Number Systems and Digital Circuits 1- NUMBER SYSTEMS AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS

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Introduction : Modern computers do not work with decimal numbers. Instead of, they process binary numbers, groups of Os and 1s. Why binary numbers? Because electronic devices are most reliable when designed for two – states (Binary ) operation either on or off. People do not like working with binary numbers because they are very long. Entering binary numbers into computer becomes tadeous. Therefore octal and Hexadecimal numbers are widely used to compress long strings of binary numbers. Gate is a circuit with one or more input singles but only one output signal. It is used to construct a logical circuits which are the building blocks of a computer. Therefore it is necessary to study the basic operation of gates and logical circuits. This chapter discusses various number systems, gates and concepts needed to understand computer operation. 1.1 Number System: In general, in any number system there is an ordered set of symbols known as digits with rules defined for performing arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. A collection of these digits makes a number which in general has two parts – integer and fractional, set a part by a radix point ( . ), that is (N)b = dn-1, dn-2 ---- d2 , ...... d1 , ........ d0 . d-1 , d-2...... d-f ..... d-m Interger portion redix fractional portion point The digits in a number are placed side by side and each position in the number is assigned a weight or index. Table 1.1 gives the details of commonly used number systems. Number system Binary Octal Decimal Base or radix (b) symbol used (di or d-f) 0,1 0,1,2,3,4 0,1,2,3,4,5 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 A,B,C,D,E,F weight assigned to position 2-i 2-f 8-i 8-f 10-i 10-f 16-i 16-f example 1011.11 3567.25 3974.57 3FA9.56

2 8 10 Hexadecimal 16

1.2. Binary number system: The number system with base (or radix ) two is known as the binary number system. Only two symbols are used to represent

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Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals

numbers in this system and these are 0 and 1. these are known as bits. It is a positional system, that is every position is assigned a specific weight. Table 1.2 illustrates counting in binary number system. The corresponding decimal numbers are given in the right – hand column. Similar to decimal number system the left – most bit is known as most significant bit ( MSB) and the right – most bit is known as the least significant bit(LSB). Any number of Os can be added to the left of the number without changing the value of the number. A group of four bits is known as nibble and a group of eight bits is known as a byte. Binary number B3 B2 B1 B0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Decimal Number D1 D0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5

Table 1.2 4- bit binary numbers and their corresponding decimal numbers. Binary – to – decimal – conversation: Any binary number can be converted into its equivalent decimal number using the weights assigned to each bit position. Since only two digits are used, the weights are powers of 2. these weights are20 ( Units ), 21 ( two s), 22 ( fours ) 23 ( eights ) and 24 ( sixteen ). If longer binary number involved, the weights continue in ascending powers of 2.

Number Systems and Digital Circuits

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The decimal equivalent of a binary number equals the sum of all binary number equal the sum of all binary digits multiplied by their weights. Example 1.1 : Find the decimal equivalent of binary number 111112. Solution: The equivalent decimal number is, 4 3 2 1 0 =1 x2 + 1x2 + 1x2 + 1x2 + 1x 2 = 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = ( 31 )
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The steps involved in fast and easy conversion. 1. 2. 3. 4. Write the binary number Write the weights 1,2,4, 8 ………… under binary digits. Cross out any weight under a 0 . Add the remaining weights.

Example 1.2 : Convert binary number 1 1 0 1 2 into decimal number. 1) 2) 3) 4) 1 2 8
3

1 2 4
2

0 2 2
1

1 2 1
0

write binary number write weights cross weight under 0 add weights

1 x 8 +1 x 4 + 2 x 0 + 1 x 1 = 13
2

Example 1.3 :Convert 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 64 1 32 1 16 0 8 1 4

into decimal number 1 1 117

0 2

Example 1.4: Determine the decimal numbers represented by the following binary numbers. a) 101101. 10101 n) 1001 . 0101

Read down to up of remainders which is In this final division. 10101) = 2 1x 2 5 + 0 x 2 4 + 1x 2 3 + 1x 2 2 + 0 x 21 + 1x 2 0 + 1x 2 −1 + 0 x 2 −2 + 1x 2 −3 + 0 x 2 −4 + 1x 2 −5 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 + = (45. 2 |13 2| 6 − 2| 3 − 2|1 2| 0 − − 1 0 1 1 13 = 1 1 0 1 10 2 equalent to binary number. In this example.25 + 0 + 0.3125)10 Decimal – to binary conversation: Any decimal number can be converted into its equivalent binary number. while for fractional parts. binary 1 1 0 1 is equivalent to decimal 13. For integers.4 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Solution: (101101. The conversion process is illustrated by the following examples. the conversion is effected by continuous multiplications by 2 and keeping track of the integers generated. .65625)10 b) 1 1 1 +0 + + 0 + 2 8 32 (1001. the quotient is 0 with a remainder of 1.625 = (9.0101)2 = 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 = 0. 2 does not divide into therefore. the conversion is obtained by contineous division by 2 and keeping track of the remainders. How to convert decimal 13 to its binary equivalent. the conversion is finished the reminders when read downward give the binary equivalent. Whenever you arrive at a quotient of 0 with a remainder of 1.

Solution: 0.65625) 10 to an equivalent base –2 number.6: Express the following decimal numbers in the binary form.10101 ) 2 Example 1.65625 X 2 1. a)25.62500 0 0.31250 1 0.50000 0 .5: convert decimal 23 to binary. ( 0. 2 | 23 2 |11 − 2| 5 − 2| 2 2 |1 2| 0 − − − 1 1 1 0 1 5 Read binary number 23 = 10111 10 2 Read down to up and becomes binary equialent number This says that binary 1 0 1 1 1 is equivalent to decimal 23.5: Convert ( 0.31250 X 2 0.62500 ) 10 = ( 0.00000 Thus.5 Solution: a) Integer part: b) 10.62500 X 2 1.25000 X 2 0. Example 1.625 0.25000 1 0.50000 X 2 1.Number Systems and Digital Circuits Example 1.

Binary arithmetic is much simpler than decimal arithmetic because here only two digits. multiplication and division of decimal numbers.3.101 2 1.250 1 i.e 10.101 10 2 Therefore .500 0.625 0. Similar operations can be performed on binary numbers. 0 and 1 are involved.510 = 11001.6 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Thus.500 X2 1.250 X2 0.1 2 b) Integer part 1010 = 1010 2 Fractional part. ( 25) 10 = ( 11001)2 2 | 25 2 |12 − 2| 6 − 2| 3 2 |1 2| 0 − − − 1 0 0 1 1 Read down to up Fraction part 0. . 5 10 = 0.e 0 .625 X2 1. 0. subtraction. Binary Arithmetic : We all are familiar with the arithmetic operations such as additions.000 1 10 0 = 1010. 10. 0 1 i.12 Therefore 25.625 = 1010. 5 X 2 1.

i) 1011 and 1100 ii) 0101 and 1111 Solution:i) 1 (+) 1 ->1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 ii) 0 (+) 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 Carry 1 0 Binary subtraction: The rules of binary subtraction are given in the table. Augend addend sum 0 +0 0 0 +1 1 1 +0 1 1 +1 (1)0 1 carry in from 1 previous table (1)1 carryout to next most place Example 1. minus end subtrats end difference 0 -0 0 1 -1 0 1 -0 1 0 -1 1 The first three rules are the same as in decimal subtraction. The last rule requires a borrow from the next most significant place. The minuend is then binary 10 and the subtrahend is 1 with a difference of 1.7: Add the following binary numbers.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 7 Binary addition: The rules of binary addition are given in the following table. i) 1011 ii) 01010101 __ 0110 __00111001 Solution: i) Subtraction 0 10 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 __ 1 0 1 ii) 0 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 1 1 10 0 1 1 1 10 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 .8: perform the following subtraction. Example 1.

the multiplicand is copied as the product. Example 1.9 perform the following multiplication i) 1101 ii) 1001 X 101 X 1101 Sol: i) 1 1 0 1 X 1 0 1 1101 0000 1101 111 10110001 ii) 1 0 0 1 X 1 1 0 1 1001 0000 1001 1001 11 10 101 Observe: That binary multiplication is similar to decimal multiplication.10 divide 1 1 1 0 1 01 by 1 0 0 1 Solution: 1 1 0 1<-----------------. the product is always 0. Binary division: Binary division is obtained using the same procedure as decimal division.quotient Divisior: 1001) 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 <-. 1. An example of binary division is given below. When the multiplier is 0. Multiplied Multiplier X Product 0 0 0 X 1 0 0 X 0 1 0 X 1 1 1 When the multiplier is 1 in binary multiplication.8 Binary multiplication: Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals The rules of binary multiplication are given in the following table.Dividend 1001 1011 1001 1001 1001 0 . Example.

For example ( 6327. in general. Example 1. 4051)8 is an octal number.3. and 7 are used to represent the number. the resulting number is known as the one’s complement of the first number. Using the weights it can be written as.6.4. In this system eight symbols. In fact. the resulting number is known as the two’s complement of the binary number. Binary numbers. set a part by a radix point. 4057 )8 = 6 x8 3 + 3 x8 2 + 2 x81 + 7 x8 0 + 4 x8 −1 + 0 x8 − 2 + 5 x8 −3 + 1x8 − 4 4 5 1 3072 + 192 + 16 + 7 + + 0 + + 8 512 4096 (3287. Example 1.5. two parts : Integer and fractional .4. if each 1 is represented by 0 and each 0 by 1. 1 . 1s complement of binary number: In a binary number. (6327. 0. Similar to decimal and binary number systems. 5100098)10 = = . both the numbers are complement of each other. a) 1011000110 b) 00100101 s Solution : a) 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 is 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 s b) 00100101 1 complement number is 11011010 Two’s complement: If 1 is added to is complement of a binary number.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 9 1. It is also observed that the 2’s complement of the 2’s complement of a number is the number is the number itself.11: find the one’s complement of the following. 2 . Solution: a) Number is complement add 1 2’s complen 01001110 10110001 1 10110010 b) 00110101 11001010 1 11001011 Octal number system : The number system with base ( or redixy) eight is known as the octal number system.12: Find the two’s complement of the following. it is also a positional system and has.

13 a) b) Convert 247 into octal convert0.54 )10 Quotient 410 51 6 0 8 5 c) Integer Part: 8 | 3287 8 | 410 − 8 | 51 − 8|6 8|0 − − 7 2 3 6 4 Remainder 7 2 3 6 10 Now read the number from down to up as 6327 = 3287 .5100098 into octal 10 Solution 8 | 247 8 | 30 8|3 8|0 − − − 7 6 3 Quotient 30 3 0 Remainder 7 6 3 b) Read the number from down to up reminder part 3 6 7 0. 0 0 0 0 Thus (0. an octal number can be converted into an equivalent decimal number.6875)10 = (0.5000 X8 X8 5. The only difference is that number 8 is used tin place of 2 for division in the case of integers and for multiplication in the case of fractional numbers.10 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Using the above procedure. Example 1.6875 into octal 10 10 c) convert 3287.5 0 0 0 4.6 8 7 5 0. The conversion from decimal to octal is similar to the conversion procedure from decimal to binary.

1250176 5 0. 0 8 0 0 7 8 4 4 0.6406272 0 0.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 11 0. The following table 1.3 gives octal Numbers and their binary equivalents for decimal numbers 0 to 15. 5 1 0 0 0 9 8 X8 4.6406272 X8 5.0001408 Therefore 3287. 4051 10 8 Octal to binary: Octal numbers can be converted into equivalent binary numbers by replacing each octal digit by its 3 – bit binary equivalent.5100098 = 6327. octal Decimal Binary 0 0 000 1 1 001 2 2 010 3 3 011 4 4 100 5 5 101 6 6 110 7 7 111 10 8 001000 11 9 001001 12 10 001010 13 11 001011 14 15 16 17 12 13 14 15 001100 001101 001110 001111 .1250176 X8 1.0 8 0 0 7 8 4 X8 0.

Hexadecimal Number system: Hexadecimal number system is very popular in computer uses. 15: a) convert 1001102 to its octal equivalent.14: convert 7368 into an equivalent binary number.10100110 = 0. Solution : 100110 = 001 001 110 2 2 = 1 1 6 8 = 116 8 Octal number: 0. For fractional part the groupings of three bits are made starting from the binary point. It may cause errors also.101 001 100 2 2 = 0.4 gives hexadecimal number with their binary equivalents for decimal numbers 0 through 15. These are numerals 0 through 9 and alphabets A through F. . octal numbers are used for entering binary data and displaying certain information. 3 and 6 are 111.5 1 4 8 = 0. the binary equivalents of 7. Therefore 736 8 = 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 Binary to octal: Binary numbers can be converted into equivalent octal numbers by making groups of three bits starting from LSB and moving towards MSB for integer part of the number and then replacing each group of three bits by its octal representation.12 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Example 1. 011 & 110 respectively.514 8 Application of octal number system: It is highly in convenient to handle long strings of binary numbers while entering into the digital systems. Example 1. Table 1. Therefore. The base for hexadecimal number system is 16 which requires 16 distinct symbols to represent the number. Solution: From the above table. this is an alphanumeric number system because its uses both alphabets and numericals to represent a hexadecimal number.

16: Obtain decimal equivalent of hexadecimal number 3A . Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Hexadecimal – to decimal conversion: Hexadecimal numbers can be converted to their equivalent decimal numbers. 2F 16 solution. using 16 as the dividing ( nfor integer part) and multiplying ( for fractional part ) factor.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 13 Table 1. Example 1.4 Binary and decimal equivalents of hexadecimal numbers. 3 A . .183610 Decimal – to Hexadecimal conversion: For conversion from decimal to hexadecimal the procedure used in binary as well as octal system is applicable. 2 F16 = 3 x161 + 10 x 16 0 + 2 x 16 −1 + 15 x16 −2 = 48 + 10 + 2 15 + 16 16 2 = 58.

5 x16 8. .14 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Example 1. 2 F .4 find the binary equivalent of each hex digit. the above procedure is repeated starting from the bit next to the binary point and moving towards the right.8 16 Hexadecimal – to – binary conversion: Hexadecimal numbers can be converted into equivalent binary numbers by replacing each hex digit by its equivalent 4 – bit binary numbers. Example 1. 17: convert the following decimal number into hexadecimal number.5 10 = 0. 9 A16 = 0010 1111 1001 1010 2 = 0010111110 011010 2 Binary – to Hexadecimal conversion: Binary numbers can be converted into the equivalent hexadecimal numbers by making groups of four bits starting from LSB and moving towards MSB for integers part and then replacing each group of four bits by its hexadecimal representation. For the fractional part.0 8 thus 0. Solution: Integer Parat 16 | 95 16 | 5 16 | 0 15 5 Quotient 5 0 Remainder 15 5 5 F Thus 95 10 = 5F 16 Fraction part: 0.18: convert 2 F 9 A 16 to equivalent binary number using table 1.

00011110101101.19. This code allows manufacturers .Number Systems and Digital Circuits 15 Example 1.1EB 416 1. the letter kA is coded as . The ASCII code: To get information into and out of a computers. video displays. Convert the following binary numbers to their equivalent hex numbers. Printers. At one time. a) b) Solution: a) 101001101011112 = 0010 1001 1011 1111 { { { { 2 9 A F 10100110101111 0. to standerdize I/O hardware such as keyboards. and other symbols. for instant . and so on. industry settle on a input – output code known as the American Standard code for Information Interchange ( abbreviated ASCII).5. The ASCII ( Pronounced ask’ – ee ) code is a 7 – bit code whose format (arrangement) is Where each x is a 0 or a 1. Eventually.000111101011012 = 0. which led to all kinds of confusion. every manufacturer had a different code.0001 1110 1011 0100 1 3{ { { 2 1 E B 4 ∴ 0.000111101011012 = 0. ∴ 101001101011112 b) = 29 AF16 0. we need to use numbers. This implies some kind of alphanumeric code for the I/O unit of a computer. letters.

Logic gates: Circuits used to process digital signals are called logic gates. Read the table the same as a graph. . = > ? 100 @ A B C D E F G H I J K M N 0 101 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 110 111 P A q b r C S d t e u f v g w h x i y j z n 0 Table shows the ASCII code. For instance the letter A has an xxx of 100 and an X X X X of 0001.. ‘ * + .6. Logic symbols are used to identify these circuits. The letter is coded as. 1 011 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . the out put state is always the opposite of the input state : . 110 0001 (a) 1. They have one or more input signals but only one output signal.16 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Table The ASCII code. # $ % & . Its ASCII code is 3 2 1 0 100 0001 ( A) Table includes the ASCII code for lowercase letters. Gates are often called logic circuits because they can be analyzed with Boolean algebra INVERTERS: An inverter is a gate with only one input signal and one out put signal. X X X X 2 2 1 0 X X 6 5 X 4 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 010 SP ! .

No. If both inputs are low .Number Systems and Digital Circuits 17 Transistor Inverter Fig. Table 1. The output is sometimes called the complement ( opposite) of the input. the diode with the high input conducts and the output is high.5 truth table of Not gate V IN V OUT V IN V OUT Low High High Low V IN 0 1 V OUT 1 0 Fig. forcing Vout to go low. If any input signal is high. the output signal is high.1.5. Table 1. the output is low. 1. This common – emitter amplifier switches between cut off and saturation when V in is low ( approximately ) . Table 1. A V0 B Fig. the transistor cuts off and Vout is high(1). No. Diode OR Gate Fig. 1. On the other hand. Because of the two inputs.5 gives the same information in binary form.1. An inverter is also called a NOT gate because the output is not the same as the input. summarizes the operation a low input produces a high outputs and a high input results in a low output.2 .2 shows one way to build an orgate.1 Logic Symbol OR gates The OR gate has two or more input signals but only one output signal. binary 0 stands for low voltage and binary 1 for high voltage. If either input is high. we call this circuit a 2 – input OR gate.1 shows a transistor inverter. a high Vin saturates the transistor.

Three diodes results in a 3 – input OR gate. No matter how many inputs. No.18 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Table 1.1.6 summarizes the action.1. Notice that one or more high inputs produces a high output.3(a) Y A B Y C Fig.No. All inputs must be high to get a high output.or N = A + B + C + --------. An OR gate can have as many inputs as desired. Shows the logic symbols for 2 and 3 OR gates. 5V A Y B Fig.6 two input OR gate: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 1 1 1 Table 1. binary 0 stands for 10 w voltage and binary 1 for high voltage.3(b) = A or B or C ---------. this is why circuit is called an OR gate. 1. add one diode for each additional input. OR gates always produce high output when one or more inputs are high Fig.+ N .No.4 Diode AND gate by using diodes Fig. A B Its logical equation is given by Y AND GATES: The And gate has two or more input signals but only one output signal.

A and B must be high to got a high output. 7 – two – input AND gate: A A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 0 0 0 1 B Y A B C Fig No. In this circuit the inputs can be either low or high . result in an 3 – input and gate. 1. both diodes conduct and pull the output down to a low voltage. when both inputs are low. No matter how many inputs.7 summarize the action.Number Systems and Digital Circuits Diode and gate 19 Fig. and gate has. the supply voltage pulls the output up to a high voltage ( + 5V) Table 1. binary zero stands for low voltage and binary 1 for high voltage. the action can be summarized like this. As you see. the diode with the low input conducts and this pulls the output down to a low voltage. all inputs must be high to get a high output for shows the logical symbols for 2 and 3 input and gates. Three diodes.B. The diode with the high input is reverse biased or cut off. As usual .3 shows one way to build on AND gate.C …………N inputs = ABC …………N inputs .5 Y AND gates Logic Symbol Table 1. add one diode for each additional input. this is why the circuit is called an AND gate. Its logical equation is given by Y = A x B x C ………… Y = A. AND gates can have as many inputs as desired . If one of the inputs is low and the other high. When both inputs are high both diodes are cut off since three is no current in the resistor. 1.

Fig. If one input is low and the other high. the boolean equation is . it is still logically equivalent to an OR gate followed by an inverter.4 a) and b) the following ideas are clear.20 NOR gates: Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals The NOR gate has tow or more input signals but only one output signal. the output is low. the final output is high. which is an OR gate followed by an inverter. 1. 1.4 NOR gate : a) logical meaning.8. 1. Notice that the inverter triangle has been deleted and the small circle OR bubble moved to the OR gate output. Now . all inputs must be low to get a high output. remember that the OR is done first. b) standard symbol two – input gates Fig. If you use this equation. two input NOR gate A B Y=A + B 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Table. the circuit is now referred to as a NOR gate. The NOR gate recognizes only the input word whose bits are all Os in other words. If both inputs are low. With fig 1. 1. 4 ( a) shows the logical structure of a nor gate.6 NOR gates logic Symbol Fig . All inputs must be low to get a high output? Fig No. The output is low Table 1. summarizes the circuit action. A or B”.4 b) is the standard symbol for a NOR gate. Regardless of how many inputs a NOR gate has. The Boolean equation for a 2 – input NOR gate is Y=A+B Read this as “Y” equals NOT. Therefore. 1. Therefore the final output is not the OR of the inputs. then the inversion.8. and if both inputs are high.

the final inverted output is high only when all inputs are high does the AND ing produce a high signal. Table 1.5 b) is the standard symbol for a NAND gate.9 summarizes the action of a 2 – input NAND gate. Two – Input – NAND gates Fig 1. therefore . Now the circuit is referred to as a NAND gate. Fig.5 a) shows the logical structure of a NAND gate an gate followed by an inverter. The inverter triangle has been deleted and the bubble moved inputs are low the result of anding is low. + N NAND GATES: The NAND gate has two or more input signals but only one output signal. 1. NAND gate : standard symbol.9 two input NAND gate: Table 1. The Boolean equation for a 2 – input NAND gate is. 1. A B C Y Y = ABC logical meaning Fig. the final output is NOT the AND of the inputs.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 21 Y = A+B+C+………. Therefore. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 1 1 1 0 Y = AB . All input signals must be high to get a low output. As shown.6. then the final output is low. the NAND gate Recognizes any input word with one or more Os that is one or more low inputs produce a high output.

A Y B Fig. The Boolean equation is Y = AB + AB In EXCLUSIVE . Exclusive OR gate is different. The upper and gate forms the produce AB. AB” if you use this equation remember that the AND ing is done first then the inversion. Ex– OR gates( Exclusive OR gate): An OR gate recognizes words with one OR more 1s as inputs. it recognizes only inputs that have an odd number of 1s. No.22 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Read high as “Y equals NOT. 1. If and only if the two inputs are different then only there is a output. Because of this reason NAND and nor gates are known as universal gates. it’s still logically equivalent to an AND gate followed by an inverter. Regardless of how many inputs a NAN D gate has.7 = AB + AB Two input: The above fig shows one way to build an exclusive – OR – gate. the Boolean equation is Y = ABC … N Note : The NAND and NOR operation have become very popular and are widely used. and the lower and gate gives AB.OR gate as got output. abbreviated EX-OR. Therefore. If both inputs are equal there is no output. because either NAND or NOR are sufficient for the realization of any logical expression. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB + AB 0 1 1 0 .

For example. supply ( to be connected between Vcc and GND Pins) for operation of gates.7 (a) shows a 2 – input EX . the truth table of an xnor gate is the complement of an xor truth table. A B Y =AB + AB Fig 1.8. Y = AB + AB Read this as “Y equals A EX . electrical characteristics.NOR gate followed by an inverter.OR addition this means the above equation can be written. .OR B” EXCLUSIVE – NOR gates: The EX – NOR gate.c.NOR gate Symbol Because of the inversion on the output side. etc can be obtained from manufactures data catalogues. independent requires a + 56 V d. 1. available in 14 – pin DIP).NOR gate. – A 2-input EX. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Y 1 0 0 1 Y = AB + AB All the logic functions introduced are commercially available in integrated circuit (IC) form. It has four identical. For example fog.11 the output is high when the inputs are the same.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 23 In Boolean algebra the sign (+) stands for EX . abbreviated nor is logically equivalent to an EX . Table gives connections .1. As shown in table.

OR gate is called the SUM.7.1.12 shows the truth table of a half adder. Table 1. While the output of the AND gate is the CARRY The AND gate produces a high output only when both inputs are high.24 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 1. 1. The output of the EX . Here A and B are two inputs. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 CARRY 0 0 0 1 SUM 0 1 1 0 . 7400 7402 7404 7408 7432 7486 74135 14 13 12 DESCRIPTION Quad 2 .9 Block Diagram of 7400 IC Some of available IC gates 1. The exclusive – or gate produces a high output if either input.8.or / nor gatse 11 10 9 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fig. No.input and gates Quad 2 . Block diagram of 7400 IC IC NO.input Nand gates Quad 2 .input or gates Quad Ex .input Nor gates Hex inverters Quad 2 . but not both is high.or gats Quad Ex . HALF ADDER : A logical circuit for addition of two one bit numbers is referred to as an half – adder. fig.10 shows how to build a half adder.

Here is the action. Applications for the half – adder are limited. We need a circuit that can add 3 – bits at a time. The output of the EX – OR gate is called the sum.adder . No. When A = 1 and B = 0 the sum is 1 with carry of 0.10 Half . It does electronically when we do mentally when we odd 2 bits. A B C Carry SUM Fig. Full adder : A logic circuit that can odd 3 bits at a time is to referred to as a full adder. a lower column. 1. The third bit is the carry from. When A = 0 and B = 1 the sum is 0 with carry of 0. 1. Fig 1. 2. No. the sum is 0 with carry of 0. While the output of the orgate is the carry. when A = 0 and B = 0 .10. 1.11.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 25 A B AB= carry sum = AB+AB Fig. 1. 3.Adder When you examine each entry in table you can know the fact that a half – adder performs binary addition.11 Full . When A = 1 and B = 1 the sum is 0 with carry of 1. entry by entry. 4. shows how to build a full adder.

Table 1. A full adder Table 1. Half – Subs tractor : A logic circuit for the substraction of B ( subtrahand ) from A ( minuend ) where A and B are 1 bit numbers is referred to as a half – subtractor. Binary addition on 3 bits.substractor A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Difference 0 1 1 0 Borrow 0 1 0 0 .9. 1.10 Realization of a half – substractor. full adder truth table A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 CARRY 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 SUM 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Table 1.14 Truth table of a half . Here. A and B are the two inputs and difference and borrow are the two outputs.13 shows the truth table of a full adder. Fig. 1.26 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Fig. When you examine each entry in table you can see that a full adder performs.13.

A nor gate has two or more input signals. A nor gate recognizes only the input word whose bits are ___________the nor gate is logically equivalent to or gate followed by an ___________ (low Os inverter) A NAND gate is equivalent to an AND gate followed by an inverter. if any input is ___________ the output is high. Demorgan’s second theorem says that a nand gate is equivalent to a bubbled ___________ gate ( high . All inputs must be ___________ to get a low output.Number Systems and Digital Circuits 27 Short answer questions 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 1. Sometimes the output is referred to as the complement of the input ( 1 . the digits used in a binary number system are ___________ and ___________( two . 6. or ) 4. 5. An inverter is also called as ___________ gete. 0. These signals are either ___________ or high. not) The orgate has two or more input signals. 2. What is an ASCII code? What is a logic circuit ? What is meant by or gate? What is meant by not gate? What is meant by not gate Why nor and nand gates are called universal gates ? What is Half – adder? What is full – adder ? Draw the symbols of or and not gates? Draw the symbols of nand. . the output is always in the opposite state from the input. nor gates? What is ex – or gate ? SELF – TESTING REVIEW Binary means ___________ binary numbers have a base of 2. The numbers of input words in a truth table always equals ___________ where n is the number of input bits. 1) A gate is a logic circuit with one or more input signals but only ___________ output signal. 3. All inputs must be ___________ to get a high output. ( one low ) An inverter is a gate with only ___________ input .

1. 5.095 b) 16. 6. 383 If you cascade seven inverters. 2. 7. 3.28 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals PROBLEMS Convert the following binary numbers to decimal numbers a) 0011 b) 110011 Convert 0 the following hexadecimal numbers to binary. a) FF b) ABC Convert the binary numbers to hexadecimal number. 2. a) 111 0 1000 b) 11001011 Convert the hexadecimal numbers to decimal equivalent a) FF b) 9B Convert the decimal numbers to hexadecimal. a) 4. . 8. 4. 4. 3. 6. does the overall circuit act like an inverter or non inverter? Long Answers & questions Explain the operation of two input or gate with its truth table? Explain the operation of transistor INVERTER? Explain the operation of two input And gate with its truth table ? Explain the operation of nand gate with its truth? Explain the operation of half – adder circuit? Explain the operation of nor gate with its truth table ? Explain the operation of full adder circuit? What is ex – or and ex – nor gates ? explain ? 1. 5.

and characteristics of the most common types of flip – flops are used in digital systems are considered in this chapter. discussed in this section. The overall circuit is latched with the left transistor cut off ( dark shading ) and the right transistor saturated. REGISTERS AND COUNTERS 2. The RS latch/flip-flop . V this high voltage produces enough base current in the right transistor to sustain its saturation. if the right transistor is saturated. A computer also needs memory elements. For instance. A flip – flop is one such circuit. they can perform binary addition and subtractions. . This chapter discusses some basic registers and counters used in micro computer. one of the transistors is saturated and the other is cut off. it remains in one of these states until triggered into the other. A brief introduction of Multiplier / Demultiplexer and encoder / decoder is presented.1 a each collection drives the opposite has through a 100 kΩ resister. By a similar arguments. devices that can store a binary digit. Registors. Counters 2. Q is approximately 5 V for this condition. is one of the simplest flip-flop. This means that there is no base abive for the left transistor so it cuts off and its collector voltage approaches. + 5 .2. the right transistor is cut off fig b illustrates this other state. designed to count the number of clock pulses arriving at its input. As studied in the preceeding chapter.Flip-Flops. its collector voltage is approximately OV. A counter is a special kind of register.0. 2. It is simply a group of flip – flops that can be used to store binary information. But these elements are not enough. if the left transistor is saturated. They are used in the construction of Registers and counters. and in numerous other applications. In this circuit. The other kind of Registers will modify the stored word by shifting its bits left or right. A register is another important digital building block. Output Q can be low or high binary 0 or 1. Transistor Latch: In fig 2. RS LATCHES: A flip flop is a device with two stable states.FLIP – FLOPS .Introduction : 29 Gates are decision making elements. O is approximately OV.

Truth Table: Table 2.1 Latched state (a) SK SK Rc RB 100k RB 100k S R trigger inputs Fig.2.30 +5V 5k Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals +5V 5k SK SK Rc SK SK Rc RB 100k RB 100k RB 100k RB 100k Latched state (a) Control Inputs: The control the bit stored in the latch .1 summarizes the operation of the transistor latch. we can add the inputs shown in fig. As soon as the left transistor saturates. Once this happens the circuit latches and Q = 0. No.2. A high set input S forces the left transistor to saturates.2 Once set.1 these control inputs will be either low ( OV) or high (+ 5 V). . No. 2. +5V 5k Fig. the output will remain a 1 even though the S input goes back to OV a high reset input R drives the high right transistor into saturation. With both control inputs low no change can occur in the output and the circuit remains latched in the last state. The overall circuit latches and Q = 1.

Counters 31 Table 7.Flip-Flops. If the faster transistor is on the right side.2. the circuit sets the Q output to a high.1 Transistor Latch R 0 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 Q NC 1 0 * COMMENTS No Changes Set Reset Race When R is low and S is high. This is called a race condition.1 C is rarely used because we are in the age of integrated circuits. it is never used because it leads to unpredictable operation. both transistor try to come out of saturation. the Q output will go high.4 . The faster transistor ( the one with the shorter saturation delay time) will win the race and latch the circuit.1 R and S are simultaneously. the Q output will be 10 W. If both control inputs are high both transistors saturated when the R and S inputs return to low. if R is high and S is low the Q output resets to a low. R Q S Q- Fig. 2. If the faster transistor is on the left side of fig C. It is a race between the transistors to see which one desaturates first. No.3 Look at the last entry in table 7. RACE CONDITION S R Q Q- Fig. Registors. Now a days you build Rs. No.2. One the other hand. Latches with nor gates or NAND gates. NOR LATCHES: A discrete circuit like Fig.

No. It is called the R – S flip – flop because it has two inputs. 2. Thus a low R and high S set a Q to low and Q = 0 A high R and low S reset Q to low. a high R and a high S produce a race conditions therefore. we must avoid R = S = 1 when using a NOR latch.32 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Fig. while a high R and a low S give the reset state.2.2 NOR latch. Whenever. R Q Q R 0 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 Q * 1 0 NC Comments Race Set Reset No Changes S Q- Fig. the in active and race conditions are reversed. R S Q COMMENTS 0 0 NC No Changes 0 1 1 Set 1 0 0 Reset 1 1 * Race As shown in table a low R and a low S give us the inactive state.5 2. NAND LATCHES: A slightly different latch can be constructed by using NAND gates as shown in figure 2. Finally. . the Q is at the state 0 and vice versa. recall that a low on any input to a nand gate will force its output high. The two outputs denoted by Q and Q are complementary to each other. The S( set ) and R ( reset ) inputs. A low R and a high S represent the set state.3 NAND gate latch and truth table. It is the most basic and useful sequential logic circuit. Q is at the state 1 . that is remain circuit remains in the same state. Because of NAND gate inversion. Table 2.3 to understand how this circuit functions.2 shows how it’s done with NOR gates.

are said to be “transparent “.Flip-Flops. Counters Clocked RS flip – flop 33 Two different methods for constructing an RS flip – flop were discussed in the previous section with NOR gate and NAND gate realization. This flip – flop is called clocked RS flip – flop.6 CLK 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 R 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Q NC NC NC NC NC 1 0 * ( Race) . that is any change in input at R or S is transmitted immediately to the output at Q and Q thus they acts as short term memory. It is possible to store or clock the flip – flop in order to store information ( set it or reset it ) at any time.6 with its symbol and truth table. and then hold the stored information for any desired period of time. 2. Both of these RS flip – flops or latches. No. The circuit of a clocked RS flip – flop is shown in figure 2. Registors. R R1 Q CLK QS S1 Fig.

J S Q CLK R K Q CLK 0 1 X K X X X 0 0 1 1 L X X X 0 1 0 1 Q NC NC NC NC 0 1 Toggle Fig2.7 JK flip flop symbol and its truth table. JK FLIP – FLOP Fig. On the other hand if S = 1 . . The output of the two and circuits ( S1 and R1 ) will be 0 as long as CK = 0. then the state of the flip – flop will remain unchanged and if S = 0 .34 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Fig. results in an undetermined state. In addition to control inputs R and S. the presence of R1 =1 and S1 =1 . 2. will however .4 clocked RS flip – flop x symbol and its truth table It consists of two additional and gates added at the input of R S flip – flop. there is a clock input CK. R = 1 then S = 0 R = 1 and the flip – flop is reset to 0. R = 0 then S =1 R = 1 and the flip flop is set to 1. 2.5 shows one way to build a JK flip – flop the variables J and K are called control inputs because they determine what the flip – flop does on the arrival of a positive clock edge.

it is possible to set or reset the flip . Fig.flop will toggle on the next positive clock edge. J =1 and K=1 means that the flip . Therefore. the upper gate is disabled. (“toggle” means switch to opposite state) JK MASTER . the upper gate passes a set trigger on the positive clock edge. 2. CLK J K Q X 0 0 NC 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Toggle . the lower gate is disabled. Reset : When J is low and K is high. Set: When J is high and K is low. Therefore. Counters 35 Inactiver: When J and K are both low. When Q is low. While the clock is low.8.flop).flop. symbol and its truth table. Registors.slave flip .Flip-Flops. But you can set the flip-flop as follows.slave flip-flop is a combination of two clocked latches. therefore. When Q is high.flop. Either way Q changes to the compliment of the last state. the master is active and slave is inactive.flop. the lower gate passes a reset trigger as soon as the next positive clock edge arrives. J=0 and K=1 means that the next positive clock edge resets the flip-flop. This drives Q into the high state. the upper gate passes a set trigger on the next positive clock edge. J=1 and K =0 means that the next positive clock edge sets the flip . Here are master is positively clocked while slave is negatively clocked. the master is inactive and slave is active. While the clock is high. That is . shows the logic diagram of JK master . This means: 1. The first one is called master and second one is the slave. So it is impossible to reset the flip-flop. The only possibility is reset. so there is no way to set the flip . Q is high. Toggle: When J and K both are high ( notice taht this is the forbidden state with an RS flip .SLAVE FLIP-FLOP: a master . 2.flop. both AND gates are disabled and the circuit is inactive at all times including the rising edge of the clock. This forces Q to become low. If Q is high. When Q is low. the lower gate passes a reset trigger on the next positive clock edge.

again. For an input condition of high J. Toggle: If the J and K inputs are both high. the master goes into the set state.F K Q J Slave F. no changes can occur in Q and Q because tghe slave is in active while the clock is high. The basic idea behind the master slave flip . producing a high Q and a low Q. every action the master slave flip . law K and high CLK. It is used to avoid reacing condition. Reset: When the slave is set. let’s assume low Q and high Q. tghe master will reset.36 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals S J Master F. the high S and low R forces tghe slave into the set state. for the input condition of low J. the master toggles once while the clock is high and then slave toggles once when the clock goes low. forling S to go low and R to go hig. producing high S and Low R. every action of the master with high CLK is copied by teh slave when CLK goes low.F Q Q R K Q Logic diagram J Q M/S K LLR Symbol Q Fig No. When the clock returns to low state. high K and high CLK. .flop is that. the low S and high R forces the slave to reset. Nothing happens to the Q and Q outputs because the slave is inactive while the clock is high. 2.flop is that. When the clock goes low.8 Set: To start tghe analysis. Q is high and Q is low.

Observe. D R Q D 0 1 Q 0 1 Q S Fig. They are involved in all mathematical / logical operations that can be performed by CPU and in storing the information temporarily. a high D sets the latch. Need for a Register: As discussed in previous section a flip – flop can store 1 – bit of digital information ( 1 or 0 ) it is also referred to as a 1. data bit D drives the S input of a NAND latch and compliment D drives tghe R input. the binary number 0101 is called as 4 bit binary number. There are 4 flip flop’s in an 4 bit register 8 flip flops in an 8 bit register. . and so on.bit register. Registors. The 8 bit and 16 bit registers are extensively used as a part of CPU of a 8/ 16 – bit microprocessors. Therefore it is impossible to set up a race condition in the D latch. 2. A 4 – bit register is needed to store this 4 bit binary number.9.9 Fig. the rsult is a new kind of flip .3.flops are: 1) latch 2) Registers 3) Counters 4) Memory ( RAM) 2.flop: We will modify the design of Rs flopo flop to eliminate the possibility of a raced condition.Flip-Flops. there is no race condition in this truth table. The inverter guarantees that S and R will always be in opposite states. Counters 37 D Flip . Applications of Flip .Flops: Some of the common uses of flip .flop known as D loatch. shows one way to build a D latch ( unlocked) because of the inverter. For example. 2. No. Therefore. and low D reset it. But in digital system a situation will a raise to store more than 1 – bit of information.

Types of Register : Registers are classified depending upon the way in which data are entered and retrieved.38 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Register : . Serial in – parallel out 3. The number 8 in parentheses means that there are 8 wires and used to transfer 8 bit of data in parallel from register A to register B. 2. There are four possible modes of operation : 1. Transferring data from Register to Register : A register is used to enter data into a microprocessor or computer and extract data from it. Serial in – serial out 2. If a parallel register is used. Wire cables are generally used in transferring the data. Parallel in – serial out 4. No. It is common registers within a digital system. It is common practice to use an arrow between registers for these collections of wires. For example a register used to store an 8 – bit binary number must have eight flip – flops. A register is simply a group of flip – flops ( memory elements ) that can be used to store binary information.10 Data also transferred ( shifted) between register within a digital system. an 8 – bit register required a cable having at least 8 wires. Parallel in – parallel out 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E A B C D E F G H a b c d a e f g h 2. R e g i s t e r A (8) R e g i s B t e r R e g i s t e r A (16) R e g i s B t e r Fig. the data is shifted in parallel .4. There must be one flip – flop for each bit in the binary number. (a) An 8-bit data bus (b) An 16-bit data bus . and 16 wires for a 16 –0 bit register and so on.

12 Shift left register As an example . 2. 2. If simply stores a digital word.5. Left – shift register: Fig. 2. This bit shifting is essential for certain arithmetic and logical operations used in micro processors. 2. 10 (b) means 16 – bits of data can be shifted in parallel from A to B or from B to A.12 is a shift left register. It moves the stored bits in the right direction ( right . Registors. 2. No. Counters 39 The eight wires represented by this arrow are called a data bus. The given fig. The double arrow shown in fig. Buffer Register : A buffer register is the simplest land of registers.11 shows a buffer register built with positive edge triggered D flip – flops X X X X Q3 D3 Q2 D1 Q1 D1 Q0 D0 CLK Fig. consider .11 The X – bits ( X3 X2 X1 X0 ) are used for loading ( storing ) the flip – flops. Q sets up the second flip – flop Q the third. this is a 16 – bit bi-directional data bus. Q3 D3 Q2 D1 Q1 D1 Q0 D0 Din CLK Fig. and so on. Therefore when a positive clock pulse arrives.shift – register ) or in the left direction ( left – shift register ) with the occurrence of clock pulses. Shift Registers: Registers in which data are entered obtain out in serial form are called as shift Registers. Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 = X 3 X 2 X1 X 0 2. 2. the “X” bits entered into the flip – flops and stored word becomes.6.Flip-Flops. As shown dim sets up the right flip – flop. When the positive clock strikes the stored bits move one position to the left.

the counter will add one (1) to the number stored in its slip flop. the Q flip – flop sets and the stored word becomes Q = 0011 One the arrival of third clock pulse Q becomes. The arrival of first clock pulse sets the left flip – flop and the stored word becomes. the Q2 flip – flop sets and the stored word becomes Q = 1100 The third clock pulse give Q = 1110 and the forth clock pulse give Q = 1111.e D = 1) All data inputs except the one on the right are OS. The input to this counter is a rectangular waveform called clock. Q3 D3 Q2 D1 Q1 D1 Q0 D0 Din Fig. designed to count the number of clock pulses arriving at its input. It is one of the most useful subsystem in a digital systems. . Q = 1000. Right – Shift Register: Fig. 2. Q = 0111 and the fourth clock pulse gives Q = 1111. when the next clock pulse hits. when the next clock pulse hits. 2. Q = 0001 This new word means D as well as D now equal 1. Counters: A counter is a special kind of register.70. As shown each Q output sets up the D input of the preceding flip flop.12 is a shift right register. This new word means D as well as D1 now equals 1 . This means the counter will count the number of clock transitions from low to high.13 Shift Right register As an example . 2. The arrival of first clock pulse sets the right flip flop and the stored word becomes. the stored bits move one position to the right. When the positive clock pulse arrives.40 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Q = 0 0 0 0 and dim = 1 ( i. Each time the clock signal changes state from low to high. consider Q = 0000 and Dim = 1 ( That is D == 1) All data inputs except the one on the left are O s.

This means that each flip – flop will change state( toggles) with negative transition at its input. 2-16 Synchronous counter The above waveforms shows the action of counter. If we consider A output as least – significant Bit (L. All the J and K inputs are tied to + Vcc. Since clock pulses occur at know intervals. the output of A drives B. This is indicated by arrows ( ) on the time line. JK flip – flops are connected in cascade. A ripple counter can be constructed by use of clocked JK flip flops as shown in the Fig.Flip-Flops. There are basically two different types of counters synchronous and Asynchronous. Let’s assume that all the flip – flops are reset to produce 0 outputs. 2. Registors.14 A clock having a small circle (bubble) in the input side would count clock transitions form high to low.B) and C the most – significant Bit ( MSB) then the contents of the counter is CBA = 000 For every clock transition flip flop A will change state. the counter can be used as an instrument for measuring time and therefore frequency. here negative edge triggered. No.14. and the output of B drives flip flop C. Counters 41 A 1 2 B C 3 D 4 E n |H 5 6 L 0000 (Begin) 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0110 (End) Fig. at . The clock pulse ( square wave ) drivers flip – flop A.S. Thus at point a on the time line A goes high. 2. Q3 J3 K3 Q2 J2 K2 Q1 J1 K1 Q0 J0 K0 High Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 CLR Fig.

42

Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals

point B it goes back low, at C it goes back high and so on. Since A acts as clock for B, for each negative transition in A , flip – flop B will toggle. Thus at point b on the time line B goes high; it then goes low at d and toggles back high again at pint F. Similarly B acts as clock for C , for each negative transition in B, flip – flop C, will toggle. Thus C goes high at point d and goes back at point h. If we observe the output condition of all flip flop it is the binary number equivalent to the number of negative clock transitions that are occurring. Prior to point A, the output is CBA = 000 at point a it changes to CBA = 001, at point b it changes to 010, and so on. That is counter content advances on count with each negative clock transition. It is summarized in the truth table. It is observed that a counter having n flip – flop will have 2n output conditions. For example. The three flip – flop counter just discussed has 23 = 8 output conditions ( 000 through 111). The largest number that can be represented by n flip – flop has decimal equivalent of ( 2n- 1). In this example, it is ( 23 – 1) 7. A three flip – flop counter is also called a modulus – 8 counter ( mod – 8) since it has eight states. Similarly mod = 16. mod – 32and mod – 64 counters are also available. Synchronous counters: The ripple counter is the simplest of all kinds of counters. But the problem with it is its delay time. In a ripple counter each flip – flop has a delay time and these delay times are additive. Therefore the total “settling” time for the counter is equal to the delay time multiplied by total number of flip – flops. This problem can be overcome by the use of a synchronous or parallel counter. Here every flip – flop is triggered in synchronism with the clock. The following fig. 2.15 shows how to build a synchronous counter with positive – edge triggered flip – flop. Here the clock pulses drive all the flip – flop in parallel. The J and K inputs of Q0 flip – flop are tied to a high voltage. Therefore,

Flip-Flops, Registors, Counters

43

it responds to each positive clock edge. But he remaining flip flops can responds to the tve clock edge with certain conditions. The Q1 flip flop toggles on the tve clock edge only when Q0 is 1. the Q2 flip flop toggles only when Q1 , Q0 and are 1 s. the Q3 a flip flop toggles only when Q2 ,Q1 and Q0 are 1. That is , a flip - flop toggles on the next tve clock edge if all lower bits are1s. Here is the counting action. A low CLR reset the counter. Q = 0000. When the CLR goes high, the counter is ready to go. The first + ve clock edge sets Q, therefore Q = 0001. Since Q is now 1 , the Q flip – flop toggles on the next positive clock edge. When the second + ve clock edge arrives, Q and Q simultaneously toggle and the o/p word becomes , Q = 0010. the third + ve clock edge advances the count by 1; and the o/p world becomes , Q = 0011. Because Q and Q are now is, the Q, Q and Q flip – flops are toggled on the next + ve clock edge( fourth clock pulse) and the output word becomes Q = 0100. For successive + ve clock edges Q words are 0101, 0110, 0111 and so up to 1111. the next + ve clock edge reset the counter and cycle repeats. Ring Counter: A ring counter is a shift – left register because the bits are shifted left one position per positive clock edge. But the final output is feedback to the Do input. This kind of action is known as “rotate left” the bits are shifted left and fed back to the input. The following figure is a ring counter built with D flip flops. The Q0 output sets the D1 input the Q1 output sets the D2 input, and so on.
Q3 J3 K3 Q2 J2 K2 Q1 J1 K1 Q0
PR

J0 K0
CLR

Q3

Q2

Q1

Q0

Fig. 2-16 Ring counter

When CLR goes low, the initial o /p word is Q = 0001. the first positive clock edge shifts MSB into LSB. The other bits shift left one position. Therefore the output word becomes Q = 0010.

44

Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals

The second positive clock edge causes another rotate left and o/p word becomes Q = 0100. After third positive clock edge, the output word is Q = 1000. The fourth positive clock edge starts the cycle and rotate left produces Q = 0001. The stored 1 bit follows a circular path. This is why the circuit is called a ring counter. By adding more flip – flops we can build a ring counter of any length. 2.8. Decode counter ( Mode – 10 counter) : A counter with 10 distinct states is known as a decade counter. This counter counts 10 sequences and reset on 10 th clock pulse. That is , the circuit count and from 0000 to 1001 and on the tenth clock pulse, it generates its own clear signal and count jump back to 0000. The following is the mod – 10 counter design. The counter can be reset, if the AND gate output is low. This can be happened with a low CLR or low Y. Initially low CLR produce Q = 0000. when CLR is high, the counter is ready and count sequence progress. The output of the NAND gate is, Y = Q3 Q1. This output is high for the first nine states ( 0000 to 1001). Nothing happens when the circuit is counting from 0 to 9. on the tenth clock pulse, the Q word becomes; Q = 1010, which means that Q3 and Q1 are high. Then immediately Y goes low, forcing the counter to reset to Q = 0000.
High

Q3

J3 K3

Q2

J2 K2

Q1

J1 K1

Q0

PR

J0
CLK

Q3

Q2

Q1

Q0

K0
CLR

Y

Fig. 2-17 Decade counter

By applying control signals. Change in the control signals will connect a different input. Fig.Flip-Flops. . 2. Registors. Then the data from that input line is entered into the computer. Applications of counters: Some of the common uses of digital counters are as follows. +vCC J K A A A Time Cock A B C K K K K K K J K B B B K K K J K C C C K Negative Clock C transitions B A State or count 0 a b c d e f g h 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 0 0 Fig. we can steer ( allow ) any input to the output.9. A Multiplexer is a circuit with many inputs but only one output. Asynchronous counter( ripple counter) : When the output of a flip – flop is used as the clock input for the next flip – flop we call the counter as a ripple counter or asynchronous counter. the switch will connect to one of the input lines. To construct for measuring time and therefore frequency. To count and control a sequence of operations in a microprocessors and computers. By applying control signals on the C bus . 3. 4. There are n input lines. Thus. The ripple counter is simple in operation and construction and need a minimum of Hardware. To count the number of events that are happening in an operation. An instrument for measuring time and therefore frequency. Illustrates the idea. In a digital voltmeters and frequency counters. Counters 45 2. 1. the over all settling time is the sum of the individual delays. 2. There is a single output line which is connected to the computer. 5. No.15 Multiplexer : The term multiplex means “many to one”. The triggers move through the flip – flops like ripple in water – because of this.

2. The following is the encoder which will change a decimal number into its binary equivalent. according to the control signals on the C bus. 2. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Decimal inputs Fig. C C n input lines One output line One output line n output lines Fig.. 19 (b) illustrate the general idea.46 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals data from multiple sources can be connected to a single port. A circuit that changes data into an required digital form is called an encoder. 19 (b) will accept a 4 – bit binary number and indicate its Decimal inputs A B C D Decimal Decimal outputs inputs A B C D . (b) A demultiplexer ( DEMUX) Demultiplexer: The opposite of multiples is Demultiplex. Fig. when you press the number 4 on a key board. Encoder: Any information entered into a digital system must be in the form of digital number. we can steer the input signal to one of the output lines. 2. which means “ One to many”. For example. 2.19 a) A multiplexer. The decoder as shown in fig. This digital circuit simply connects the single data input line to one of the output lines.20 a) An encoder b) A decoder Decoder : Taking digital information from the output of a computer and changing it into decimal form is done with a circuit called decoder. A demultiplex is a logic circuit signal. Thus serial data from the computer can be directed to different destinations. The all other input lines are to be low. It may be used with keyboard. this will results in encoder output as binary number 0100 which is binary equivalent of decimal number 4. it will produce a high on s /p line 4 of the encoder.

12. Explain the operation of ripple counter? 9. Explain the operation of NOR and NAND latcher? 2. 15. Short answer questions: 1. Registors. 8. Explain the operation of synchronous counter? 10. What is a latch ? What is a flip – flop? Name the types of flip – flops ? Give the applications of flip – flops ? What is a register ? What are the types of Register ? What are the applications of Registers? What is a counter? What is a ring counter? What is a decade – counter? What are the applications of counters? What is Multiplexer? What is Demultiplexer? What is a decoder? What is a encoder? Long answers Questions: 1. 7. Explain the operation of shift – right register ? 8. Explain the operation of J – K flip – flop ? 4. 6. 13. 11. Explain the operation of Shift – left register? 7.Flip-Flops. Counters 47 decimal equivalent between 0 and 9. while all other output lines remain low. 9. 5. Explain the operation of Decade counter? . 10. Explain the operation of CLK R – S flip flop ? 3. Explain the operation of D flip – flop? 6. 14. 4. 2. 3. Explain the operation of J – K master – slave flip – flop ? 5. as shown the binary input 0110 will cause output line 6 to be high.

The basic memory cell is typically a transistor flip flop or a circuit capable of storing charge and used to store 1 bit of information. The typical semiconductor memory consists of a rectangular array of memory cells.Introduction: The ability to store information in an important requirement in a digital system circuits or systems designed for this purpose are called as memory. The two general categories of semiconductor memories are RAM and ROM. A flip flop and Register are two kinds of simple memory elements which can store a one bit and a one word of binary information.1. 1 RAM Random Access Memory SRAM Static RAM Bipolar MOS SRAM Dynamic RAM DOS ROM Read Only Memory Fig. each capable of storing 1 byte ( 8 – bit size) of information 3. No.SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORIES 3. They can be further divided into various types as illustrated in fig. 3. In a large system. such as a microcomputer. Semiconductor memories: Recent developments in semiconductor technology have provided a number or reliable and economical MSI and LSI memory circuits.48 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 3. It is a part of computer where the program and data area stored.0. A typical microcomputer has a semiconductor memory of 655360 memory locations.1 SRAM Programmable ROM Bipolar MOS EPROM Erasable PROM MOS EEPROM Electrically erasable PROM MOS . The latest generation of computer uses semiconductor memories because they are less expensive and easy to work. a huge amount of registers each storing a binary with thousands of registers each storing a binary word.

A dynamic RAM. RAM s are further subdivided into two groups namely static RAM and Dynamic RAM. It is erased electrically rather than with ultraviolet light. The EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) can be programmed and erased by the user. 3. metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) or complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Memory Terminology: Read only memories come in four versions. The EEPROM can be erased and programmed by the user with special equipment. Another erasable PROM is the EEPROM ( electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) . Copying / detecting data from memory. which means they will not lose their data when power to the IC is turned off: . which means it will be lost its data if the power to the IC is turned off for even an instant. All the types of ROM s area non volatile. The read/ write memory is most often called a RAM( Random Access Memory) Generally RAM is volatile. does not retain stored data indefinitely. It can be programmed only once.3. DRAMS are used as the bulk of the memory. SRAMS are used in high – speed operations such as cache memory. without destroying the contents. Moving storing the data into memory is called write operation. according to the type of transistor used to construct the basic memory cell.2 Memory as a shift registor 49 All these memories are classified as either bipolar . is called read operation. All the types of ROM s are non volatile light. Stored data in EPROM can be erased by passing high – intensity ultraviolet light through a special transparent window in the top of the IC. on the other hand. The static RAM retains stored information indefinitely as long as the IC is powered. The standard ROM is programmed by the manufacturer. The PROM can be programmed permanently by the user or manufacturer using special equipment.Semiconductor Memories 3. The stored data must be stored again ( refreshed) periodically.

The R0 Register contains three diodes. the R1 register has one diode. D = D3 D2 D1 D0. 3. and son on. Diode ROM Register R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 Address 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Word 0111 1000 1011 1100 0110 1001 0011 1100 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 R0 D3 D2 D1 D0 Fig.1. The output of ROM is the word. .2 ROM with on-chip decoding Each horizontal row is a register or memory location.50 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Diode ROM: Figure shows how to build a ROM Tagle 9.

. that is the stored bits cannot be erased. The user can erase and store until the program and data are perfected. You have to send a list of data to be stored in the different memory locations to the manufacturer. Data is stored with a PROM programmer. who then produce a mask. which is D = 0011. the address of a memory location is the same as the subscript of the register storing the word. EEPROM: Another type of reprogrammable ROM device is the EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memory). It allows the user to store the data. An instrument called a PROM programmer is used in storing the data( also called “burning in”). Later .Semiconductor Memories 51 As shown in the table. The above circuit is a 32 – bit ROM organized a s8 words of 4 bits each. Now the user can be able to read the stored. It can be erased by using electrical pulses. You will read the contents of memory location 6. once this has been done. Programmable: A programmable ROM(PROM) is different. This is a vary small ROM compared with other rooms. For examples if ADDRESS = A2 A1 A0 = 100. PROMS AND EPROMS: The term ROM is generally reserved for memory chips that are programmed by the manufacturer. This releases stored charges and the effect is to wipe out the stored contents. the programming is permanent. It is a non volatile like EPROM but does not require ultraviolet light to erase the data. It has three address ( input) lines and four data ( output) lines. the 1 – of – 8 decoder produce a high output to one of the registers depending on logic bits present on input pins (A2 – A0). and ROM output is D= = 0110. It can be used for slower application. The address of memory locations can be known with three input pins A2 A1 and A0. The 1 of – 8 decoder applies a high voltage to the R4 register. If you change the address word to ADDRESS = 110. Erasable: The erasable PROM(EPROM) used MOSFETs. data can be erased with ultraviolet light passing through a window present on the top of memory chip. Data from the ROM.

BASIC MEMORY TERMINOLOGY: Word Length: The number of bits stored in a memory location is called its word length. The Circuit action is similar to the transistor latch discussed in chapter2. the flip flop remains latched and can store the bit indefinitely. Generally 4. Q1 and Q2 acts like switches. 9-4(a) Static Cell Fig.52 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Semi conductor RAM’s: Semiconductor RAMs may be static or dynamic. Q3 and Q4 are active leads which means they behave like resistors. The static RAM uses bipolar or MOS flip – flops . A dynamic RAM uses MOSFET s and capacitors to store the data. 8 and 16 size of memory locations are available in . the MOSFET opens and the capacitor retains its charge. When the sense and control lines go high. When the sense and control – lines go low. A static RAM will contain thousands of flip – flop like this. A dynamic RAM may contain thousand of memory cells like this. As long as power is applied. Because the capacitor charge leaks off. Either Q1 is cut off or vice versa. the dynamic RAM contains more memory cells than a static RAM of the same physical size. it can store 1 bit. It will depend upon the number of flip – flops in a row of the register. the MOSFET conducts and charges the capacitor. The disadvantage of dynamic RAM is the need to refresh the capacitor charge every few milliseconds. Since only a single MOSFET and capacitor are needed. In this way. Static RAM: The figure shows one of the flip flops used in a static MOSRAM. 9-4(b) Dynamic RAM: Figure shown one of the memory elements( called calls) in a dynamic RAM. Sense line Q3 X Q1 Q4 X Q2 Control line Storage Capacitor Fig. The stored data must be refreshed ( Recharged) for every few milliseconds.

the information memory location is cleared off and the information present on the DATA input terminal is stored. ( 28 = 256) Write operation: Moving 1 storing the data into the selected memory location is called write operation. C= MxN C is the no. 2) Place the DATA to be stored on the data – input terminals. 2048.4 and 8. P address lines are required . This unique address is identified by placing appropriate 0 s and 1s on the address pins. 4) Finally apply a write command signal to the write control input terminal. 1024. 4096 and the number of bits in each memory location( i. the following sequence of operation is to be performed. For accessing any one of M memory locations. 512. a ROM with 256 memory locations can be accessed with 8 address lines.Semiconductor Memories 53 semiconductor memories. 3) Place the ADDRESS of the desired memory location on the address – input terminal. CAPACITY: The capacity or size of a memory is defined as the number of memory locations available in the memory multiplied by the number of bits in each location. Address: The different memory locations in a memory chip are identified by its unique address. This set of P lines is called address bus. Read Operation: Copying/ detecting data from memory. of memory locations and N is the no of bits in each memory location. For reading a data from a particular memory location. The commonly used values of the number of memory location are 64. word length) are 1. without destroying the contents. . Mathematically it is given by. For example .e. where 2p = m. the following sequence of operations is to be performed. is called read operation. Where. 256. 1) The chip select signal is applied to the CS terminal. For writing a word into a particular memory location. In response to the above operations.

In micro controllers for specialized applications. Read cycle time ( TRC) : This is the maximum time amount of time for which the valid address must be present for reading a word from the memory. ROMs are most often used of storing permanent instruction necessary for stratup and operation of a computer. In response to the above operations. SRAMS are used for cache memory. Apply a READ command signal to the read control input terminal. That is. 1) They are available in small size (min the form of Ics) 2) Low cost and high speed of operations 3) High Reliability 4) Easy to expand memory size( capacity) Applications: The following are some of basic applications of semiconductor memories. Write cycle Time ( TWC) This is the minimum amount of time for which the valid address must be present for writing a word in the memory. For example if the 10th location is being th accessed at a particular time.54 1) 2) 3) Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals The chip select signal is to be applied to the CS terminal. it is the minimum time required between two successive write operations. Place the ADDRESS of desired memory location on the address – input terminal. . the data from the addressed memory location appears on the DATA – OUTPUT terminal. it is the minimum time required between two successive read operations. unless all th other intermediate locations ( i.13 and 14 ) have been accessed one – by – one. Sequential access memory: It is a memory in which the words ( data’s) are stored – in and read out in sequence. This means that the access time is not same for all the locations. 1) 2) 3) 4) RAMS are used for temporary storage of user programs and data. 11.12. then 15 location is not accessable. That is.e. Advantages of semiconductor memories: The following are the major advantage of semiconductor memories.

9) What is a write operation? 10) What is a read operation? 11) What is a access time. 12) What are the advantages of semi conductor memories? 13) Give the applications of memories? Long answer questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Classify the semi conductor memories? Explain the operation of diode ROM memory? Explain the operation of SRAM and DRAM? Explain the READ operation? Explain the write operation? Explain the address of memory? What is the capacity of memory? Explain? 55 .Semiconductor Memories Short answer questions: 1) What is a memory 2) What is semiconductor memory? 3) What are the types of memories? 4) What is a ROM and RAM? 5) What is EPROM? 6) What is the difference between SRAM and DRAM? 7) What is a cache memory? 8) What is a word length.

2. After the computer of processing the data in the digital system.56 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 4 – A/ D AND D/ A CONVERTERS 4. The process of converting analog signals into digital form is known as analog to digital conversion ( A/D). giving a continous voltage ranging from 0 to 10 V. control .1 shows a typical situation in which the digital system has analog inputs and outputs.1 Digital System with A/D and D/A converters . for the communication or the data transfer with analog equipment. 4.1 Need for A/D and D/A conversion: In many of the applications digital systems must be interfaced with analog equipment. This output analog voltage is indicated by the voltmeter. Introduction: Digital systems are widely used in many applications such as communication . the system gives the digital 1 data output. the signals are available only in analog form . the system which is used for this process is known as ‘A/D converter ( ADC) Conversely. In such cases. Variable Voltage Source No Converter Digital System D/A converter Analog output V Fig. but not in digital form. 1) In the Fig. computers. then the A/D converter translates the analog input digital data. the digital system is needed for A/D and D/A converters . The input section is a variable voltage source.0. Hence by using digital hardware. This output will be translated into an analog voltage by the D/A converter. it is often necessary to convert the digital output of the system into analog voltage or current. 4. These analog signals have to be converted into digital form. instrumentations…… etc. This process is known as ‘Digital to analog conversion’ ( D/A) and the system used for this purpose is known as digital to analog D/A converter (DAC). In many of these applications .

Voltage switches with Reference Voltage source 1s 2s 4s 8s Resistive summing network Amplifiers Analog output Fig. Note that this amplifier performs two functions. Basic Principle of D/A conversion : The basic principle of operation of D/A conversion is shown in the block diagram of a D/A converter in the below figure.2 Methods of A/D and D/A conversions: Digital to Analog (D/A ) Conversion: The process of converting a digital signal into analog is known as ‘Digital – to – analog ‘ (D/A) conversion. D/A Converters 57 Thus the above situation necessitate A/D and D/A converters along with the digital system. These are current to voltage conversion and scaling. which are in the form of electric signals. in which each source feeds a precisely regulated voltage to the switches. i.2 Block Diagrame of D/ A converters Let the input digital data is applied to the voltage switches. No. 4.OV or the precision source voltage. 2) Similarly . There is two types of D/A converters 1) Weighted – Register D/A converter 2) R – 2 R D/A converter. So that the output voltage of the D/A converter will be the proper value. In most of the converters. This necessitate or requires an D/A converter at the transmitting end and a A/D converter at the receiving end. 4. When the binary signals of digital data are applied on voltage switches.A/D. The switches feed resistive summing network which converts each bit into its weighted current value and sums them for a total current. The switches are with reference voltage source (Vref ). then the switches provide one of two possible outputs. This total value is then fed to the amplifier and gives the proper analog voltage value for the equivalent digital data. . operational amplifier ( OP-AMP) is mostly used.e. a digital communication system is used to transmit the signals.

the counter must count from zero up to point at which the feed back voltage reaches the analog input voltage.58 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 4. Digital input CLK AND BCD Counter 8s 4s 2s 1s D 3 D2 D1 D0 Ananlog input Voltage Compar atore D/A Coun ter Fee back Voltage Fig. the counter must sequence through its maximum number of states before the conversion occurs. Thus A/D converter produces the digital output of an analog input voltage. Disadvantages : 1) Slow speed of operation is the main drawback of this method. Note that for each of sample of analog voltage.3 Counter type A/D converter: The block diagram of a counter type 4 – bit A/D converter is shown in the fig below.bit aid converter Operation : Let the counter begin RESET and the output of the D/A converter is zero. 8 – .3 Black diagram of A counter type 4 . The clock pulse is allowed to increase or advance the count of the BCD counter through its binary states. an and gate a BCD counter and a D/A converter. The counter continues to advance from one binary state to the next producing successively higher steps and the count will be displayed at the digital or binary output as D D D D. the comparator output will go low and disables the AND gate. In the worst case of maximum input. For a 4 –0 bit. The state of the counter at this point equals the number of steps in the reference voltage or feed back voltage at which the comparison occurs voltage. It employs a voltage comparator. the count on the counter increases until the feed back voltage from the D/A converter increases becomes greater than the analog input voltage. 4. Apply the analog voltage at the input. Whenever the voltage at B is greater than at A. It results the cutting off the clock pulses to stop the counter. No. If the analog input voltage at A is grater than the voltage at the input B of the comparator. then the output of the comparator switches to a high state and enables the AND gate.

4. i. this means a maximum of 16. Voltage switches with Vref (MSB) (LSB) R1 2R 2 R1 R2 2R R3 2R R4 2R R-2 Resistive Summing 2R Amplifier Fig. because only two resistance values are needed the tolerance problem is minimized. The advantage of the ladder type network is that only two values of resistors are needed.bit D/A Converter Fig. depending upon the analog voltage. This method eliminates the range problem. The function of this R – 2 R ladder resistor network is the same as the at of the binary weighted resistor network. An integrated ladder can divide the current more accurately than a binary weighted circuit even when the number of bits increases. 4. D/A Converters 59 bit and 16 – bit conversions. No. R – 2R ladder type resistive network is commonly used in integrated D/A converters.A/D. the counter must count from zero up to the point at which the feed back voltage reaches the analog input voltage. (1) R-2 R Ladder Types 4 . 256 and 4096 counter states are required respectively. A 4 –bit D/A converter that uses R – 2 R ladder type resistance network is shown in the below fig. Hence the network has the name R – 2 R resistor network.e one 2 time ( 2 R) the other resistor. 3) The conversion time varies .4 . 2) For each sample of analog voltage.4 D/A Conversion using ladder network : To overcome the difficulties in the weighted resistors method.

In this section we shall examine the major methods which are used in various applications these are counter method and successive approximation method. 4. The process of converting analog signal into digital is known as ‘Analog – to – digital[ A/D ]conversion’ there are many methods for A/D conversion with varying conversion rate with varying conversion rates. cost and susceptibility to noise.D) Conversion : Much of the information provided in a digital system exists first in analog form requiring conversion to digital. . No.5 Analog – To – Digital (A/.60 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals A Vp (LSB) B C D 2R 2R A1 R 2R R C1 2R R D1 2R (MSB) B1 B A R R 2R R C R D 2R R 2R B1 B R C R 2R D R 2R 2R A 1 B1 C1 D 1 C1 D1 D R VR 23 2R D VR 24 R D 2R C1 D1 D1 Fig.

the LSB has been assumed as 1 and the equivalent voltage is VR / 24 Similarly for the digital input 0010. the analog output voltage is determined for various switch positions of the digital input. Note that the value of equivalent resistance in 3 R in each case. D/A Converters 61 Operation : The operation of the circuit can be simplified by using Thevenins theorem.A/D. by using this theorem at BB1. CC1 and DD1 we have the circuit as shown in figure 1(c) (d) (e) respectively. As per with binary progression of the switches Vo is given by V0 V0 Rf VR Rf VR Rf VR   Rf V . The equivalent circuit of the fig 1 is given in the fig 2 (a) From the circuit of the above figure. Short answer questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) What is A/D converter? What is D/A converter? What are the types of D/A converters? What are the types of A/D converters? Long answer questions: 1) 2) Explain the operation of R – 2R ladder D/A converters? Explain the operation of Counter type A/D converters? . S3 S1 + S2 + = −  .section .1 ( A) we can simplify the circuit as shown in the fig. by using the above expression. 0100 and 1000 the equivalent voltages the V / 23 and V /22 respectively. In the AA.e SO = 1. Similarly. 1(b). the output analog voltage can be determined. by the application of thevenins theorem to the resistive network of the figure at A A of the circuit in Fig. S1 = 0 S2 = 0 and S3 = 3. Let us assume that the digital input is 0001. the two 2 R resistors are in Parallel and its equivalent resistance is R. Thus. R So + 4 3 2 3R 2 3R 2 3R 21    3R 2 Rf VLR 3 =− 2 S 3 + 2 2 S 2 + 21 S1 + 2 0 S 0 4 3R 2 [ ] ( where minus sign indicates the phase inversion ) Thus . i.

1 Intel’s family Processors and Their features Microprocessors features Year Data Bus With Address Bus Width Memory Size 8085 1976 8 bits 8086 1978 16 bits 80186 1980 16 bits 80286 1983 16 bits 80386 1984 32bits 32bits 80486 Pentium 1995 64 bits Pentiium II 1997 64 bits Pentium .Table 5.III 1999 64bits Number Systems and Digital Circuits 16bits 20 bits 20bits 24bits 32bits 32bits 32bits 36 bits 36 bits 64 KB 1 MB 5mHz 1 MB 6mHz 16 MB 12mHz 32 MB 33mHz 4GB 66mHz 4 GB 200mHz 4 GB 266mHz 4 GB 266mHz Clock Frequency 3 mHz 75 .

Both program and data are fed into the CPU and transferred to their respective memory locations. the control and arithmetic . expensive and used only by government agencies.1 How the computer works can be explained briefly in the following manner. The CPU reads instructions from the memory and performs the task specified by the instruction on the data. A computer designed using microprocessor is called a “Microcomputer”. No.1 shows a simplified structure of a microcomputer. input CPU control + arithmetic output data memory Memory Fig. that is its basic components and interaction between them. The arrows between them gives an indication of signal flow. A set of instructions written for the computer to perform a task is called a program and a group of programs is called software. big universities and large corporations. The size and shape of the computer has changed in the past few years because of a device called “ Microprocessor”. This chapter introduces the basic structure of a computer. The physical units shown in boxes are called as hardware. 5.62 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 5 – FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS Introduction: The computers is making an impact on every aspect of our lives. processes the data as per the instructions and communicates the results in some human language as the outputs”. formerly.output and unit. It includes five basic components: the input unit. This action of CPU on the data is called program memory . 5. Computer organization (block Diagram of computer): Fig. Definition of the computer: A computer may be defined as “an electronic machine which accepts data and instructions in coded forms as inputs. stores them as long as required. they were large. They have been in general use since 1950s.

it can be instructed to perform tasks within its capability. The control Unit provides the necessary in the microcomputer. the Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU) to perform arithmetic and logical operations. Cathode Ray Tube and Magnetic Tape. the equation is: where does he write those instructions and enter data?. The answer is memory. The CPU consists instruction decoder. The person( here called as programmer) using a computer can select appropriate instructions and ask the computer to perform various tasks on a given set of data. The control unit is a part of CPU and has a function to control various operations in the microcomputer. the result from CPU can be taken through output devices such as printer.Fundamentals of Computer 63 execution. Now. Generally each line has space for eight binary bits. A/D converters and so on. The CPU reads instructions from the memory and Performs the tasks specified. Input/ Output: The user can enter instructions and data into memory through input devices such as a keyboard. How does he can enter those instructions and data into the computer’s memory? The answers are input and output( I. that is. But. The ASCII keyboard is similar to a typewriter keyboard and it is used to enter programs in an English – like language. where the computer processes data. This is done with the group of logic circuits called Central Processing Unit( CPU) CPU: The Central Processing Unit of a computer consists of various registers to store data. INTERACTION BETWEEN CPU. counters and control lines. The CPU ineracts(Communicates) with input / output devices to accept or to send data. The user writes the necessary instructions and data in memory. Memory: Memory is like the page of note book with space for a fixed number of binary numbers on each line. The input and output devices are known as Peripherals. It controls the flow of data between the Micro processor and . MEMORY AND I/O DEVICES The computer is programmable . He asks the computer to perform the given task and find an answer. After the completion of execution. Now the Quation is. the results are transferred to the output of the computer./O) devices. In addition to working Registers and ALU. here also a quation araises. After performing the given task.

64 peripheral including memory. An input device allows data and information to enter into a micro computer in a machine readable form ( binary word). The Read/ write memory is also known as user memory. An output device receives information from the micro computer and present into a form which can easily be read by people. 1) 2) 3) 4) It will fetch. It respond to external interrupts. and to and from the input / output sections. It provide overall timing control signals for the entire system.U. It is constructed using an ALU along with a number of registers and counters. 5.P. 1) 2) 3) 4) It stores binary instructions and data called as programs. They are normally abbreviated as I/O devices. C. :The Central Processing Unit(CPU) is the brain of a digital computer.1 has two sections: Read Only Memory ( ROM) and Read write Memory(R/WM). It transfer data to and from memory. Memory: The memory block shown in fig. Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Functions of memory / CPU: The functions of various components of a microcomputer can be summarized as follows. It is used to store user programs and data.4 Functions of I/O Devices: Input / Output devices are the two basic components that can provide a link between a computer and outside world. popularly known as Random Access Memory ( RAM). The functions of input device are. It provides the instructions and data to the CPU on request It stores intermediate results and data for the CPU. The Monitor programs of a microcomputer are generally stored in the ROM. The primary functions of CPU are. 5. decode and execute program instructions in the proper order. The uses system bus to transfer programs and data. The memory functions are. The CPU is therefore the primary centre for computation and decision making. 1) It accepts ( reads) the data from outside world 2) It converts the data in binary form that can be acceptable by the .

Provide a powerful instruction set Facilitate programming in high – level languages. the arithmetic and logic unit. 2) It converts the coded data into human acceptable form 3) Sends the converted result to the outside world. 1) It accepts data in binary form from computer. Scanner. That means. 5. 3) It sends data in binary form to the computer for further processing. 1) 2) 3) 4) Increase the computational capability of the processor(or) the execution speed. the important control and timing section. The word length ranges from 4 bits for small computers to 32 bit for large computers. floppy drives and Plotters. The another name to word length is byte. If width of the registers in a processor is increased. The generally used input devices are keyboard. The primary functions of CPU are already discussed in section 5. speakers. A word or word length is defined as the number of bits the computer can recognize and process at a time. along with inputs and outputs as shown in fig. Increase memory addressing capacity.5STATE RELAVANCE OF SPEED AND WORLD LENGTH FOR CPU PERFORMANCE. printer. The functions of output devices are.6 Functional Blocks of CPU: The main functioning unit of any computer system is called the Central Processing Unit.e. These binary numbers are combined to form a word. speed of the processor) and memory capacity are increased. 5. The generally used output devices are Monitor.Fundamentals of Computer 65 computer. The number of bits in a word or word length for a given computer( or) processor ) is fixed and words are formed through various combinations of these bits. OMR Sheets. A byte is defined as a group of 8 bits. a 16 – bit microprocessor has a word length of 2 bytes. Computers (or processors) recognize and operate in binary numbers.2 . 5. increase in world length will improve the CPU performance in the following manner. floppy disk. For example. mouse. microphone and web camera.3. the instruction decoder. the number of data and address pins may also be made larger so that the data transfer rate ( i. The major functional blocks includes the various registers.

The Intel family processors with their features are given in table 5. such as additions. the celron.2 a) Instruction Register and decoder: The instruction register holds the instruction read from ROM. To initiate appropriate functions by the arithmetic unit. AMD gives us the Athlon. multiplication .66 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Internal bus Arithmetic and logi unit Temporary register Buffer Buffer / lach Accemulator Program Counter Instruction decoder Instruction register Timing and control CPU Fig.7 CURRENT FAMILY OF CPU’S USED IN COMPUTERS Today’s CPU market is dominated by two Vendors. The decoder sends the control signals appropriate to the decoder instruction to the decoded instruction to the ALU.1. the hig end Xeron and Ultra – high – end Itanium Processors. No. 5. 5. Intel’s CPU offers form 8085 to Pentium line. Intel corporation of America(Intel’s) and American Micro Devices (AMD). 1) 2) To control the transfer of data and information between various units.80486 and Pentium are the first processors to have a 32 – bit and 64 – bits data bus. Duron and Athlon Xp product families. Internal bus . comparison etc. b) Arithmetic logic Unit: This unit is used to Perform all the arithmetic and logic operations.0286. Intel’s 80186.80386.8. Its main functions are. c) Control Unit: This unit coordinates the activities of the all other units in the system.

But they are most expensive at the other end we have magnetic memories that can operate with low speed. RIMM: Rambus Inline memory module. The main memory present in the computer( i. IMPORTANCE OF CACHE MEMORY It is observed that semiconductor memories using high speed transistor flip – flop are the fastest memories. The processor is forced to wait or kept idle for getting data or instruction from memory. 4. This speed mismatch is eliminated by using a small fast memory as an intermediate buffer between the memory and the processor as shown in fig. RAM’s Memory: SIMM: Signal Inline Memory Module (SIMM) is one of the most commonly used form of memory. RD RAM: RD RAM developed by Rambus uses special Channels that have data rate transfer of 800M Hz. .9 . DIMM. this memory . 5. You can also double the channel width for faster speeds. Generally a CPU does its operations at very high speed.e. TYPES OF MEMORY USED IN COMPUTERS The following are some important RAM and ROM memories recently used in computers. These are used for high – end version processors and available in 184 pin package. Thus there is a speed mismatch between the processor and main memory. Dual Inline Memory Module is other type of memory used in these days. SIMM RAM sticks came in either 30 pin SIMM has 8bits data bus where 72 – pin SIMM has 32. It is available in 168 or 184 pin configuration.bit data bus.8. 5. magnetic memory) is a low speed memory.Fundamentals of Computer 67 5. ROM Memories: The different types of ROM’s are 1) EPROM 2) EEPROM which are discussed in the chapter 4 semiconductor memories. The data bus width is 64 bits wide.

The popular external storage media used with computers are: 1. No. It is fabricated using high speed semiconductor devices. 5. Magnetic tapes data .3 Generally a series of instructions are copied into cache memory from the main memory. Therefore the size of the cache memory is kept small. Main Memory data address Cache Memory Address Processor Fig. the latest memory is kept small. Hard Disk 3. 5. the latest Pentium processors has a cache memory of 8 to 32 killo bytes of size. Thus fetch time( getting the instruction ) is considerably reduced.68 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals is known as a cache memory. Floppy disk. For example.10. the next series of instructions is copied into it from the main memory. The devices used to fabricate a cache memory are expensive. STORAGE DEVICES USED IN COMPUTERS: The purpose of external storage is to retain data and programs for future use. The information stored on these devices is permanent and not erased when the equipment is turned off. For example. 2. When instructions in the cache are exhausted. Then the processor fetches instructions from the cache.

4. Hard disks possess a number of advantages compared to floppy disks. No. 3. .4 Index Hole Floppy disks are available in three standard sizes. 1. Spindle hole label information Write protect notch Read & Write Fig. They can hold much larger volume of information. It is a flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material and looks like a phonograph record. Storage capacity ranges 10 MB to 80 MB. 5. 5. 2. A hard disk pack consist of two or more magnetic plates fixed to a spindle. The not susceptible to dust and static electricity. the disk pack is permanently sealed inside a casing to protect it from dust and other contaminations. one below the other with a set read/ write heads as shown in fig. 5 ½ Inches. Information can be recorded or read by inserting it into a disk drive connected to the computer. 3 ½ Inches. An opening is provided in the jacket to facilitate reading and writing of information. The disks are permanently erased in stiff paper jackets for protection and easy handling.Fundamentals of Computer 69 Floppy Disks: The most common storage medium used on small computers in s floppy disk. They are very fast in reading and writing. Hard Disk: Another magnetic media suitable for storing large volumes of information is the hard disk. 8 – inches.

All the first generation computers possessed the following .000 characters per second.5 Magnetic Tapes: Relatively inexpensive storage media known as magnetic tapes and are used as back up media.400 feet tape can store about 40 million characters and can be read at a speed of 1. performing arithmetic operations and print out results. 5. during the first decade of the 19th century. First Generation: The first generation computers are those in which vaccum tubes are used.70 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Fig. No.10. Computers developed after ENIAC have been classified into the following four generations. Computer Generations: First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation 1946 – 1955 1956 – 1965 1966 – 1975 1976 – present. Storing information. This provides base for the modern computer. no conceptual changes were made until the end of the 18th Century. It is like a music cassette.. This was used for the systematic calculation of the arithmetic operations. 60. Charles Babbage developed his differential and analytical engines. that is a sequential device and therefore one has to read all the previous records to reach a particular one. Generations of computer: History of computers: Computer History starts with the development of a device called the abacus by the Chinese around 3000 BC. A standard 2. 5. This device has provisions for inputting data. Later in the 1940s the first electronic machine known as ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was introduced. Although there were a number of improvements in calculating devices.

Fundamentals of Computer characteristics as compared to the later models. The use of IC chips in the place of transistors gave birth to the third generation computers. Fourth generation: Continued effort towards miniaturization led to the development of large scale integration (LSI) technology. Third Generation: The research in the field of electronics led to the innovation of the integrated circuits known as IC chips. This generation of computers is termed as fifth generation computers. Fifth generation : Japan and many other countries are working on systems what are known as expert systems which will considerably improve the man machine interaction. they occupied less space. than the previous generation. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Large in size Slow operating speeds. they are likely to become more popular in the next few years. Although expert systems are expensive and time – consuming to build. They were still more compact. faster and less expensive. Restricted computing capacity. required less power and produced much less heat. The fourth generation computers are marked with an increased user – computer interaction and speed. . Intel corporation introduced LSI chips called microprocessors for building computers. The computer that uses LSI chips has been named the fourth generation computers. Further . All these devices were much faster and more reliable than their earlier counterparts. Limited programming capabilities Short life span Complex maintenance schedules 71 Second Generation : The second generation computers were marked by the use of a solid state device called the transistor in the place of vaccum tubes. Such systems would integrate the advancements in both hardware and software technologies and would facilitate computer aided problem solving with the help of orgnised information in many specialized areas.

mainframes and super computers. Analog computer 3. time sharing system. Minicomputers: A minicomputer is a medium sized computer that is more costly and powerful than a micro computer. Digital computers are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and manipulations of data such as preparation of bills. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or number. computers can be classified into one of the following types. Micro computers: A micro computer is the smallest general – purpose processing system. A system that supports multiple users is called Multiterminal. Digits. Broadly they may be categorized as micro computers. 1.72 Types of computers: Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Based on the operating principles. Digital computer 2. Minicomputers are the popular data processing systems. Hybrid Computer Digital Computer: Digital computers operate essentially by counting. Analog computers are powerful tools so solve differential equations. etc. Microcomputers are self – contained units and usually designed for use by one person at a time. Since microcomputers can be easily linked to large computer. ledgers. . Analog Computer: Analog computer operate by measuring rather than by counting. Hybrid Computer: Computers which combine features of both analog and digital types. Classification of computers: Computers are also available in different sizes and different capabilities. they form a very important segment of the integrated information systems. The analog computer functions by establishing similarities between two quantities that are usually expressed as voltages or currents. are called hybrid computers. Mini computer is usually designed to serve multiple users simultaneously. mini computers. solution of simultaneous equations .

Give the examples of currently used memories? What is a cache memory? Give the example of storage devices? 5. weather forecasting. production engineering. 6.Fundamentals of Computer 73 Mainframe computers: Computers with large storage capacities and very high speed of processing ( compared to micro or minicomputers) are known as mainframe computers. They support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. Short answer questions 1. 11. 9. 7. 2. 3. Give the example of 32 – bit and 64 bit micro processors. They are also used as the central host computer in distributed data processing systems. structural analysis. 8. What is a computer? What are the types of computers? What is a microprocessor? What are the functions of the following units? a) Arithmetic Logic Unit b) Control Unit c) Processing Unit d) I/O Unit What is a memory unit? Explain the term Hardware and software? Give the examples of I/O devices? Define word length. 10. 12. The super computer is used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines. medicine and physics. Super computer: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers. 4. . These included applications in electronics. chemistry.

7. Distinguish between magnetic memory and semi conductor memory. 8. 4. Explain briefly how a computer works? Give the functions of memory Unit? Give the functions of CPU? Give the functions of I/O devices? Draw the CPU functional block and explain? Draw the functional block of a computer and explain? Explain a) floppy b) Hard disk. .74 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Long answer questions 1. 5. 6. 2. 3.

big universities and large corporations. 5. input CPU control + arithmetic output data memory Memory Fig. stores them as long as required. The physical units shown in boxes are called as hardware. 5.output and unit. The size and shape of the computer has changed in the past few years because of a device called “ Microprocessor”.1 How the computer works can be explained briefly in the following manner.1 shows a simplified structure of a microcomputer. No. that is its basic components and interaction between them. This chapter introduces the basic structure of a computer. A computer designed using microprocessor is called a “Microcomputer”. They have been in general use since 1950s.62 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 5 – FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTERS Introduction: The computers is making an impact on every aspect of our lives. the control and arithmetic . A set of instructions written for the computer to perform a task is called a program and a group of programs is called software. processes the data as per the instructions and communicates the results in some human language as the outputs”. This action of CPU on the data is called program memory . Computer organization (block Diagram of computer): Fig. Both program and data are fed into the CPU and transferred to their respective memory locations. expensive and used only by government agencies. Definition of the computer: A computer may be defined as “an electronic machine which accepts data and instructions in coded forms as inputs. The CPU reads instructions from the memory and performs the task specified by the instruction on the data. formerly. they were large. The arrows between them gives an indication of signal flow. It includes five basic components: the input unit.

Generally each line has space for eight binary bits. The user writes the necessary instructions and data in memory. that is. But. MEMORY AND I/O DEVICES The computer is programmable ./O) devices. After the completion of execution. It controls the flow of data between the Micro processor and . the Arithmetic Logic Unit ( ALU) to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The control Unit provides the necessary in the microcomputer. it can be instructed to perform tasks within its capability. the result from CPU can be taken through output devices such as printer. where the computer processes data.Fundamentals of Computer 63 execution. The CPU ineracts(Communicates) with input / output devices to accept or to send data. here also a quation araises. INTERACTION BETWEEN CPU. Input/ Output: The user can enter instructions and data into memory through input devices such as a keyboard. Cathode Ray Tube and Magnetic Tape. The CPU consists instruction decoder. How does he can enter those instructions and data into the computer’s memory? The answers are input and output( I. The person( here called as programmer) using a computer can select appropriate instructions and ask the computer to perform various tasks on a given set of data. the results are transferred to the output of the computer. The ASCII keyboard is similar to a typewriter keyboard and it is used to enter programs in an English – like language. the equation is: where does he write those instructions and enter data?. After performing the given task. Now the Quation is. The input and output devices are known as Peripherals. The control unit is a part of CPU and has a function to control various operations in the microcomputer. A/D converters and so on. The answer is memory. Now. Memory: Memory is like the page of note book with space for a fixed number of binary numbers on each line. He asks the computer to perform the given task and find an answer. The CPU reads instructions from the memory and Performs the tasks specified. counters and control lines. This is done with the group of logic circuits called Central Processing Unit( CPU) CPU: The Central Processing Unit of a computer consists of various registers to store data. In addition to working Registers and ALU.

They are normally abbreviated as I/O devices. The uses system bus to transfer programs and data. The Monitor programs of a microcomputer are generally stored in the ROM. 1) 2) 3) 4) It will fetch. 1) It accepts ( reads) the data from outside world 2) It converts the data in binary form that can be acceptable by the . 1) 2) 3) 4) It stores binary instructions and data called as programs. An input device allows data and information to enter into a micro computer in a machine readable form ( binary word). It provide overall timing control signals for the entire system. It transfer data to and from memory. It is constructed using an ALU along with a number of registers and counters.1 has two sections: Read Only Memory ( ROM) and Read write Memory(R/WM). Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Functions of memory / CPU: The functions of various components of a microcomputer can be summarized as follows. The Read/ write memory is also known as user memory.4 Functions of I/O Devices: Input / Output devices are the two basic components that can provide a link between a computer and outside world. :The Central Processing Unit(CPU) is the brain of a digital computer. 5. 5. It is used to store user programs and data. The CPU is therefore the primary centre for computation and decision making. It respond to external interrupts. decode and execute program instructions in the proper order. The functions of input device are.U. Memory: The memory block shown in fig. An output device receives information from the micro computer and present into a form which can easily be read by people. The primary functions of CPU are. The memory functions are. C. It provides the instructions and data to the CPU on request It stores intermediate results and data for the CPU.P. popularly known as Random Access Memory ( RAM). and to and from the input / output sections.64 peripheral including memory.

Fundamentals of Computer

65

computer. 3) It sends data in binary form to the computer for further processing. The generally used input devices are keyboard, mouse, floppy disk, OMR Sheets, Scanner, microphone and web camera. The functions of output devices are, 1) It accepts data in binary form from computer. 2) It converts the coded data into human acceptable form 3) Sends the converted result to the outside world. The generally used output devices are Monitor, printer, speakers, floppy drives and Plotters. 5.5STATE RELAVANCE OF SPEED AND WORLD LENGTH FOR CPU PERFORMANCE. Computers (or processors) recognize and operate in binary numbers. These binary numbers are combined to form a word. A word or word length is defined as the number of bits the computer can recognize and process at a time. The word length ranges from 4 bits for small computers to 32 bit for large computers. The another name to word length is byte. A byte is defined as a group of 8 bits. For example, a 16 – bit microprocessor has a word length of 2 bytes. The number of bits in a word or word length for a given computer( or) processor ) is fixed and words are formed through various combinations of these bits. If width of the registers in a processor is increased, the number of data and address pins may also be made larger so that the data transfer rate ( i.e. speed of the processor) and memory capacity are increased. That means, increase in world length will improve the CPU performance in the following manner. 1) 2) 3) 4) Increase the computational capability of the processor(or) the execution speed. Increase memory addressing capacity. Provide a powerful instruction set Facilitate programming in high – level languages.

5.6 Functional Blocks of CPU: The main functioning unit of any computer system is called the Central Processing Unit. The primary functions of CPU are already discussed in section 5.3. The major functional blocks includes the various registers, the arithmetic and logic unit, the instruction decoder, the important control and timing section, along with inputs and outputs as shown in fig. 5.2

66

Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals

Internal bus

Arithmetic and logi unit

Temporary register
Buffer

Buffer / lach

Accemulator Program Counter Instruction decoder Instruction register

Timing and control CPU

Fig. No. 5.2 a) Instruction Register and decoder: The instruction register holds the instruction read from ROM. The decoder sends the control signals appropriate to the decoder instruction to the decoded instruction to the ALU. b) Arithmetic logic Unit: This unit is used to Perform all the arithmetic and logic operations, such as additions, multiplication , comparison etc. c) Control Unit: This unit coordinates the activities of the all other units in the system. Its main functions are, 1) 2) To control the transfer of data and information between various units. To initiate appropriate functions by the arithmetic unit.

5.7 CURRENT FAMILY OF CPU’S USED IN COMPUTERS Today’s CPU market is dominated by two Vendors; Intel corporation of America(Intel’s) and American Micro Devices (AMD). Intel’s CPU offers form 8085 to Pentium line, the celron, the hig end Xeron and Ultra – high – end Itanium Processors. AMD gives us the Athlon, Duron and Athlon Xp product families. Intel’s 80186,8.0286,80386,80486 and Pentium are the first processors to have a 32 – bit and 64 – bits data bus. The Intel family processors with their features are given in table 5.1.

Internal bus

Fundamentals of Computer

67

5.8. TYPES OF MEMORY USED IN COMPUTERS The following are some important RAM and ROM memories recently used in computers. RAM’s Memory: SIMM: Signal Inline Memory Module (SIMM) is one of the most commonly used form of memory. SIMM RAM sticks came in either 30 pin SIMM has 8bits data bus where 72 – pin SIMM has 32- bit data bus. DIMM; Dual Inline Memory Module is other type of memory used in these days. It is available in 168 or 184 pin configuration. The data bus width is 64 bits wide. RIMM: Rambus Inline memory module. These are used for high – end version processors and available in 184 pin package. RD RAM: RD RAM developed by Rambus uses special Channels that have data rate transfer of 800M Hz. . You can also double the channel width for faster speeds. ROM Memories: The different types of ROM’s are 1) EPROM 2) EEPROM which are discussed in the chapter 4 semiconductor memories. 5.9 . IMPORTANCE OF CACHE MEMORY It is observed that semiconductor memories using high speed transistor flip – flop are the fastest memories. But they are most expensive at the other end we have magnetic memories that can operate with low speed. Generally a CPU does its operations at very high speed. The main memory present in the computer( i.e. magnetic memory) is a low speed memory. Thus there is a speed mismatch between the processor and main memory. The processor is forced to wait or kept idle for getting data or instruction from memory. This speed mismatch is eliminated by using a small fast memory as an intermediate buffer between the memory and the processor as shown in fig. 5. 4. this memory

68

Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals

is known as a cache memory. It is fabricated using high speed semiconductor devices. Main Memory data

address

Cache Memory Address Processor Fig. No. 5.3 Generally a series of instructions are copied into cache memory from the main memory. Then the processor fetches instructions from the cache. Thus fetch time( getting the instruction ) is considerably reduced. When instructions in the cache are exhausted, the next series of instructions is copied into it from the main memory. The devices used to fabricate a cache memory are expensive. Therefore the size of the cache memory is kept small. For example, the latest memory is kept small. For example, the latest Pentium processors has a cache memory of 8 to 32 killo bytes of size. 5.10. STORAGE DEVICES USED IN COMPUTERS: The purpose of external storage is to retain data and programs for future use. The information stored on these devices is permanent and not erased when the equipment is turned off. The popular external storage media used with computers are: 1. Floppy disk. 2. Hard Disk 3. Magnetic tapes data

Fundamentals of Computer

69

Floppy Disks: The most common storage medium used on small computers in s floppy disk. It is a flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material and looks like a phonograph record. Information can be recorded or read by inserting it into a disk drive connected to the computer. The disks are permanently erased in stiff paper jackets for protection and easy handling. An opening is provided in the jacket to facilitate reading and writing of information. Spindle hole label information Write protect notch

Read & Write Fig. No. 5.4

Index Hole

Floppy disks are available in three standard sizes. 8 – inches, 5 ½ Inches, 3 ½ Inches. Hard Disk: Another magnetic media suitable for storing large volumes of information is the hard disk. A hard disk pack consist of two or more magnetic plates fixed to a spindle, one below the other with a set read/ write heads as shown in fig. 5. the disk pack is permanently sealed inside a casing to protect it from dust and other contaminations. Hard disks possess a number of advantages compared to floppy disks. 1. They can hold much larger volume of information. 2. They are very fast in reading and writing. 3. The not susceptible to dust and static electricity. 4. Storage capacity ranges 10 MB to 80 MB.

Computers developed after ENIAC have been classified into the following four generations. Later in the 1940s the first electronic machine known as ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was introduced.. This provides base for the modern computer. Generations of computer: History of computers: Computer History starts with the development of a device called the abacus by the Chinese around 3000 BC.400 feet tape can store about 40 million characters and can be read at a speed of 1. First Generation: The first generation computers are those in which vaccum tubes are used. that is a sequential device and therefore one has to read all the previous records to reach a particular one. 5.70 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Fig.000 characters per second. All the first generation computers possessed the following . This device has provisions for inputting data. during the first decade of the 19th century.5 Magnetic Tapes: Relatively inexpensive storage media known as magnetic tapes and are used as back up media. No. 60. It is like a music cassette. Although there were a number of improvements in calculating devices. Charles Babbage developed his differential and analytical engines. This was used for the systematic calculation of the arithmetic operations. A standard 2.10. 5. performing arithmetic operations and print out results. Storing information. no conceptual changes were made until the end of the 18th Century. Computer Generations: First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation 1946 – 1955 1956 – 1965 1966 – 1975 1976 – present.

All these devices were much faster and more reliable than their earlier counterparts. Intel corporation introduced LSI chips called microprocessors for building computers. they occupied less space. than the previous generation. The fourth generation computers are marked with an increased user – computer interaction and speed. Further . The use of IC chips in the place of transistors gave birth to the third generation computers. Such systems would integrate the advancements in both hardware and software technologies and would facilitate computer aided problem solving with the help of orgnised information in many specialized areas. This generation of computers is termed as fifth generation computers. Third Generation: The research in the field of electronics led to the innovation of the integrated circuits known as IC chips. Although expert systems are expensive and time – consuming to build. Fifth generation : Japan and many other countries are working on systems what are known as expert systems which will considerably improve the man machine interaction. The computer that uses LSI chips has been named the fourth generation computers. faster and less expensive. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Large in size Slow operating speeds.Fundamentals of Computer characteristics as compared to the later models. Restricted computing capacity. Fourth generation: Continued effort towards miniaturization led to the development of large scale integration (LSI) technology. they are likely to become more popular in the next few years. Limited programming capabilities Short life span Complex maintenance schedules 71 Second Generation : The second generation computers were marked by the use of a solid state device called the transistor in the place of vaccum tubes. required less power and produced much less heat. They were still more compact. .

1. mainframes and super computers. Micro computers: A micro computer is the smallest general – purpose processing system. Digital computer 2. etc. All quantities are expressed as discrete digits or number. Minicomputers: A minicomputer is a medium sized computer that is more costly and powerful than a micro computer. are called hybrid computers. Analog computers are powerful tools so solve differential equations. A system that supports multiple users is called Multiterminal. Hybrid Computer Digital Computer: Digital computers operate essentially by counting. mini computers.72 Types of computers: Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Based on the operating principles. The analog computer functions by establishing similarities between two quantities that are usually expressed as voltages or currents. Broadly they may be categorized as micro computers. they form a very important segment of the integrated information systems. Analog Computer: Analog computer operate by measuring rather than by counting. solution of simultaneous equations . Minicomputers are the popular data processing systems. ledgers. Mini computer is usually designed to serve multiple users simultaneously. Hybrid Computer: Computers which combine features of both analog and digital types. . time sharing system. Digital computers are useful for evaluating arithmetic expressions and manipulations of data such as preparation of bills. computers can be classified into one of the following types. Analog computer 3. Since microcomputers can be easily linked to large computer. Microcomputers are self – contained units and usually designed for use by one person at a time. Classification of computers: Computers are also available in different sizes and different capabilities. Digits.

4. Give the examples of currently used memories? What is a cache memory? Give the example of storage devices? 5. 10. 11. They are also used as the central host computer in distributed data processing systems. Super computer: These have extremely large storage capacities and computing speeds which are atleast 10 times faster than other computers. chemistry. 12. 8. weather forecasting. 6. .Fundamentals of Computer 73 Mainframe computers: Computers with large storage capacities and very high speed of processing ( compared to micro or minicomputers) are known as mainframe computers. What is a computer? What are the types of computers? What is a microprocessor? What are the functions of the following units? a) Arithmetic Logic Unit b) Control Unit c) Processing Unit d) I/O Unit What is a memory unit? Explain the term Hardware and software? Give the examples of I/O devices? Define word length. structural analysis. 7. production engineering. They support a large number of terminals for use by a variety of users simultaneously. The super computer is used for large scale numerical problems in scientific and engineering disciplines. 2. 9. Give the example of 32 – bit and 64 bit micro processors. Short answer questions 1. These included applications in electronics. 3. medicine and physics.

Explain briefly how a computer works? Give the functions of memory Unit? Give the functions of CPU? Give the functions of I/O devices? Draw the CPU functional block and explain? Draw the functional block of a computer and explain? Explain a) floppy b) Hard disk. . 7. 6. 4. 3.74 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Long answer questions 1. 8. 5. 2. Distinguish between magnetic memory and semi conductor memory.

e. user 1 Text editor user2 compiler application programs Operating System Hardware Fig. Operating system is one among them.1 abstract view of components of A computer system. Secondary Goal: To use computer system in an efficient way ( i.1 6. WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM 6. Introduction: computers need clear – cut instructions to tell them what to do. No.76 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 6. A set of instructions to carry out these functions is called a program. A group of such programs that are put into a computer to operate and control its activity is called the software. There are four such major kinds of software. how to do and when to do. These programs must be in the internal storage ( memory) to execute their instructions.0. GOAL OF AN OPERATING SYSTEM. 6. user 3 assembler .1. Without software a computer cannot work. Primary Goal: To create an efficient environment and make computer system convenient to use. efficient utilization of resources of computer. Operating System: Definition: An operating System is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. Software is an essential requirement of computer system.

input and output devices and memory. Implementing the user interface. 6. Resources management ( shares hardware among users) Data management ( allows to share data also) Job management Input – Output management Maintaining security ( Preventing the uses from others) conflict resolution. Like any other machine.1. the computer system also requires a force or an intermediate operating that can interact between hardware and user. The force behind it is an operating system. These parts of computer hardware cannot produce any results if there is no interaction between them.2.1.Windows Operating System 77 Need: The hardware consists of central processing unit. Recovery from errors ( to identify and correct errors) Organising data for secure and rapid access handling network communications It loads the user program in memory . The user The input device keyboard The Control Unit / The ALU M E The Operating System M O R Y The output device printer / Monitor The floppy The hard disk disk disk The storage device Fig. Operating System working.2 6.Function of an Operating system: The Operating System performs following functions. 6. No.

2. .78 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Interprets the program instructions one at a time. 6. CPU switches from one program to another almost instantaneously. 1) 2) 3) Single user operating System Multi user operating System Multi tasking operating system Single user operating System: A single user OS allows a single user and all the resources are available to this user at all times. An operating System may be classified into following types. a) Multi – programming: Multiprogramming is the name given to the interleaved execution of two or more different and independent programs by same computer. Most OS’s for mini computers and mainframe computers are multi user OS. Give the instructions to display result on screen. Most tasking operating system: A multi tasking OS is the one that supports several tasks at a time. It improves the performance of computer system by allowing parallel processing. Multi user operating System: A multi user OS is one that support several users at a time. It needs a very sophisticated operating system. The main advantage with this is CPU would not be idle. Eg: windows and OS/2 are of multitasking OS’s From an operating system point of View. Types of Operating Systems. b) Multi – processing : Multi processing is the simultaneous execution of two or more processes by a computer system having more than one CPU. computer systems have improved in various phases. This concept is carried by placing two or more user’s programs in main memory and executing them concurrently. They are as follows. but only a single user.

A file name is divided into two parts. Invalid Filename 2004 data one4 two Example: Valid filename Student. dat Inter_st . The basic ideal behind time sharing system is to allow all user programs to have a brief share of the CPU time in turn. The DOS software is divided and stored in three different files on a disk the disk that contain all the three files is called a bootable disk or startup or system disk. is allocated a very short period of CPU time one by one. MSDOS. beginning from first program and proceding through the last.DOS) MS –DOS is one of the most common personal computer operating system MS.SYS.DOS is a single user operating system. Extension can contain up to 3 characters long. File: A file is a collection of related information all files in computer identified by its filename. Primary name Can contain up to 8 characters long. MS. Each user program. SYS and command.Windows Operating System 79 c) Time sharing : In time sharing the CPU time is divided among all the users on a scheduled basis. 1. This short period of time during which a user gets the attention of the cpu is known as time slice. MICROSOFT DISK OPERARTING SYSTEM ( MS. Primary Name Extension or secondary name Rules for assigning a filename in DOS: 1) 2) 3) 4) All filenames must start with an alphabet.DOS works mostly on micro computers.com. Special characters or blanks spaces are not allowed in filename except underscore characters. time slot or time quantum and id typically of the order of 10 to 20 milliseconds. These three files are IO. Time sharing reduces CPU idle time and provider advantages of quick response. 2.

3 Internal Commands: The Internal commands are those commands that are automatically loaded in memory when the operating system DOS is loaded into the memory. The various internal commands are as follows. Internal Commands External Commands 6.. These commands can be used without the need of nay DOS file or diskette. If you want to exit from command without saving press ctrl + c . If user types any other instructions which is not a DOS command. then it will display the error message “Bad command or Filename” There are mainly two types of DOS commands as: 1. It will execute and do appropriate action. These commands are used for common tasks like creating of a file and erasing a file etc. 2. C:\> copy con < filename> Eg: c:\> Copy con MPC The above example will creates a file named Mpc. 1) Copy con: This command is used to create a new file the general syntax of a copy con command is. they are loaded during the booting process. Then type the contents of the file using keyboard and then press F6 button or ctrl + Z (^Z) (for saving) 1 file (s) is created.80 DOS Commands: Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Command is an instruction written in a computer acceptable language that user types an the DOS Prompt.

Syntax : c:\> del <filename> C:\> del mpc The same can be done by using “eraise” also Syntax C:\> ERAISE < filename> To ask configuration message add “/p” parameter with combination of delete command. Syntax : C:\> type <filename> C:\> type mpc It will display contents or information present in the file mpc. Eg: C:\> Del mpc/p Mpc delete (y/n) ? 6) DIR: This command is used to display all files list the resides in the disk.Windows Operating System 81 2) Type : This command is used to display the content or information of a given file if file exist. 3) Copy: This command is used to copy information from an existing file to new file. Syntax : C:/> DIR . Syntax : c:\> Ren <old filename > < New filename > C:\> Ren ravni raju 5) Del: This command is used to delete ( remove) a file from the memory. Syntax : Eg: c:\> copy < source file> < destination file> c:\> copy mpc mec Now both files will contain same information mec is a duplicate file of mpc file 4) Rename or Ren: This command is used to change name of an existing file.

Syntax : C:\ > DIR / OS e) DIR / OE: This command displays files list extension wise in ascending order. number of directories and total memory used and disk free space. This command displays only filename with extension. Syntax : C:\ > Dir / p b) DIR / W : . size ( no. Syntax : C:/ > DIR / W C) DIR / On : This command displays all the files in the alphabetical order. of bytes) and created or modified date and time. size wise in ascending order. This command is having a number of parameters. C:\> DIR [/P] [/W] [/ON] [/OS] [/OE] ……… a) DIR / P : It is used to display the files list and directories page wise. Syntax : C:\ > DIR / ON d) DIR / OS: This command displays all files. Syntax : C:\ > DIR / OE f) DIR / OD This command display the files list date wise in ascending order. Syntax: C:\> DIR / OD g) DIR / S: This command displays all files list in specified directory and all its sub directories Syntax: C:\> DIR / S .e total number of files in the disk. filenames. extensions..82 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals The DIR command displays complete information about files. It also displays summary information i.It is used to display files list in widelist format.

MD: Making a new directory. Syntax: C:\> DIR / 4 k) DIR / AD : This command is used to display only directories list. All directories in disk are identified by directory names.Windows Operating System 83 h) DIR / B : It displays files list in bare format it means it is not displays any headings and summary information. The MD or MKDIR command is used to create a new directory in DOS. Syntax: Eg CD: Change Directory This CD or CHDIR command is used to change directory. Syntax: Eg: C : \ > CD < Directory Name> D : \ > CD MECS C :\ > MD < Directory Name> C :\ > MD MECS The result of above command is as follows C :\ MECS > . Syntax: C:\> DIR / L j) DIR / 4 It displays the files list year in the created date) with 4 digit format. Syntax: C:\> DIR / AD Directory: A group of related files and sub directories is called a directory. Syntax: C:\> DIR / B i) DIR / L: It displays the first files and directories list in lowercase letters. Directories are used to organize the files in the disk.

84 CD . Syntax: C : \ > C – Drive/ Filename DATE: This command is used to display the current date of system it also allows to modify the current date. : Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals This command is used to change to the parent directory. Syntax : Eg: C :\ > RD < Directory Name > C : \ > RD MECS PATH: It gives information about the drive and where the data is stored in the that drive. 09 – 10 –2005 Enter New date : TIME: it is used to display the present time and also provides facility to change or modify the present time. The specified directory is removed only if that directory is empty.. Syntax : C :\ > TIME Present time is 10 : 30 : 50 Enter New time : . Eg : C : \ MECS > CD .. It displays the date in American format ( MM: DD: YYYY ) Syntax : C: \> DATE Current date is sut. The RD or RMDIR command is used to remove a directory in DOS. The result of above command is C : \ > RD : Removing Directory.

: It prompts you before creating each destination file.bat .4. Syntax: C : \ > XCOPY < Source > < Destination > [/S] [/E] [/P] Parameters /S /E /P : It copies directories and sub directories except empty ones. Checks bad area on disk and can delete all data on disc.Windows Operating System 85 6. . It returns information about the volume serial number. Format command erases all the data exam the disk. Syntax : Eg. External commands are used for relatively complex Jobs such as copying an entire diskette into another diskette to sort the disk . FORMAT: This command is used to format a disk for use with DOS. EXTERNAL COMMANDS These command are not permanent part of the memory.exe. Syntax : Eg. . space in hidden files. space in directories and space in user files. : It copies all directories even in empty. etc. space available on disk total memory and free memory. The number of sectors and tracks depends on capacity of disk and the version of the DOS. To execute or run these commands files used for the execution of external commands are . total disk space. C : \ > CHKDSK < Drive name> C : \ > CHKDSK A XCOPY : It copies all files and directory trees. It means it is used to make a disk usable for operating system by dividing the disk into magnetic tracks and sectors.com. C : \ > FORMAT < Drive > C : \ > FORMAT A : CHKDSK: This command is used to check a disk and displays a status report. .

4. 2.* C: MECS \ S C : \ MPCS \ *.86 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Eg: 1. 3.* C: \ MECS C : \ MPCS \ * . C: \ > XCOPY C : \ > XCOPY C: \ > XCOPY C: \ > XCOPY C: \ MPCS \ *. User can also give multiple filenames with the print command. It first formats the large disk. It makes the perfect coy of source disk. ———————————————————— ———————————————————— Insert target disk in drive A : Press any key to continue.* C : MSCS \ P PRINT: This command is used to print files. It first formats the target disk and then copies the file by collecting files from source disk and copies to target disk. C : \> DISKCOPY A: Insert source disk in drive A: Press any key to continue. Syntax : Eg: C: \ > PRINT < File name > C : \ > PRINT file1 To print multiple files C : \ > PRINT FILE1 FILE2 DISK COPY : This command is used to more duplicate copy of the disk. *C : MSCS \ E C : \ MPCS \ *. Copy to another disk ( Y / N ) A: . The files that are to be printed must be standard text file and containing data compatible to the printer is printing the files user can do other tasks.

R < filename> Tree: This command graphically display structure of a directory. system and hidden attributes assigned to files. Syntax : C : \ > Deltree < directory name > . Syntax : +R -R +H -H +S -S C: \> attrib [ +R( i ) – R ] [ + H (i) – H ] [ + S i –S ] file name It sets read only file attrib It clears the read only file attrib It sets file as hidden files It clears the hidden files attrib. arctive. C:\ user \ empc \ > tree C : .Windows Operating System 87 SCANDISK : It checks current drive for disk errors. Syntax : C: \ > SCANDISK < Drive name > C : \ > SCANDISK C ATTRIB : This command displays or change file attributes.parent directory User 1 – subdirectory Mpc – subdirectory Delete: This command is used to delete a specified directory including subdirectories and files. It clears system file attribute C: \ > attrib + R < Filename> C: \ > attrib . This command displays sets or removes the read only. It sets file as system file.

.2. Click once on the start button. 6.5 METHOD OF STARTING A PROGRAM USING START BUTTON The following is procedure to start a window program using start button through windows 2000 operating system.2. which provides the features of graphical user interface. It is a new operating system. The steps involved in invoking a program are as follows.88 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 6. A popup menu will appear as shown in fig.2.1 2. 6. 1. Point the mouse pointer on start button shown in the fig.

Point the mouse pointer on the option ( group icon ) accessories Another popup menu will appear in that click on the icon notepad.Windows Operating System 89 3.2.23 Notepad screen This is how you start the application called notepad through the start button. 6.Notepad Fig. 6. 5. We will close it now. Point the mouse pointer on the required option ( say programs) of the start menu.Program . The screen will appear as shown in the fig.Accessories . This program called notepad allows you to type text.4 click start button . 4. Later in the session we will use it again to create a file . The screen will appear as follows.

But if data is large then it becomes difficult in handling large volumes of data through terminals. reading data from file writing data into file Closing a file. FOLDER. To close the notepad click on exit [X ] button as shown in fig.6 STATE MEANIG OF A FILE. 1. Hence any file in the MS. This can be achieved by concept of file to store data. File: If the data is small then we can use terminals i. The basic operations are as follows. The space on world where data or text can be stored is called a document. FILE. A group of related data stored at a particular memory location is called as a file. Opening a file. 6. 3. . 2. 5. Various operations can be performed on these files. Naming a file. keyboard and screen for managing input and output. This problem can be solved by storing data on disks and reading data whenever necessary without destroying data. The user whenever want to store any data he has to create a new file and save it.4 This will close notepad application Likewise you can open any application through the start button and the programs group icon.90 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 6.WORD is called as a document. A file is a place on a disk where a group of related data is stored.e. 6. 4. also data is lost when either program is terminated or computer is switched off. In PowerPoint same is termed as a presentation where as in excel it is called as a worksheet. In any software a file will not be ready available. 2.

Windows Operating System For any file inorder to save it a name is needed it is called naming a file. Folders will be available on the desktop or while clicking on the start button they will be appeared in subprograms A folder can be created as a collection of files. containing all the information about one object.7 METHOD OF FINDING A FILE USING FIND OPTION Windows explorer is used for viewing all the files on disk and suitable for locating a particular file. You can notice the change in the tree structure immediately. This is a folder Which contains information about windows 95 or 98 Creating a folder: from the tree pane. new folder. Folder: Folder is a rectangular box. For Eg: find for the file “ leave letter” Following steps are to be followed . These folders are stored on c – drive or d – drive. Choose file created. The folders will be follows in colour and will reside on desktop. 91 Inorder to read or write or modify any data in a file the file should be opened A file should be closed as soon as all operations on it have completed which prevents accidental misuse of a file. select the directory under which you want to create a sub – directory. 6. You can use the find tool to search the entire hard disk for a specified file. On the right pan of the screen a new folder is Type in the name of the new directory and press enter.

In ‘Looking’ dialog box. 5. 2. Type in the name of the file to be searched for use * and ? if desired. A submenu will appears Point on the files or folders and then click on it. 6. Click on find option. 3. type the name of the directory you want the file to be searched in. The following dialog box will appear. click the ‘Include subfolder’ check box’ . If you want to search down all the subordinate branches from the current directory to the end of branch. Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Click on the start button. The screen will appear as shown below. 4.92 1.

When application window is maximized. Minimize : If you click on minimize button the program window is minimized as an icon and that is placed on the button of screen. by clicking anywhere in it position the mouse pointer on the maximize button. click on the scroll down in fig. enlarges the window to fill the entire screen. To Maximize : Activate the window. You can make the window active by clicking any where within its border. incase it is not maximized. Since windows has a multitasking feature. Every group under a GUI operating has a number of icons. To Minimize : Activate the window. when window is active. it covers the entire desktop. These are enclosed in a frame called window. CARRY OUT MAXIMISE. Maximize: Clicking on the maximize button. RESIZE AND CLOSE OPERATIONS ON A WINDOW The upper band of every window is known termed as a title bar where window name is displayed.e. 8. by clicking any where in it. . This will close the find dialog box. To display required file on the screen. Position the mouse pointer on minimize button click once. 6. you can have a number of applications ( window) open at a time but can work with just on application at a time i.8.Windows Operating System 93 7. Every group has its own window. You can move the window around yours desktop.Title bar is highlighted.Window is a rectangular box that contain application or program. there can be only one active window at a given time. Click on ‘Find now’ window will conduct the search on the current disk and displays the list of files.

. the maximize button changes to restore button.94 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Click once. Close Once you click on exit button your program is closed. Click once. Title Bar Control Box Menu Bar Close Maximise Minimise Window Vertical scroll bar Restore: Opening a window takes up a portion of the Desktop. the size in determined by how you manually size the window To Resize : Activate the window. Position the mouse pointer on the restore button. by clicking any where on it. After the window has been maximized.

10. minimizing of a window ?| . 2. 5. folder ? How will you create a folder? What is a directory ? What is ‘DIR’ command? Long Answer Sheets: 1. 4. Explain the need of an OS ? List out various internal DOS commands and explain ? List out various external DOS commands and explain ? Explain maximize.Windows Operating System 95 Short answer questions 1. What is an operating system? What are the goals of an OS ? What are the functions of an OS ? Give the types of OS? What is multiprogramming and multi – tasking OS ? What are the types of DOS command ? What is a file. 3. 3. 4. 9. 2. 6. 7. 8.

It is used generating any type of printed document including letters. manuals and electronic mails. thesis. Spell-checking. newsletters. Help. web pages. and Office Assistant etc. All applications share some common programs and looks such as menu bars. Tool bars. Once you have to learn how to use one of the office applications then it is easy to learn all other applications. reports.96 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 7. MS Excel Excel is a spreadsheet application that enables you to do mathematical calculations. It is used to prepare budgets and price costs. Microsoft Office contain the following applications § § § § § § § § MS Word Word is a word processing program. compare costs. memos. tables.0 :Introduction MS-OFFICE Microsoft Office is a collection of software applications. Auto Correct. MS – Word MS – Excel MS – PowerPoint MS – Access MS – Outlook MS – FrontPage MS – Photo Draw MS – Publisher .

retrieves and organizes data. publish. overhead transparencies. maintain and interact web sites and web pages. handouts and speaker notes.Features of Word Processing Package format figures and create graphs and charts. MS PowerPoint 97 PowerPoint is a presentation application that produces colorful professional presentation slides. MS Publisher . organize. MS Access Access is a relational database application that stores. MS Photo Draw Photo Draw is a powerful application for manipulating graphics images. view. and communicate out plans. produce organization chart. MS Outlook Outlook is a desktop information management application. MS FrontPage Front Page is a web application that is used to create. It is used to create presentation slides. It is used to schedule. It enables us to include charts and graph. present tables and display a presentation as a fully animated screen show.

make corrections without retyping the entire matter and make the text look attractive with lots of pictures in-between. Word processing can be defined as changing the “appearance” or “look” of words or to be more precise changing the appearance of the characters that form the word. the scene has changed. For correcting any typing errors. A text that is attractive. It gives an excellent appearance for print or online. You must be wondering how this is possible. All of you must have seen a text being typed on a typewriter. The text is directly typed on the paper. Typewriters were widely used for typing in order to have a neat and organized text. Word processing involves the transformation of written text into a form that gives it a formal.98 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Publisher is a complete desktop publishing application that is used to create beautiful professional – looking layouts that you can publish anywhere from your desktop printer to on the World Wide Web. Now we have computer software called word processor. which allows you to type text. systematic look which facilitates easy reading. However. Microsoft Word Every piece of writing is written to be read. Thus process essentially means “Changing”. with the advent of computers. the entire text has to be retyped. Hence a lot of paper is wasted in the process. neat and organized will attract the attention of a reader. Word Processor The word process means a method consisting of a set of instructions that transforms raw facts into organized information. . The application program that enables the processing of words is called as the “Word processing program”.

Subsequent versions of Word are word 7. Word came out with word 6. 1. Professional Write 6. Word 8. The style of the character 3. but in an efficient and economical way. It replaces the job of typewriters in smooth and fast manner in addition to having more features. Word makes possible what a typewriter does. The size of the character 2. save and print out text documents.0 (Word’95). Microsoft Word 2000 Microsoft word 2000 is a software program (package) designed by . edit.0 version when it was released for Windows 3.0 (word’97) and Word 9. Perfect Writer 4. The way it is highlighted Examples of different Word Processors1. The main advantage is. MS – Word 2. the matter can be changed as many times as we like and in any format without retyping the text or wasting the stationary. Word Perfect 5. MultiMate Microsoft Word Word is a word processing program that is used to compose.0 (word 2000).Features of Word Processing Package 99 The word “appearance” or “look” refers to.1. Basically. Word Star 3.

edit store. 18) Toolbars contains buttons that makes easier to perform some common tasks by clicking buttons like Saving. 5) Printing selected text in subscript or superscript style. Printing or formatting text 19) Text boxes are used to keep text and graphics together. 17) Multiple documents/files can be merged. 13) Facility to define headers and footers. USA for Word processing application. centered. Word 2000 is used to prepare letters. It helps you to type. 3) Changing the font and the size of letters of the selected text. 4) Moving or copying selected text to another location within the document or to another document. 7) Searching for a particular word or phrase and replacing it with something else. It is one of most popular word processors in the world for the WINDOWS platform on IBM and compatible PC. check spellings and print documents. . italics or underlined.100 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Microsoft Corporation. producing reports etc. 9) Adjustable line and character spacing. 8) Aligning (left. 14) Facility to create footnotes and end notes. 2) Formatting and printing selected text in boldface. memos. 12) Spelling and Grammar Checking facility. 11) Facility to create multiple column text. The features of Word processing applications are 1) You can change whatever you want in the text without retyping the entire text again. right and justify) selected text. 15) Facility to insert images in your document. mailing lists. 16) Tables can be created and included in documents. 6) Adding animations to selected text. 10) Adjustable page size and margins.

Menu Bar: This is usually below the title bar that provides access to the word menus. margin and indent settings. This shows the name of the document and type of the program. Scrollbars: The horizontal and vertical scrollbars let you bring different parts of . The standard window has the following components. Toolbars: Toolbars give quick access to some common commands. Word Components Word 2000 window contains a menu bar and several toolbars.Features of Word Processing Package 101 20) Mail-merge facility allows you to print the same letter with different names and addresses that are saved in another file. Working area or Document area: This is space on word where data or text can be entered or typed. Title Bar: This is the bar at the top of the window containing minimize. Ruler: The ruler shows tab. These are located above and then to the left of the working area. Word has several different toolbars. By default. restore or maximize and close buttons. Insertion Point or Cursor: Insertion Point is the blinking vertical line on the working area. This is the point where you can start typing text. Most of the buttons on these toolbars act as shortcuts to the commands in the menus. Word displays the standard and formatting toolbars. There are two rulers horizontal and vertical ruler.

These buttons from left are: Normal View. Click on New… option. Click on the Blank document button on the standard toolbar This is blank screen and is similar to a blank page in your note book. The status bar tells you about the current status of the insertion point (cursor) or other items. . Status bar: Status bar located at the bottom of the window.102 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals a document into view. In the Programs menu. Click on File menu on the menu bar 2. bottom. Web Layout View. Word automatically goes to the next page. Your document can run into as many pages as required. If Word already opened follow the steps below to open a new blank document. After the first page gets over. Click the Start button at left end of the taskbar 2. click Microsoft Word. View Buttons: View buttons provide quick access to see documents in different views. select Blank document and click on OK button Or 3. a new document window opens. Point to Programs in the Start menu 3. Starting Word 2000 1. Scrolling is a technique to see top. This screen is the first page of your document. Creating a Document When you start Word. This is where you start typing. Print Layout View and Outline View. left and right unseen text of the document. 1.

The text typed using word is kept in files called documents. Word provides two commands in the File menu to save a document namely Save and Save As. in the RAM. To start a new Paragraph position the insertion point at the last line of the first paragraph and then press Enter key. . you move the mouse pointer and click at the desired place where you want to insert the text. then Save As dialog box appears. While typing when a word doesn’t fit it automatically flows to the beginning of next line. This feature is called word-wrap. Save As: We can use this option to Ø Save a document for the first time Ø Save a previously saved document with a new name Ø Save it in a different location Save: This option allows saving a document with its existing name.4. The location and file format not changed. Click File menu on the menu bar 2. This is referred to as “Saving a Document”. It is essential that our document should be stored in a permanent storage device such as hard disk or floppy disk for future retrieval. Saving a Document The document you type exists only in computer memory. Select Save or Save As… or click Save button on standard toolbar or press Ctrl + S.e. To move the insertion point. 7.Features of Word Processing Package Basics of Entering Text 103 The characters you type are inserted in front of a blinking vertical bar called insertion point. a temporary storage area i. Procedure for first time saving 1.

5. Choose Open… from the File menu. 7. Click Save button.2. Choose the desired file. To make these changes you must first select the portion of text. Select the desired Drive and Directory in the list box. Select the folder under which it is saved if required. Editing a Text The process of changing the appearance of the text. is called Editing. The Open dialog box will be displayed 2.104 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 3. duplicating or moving a part of the text. Click File menu on the menu bar 2. Subsequent saving 1. 4. Click on OK or simply double click the desired file. 4. which needs the change. it is very important to know how to select (highlight) text because you can do so many operations on the selected text. Select Save or click on Save button on the standard toolbar or press Ctrl + S Opening an existing Document: To open an existing document 1. Selecting Text In Word. Type file name in the filename text box. Mouse selection Shortcuts . deleting a portion of the text. 3.

Copying Text 5. Click in a new place. Select Edit à Cut option or Click on Cut button on toolbar or press Ctrl + X 3. Select Edit à Paste or Click on Paste button on the toolbar or press .Features of Word Processing Package To select this A single word A sentence A line of text Multiple lines Do this Double click the word 105 Press Ctrl key and click anywhere in the sentence Click in the selection bar area before the line Click and drag in the selection bar A paragraph Double click in the selection bar to the left of the paragraph. Select the text to be copied 6. Any amount of text Click at the beginning of the text you want to select. Select Edit Copy option or Click on Copy button on toolbar or press Ctrl + C 7. Whole document Triple-click or Ctrl + click any where in the selection bar or Edit à Select All command. where the selected text should appear 4. Moving Text 1. Select Edit à Paste or Click on Paste button on the toolbar or press Ctrl + V 7. and then shift click at the end of the text.1. Select the text to be moved 2. Click in a new place. where the selected text should copied 8.

Edit à Redo or press Ctrl + Y or press F4. Microsoft word has seven ways. Automatic page breaks are shown as horizontal dotted lines. There are four view buttons in the lower left corner of Word’s status area that are useful to switch views quickly. VIEWS: Documents in word window can be seen in different ways to make things easier to visualize and faster to work with. In this view page headers. Undo cancel (undoes) the last action that you have just performed. There are several ways to visualize documents. you can undo not only the latest action but also the number of earlier actions related to editing and formatting document. editing. At any stage. 1. 1) Normal View 2) Web Layout View 3) Print Layout View 4) Outline View 5) Full Screen View 6) Zoom 7) Print Preview View There is a View option on the menu bar that has all above options except Print Preview. 1) Normal View: This view responds faster to typing. Repeat repeats the last action that you have just done it. To see document in Normal view a) Select Normal view option from the View menu b) Clicking Normal View button above left-corner of the status . and scrolling. Print Preview in on File menu. Edit à Undo or press Ctrl +Z 2. footers and margins are hidden so that you can concentrate on text. To undo the previous work select.106 Ctrl + V Undo Redo and Repeat Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Word 2000 remembers all your actions. To redo the previous action select. These are called Views. Redo redoes the last action that you have just undone it. Normal view displays only the horizontal ruler not the vertical ruler.

subheadings and text under the headings. headings. To see document in Web Layout view a) Select Web Layout view option from the View menu b) Clicking Web Layout View button above left-corner of the status bar. 2) Web Layout View: This view displays documents. Word enlarges the size of text and wraps lines of text so everything is on the screen without having to scroll horizontally. 4) Outline View: This view shows the document in hierarchical form. c) Press Alt + V and P from keyboard. and with columns and drawings objects. adjusting margins. as it will look on the web.Features of Word Processing Package 107 bar. and other elements are positioned on the printed page. To see document in Print Layout view a) Select Print Layout view option from the View menu b) Clicking Print Layout View button above left-corner of the status bar. This is helpful in editing headers and footers. c) Press Alt + V and W from keyboard. This view is more helpful than any other in rearranging the documents in specified levels. When a document is open in Web Layout View. c) Press Alt + V and N from keyboard. c) Press Alt + V and O from keyboard. . 3) Print Layout View: This view shows how text. To see document in Outline view a) Select Outline view option from the View menu b) Clicking Outline View button above left-corner of the status bar. graphics.

Keyboard shortcut: Alt + V + Z. along with a few other options. Keyboard shortcut: Alt + V + U 6) Zoom: This view enlarges or reduces the view of your document as a percentage of its normal size.10. v Automatically check spelling and grammar as you type: As soon as you type misspelled words or ungrammatical sentences. in the zoom dialog box select zoom settings that you want and then click OK button. select Zoom.108 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 5) Full Screen View: This view removes all the menus and toolbars as well as takes up all available space in the Word window. When this view is selected Word resizes the document so it fits inside the document window. word recognizes them to be misspelled and ungrammatical and then underlines them immediately in red and green wavy lines. 7) Print Preview View: This view shows exactly how it will look when it is printed on. When you are in full screen. To see a document in Full Screen. Spelling and Grammar is a tool used to check the active document for possible spelling. Key on the keyboard to return to the previous view. If you think any one of them is suitable click on it to replace otherwise click Ignore . 7. click 100%. To see a document in this mode select Print Preview from file menu bar or click Print Preview button on Standard Toolbar. click Close full screen option or press Esc. right click on it. The red underlines indicate possible spelling errors and the green underlines indicate possible grammatical errors. grammar. and displays suggestions for correcting them. you get a shortcut menu that has a set of replacement words. Keyboard shortcut is: Alt + F + V. and writing style errors. To fix one of these marked errors. To zoom a document click View on the menu bar. click View menu and select Full Screen option. To return your document to normal size. CARRY OUT SPELL CHECK Word offers tools that easier to examine and automate your writing tasks.

If you want to check a portion of the document. select it. 3. Click where you want to insert a special character 2. .Symbols and Special characters Symbols and special characters that are not available on the keyboard can be inserted using Symbol feature or Keyboard shortcuts.3. Click Tools menu and select Spelling and Grammar option. 3. 1. Click where you want to insert a symbol 2. On the Insert menu click Symbol. To display the symbol dialog box select Symbol from Insert menu or press Alt + I and then S. To open spelling and grammar check dialog box. Press F7 on keyboard. Select the character and click Insert button or double click on the character.Features of Word Processing Package 109 v All to tell it is not suitable word and need not be replaced. Insert a Symbol 1. On the Insert menu click Symbol and then click the special characters tab. Check spelling and grammar all at once: This method is useful if you want to postpone spell check of a document till the edit is finish. In the Symbol dialog box select the symbol and click Insert button or double click on the symbol. Insert a Special Character 1. Click the Spelling and Grammar button on the standard toolbar 3. Spelling and Grammar dialog box options 7. 2.

6. Formatting is a separate stage often takes place after the document has been entered. adding color to text and making text Bold. Select the text and select the required font type from font type drop down list box in the Formatting tool bar. A font consists of three elements Type Face. Italic and Underline etc. Click on the Format menu and select the option Font. style and size. easier to read. Paragraph Formatting 3. Type size measured in “points”. . Formatting Paragraph Formatting is a process to change the appearance of the text documents to be attractive. Bold. Character formatting includes changing the character type. We cam broadly classify the text formatting into three categories. Or 2. Font formatting or Character Formatting 2. ) Changing Font Type or Font Face 1. Italic. Type Size: Letters can be made larger or smaller as you prefer. Times New Roman is the default type face. 1. Type Size and Type Style Type Face: Type face refers to design of the letters. Underline etc. Font: Font is a set of characters that make up one member or style of a particular typeface. Type Style: A type style is a way to enhance text (Eg.110 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 7. Page formatting Character Formatting: Character formatting changes the appearance of individual characters. In the Font dialog box choose the required Font type and then click on OK.

sparkling etc. Select the Text 2. 1. These are 1. Click down arrow of the font color button on the formatting toolbar and then select the color from available colors. . Italic or Underline on the standard tool bar.Features of Word Processing Package 111 Applying Font Style (Bold. Select the text. 2. Select the text you want to animate. Applying Animations: Text animation is a technique used to add visual movements such as blinking. select the effects you want and click on OK button. shimmering. moving. 3. In the Font dialog box choose the required Color from the Font Color list box and then click on OK button. 2. Click on the option Bold. marching. 2. Strikethrough: Draws a line through the selected text. Double Strikethrough: Draws a double line through the selected text. In the Font dialog box choose the required Font Style and then click on OK Applying Font Color 1. There are different formatting options in the form of check boxes named under effects. On the Format menu click Font. Superscript: Raises the selected text above the baseline and changes it to a smaller size. Special Effects: You can decorate your text. In the Animations box. Click on the Format menu and select the option Font. Click on the Format menu and select the option Font. as you want using Font dialog box. Italic and Underline) 1. Or 3. 3. and then click the Text effects tab. 3.

Title Case: Capitalizes the first letter of each word in the selected text. Uppercase: Changes all selected to capital letters. 6. 3. Outline: Displays the inner and outer borders of each character. Change Case Change Case Changes the capitalization of selected text. 2. . Select the option you want and click OK. 11. 8. It is used to change text from uppercase to lowercase and vice versa. Lowercase: Changes all selected text to lowercase letters. There are five options. Toggle Case: Changes all uppercase letters to lowercase in the selection and vice versa. 10. Choose Change Case… option from format menu to displays the Change Case dialog box. c. All Caps: Formats selected text as capital letters. a. Emboss: Makes selected text appear as if it is raised off the page in relief. e. 9.112 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 4. Engrave: Makes selected text appear to be imprinted or pressed into the page. Shadow: Adds a shadow behind the selected text. 5. b. Hidden: Prevents selected text from being displayed or printed. 7. d. Procedure: 1. Small caps: Formats selected text as capital letters and reduces their size. Subscript: Lowers the selected text below the baseline and changes it to a smaller size. Sentence Case: Capitalizes the first letter of the first word in the selected sentences. Selected text to be changed. beneath and to the right of the text.

right. 4. Center. Paragraph formatting affects individual paragraphs. Right. 2.Features of Word Processing Package 113 Paragraph Formatting In general paragraph is a collection sentences. In Word 2000. There are four buttons on the formatting toolbar namely Align Left. or on both left and right so that it leads to smartening the paragraph. Justify) button on the standard tool bar. 2. It shapes whether your text is lined up on the left. Center : Ctrl + E 4. 3. Justify : Ctrl + J Indentation Indentation is a process used to leave certain number of blank spaces before . When you press the Enter key. Align Right. Center and Justify. 1. Align Left : Ctrl + L 2. To change alignment using paragraph 1. Center: Centers the selected text. Click the alignment (Left. Align Left: Aligns the selected text to the left with uneven right edges. Alignment Alignment means an arrangement of text into suitable order in the paragraph. a paragraph is nothing more than a collection of words that ends when you press Enter key. Align Right : Ctrl + R 3. Place the insertion point anywhere in the paragraph. Justify: Aligns the selected text to both the left and right margins or indents. you are marking the end of a paragraph. in the center. Keyboard Shortcuts 1. Align Right: Aligns the selected text to the right with uneven left edges.

Hanging Indentation: Hanging Indentation leaves certain number of blank spaces for all lines but the first from the left margin of a paragraph. 3. There are different line spacing options. Keyboard Shortcuts 1. 1. Right. First Line and Hanging. 1. . Drag the desired Indent marker to the right spot on the ruler. 3. Ctrl + M à Left Indent 2. plus a small amount of extra space. It allows us to expand or condense the vertical spaces among lines of paragraph. First Line Indentation: First Line Indentation leaves certain number of blank spaces before the first line of the paragraph. Single Line Spacing: This is Word’s default spacing. and release the mouse button. 4. Right Indentation: Right Indentation leaves certain number of blank spaces before the right margin. 2. Line spacing can be set using either the Line spacing box in the paragraph dialog box or keyboard shortcut or buttons in the formatting toolbar. Left Indentation: Left Indentation leaves certain number of blank spaces after the left margin. Ctrl + Shift + T à Reduce Hanging Indent 5. Select the paragraph(s) you want to indent. Indentation can be classified into four categories Left.114 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals the first line. Point to the indent marker that you want to use. Indentation using Indent Markers 1. 2. as well as form the right and left margins of paragraph. Ctrl + Q à Remove Paragraph Formatting Line Spacing Line spacing determines an amount of vertical spaces among lines in a paragraph. It accommodates the largest font in that line. Ctrl + Shift + M à Remove Left Indent 3. Ctrl + T à Hanging Indent 4.

Make sure each item in the list or each point is on a separate line. It is used make lists of information stand out from the rest of your document text. Single Line Spacing 2. 3.Features of Word Processing Package 115 2.5 Line Spacing 3. 6. Click on OK button. Keyboard Shortcuts 1. : Ctrl + 1 : Ctrl + 5 : Ctrl + 2 . in order to bring attention to them. At least Spacing: This allows minimum line spacing that Microsoft Word can adjust to accommodate larger font sizes or graphics. Line-and-a-half Spacing (1. 4. Double Line Spacing: This allows twice that of single line spacing.5 lines spacing): This applies one-anda-half times that of single line spacing. This option spaces all lines uniformly. To insert a Bullet or Numbering at the start of a line. 5. 1. just click the Bullets button or Numbering button on the Formatting toolbar. Exactly Spacing: This allows fixed line spacing that word does not adjust. Applying lines spacing Place the insertion point in the paragraph or select multiple paragraphs Choose the option required line spacing option from the line spacing drop down list of the paragraph dialog box. Double Line Spacing Bullets and Numbering Bullet is an item used to highlight sections of text into an unordered list. Numbering is to organize your information into a series that is easy to understand. Multiple Spacing: This allows increasing or decreasing line spacing by a percentage that you specify.

When you press ENTER to add the next list item. Microsoft Word has five kinds of tab stops given below. To create a bulleted or numbered list automatically as you type. Select Bullet and Numbering. In the dialog box you can select a different symbol from any of the fonts available to you. 2. 4. Left ( L ) : Text extends to the right from the tab stops. 1. 4. Select 1 of 7 types of bullets or numberings. Center ( ^ ) : Text is centered at the tab stop. Right ( +) : Text extends to the left from the tab stop. 5. 2. and text after the decimal point extends to the right. remove or move tabs as you desire. 3. press SPACEBAR or TAB. Click Format on the menu bar. Bar ( I ) : Inserts a vertical line at the tab stop. To finish the list press ENTER twice. type 1 or * (asterisk). Click Bullets button to add bullets. 1. Decimal ( ^ ) : Text before the decimal point extends to the Left. To change the layout and style click the Customize command button to get the dialog box. . You can add. 2. To change the default bullet symbols or number styles 1. Select the items you want to add bullets or numbering to. When the tab key on the keyboard is pressed the insertion point jumps from one tab stop to the next. TABS Tab helps you line up columns of information or indent text within a line or paragraph. click Numbering button to add numbering.116 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals If you want to put bullets or numbering for created information do the following. word automatically inserts the next number or bullet. 3. and then type any text you want. Click the Bullet tab and Numbering tab. Each tab position set on the horizontal ruler is called tab or tab stop.

Borders can be applied any or all sides of each page in a document. Click any where in the paragraph or select multiple paragraphs. . You can add page borders in many lines styles and colors. decimal tab and bar tab. Click it to cycle through left tab. Click the tab selector button at the left of the horizontal ruler until the tab type you want is come up. Shading can be added to paragraphs or with or without borders. Borders and Shading can be added using the Table and Borders toolbar. 3. You can select as many tabs you want. 2. Click any where in the paragraph or select multiple paragraphs. or the Borders and Shading dialog box. and then click OK or press ENTER key. Click the Format menu and select Tabs… . 4. Click in Tab stop position box and enter a measurement that tells how far the tab stop positioned from the left margin. Select the alignment option for the tab and click the Set button. 3. You can also put borders around graphics. right tab. The quickest way to set tabs for the current paragraph or paragraphs is to use the horizontal ruler.Features of Word Processing Package 117 The tab selector button at the left end of the horizontal ruler is used to select different tab stops. Procedure for setting tabs with the tabs dialog box 1. Click in the horizontal ruler where you want the tab stop to be. Borders and Shading Border means a line drawn in the box shape around the text or page. as well as a variety of graphical borders. Procedure for settings tabs with the Horizontal ruler 1. 2. center tab. 5. Shading means filling the background of the text with a color in order to draw people attention to the text.

Select the borders style (None. 6. margins (left.).5. 5. Click on the up or down arrows (spinner arrows) to the right of the margins boxes to increase or decrease the margins. 3. orientation (portrait or landscape) etc. Changing margins using Page Setup dialog box 1. 8. bottom etc. Select the required Line Style and Line Weight and Line color from the provided list boxes. Click on OK button. 3. right. bottom. 7. Box. 9. 2. Or click on the box and type the new value. 4. Select the text to be applied. Page Setup Page setting means setting the size of a page. Click the Borders or Page Border tab (for page Border). Procedure for applying Shading 7. 10. Click the Margins tab if it is not already in front. The Page Setup dialog box helps you to control page layout to a great extent in Word 2000. . Shadow etc. top. Setting of Margins and Indents: Page margins are the blank spaces around the edges of the pages. We can use word’s default page margins or specify our own margins.). Click on OK button.118 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Procedure for applying Borders 1. All four margins namely top. Click the Format menu and select Borders and Shading… option. right are adjustable. Click the Format menu and select Borders and Shading… option. Click the Shading tab and select the shading color and style. left. Select the text to be applied. Click on File menu and select the option Page Setup… 2.

3. . word 2000 automatically starts a new page.Features of Word Processing Package 4. 2. 5. Click OK button. 4. Inserting Page Breaks: Page break is the point at which one page ends and another page begins. strike the backspace key. Page breaks can be inserted automatically or manually. Page breaks are used to begin a new page of text before the previous page is filled. Click OK button. Click Ok button. If necessary. 4. Word picks up a paper size which is usually the Letter size 8. 3. Click on the page break line and press the Delete key or if the insertion point is just after the break. The page breaks inserted manually are called manual page breaks.5 inches wide and 11 inches long or A4 size. 119 Setting the Page Size: Word 2000 will enable you to change the paper size to anything you want. Keyboard shortcut: Ctrl + ENTER Removing Page Breaks 1. When you create a new document. Click Paper Size tab to bring it to the front. 2. Click Insert menu and select the option Break… to display the break dialog box. Click on File menu and select Page Setup… option. Inserting Page Breaks manually 1. Click the Paper Size drop down arrow and select the required paper size. When the current page is full. Click the spot where you want to insert the break. These page breaks are called automatic page breaks. click the Page break radio button. 1. Select the page orientation either Portrait or Landscape.

right.) 3. Including Headers and Footers Header is an area used to place repetitive information across the top of each page in a document.120 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals Inserting Page Numbers: Microsoft Word provides facility add page numbers to the top or bottom of document. center etc. Select the Header and Footer button and enter the text. Insert Time etc. Multiple Columns Word allows arranging the text into several columns like newspapers columns. Footer is an area used to put repetitive information across bottom of each page in a document. Format page numbers. 3.11. . 2. Choose the alignment (left. of pages. Click on OK. Use the tool buttons (Insert Page number. Click on Close button on the toolbar. no.7. On the Standard toolbar. Click Columns button or Select Columns from the Format menu to display the Columns dialog box. Follow these steps to add page numbers 1. Insert date.) from the Alignment list box. 4. Select the text. To prepare a columnar text: 1. 7. Click the View menu and select Header and Footer option. 2. When one column is full the text flows into the next columns. 7. Click Insert menu and select the option Page Numbers… 2. Choose the position (bottom or top) from the position list box. We can use the same header and footer throughout a document or change the header and footer for part of the document. Applying Header or Footer 1. It displays the Header and Footer toolbar and shows the header and footer area of the document.

A cell is the intersection of rows and columns. columns or rows are required. Place the insertion point where cells. Columns and Rows to a Table 1. Tables are often used to organize and arrange information. d.8. Drag the mouse pointer down and to the right over the grids and release the mouse pointer. c. Place the insertion point where you want to Insert the table b. Each row and column inside a table is made up of units called cells. 2. Drag to select the number of columns on the columns button of the Standard toolbar. 7. Creating a Table Using the Insert Table dialog box a.Features of Word Processing Package 121 3. Using the Tables and Borders toolbar 1. Using the Insert Table tool on the standard toolbar. 1. Click OK button. Click the Table menu and select Insert you will see a list of options . Click the Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar. Adding Cells. 2. Or select the number of columns from the Columns dialog box. Creating a Table with “Insert Table” tool a. Using the Insert Table dialog box 3. Creating a Table: Word provides three ways for create a table. A current cell is where you type a table entry. TABLES A table is a collection of rows and columns. Click on Table menu. Click where you want to insert a table b. 2. Type or select the number of rows and columns from the appropriate boxes. select Insert option and click on Table… option. c.

On the Table menu. 2. point to Delete. Clear the Contents of a Table 1. While deleting cells. click the last cell of the table last row and then press the TAB key. Mail Merge is the process of taking document and mixing it with another to create an almost identical bunch of new documents. Click in the table to be deleted. and then click Columns. On the Table menu. To quickly add a row at the end of a table. This file contains a collection of names and addresses from which . each with a different name and address on it.122 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals select the required option. 7. or Cells. 2. 2. Select the cells. Select the content to be cleared. click the option to be deleted. It can be a form letter. or columns from a Table 1. rows. rows. or columns to be deleted. point to Delete.12 Mail Merges feature of Word Main Document: This is the actual document that you are producing. Mail Merge Mail merge is an ability to create a letter in Word. and then click Table. Delete cells. Table and its contents 1. 3. Rows. Data Source: This is the file that stores information to be brought into the main document. The main document contains normal text that stays the same for each copy of the letter. label or envelope. Press Delete key. Mail Merge in Word may also be used to fill envelopes and labels with data as well. 3. and then print multiple copies of that letter.

Creating the data source (such as address list) 3. Creating a Data Source 1. 4. 3. Click Tools menu and select the option Mail Merge… 2. Click the Get Data button. Performing a Mail Merge involves three basic steps 1. 6. Click “Edit Data Source” button. choose the field names and add new fields if required. (create Data Source. b. Click the Create button located below “Main Document” in step 1.) a. delete unnecessary fields and click OK button. In the create data source dialog box. Save the data source file. In the Edit Data Source dialog box add records (addresses). If you want to open a list of addresses you have created already then you should click on Open Data Source option. Then Word displays a message box with the options “Edit Data Source” and “Edit Main Document” 5. Merging the main document with data source. 3. . If you want to create a fresh list of addresses then you should click on Create Data Source. asking you whether you want to use the active document as your main document or start a new Document. 123 Creating a Main Document 1.Features of Word Processing Package the program gets what you want to include in the document. 2. Word displays four options in a list box. (Word displays a list box that contains the various types of Mail Merge documents you can create. Creating the main document (such as form-letter) 2. Open Data Source etc. Click Form Letters in the drop down list. Word displays a message box. Then “Save Data Source” dialog box appears. 4. Click Active Document if active document contain form letters.

When the document is ready to be printed see the Print Preview. Printing a document: Printing means getting a hard copy of the information from a printer on the paper. To print active file or selected part. Click on “Merge” button in the Merge dialog box. 4. 7.9. When a new document is going to be created you must consider the type of printer. To view the data records click on View Data Records button ( <<ABC>>) on the mail merge toolbar. . Click OK button. The main document appears with the new mail merge toolbar. In the print dialog box specify the page range and number of copies and click on OK button. To merge the Data Source and Main Document click on “merge…” button on the mail merge toolbar. Insert the merge fields in the main document in required places using the Insert Merge Fields button from the Mail Merge toolbar. 3. Inserting Merge fields in the Main Document 1. To print document click File menu and select the option Print. paper size and document design used. just click the printer button on the standard toolbar. 2. 8.124 Digital Electronics and Computer Fundamentals 7.

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