible outcomes are HH. H). Favorable outcome is 1. Numbers of possible outcomes = 4 (i) Favorable outcomes of two tails is (T. and TT. TH. and TT. TH. Number of favorable outcomes = 2 P (at least one tail and one head) = --. In those products. Number of favorable outcomes = 3 P (at least one tail) = (iii) Getting no tail is (H. there are 26 car toys.= = = Two coins are tossed once. P (no tail) = (iv) Favorable outcomes of at least one tail and one head HT.> The shop has 82 products. Find the probability of (i) getting two tails (ii) getting at least one tail (iii) getting no tail (iv) getting one tail and one head Solution: Let 'H' denote the event of getting a head and 'T' denote the event of getting a tail. Solution: Number of products n(S) = 82 Number of car toys n(A) = 26 Number of train toys n(B) = 29 Number of bus toys n(C) = 27 i) Assume the P(A) is the probability for select the car toys. T) Number of favorable outcomes = 1 P (Two tails) = (ii) Favorable outcomes of at least one tail are HT. ii) Select the train toys. HT. What is the probability for the following outcomes? i) Select the car toys. TH. P(A)= . 29 train toys and 27 bus toys are available. On tossing two coins simultaneously.

(10 + 15) = 52 . there are 52 flowers are available. 15 are the white roses and the remaining are the yellow roses.= = . Number of yellow roses n(C ) = 52 . i) Choose the red roses ii) Choose the white roses Solution: Number of roses n (S) = 52 Number of red roses n(A) = 10 Number of white roses n(B) = 15 We don’t know the yellow roses quantity. P(B) = = . P(B) = = . In those flowers. What is the probability for select the Jessie’s pens? Answer: .25 n(C) = 27. P(A) = = = . Jessie has the 12 pens. i) Assume P(A) is the probability for choose the red roses.Probability Test Prep Tutoring: Test question 1 Julie has the 10 pens. Practice Problems . 10 are the red roses. In the flower garden. ii)Assume P(B) is the probability for choose the white roses. ii) Assume the P(B) is the probability for select the train toys. So find that one with the help of other quantity.

In those fruits. In that bag.Probability = = . 2. Try to find out the probability of getting a number less than or equal to three. So. P(L) = = Answer: The probability of getting a number less than or equal to three and the probability of getting a number greater than three is and respectively. the number of outcomes favorable to L is 3. And also find the probability of getting a number greater than three.Prepare for Ks-4 Probability Exam: Exam question 1: Try to determine the probability of getting a head when a coin is tossed once. Test question 3: The shop has 12 fruits. there are 4 apples and 8 mangos. . Calculate the probability that he took an ace. 3. What is the probability for select the mangos? Answer: Probability = . Number of possible outcomes = 6 P(G) = P(number greater than 3) = = Outcomes favorable to the event L are 1. and ‘the probability of getting a number less than or equal to three’ is L. Patrick took one card without look it. Therefore. Test question 2 Alex has one bag. there are 15 red balls and 22 white balls are available. Solution: Pierre throws a die once. Let us take ‘probability of getting a number greater than three’ is G. Solved problem: Pierre throw a die once. Exam question 2: In a shuffle deck of 52 cards. = . Exam Questions . What is the probability for select the red balls? Answer: Probability = .

yellow and pink color flowers? Solution: From the given data’s we can find the total number of flowers. The probability of Imam winning the match is 0. Let A be the event ‘getting a prime number’. 2. Find the probability of the red. 15 yellow rose flowers and 25 pink rose flowers. Exam question 4: A die is rolling by Minnie.Exam question 3: Two players. 3. 2. Answer key 4: ‘A or B’ = A U B = {1. there are filled with 10 red rose flowers. Calculate the probability of Raman winning the match. Without replacing two balls are drawn from the urn.4. Calculate the sets representing the events A or B.3.4.prepare for ks-4 probability exam: Answer key 1: The probability of getting a head when a con is tossed is Answer key 2: The probability that Patrick took an ace is Answer key 3: The probability of Raman winning the match is 0. B be the event ‘getting an odd number’. Exam question 5: An urn contains 10 black and 5 white balls. So total number of flowers =number of red color flower + yellow color flower + pink color flower Total number of red color flowers = 10 Total number of yellow color flowers = 15 Total number of pink color flowers = 25 So the total number of red.4. Answer keys . Imam and Raman. yellow and pink color flowers is 50 Probability of taking red color flowers = 10/50 = 1/5 Probability of taking yellow color flowers = 15/50 = 3/10 Probability of taking pink color flowers = 25/50 = 1/2 Example 2 – math help with probability for elementary school: If the die (single) will be rotate find the Probability of receiving each number? Solution: The die has 6 sides it will be number as 1. .5 and 6 like that The probability for the occurrence of each an every number are shown below: Probability of receiving number 1 is P (1) =1/6 Probability of receiving number 2 is P (2) =1/6 Probability of receiving number 3 is P (3) =1/6 Probability of receiving number 4 is P (4) =1/6 Probability of receiving number 5 is P (5) =1/6 Probability of receiving number 6 is P (6) =1/6 (Since single die has only one 1. 2. Find the probability that both drawn balls are black. 5} Answer key 5: In a bags.6.5 and 6 so the probabilities are the same) .3. play a chess game.

In those dresses there are 20 gens dresses. ii) Select the hats. i) Assume P(A) is the probability for choose the gens dresses. 7blue. 5 red.(20+12) = 45 . P(B) =`(n(B))/(n(S))` = `(31)/(72)` . P(A) = `(n(A))/(n(S))` = `(20)/(72)` = `(5)/(18)` . and outcome of those experiment are pink. Solution: Number of products n(S) = 72 Number of dolls n(A) = 20 Number of hats n(B) = 31 Number of boxes n(C) = 21 i) Assume the P(A) is the probability for select the dolls. What is the probability for the following outcomes? i) Select the dolls. So find that one with the help of other quantity. Example 2: The dress shop has the 45 dresses. 3 yellow? Solution: Here the given problem is called as experiment. 12 are the ladies dresses and the remaining are the kids dresses. yellow and blue Now we can find the probabilities of each color P (red) =5/15 P (blue) =7/15 P (yellow) =3/15 e available. Number of kids dresses n(C ) = 45 .32 n(C) = 13. P(A) =`(n(A))/(n(S))` =`(20)/(45)` .Example 3 – math help with probability for elementary school: Suppose the rectangle is divided into 15 equal parts and those parts are colored using different colors. What is the probability for the following outcomes? i) Choose the gens dresses ii) Choose the ladies dresses Solution: Number of dresses n (S) = 45 Number of gens dresses n(A) = 20 Number of ladies dresses n(B) = 12 We don’t know the kids dress quantity. ii) Assume the P(B) is the probability for select the hats.

Consider A be the Poisson’s lambda (2) and B which has the Poisson’ lambda (3) and let C = A + B.04031 Answer: 0. In those rings. What is the probability for select the Stephen’s balls ? Answer: Probability = `(17)/(29)` .04031 Example problem 2 – Conditional probability Poisson learning Consider X be the Poisson’s lambda (3) and Y which has the Poisson’ lambda (2) and let Z = X . Calculate the distribution of A conditional on C = 10. What is the probability for select the Michel’s apples? Answer: Probability = `(23)/(49)` . Test question 2: Michel has 23 apples and Jenifer has the 26 apples.=`(4)/(9)` . Test question 3: The shop has 16 rings. Solution: . Solution: A: lambda = 2 B: lambda = 3 The value of C = A + B = 3 + 2 = 5 Using the formula of conditional probability Poisson distribution = = = = = 0. there are 7 diamond rings and 9 gold rings. ii)Assume P(B) is the probability for choose the ladies dresses.Y. Test Problems . Calculate the distribution of X conditional on Z = 5. What is the probability for select the gold rings? Answer: Probability = `(9)/(16)` . P(B) =`(n(B))/(n(S))` = `(12)/(45)` = `(4)/(15)` .Online Probability Test Prep Tutor: Test question 1: Stephen has a 17 balls and John has the 12 balls.

learn conditional probability distribution Problem 1: If A and B be two events.X: lambda = 3 Y: lambda = 2 The value of Z = X . P(B) = Solution: Step 1: Given: A and B = Events P( A and B ) = P( B ) = Step 2: To find: P( B | A ) Step 3: Formula: Conditional Probability formula = P(B | A) = Step 3: Solve: and P(A and B) = P( B | A ) = = . Answer: 4.3946 Practicing Problems – Conditional Probability Poisson Learning Practicing problem 1 – Conditional probability poisson learning Consider P be the Poisson’s lambda (2) and Q which has the Poisson’ lambda (2) and let R = P/ Q.3946 Example problem 1. Calculate the distribution of X conditional on Z = 3. Answer: 0.398 Practicing problem 2 – Conditional probability poisson learning Consider X be the Poisson’s lambda (3) and Y which has the Poisson’ lambda (2) and let Z = X* Y. Calculate the distribution of P conditional on R = 2.Y = 3 – 2 = 1 Using the formula of conditional probability Poisson distribution = = = = 4.3946 Answer: 4.

learn conditional probability distribution If A and B be two events.learn conditional probability distribution If A and B be two events. P(B) = /A)? and P(A and B) = . P(B) = Solution: Step 1: Given: A and B = Events P( A and B ) = P( B ) = Step 2: To find: P( B | A ) Step 3: Formula: Conditional Probability formula = P(B | A) = Step 3: Solve: and P(A and B) = P( B | A ) = = = = Result: Conditional Probability distribution = Practice Problems to Learn Conditional Probability Distribution: Problem 1.= Result: Conditional Probability distribution = Example Problem 2.learn conditional probability distribution . Then find the value of P(B Problem 2.

P ( Y | X ) = P ( X and Y ) / P ( X ) The given condition is P ( X and Y ) = P ( Y ) = 0.75 P ( X | Y ) = 0. P(B) = /A)? r: 1/5 and P(A and B) = Then find the value of P(B Example to Learn Conditional Probability Proof: In the population of England.If A and B be two events.85 So Conditional probability. P (X and Y) = P (X) Solution: Let us take X is the event that the player lives to 80 years and Y is the event that the player will live at least 80 years. solve the simple conditional probability that he will survive on 95 years. the probability the Cricket player’s life is at least 85 years is 0.85 P ( X | Y ) = 0. P( B | A ) = = . If A subset of B then. So given that P ( Y ) = 0.75 and P ( X ) = 0.75 / 0. If a player has 85 years old.75 if the player won’t live more than 95 years.85 and 0.88 Example Problems to Learn Conditional Probability Rule: Example: 1 Find the value of P(B |A) where P(A) = Solution: Step 1: P( A and B ) = P(A) = Step 2: To find: P( B | A ) Step 3: Formula: Conditional Probability = P(B | A) = Step 3: Solve: and P(A and B) = .

= = Answer: Conditional probability = Example: 2 Find the value of P(B |A) where P(A) = Solution: Step 1: P( A and B ) = P( A ) = Step 2: To find: P( B | A ) Step 3: Formula: Conditional Probability = P(B | A) = Step 3: Solve: and P(A and B) = . P( B | A ) = = = = Answer: Conditional Probability = Example: 3 Find the value of P(B |A) where P(A) = Solution: Step 1: and P(A and B) = . .

(2. 2). 3). 2). 1)} B = {(2. (3. (2. Events of Conditional Probability: For example. (1. we previously calculated the probability of rolling a 5 above. 2)} A AND B = {(2. 2). 2). 6).P( A and B ) = P(A) = Step 2: To find: P( B | A ) Step 3: Formula: Conditional Probability = P(B | A) = Step 3: Solve: P( B | A ) = = = Answer: Conditional probability = Practice Problems to Learn Conditional Probability Rule: Problem: 1 Find the value of P(B |A) where P(A) = Answer: Problem: 2 Find the value of P(B |A) where P(A) = Answer: 5 and P(A and B) = . 3). (3. (3. 3). 2)} P(A | B) = P(A AND B) / P(B) = P({(2. (6. (2. 1). 2). (2. 5). 3). 2)}) / P(B) = (1/18) / (11 / 36) = (2/11) . Now say we want to work out the probability of rolling a 5 given that one or both of the dice rolled is a 2. 2). (5. (3. 4). (4. We would calculate this conditional probability like so A = {(1. (4. and P(A and B) = . (2. 4). (2.

This trial is repeated 400 times and the Number of times each suit is drawn is given below.25/0.34 / 0. What is the probability that a student selects Spanish given that the student is taking Technology? Solution: P(Spanish | Technology) = P(Technology and Spanish) / P(Technology) = 0. The conditional probability that a student takes Technology is 0. When a card is drawn at random what is the probability that it is 1) a diamond 2) a black card 3) not a spade Answer: 1) Total number of trials = 400 Number of trials in which a diamond showed up = 76 P (the card drawn is a diamond) . and the probability of taking a black marble on the first draw is 0.68 = 0.Examples for Conditional Probability: Example 1: A math teacher gave her class two tests.34. What is the probability of taking a white marble on the second draw. given that the first marble drawn was black? Solution: P(White | Black) = = = = P(Black and White) / P(Black) 0. Two marbles are chosen without replacement. hearts or diamond). The probability of taking a black marble and then a white marble is 0. clubs.087. 25% of the class passed both tests and 42% of the class passed the first test.68. (spade.47. the conditional probability that a student selects Technology and Spanish is 0.087 / 0.42 = 0.47 0.13 = 13% uestion 30 Question: A card is drawn from a well-shuffled pack of cards and its suit is noted.60 = 60% Example 2: A jar contains black and white marbles.72 72% Example 3: At The Middle School. What percent of those who passed the first test also passed he second test? Solution: P(Second | First) = P(First and Second) / P(First) = 0.

4500) 2) Number of workers with wage above Rs. 3500 and Rs. 4000 or above? 3) Give two events in the content. 4500 = 63 + 42 = 105 P (the worker's wage is between Rs. what is the probability that 1) his wage is in the range Rs.2) Number of times a black card showed up = 96 + 108 = 204 P (the card drawn is black) 3) Number of times a card other than a spade showed up = 108 + 120 + 76 = 304 P (the card is not a spade) Question 31 Question: The monthly wages of 200 workers in a factory is given by the following table: If one worker in the factory is chosen at random. one having probability 0 and the other having probability 1.4500? 2) his wage is Rs. 3500 and Rs. 3500 . Answer: Total number of workers = 200 1) Number of workers whose wage is between Rs. 4000 .

P(E1) = 0.= 42 + 19 = 61 P (the worker's wage is above Rs. Since there is no worker whose wage is less than Rs. 3000". the number of dot-balls bowled in an over was noted down in the first 30 overs as follows: What is the probability that an over bowled in the match? 1) has no dot balls 2) has not more than 2 dot balls 3) at least two dot balls? Answer: Total number of overs = 30 1) Number of overs with no dot balls = 7 P (the over has no dot balls) 2) Number of overs with not more than 2 dot balls = 7 + 5+ 5 = 17 P (the over has not more than 2 dot balls) 3) Number of overs with atleast 2 dot balls = 5 + 4 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 18 P (the over has atleast 2 dot balls) . 3000. As the wages of all the workers considered is greater than or equal to Rs. Let E2 be the event: "the wage is not less than Rs. 3000. 3000". 4000) 3) Let E1 be the event "the wage of the worker is less than Rs. P(E2) = 1 Question 32 Question: In a cricket match.

and the number of mangoes which are spoilt is counted and recorded as follows: When one such basket is checked what is the probability that it has 1) no spoilt mangoes 2) Atleast 10 spoilt mangoes 3) more than 20 spoilt mangoes Answer: Number of baskets = 5 1) Number of baskets with no spoilt mangoes = 0 P (the basket has no spoilt mangoes) = 0 2) No of basket has no spoilt mangoes = 5 P (the basket has at least 10 spoilt mangoes) =1 3) No of baskets with more than 20 spoilt mangoes = 3 P(the basket has more than 20 spoilt mangoes) Question 34 Question: Consider the following frequency distribution table which gives the heights of 40 students in a class Find the probability that the height of a student in the class 1) lies in the interval 150 .Question 33 Question: 100 mangoes are selected at random from each of 5 baskets of mangoes.155 2) is 145 cm or above 145 cm 3) is below 150 cm .

155 cm = 12 P (the height of the student is in the interval 150 . This trial is repeated 500 times and the result is tabulated as follows: If a card is drawn what is the probability that the card no is 1) a prime number 2) an even number 3) not less than 8 Answer: Number of trials = 500 1) Number of trials in which the card drawn has a prime number = 34 + 52 + 54 + 60 = 200 P(the card number is prime) 2)Number of trials in which the card drawn has an even number = 34 + 48 + 36 + 62 + 70 = 250 .155) 2) Number of students whose height is 145 cm or above 145 cm = 11 +12 + 9 = 32 P (the height of the student is 145 cm or above) 3) Number of students whose height is below 150 cm= 8 + 11 = 19 P (the height of the student is less than 150 cm) Question 35 Question: Cards numbered 1 to 10 are placed in a box. One card is drawn and the number noted.Answer: Total Number of students = 40 1) Number of students whose height lies in the interval 150 .

10000 .Rs.P(the card number is even) 3)Number of trials in which the card number is greater than 6 = 60 + 62 + 56 + 70 = 248 P (card number is greater than 6) 4) Number of trials in which the card number is not less than 8 = 62 + 56 + 70 = 188 P (card number is not less than 8) Question 36 Question: An organisation selected 2400 families at random and surveyed than to determine a relationship between income level and the number of vehicles in a family. 10000 . 13000 and owns 2 vehicles) . 13000. and owning 2 vehicles = 29 P (the family is earning Rs. The information gathered is listed in the table below: Suppose a family is chosen.Rs. 16000 or more per month and owning exactly 1 vehicle iii) earning less than Rs. Answer: Total number of families = 2400 i) Number of families earning Rs. 10000 . 7000 per month and not owning any vehicle iv) earning Rs.Rs. 13000 per month and owning exactly 2 vehicles ii) earning Rs.16000 per month and owning more than 2 vehicles v) owning not more than 1 vehicle. find the probability that the family chosen is i) earning Rs. 13000 .

16000 or more and own 1 vehicle) iii) Number of families earning less than Rs.Rs. 16000 and owning more than 2 vehicles =25 P (the family is earning Rs. What is the probability of E3 ? . 7000 and does not own any vehicle) iv) Number of families Rs. and P(E1) = 0. 16000 or more and owning 1 vehicle = 579 P (the family is earning Rs.7000 and not owning any vehicle = 10 P (the family is earning less than Rs. 13000 . E3 cover all possible outcomes of a trial. P (E2) = 0. E2.05.7. 13000 .ii) Number of families earning Rs.Rs. 16000 and owns more than 2 vehicles) v) Number of families owning not more than 1 vehicle = 10 + 10 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 160 +305 +535 +469 +579 = 2062 P (the family owns not more than 1 vehicle) Question 37 Question: If E1.

P(C) = = = . there are 15 red caps.0.(0. 10 blue caps and 35 green caps available.25 Statistics and Probability Solutions: Question 38 Question: In a survey conducted among 300 students each of whom could speak either Hindi or English or both. it was found that 200 of them could speak Hindi and 250 of them could speak English.05) = 1 .Answer: P(E1) + P(E2) + P(E3) = 1 P(E3) = 1 . .7 + 0. ii) Select the blue caps. i) Select the red caps. Answer Total caps n(S) = 60 Red caps n (A) =15 Blue caps n (B) = 10 Green caps n(C) =35 i) Assume the P(A) is the probability for choose Red caps . P(A)= = = ii) Assume the P(B) is the probability for choose blue caps. Solve the probability with the below outcomes. what is the probability that he can speak both the languages? Here is a step by step explanation for Statistics and Probability Solutions Answer: Total number of students = 300 Number of students who can speak both languages = 200 + 250 .75 = 0. In that caps.300 = 150 P (the student can speak both languages) Problems for Probability with Answers Problem 1 The box has the 60 caps. If a student is selected at random.

(2. what is the probability of getting a sum is a) 10 or 5 b) 9 and 5 Solution: Let sample space = S. 5). (4.T). Therefore the probability is .(T. C = {(3. n(A) = 3 B be the event of getting a sum is 5. What is the probability for if two head are getting? Answer Two coins flipped means the feasible outcomes are {(H. (1.H). (6. (5.(T. We get the two head outcome is 1. 4). Total kerchiefs n(S)=40 Gray colour kerchiefs n(A)= 10 Yellow colour kerchiefs n(B)= 15 White colour kerchiefs n(C )= 15 Assume P(E) is the probability for balu select the white colour kerchief.(H. (3. (5. there are 10 is the gray colour. 3). A = {(4.H). 2). 6).T)} So the total numbers of outcomes are 4. 3)} = 4 P(A) = P(B) = = = . n(S) = 36 A be the event of getting a sum is 10. B = {(1. 15 is the yellow colour and 15 is the white colour. 1). 2). (6. 6). (6. (4. 4).We can solve the problems in these method and get the answers. 5). These solve problems with answers are used to study the probability. Example 1: When throwing two dice. 3) … (6. 5). 4)}. 6)}. 1)} = 4 C be the event of getting a sum is 9. So P(E)=n(C )/n(S) = = . If balu select the white colour kerchief means solve the probability? Answer First list the given information. (1. Problem 3 Two coins are spinning. In that kerchiefs. S = {(1. Problem 2 The bag has the 40 kerchiefs. In the above way we can solve the problems and get the answers.

(1. (6. 1)}. 2). 1). 2). Two candies are drawn at random. n(S) = 12C2 = n(A) = 7C2 = n(B) = 5C2 = P(A) = P(B) = = = + = = = = = 66 = 21 = 10 P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) = Learn Probability Problems with Answers . Find the probability of getting both will be blue balls. (2. (1. Solution: Let S = Sample space. A be the event of getting 2 blue candies. 5). (A or B) be the event of getting 2 blue or 2 black candies. B = {(5.P(C) = = + = a) P(A or B) = P(10 or 5) = b) P(B or C) = P(5 or 9) = + = Example 2: A jar contains 7 blue candies and 5 black candies. 6)}. (3. (6. Problem 2: A jar contains 4 blue balls and 5 black balls. 5). Find the probability of getting blue and black candies. (1. 6).Practice Problems Problem 1: A jar contains 6 blue candies and 4 black candies. (6. Answers: 1) 2) Let sample space S = {(1. 3). n(S) = 36 A be the event of getting a sum less than 5. (1. Two candies are drawn at random with replacement. 1). B be the event of getting 2 green candies. Find the probability of getting both will be blue or black candies. A = {(1. Two candies are drawn at random. n(A) = 6 B be the event of getting a sum greater than 10. (7 + 5 = 12). (2. 6)}. 1). n(B) = 3 P(A) = = . 2). 3) … (6.

Answers: 1) 2) . B be the event of getting 2 green candies.P(B) = = + = P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) = Ex 2: A jar has 4 black candies and 7 green candies. We have to select 2 candies from 11 candies. What is the probability of getting both will be black or green color candies. Two candies are taken at random. Two candies are taken at random. it will help you to get practice on how to find the probability. n(S) = 11C2 = n(A) = 4C2 = n(B) = 7C2 = P(A) = P(B) = = = + = = = = = 55 =6 = 21 P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) = P(2 black or 2 green) = Probability Problems with Answers Help . What is the probability of getting both will be white or yellow color candies. Solution: Let S be the sample space.Practice Problems with Answers Solve these practice probability problems. (A or B) be the event of getting 2 black or 2 green candies. Pr 1: Find the the probability of getting a sum less than 3 or greater than 9 while throwing two dice simultaneously. S = 4 + 7 = 11. A be the event of getting 2 black candies. Pr 2: A jar has 5 white candies and 8 yellow candies.

Find the probability of getting a head.Examples with Answers Example problem of Theoretical probability: A bag contains 20 marbles.Example problem of Expremental probability: A bag contains 10 red marbles. the number of possible outcomes is two — Head (H) and Tail (T). 15 of them are red and 5 of them are blue in color. a Brown ball and a Purple ball. . Let E be the event ‘getting a head’. Step 6: So. Find the probability of picking a red marble. Find the experimental probability of receiving a blue marble. Step 7: Therefore. (i. it is equally likely that she takes out any one of them. the probability of selection a red marble is: Step 8: number of red marbles in the bag / Total number of marbles in the bag Step 9: 15/20=3/4 =0. P (E) = P (head) = Number of outcomes favorable to E / Number of all possible outcomes = Study Probability Example Problem 2: A bag contains a Black ball. The number of outcomes favorable to E.75 =75% If a coin is tossed. Solution for the problem: In the experiment of tossing a coin once.. What is the probability that she takes out the 1. Purple ball? 2. David takes out a ball from the bag without looking into it. Brown ball? Solution for the problem: David takes out a ball from the bag without looking into it. the chance of selection a red marble is more than that of the blue one. Step 5: It’s understandable that we have three times as many red marbles as blue marbles. Solution: Step 1: Take a marble from the bag. Step 3: The next question is what the chances of alternative a red marble are: Step 4: There are 15 red marbles and just 5 blue marbles. Solution: Let’s first answer a few questions here: Step 1: If we are going to randomly select a marble from the bag then what results we have: Step 2: We can also select a red marble or a blue one. 8 blue marbles and 2 yellow marbles.e. Step 3: Repeat a few times (maybe 10 times). Step 4: Count the number of times a blue marble was pick (Suppose it is 6). of getting a head) is 1 Therefore. all the balls being of the same size. Step 2: Record the color and return the marble. Step 5: The experimental probability of receiving a blue marble from the bag is 6/10 =3/5 Theoretical Probability Problems . Black ball? 3. So.

there are 31 red roses. Find the probability for the below outcomes? . 14 are Bangles and 10 are Rings. the number of possible outcomes = 3. P(C) = = = Example 2 – Normal Probability Online Study In a shop. Now. P(R) = P (B) = In a rose garden. B be the event ‘the ball taken out is Brown’.Let Y be the event ‘the ball taken out is Purple’. there are 41 products are available. Find the probability of the following outcomes? i) Selection of red roses ii) Selection of yellow roses iii) Selection of white roses Solution: Total number of roses n(S) = 31 + 24 + 15 = 70 Number of red roses n(A) = 31 Number of yellow roses n(B) = 24 Number of white roses n(C) = 15 i) Assume the P(A) is the probability for selection of red roses. 17 are Anklets. The number of outcomes favorable to the event Y = 1 P(Y) = . 24 yellow roses and 15 white roses. In that. and R be the event ‘the ball taken out is Black’. P(B) = = = iii) Assume the P(C) is the probability for selection of white roses. P(A) = = ii) Assume the P(B) is the probability for selection of yellow roses.

P(A) = = ii) Let take P(B) is the probability for choosing Bangles. Landing on red. find the probability of choosing an odd in them? 1/10 4/10 5/10 These are the examples on study normal probability. The probability of choosing a vowel from the alphabet is? 22/26 5/26 1/21 • • • The number from 1 to 10 is chosen at random. P(B) = = That’s all about normal probability problems online study • To find the correct experiment in the following? tossing a coin rolling a die.i) Probability for choosing Anklets ii) Probability for choosing Bangles Solution: Total number of products n(S) = 41 Number of Anklets n(A) = 17 Number of Bangles n(B) = 14 Number of Rings n(C) = 10 i) Assume the P(A) is the probability for choosing Anklets. Both the above. Choose the letter “g“ from the word “Google”. t see some of the mathematical probability problems. To find the outcome in the following choices? rolling a pair of the dice. Both the above. Solution: The given word is “Google” .

15 brown color files. =2/6 =1/3 =0. Normal Probability 2: Let us we will learn the concept of normal probability help with example problem. 6 Possibility outcomes=2 Total number of events in this words=6 So the probability. 1. =2/5 =0. P (A) = = = These are normal probability problems online tutoring. Total letters are. the letter‘t’ is double time repetitive in the given word.Here. Total letters in this given word is “tutor” Possibility outcomes=2 Total number of events in this words=5 So the probability.4 • These are normal probability problems online tutoring. In that fridge 10 chocolate ice creams and 5 butter scotch ice creams and 10 strawberry ice creams.33 Probability problem 2 with solutions: Choose the letter “t“from the word “tutor” Solutions: The given word is “tutor” Here. In a fridge 25 ice creams. Imagine the P (A) is the probability for choose the chocolate ice creams. Pick the Brown files. 2. Select the butter scotch ice creams Solution: 2. Locate the probability. In that bags there are 15 blue files. the letter‘t’ is two times repetitive in the given statement. 20 red color files. Solution: . Choose the Chocolate ice creams 2. Normal probability problem 2: In a bag there are 50 color files are available. Pick and choose the blue files. 1.

The P (B) is the probability for choose the brown files.Formula: Z= Where. μ = mean σ = standard deviation X = normal random variable Normal Probability Distribution Online Tutor – Example Problems: Example 1: If X is a normal random variable with mean and standard deviation calculate the probability of P(X<125). P (A) = = = 1. When mean μ = 96 and standard deviation = 35 Solution: Given Mean μ = 96 Standard deviation σ = 35 Using the formula Z= Given value for X = 125 Z= = . The P (A) is the probability for select the blue files.Total files n(S) = 50 Blue files n (A) = 15 Brown files n (B) = 15 Red color files n(C) = 20 1. P (B) = = Normal probability distribution online tutor .

5 + Z 65 > 39 = 0.5 + Z 125 > 96 = 0.17 Using the Z table.485 P(X) = 0. Solution: (i) P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.485 If X is greater than μ then we use this formula X > μ = 0.985 Find out the given probabilities. P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2. we determine the Z value = 2.83 Z = 0.17 Z = 2.2967 P(X) = 0.17 = 0.= 0.83 Z = 0.7967 P(X) = 0.83 Using the Z table.2967 = 0.5 + 0. we determine the Z value = 0.4) and P(−2.4 ≤ Z ≤ 0).4) .83 = 0.5 + 0.7967 Example 2: If X is a normal random variable with mean and standard deviation calculate the probability of P(X< 65).985 P(X) = 0. When mean μ = 39 and standard deviation = 12 Solution: Given Mean μ = 39 Standard deviation σ = 12 Using the formula Z= Given value for X = 65 Z= = = 2.5 + 0.2967 If X is greater than μ then we use this formula X > μ = 0.17 Z = 2. Let we consider z be a standard normal variate.5 + 0.485 = 0.

solve probbaility and normal distribution: Find out the given probability (i) area to the right of z = 0.4) = area between the value of z = 0 and the value of z = 2.4 ≤ Z ≤ 0) = P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.4918 (ii) P(−2.4918 Example problem 2 .Given: P(0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.8 = P(0 < Z < ) – P(0 ≤ Z < 0.8 Solution: Given: area to the right of z= 0.2881 = 0. Let we consider z be a standard normal variate.8) = area between the value of z = 0 to the value of z = value of o to the value of z = 0.6.8 P(Z > 0. = 0.4 = 0.4) P (0 ≤ Z ≤ 2.4 ≤ Z ≤ 0) P(−2.8) = 0.8 and the (ii) area to the left of z = 1.2119 – area between the .4). (i) area to the right of z = 0.4 ≤ Z ≤ 0) Solution: The given value is P(−2.5 – 0.

9452 Example1: The average life of a certain kind of coast is 10 years. Example 2: .5 values 0.6 Solution: Given : area to the left of z = 1.88 Z = (X – μ) / σ (x-10)/2 = -1.03 = 0.6) = 0.(ii) area to the left of z = 1.5 .47 after that value of Z is -1. If the producer is willing to replace only 3% of the motors that fail. P(X<x) = 0. These are the motors that we are willing to replace under the guarantee.03 From table get 0.0. how long a guarantee should he offer? Solution: X=motor life x= guarantee period We need to find the value (in years) that will give us the bottom 3% of the distribution.5 + 0.6 = P(Z < 1.4452 = 0. with a standard deviation of 2 years.24 years.88 the value of x is6.24 The guarantee time is 6.

3413 – 0.75< X<3.6) = 0.07 is P(10. then (a) 10.02 mm. determine i) the proportion of the workers getting wages between 2 75and3.08 is standard deviations above the mean P(10. X=1.69 an hour Z1 = ((2.566 Totally 56.25)/0.07) = P(0.25)/0. If the wages are around normally distributed.645 from normal distribution table (X-3.5 < Z < 1) = 0.5) = 0.69-3.833 Z2 = ((3.24 Example 1: Mean length of 200 parts produced by a company was 10.25 an hour with a standard deviation of 60 cents.4332 = 0.6 = 1.7745 So the probability is 0.07 mm? Solution: X = length of part If we know μ and σ.06 < X < 10. standard deviation above the mean .1915 standard deviations above the mean. ii) The minimum wage of the highest 5%.7745.03 mm and 10. Solution: i) The proportion of the workers getting wages between 2 75and3.06 mm and 10. (b) 10.08 mm? (b) between 10.05 mm with a standard deviation of 0. What is the probability that a part chosen at random would have a length (a) between 10.69 an hour ii) The minimum wage of the highest 5%.25)/0.69) = P (-0.268 = 0.A corporation pays its employees an average salary of $3.733) = 0.03 < X < 10.6) = -0.645 After evaluation the value of X = 4.237 The minimum salary of the top 5% if salary is $4.75-3.6% of the workers have wages.833< Z< 0.06 is 10.08 = (-1 < Z < 1.3413 + 0.298 + 0.733 P (2.03 is standard deviations below the mean 10.

Solution: Step1: Find the value of e-λ.718)-4 = Step2: Find the value of λx.1498. we are going to see some of the problems on poisson distribution questionstutor help.= 0. Example Problem-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Example problem 1: Today.0228.01 is standard deviation below the mean. we can get clear idea about poisson distribution questions. =0.05 cm with a standard deviation of 0.Learning Example 2 Example 2: Mean height of 50 parts produced by a company was 10. What is the probability that a part chosen at random would have a height a) less than 10.1498 So the probability is 0. λ=4 and e=2. (b) 10.02 cm. P(X < 10. Use Poisson distribution to solve.09 is 2 standard deviation above the mean P(X > 10.09 cm? Solution: (a) 10. Where.07) = P(Z < -2) = 0. f(x) = where. From this help. λ=4 and x=7 λx = 47 = 16384 Step3: Find f(x).01832 . 4 foreigners visited the city Washington. Probability of Normal Distribution Learning .01 cm? b) greater than 10.5 – 0.718 e-λ = (2. x is the Poisson random value is the average rate of success Now.0228 The formula for the Poisson distribution is. So the probability is 0.4792 = 0.09) = 0. Find the possibilities for exactly 7 foreigners to be visit on tomorrow.0228. Where.

the probability of exactly 7 foreigners to visit on tomorrow is 0. λ=2 and e=2.036) Problem 2: If λ= 5 and x = 10. then find the poisson distribution. Where.05955. . (Solution: 0. the poisson distribution is 0. The formula for the Poisson distribution is. Solution: Step1: Find the value of e-λ. then find the poisson distribution.= = 0. (solution: 0. λ=2 and x=6 λx = 26 = 64 Step3: Find f(x).05955 So.012 Practice Problems-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Problem 1: If λ= 2 and x = 5.012 So.018). Additional Problem-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Example problem 2: If λ= 2 and x = 6. then find the poisson distribution.718)-2 = Step2: Find the value of λx. =0. Where.135363 = = 0.718 e-λ = (2.

718)-2 = Step2: =0.718)-4 = Step2: Find the value of λx. Use Poisson distribution to solve.718 e-λ = (2. From this help.135363 . 4 foreigners visited the city Washington. Where. we are going to see some of the problems on poisson distribution questionstutor help. then find the poisson distribution. Where. the probability of exactly 7 foreigners to visit on tomorrow is 0. x is the Poisson random value is the average rate of success Now.f(x) = where. Find the possibilities for exactly 7 foreigners to be visit on tomorrow. λ=4 and e=2.05955 So. Solution: Step1: Find the value of e-λ. Example Problem-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Example problem 1: Today.718 e-λ = (2. Where. Solution: Step1: Find the value of e-λ. λ=2 and e=2.05955. we can get clear idea about poisson distribution questions. λ=4 and x=7 λx = 47 = 16384 Step3: Find f(x). =0. Additional Problem-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Example problem 2: If λ= 2 and x = 6.01832 = = 0.

Tutoring Solution: Step 1: Given: =2 x=5 Step 2: Formula: Poisson distribution = Step 3: To find e: e-5 = (2.Find the value of λx.012 So. then find the poisson distribution. Where.718)-5 = 0. (Solution: 0. λ=2 and x=6 λx = 26 = 64 Step3: Find f(x). = = 0.718 . then find the poisson distribution.018). (solution: 0. the poisson distribution is 0.036) Problem 2: If λ= 5 and x = 10. x = 5 and e = 2.012 Practice Problems-poisson Sistribution Questions Tutor: Problem 1: If λ= 2 and x = 5. Example 1: Solve Poisson distribution where.006737 Step 4: Solve: =2 x=5 = (2)5 = 32 Step 4: Substitute: = = 2.

036 Example 2: Solve Poisson distribution where. . x = 17 and e = 2. x = 14 and e = 2.036 Tutoring Result: Poisson Distribution = 0. Tutoring Solution: Step 1: Given: =3 x=6 Step 2: Formula: Poisson distribution = Step 3: To find e: e-6 = (2.718 Practice Problems to Poissons Distribution Online Tutoring Example 1: Solve Poisson distribution where.718.718.718)-6 = 0. = 15.= = = 0. Tutoring Answer: 0.085 = 12. x = 6 and e = 2.09 Example 2: Solve Poisson distribution where. Tutoring Answer: 0.0025 Tutoring Result: Poisson Distribution = 0.002478 Step 4: Solve: =3 x=6 = (3)6 = 729 Step 4: Substitute: = = = = 0.0025 = 3.

Calculate the proportion of days on which neither car is used and the proportion of days on which some demand is refused.0.8+ 1.A manufacturer of cotton pins knows that 4% of his product is defective.8. Solution: The value of p is p = .P[X ≤ 2] P[X > 2] = 1. Find the approximate probability that a box will fail to meet the guaranteed quality. n = 100 ) (100) = 4 The mean value is lambda = n p = ( By the Poisson distribution P[X = x] = Probability that a box will to meet the guaranteed quality = P[X > 2] P[X > 2] = 1.2379 P[X > 2] = 0.P[X ≤ 3] P[X > 3] = 1.0183(13) P[X > 2] = 1.392) = 0.hire firm has three cars.972) P[X > 3] = 1 .62+ 0.1653 .8. If he sells pins in boxes of 100 and guarantees that not more than 2 pins will be defective.7621. By the Poisson distribution P[X = x] = Proportion of the days on which neither car is used = P[X = 0] = Proportion of days on which some demand is refused = P[X > 3] P[X > 3] = 1. The given mean value is 1.(P (0) +P (1) +P (2)) P[X > 2] = 1P[X > 2] = 1(1 + 4+ ( (1+4+8) )) P[X > 2] = 1(13) P[X > 2] = 1.7621 The probability for the box will fail to meet the guaranteed quality is 0. Solution: Let X is the number of demands for a car.1653) (5.0.(0. Example 2 for Poisson distribution football online tutor: A car. The number of demands for a car on each day is distributed as a Poisson distribution with mean of 1.[P (0) +P (1) + P (2) +P (3)] P[X > 3] = 1(1+ 1.

5. Step 2: Formula: Mean of Poisson distribution = E(Y) = Step 3: Find: E(X) = 3( ) + 5( ) + 7( ) + 8( ) + 11( ) x P(Y) = + + + + = 0.0. Solution: Step 1: Given: x = 3. 8.66 + 5. .4+ 2. 11 P(Y) = .P[X > 3] = 1 . 7.Mean of Poisson distribution tutoring x P(Y) 3 5 7 8 11 Calculate the mean for the following Poisson distribution table. . The proportion of days on which some demand refused is 0.81 .1087 The proportion of days on which neither the car used is 0. Explanation to Mean of Poisson Distribution Tutoring: The explanation for the Poisson distribution mean are given below the following section.1087.5 + 1.8913 P[X > 3] = 0.5 = 12. Formula: Mean of Poisson distribution = E(Y) = where.75 + 2. . • • E(X) = Mean of Poisson distribution P(Y) = Probability of Poisson distribution x P(Y) • = Sum of all values of Poisson Example Problems to Mean of Poisson Distribution Tutoring: Problem 1.1653.

Mean of Poisson distribution tutoring Calculate the mean for the following Poisson distribution table. 7 P(Y) = . 5.81 Problem 2 .66 + 1.5 + 1 + 1.27 .Mean of Poisson distribution tutoring Calculate the mean for the following Poisson distribution table. Step 2: Formula: Mean of Poisson distribution = E(Y) = Step 3: Find: E(X) = 1 ( ) + 4( ) + 5( ) + 6( ) + 7( ) x P(Y) = 1/2+ 1+ + + = 0. . .16 = 5. . Answer: 8.Mean of Poisson distribution tutoring x P(Y) 1 3 4 5 9 Calculate the mean for the following Poisson distribution table. 6. 4. x P(Y) 1 4 5 6 7 Solution: Step 1: Given: x = 1.08 Problem 2 .96 Result: Mean of Poisson distribution = 5.Result: Mean of Poisson distribution = 12. x P(Y) 2 5 6 8 10 Answer: 8.96 Practice Problems to Mean of Poisson Distribution Tutoring: Problem 1 .2 + 1.

04)6-3 Step 1: C3 = 6 = = . Formula for binomial distribution: P(x = r) = nCr pr (1 – p)n-r Where. – Average rate x – Poisson random variable e – base of logarithm = 2.Binomial distribution: It describes the number of successes occurring from 'n' number of experiments. n – number of events r – Number of success p – Probability of success Cr . If Ram wants to buy 6 computers then calculate the likelihood that 3 will be damaged. each computer has 4% probability of not working.combination = Poisson distribution: n It describes the number of events happened in a fixed time.04 Formula for binomial distribution: P(x = r) = nCr pr (1 – p)n-r P(x = 3) = 6C3 0. Formula for Poisson distribution: f(x) = where.043 (1 – 0.718 Example Problems to Binomial and Poisson Distribution Tutoring: Example: 1 A shop has 150 computers. Solution: Given: n=6 r=3 p = 4% = = 0.

.= 20 Step 2: 0. Ravi want to buy 4 mobiles then determine the likelihood that 1 will be damaged.043 = 0.884736 Step 4: P(x = 3) = (20)(0. Answer: 0.04)6-3 = (0.1044 Practice Problems to Binomial and Poisson Distribution Tutoring: Problem: 1 A mobile shop has 500 cell phones and each mobile has 5% probability of not working.000064)(0.884736) = 0.000064 Step 3: (1 – 0. Solution: Given: =5 x=7 Step 1: Poisson distribution = Step 2: e-5 = 0. 6 school students are absent Friday.171 Problem: 2 In a class. Determine the possibility for 7 college students will be arrived on the next day. Determine the possibility for 12 school students will be absent on Saturday.1044 Answer: 0.0011 Example: 2 In a coaching center.96)3 = 0.0153 Answer: 0. 5 college students arrived today.006738 Step 3: = (5)7 = 78125 Step 4: = = = 0.

Where. Find the possibilities for exactly 6 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow.006741 Step2: Find λx.1044921875.718)-5 = = 0.718 e-λ = (2. λx = 56 = 15625. λ= 5 and e=2. λ= 5 and x=7.Answer: 0. Where. Where. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ. f(x) = e-λλx / x! f(7) = = = 0. Step3: Find f(x). Step3: Find f(x).006741 Step2: Find λx.718 e-λ = (2. Where.718)-5 = = 0. λ=5 and x=6. λx = 57 = 78125. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ. Hence there are 10% possibilities for 5 staffs to be taking leave of college on tomorrow. Example: In a college there are 5 staffs absent today. f(x) = e-λλx / x! . Find the possibilities for exactly 7 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow. λ=5 and e=2.011 Example: In a college there are 5 staffs absent today.

. Find the possibilities for exactly 7 clients to be visit on tomorrow. λx = 47 = 16384. Hence there are 6% possibilities for 7 clients to be visit an office on tomorrow. Problem: In an office there are 5 staffs absent today. Example: In an office 4 clients visit today. Hence there are 0. λ=4 and x=7.14% possibilities for 6 staffs to be taking leave of an office on tomorrow.1462890.018323236 Step2: Find λx. Poisson Binomial Distribution Online Tutoring Practice Problem: Problem: In an office there are 4 staffs absent today. Where. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ. λ=4 and e=2. Find the possibilities for exactly 6 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow. f(x) = e-λλx / x! f(7) = = = 0. Step3: Find f(x).05956.f(6) = = = 0.718)-4 = = 0. Find the possibilities for exactly 7 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow. There are 10% possibilities for 6 staffs to be taking leave of an office on tomorrow. Answer: 0.718 e-λ = (2.1042388. Where.

0004 Step 3: (1 – 0.02)10-2 = (0. If you want to select 10 televisions randomly then find the likelihood that 2 will be broken. There are 0. Solution: Given: n = 10 r=2 p = 2% = = 0.10% possibilities for 7 staffs to be taking leave of an office on tomorrow.98)8 = 0. Solution: Given: =3 x=5 . 3 students arrived today.02)10-2 Step 1: C2 = 10 = = = = 45 Step 2: 0.0153 Answer: 0. What is the possibility for 5 students will be arrived on next day.022 (1 – 0.022 = 0.850 Step 4: P(x = 2) = (45)(0.02 Formula for binomial distribution: P(x = r) = nCr pr (1 – p)n-r P(x = 2) = 10C2 0. each television has 5% probability of not working.104499.0153 Example: 2 In a library.Answer: 0.850) = 0. Example: 1 A shop has 100 televisions.0004)(0.

5 students are absent today.0183232366 Step2: Find λx. What is the possibility for 10 students will be absent on next day.718)-4 = 1/54. λx = 46 = 4096.Step 1: Poisson distribution = Step 2: e-3 = 0. each cell phone has 3% probability of not working. Where.04978 Step 3: = (3)5 = 243 Step 4: = = = Answer: 0. If you want to select 5 cell phones randomly then find the likelihood that 1 will be broken. Answer: 0. Answer: 0. f(x) = e-λλx / x! f(6) = (0.018 Solve Poisson Binomial Distribution Example Problem: Example: In an office there are 4 staffs absent today.0183232366)(4096) / 6! .133 Problem: 2 In coaching center. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ. λ=4 and x=6. Find the possibilities for exactly 6 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow. =75. Where. Step3: Find f(x).575510850576 = 0.718 e-λ = (2.05195 /720 .101 Example Problems to Binomial and Poisson Distribution Help: Problem: 1 A cell shop has 200 cell phones. λ=4 and e=2.

f(x) = e-λλx / x! f(7) = (0. f(x) = e-λλx / x! f(4) = (0. λ=5 and x=7. Step3: Find f(x).718)-5 = 1/148. Example: In an office 2 clients visit today. λ=2 and e=2. Hence there are 0.09024. Example: In an office there are 5 staffs absent today. λx = 57 = 78125.3362 = 0.387524 = 0. Problem: . 135633)(16) / 4! .104499. Where. Where.67521 /5040 = 0.100084.718)-2 = 1/7.006741 Step2: Find λx.= 0. 006741)(78125) / 7! . Find the possibilities for exactly 7 staff to be taking leave on tomorrow. Hence there are 9% possibilities for 4 clients to be visit an office on tomorrow.718 e-λ = (2. There are 10% possibilities for 5 clients to be visit an office on tomorrow.10% possibilities for 7 staffs to be taking leave of an office on tomorrow. Step3: Find f(x).16581/24 = 0. Find the possibilities for exactly 5 clients to be visit on tomorrow. = 526. λ=2 and x=4. Find the possibilities for exactly 4 clients to be visit on tomorrow.1042388. Solve Poisson Binomial Distribution Practice Problem Problem: In an office 3 clients visit today. = 2. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ.135633 Step2: Find λx. λ=5 and e=2.718e-λ = (2. Where. Where. Answer: 0. λx = 24 = 16. Hence there are 10% possibilities for 6 staffs to be taking leave of an office on tomorrow. Solution: Step1: Find e-λ.

Find the possibilities for exactly 5 clients to be visit on tomorrow.In an office 4 clients visit today.156358. . There are 15% possibilities for 5 clients to be visit an office on tomorrow. Answer: 0.

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