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Cambridge Bible Commentlry

Carool!ic .Biblical '0uarteti:Y

Daily Study B~b]e-o.M l'esumeilt

~:tot~ Bibk C(,m:n:n~~~ ed. E E. Gaebeleiln Ev:ang~lioo Thoological Soci.~ty Mo~o,grnrph Sieries E,"H~l'y~af:!~:S Blb[~ Comrn,entary

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W:.y STUDY THE Old Tenamen:t?This ,q~e5tion . .h~~ eeheed ~WIi1l tffillioughthe centuries of ch.utch h:i~(il1I'J:, elteil" 8i~ce, the, ew CQV>CI1!l!ot ,of j'es~ Christ m<!d~ m,e oi]d (i~~f!;;)lnt 'Q~I.~~' fHcb.. S: 13). The aipgrtl!e P::I1ili1 falQedlthe: qu~tkm!; Ill:!d he~o~cl~. tEl:at~' OM 'T~me~t W.1;S wd'tte:ilfor theimtru'C'rivr.l >ail'ld encvu~ ofth~ Christh'tn 'C~Ilrc:h (Rorn.~,!.b~; ~ Cor; 10:10]1,

We: have: F@undthe swdy ~ftht;:, Old T~;t~m~t ~tftI~y exdti:og ~nt~~, pm~ aiDlid we desire t(l h~tpyou efijioy mOlit !S3m~ ~:X:h:i]3t3tiQf'I ofdil'lcovruy Rnd beneS,t fro.m. divine Lwuuroon, ~n Am.oo: 3;8 ·the [p!JQphet PlfQC[a~1 wm'he S:ove.ci:gn [ORO .~!as spok~n~',\l~O an b!JJlt iProiPhesy?~Exposed to tffile r,flveJa,tion ,of God, AI:I1ioSj f,el't compelliled 't'orespond.}lJthough nOil'ile of us h~~ ,the pti.vfLe;ge Amos h:lJdl te fun.ctl.on 3S Goers mou-mp~ec:e~QlUJ' :mpo!:I:!!~ to Goibl"s revelalti(J(!,! Qfhim!lclf s;hl:l,u[d b~ flO' 1~$5 OOffiip{lU~n~.

A p',rQper \!~d.er.stlln.d~f!g Cilf me' :r!;aUll1li .Qlf th:~ Q!d 'Te.rta:mellt helps us gainwJ!:t f~ e_l'lidt(::~iJlH!!l'Wtandi rltSOlv'e QUI quesOOIlS.rnR !ilpproOlchm.g the Old T::e>tafflen't 3$ God':$ self~I'.e:ve:Ia;tfuonJ we med< to mHeUn:(l Word. ,come ali\~To, a chiieVl@·this; WI.': oou]d not be content \\I1m.lKervy "'ilfiaWmj"" -.his~ tory of si:ho~:il!r.!lhip oods!IJ)mmary ·ofconterlt-:!~ ~mp~t .~ 1Jh:ltis.We h::l!l!e attiempted, oog,'Q be¥(lrldth.~t~f!d eap'M.e me ];ivmg :SP~ri:t that ~~ IiItl:'SIe books imOlre tham~ ~~od ]~tetll!w:re

Too ,often ,sUI"V'ey 'boob fill m!!ir pB;g~ '\ritiru :summml!5 of'wha~ the BJb]c s~ Unforttmgj.ilje]ythil;. Jeads: m,MJiy~o .read me mrvey iMt~!ld c:ftbeB~bJf! itself This boolk is intended. to be read ~Io~g with ilieBib]e~nd nl;)1: .~eadl ,cant We havefOCl.Vloo.<C11l what me Srnptur:e:!l :int.eRd~~)comm1!ln]caJte'. Vllhy does ·the: Old T~'St'.arml~JiIi~ say wiba,t ~t S3yS? Why does, itWllIJdu,de wha;t w~; im:]~dcs?How i!KgeF!:ei.l~o&ielJi<!~d ],,~ (Qfe;l!;aJmp]e;p~rt ·0£' G~.'~: Sielf~ Ilev'elatiml? Ai; we b~gin. to address these que.mkl[l~"!!fe CaQ be~ome ,com.fort:alble potingthrough pr,evIDu:sly ,o'bscuro,. djHlcu1Jt~ ,or n!l!.~~ct:edp@mOM of me oa T~Sit3lii1l00!t ~o discO'\!!!rmeu m.wrung aInd. V3~U.e.

Sometimes w'e:m~y be lSur:prised ~t Wh3Jt, w~ fi~d, w~ sihoiUIDd 91so 'be ,enco,~gedwhe~ w~ ~~asio!'I:l.]ly ~eet tib(! I:Jjfll~ted bli Smp~il:hllt ~. when the Scriptm'es ,c;Oinl!:l.wID.ae us of the: Uu.th ·of same,tbm.g:1ibart .eh!MIges; 'iJUrmlifids, er leads ~ down paths QOCie' hidd~frnm ',,!lie,w; ff we ;]wowl~ ·gqge the ~u;tJhorlty'~fScrlptli;lre.. we must be 'wDrn.g '0,) $Uhrnllitm it bJf being !!:)p~",r.nj!lJded.abou;l:01Ji:' Qphljji,Qns~ God.':s; W>iJrd, is tffialcf:ilnalwO'rd.

,13

MbUcal wrlltei's .message and pwpose., An ~atio!l ofth~ .by·medlo,g-

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I,a .12'me5, C'O:I1,.....,n.e,Q ~n, e;p;;n.Irn:JQ .. I. rmgs r"'''~''''''1ffl to,its RUJl:lonlilUP to

the OM 'F6tam,en,t. as acomp]e:u: coUec:tion, cfbodb. 'L!i addltlon~beeause 1Ih1!: old CQven,m,t fimk Ito. fuUnlm,ent ,mme new, pertinm:t: theQloglt:alrelatim1iSl-nps bet:ween.dte Old and New Testame:n,t!; receive aMenrtion. in regard to subj~ :5u<::n as th~ Q1)V1;l:~an.t~m~ ~m~ ofGod~ and M~d!.

FUrther, tihiis .. siIi,'Irvq intrOOli.u:a the fcai!er to a wide range oftopicsi:n.

Old 'Testament shuilcsincl,udmg herm.eneuti.cs ~n~3Ild ~aO~,.~ tory (lsr:a~i~and anci.~nt N~ar E~)~, ardtamlo.~ ~<m, pognlphy" Old Testammttheology (blollca],and ~atic)j and basic: methodolo-

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It is OUT sinceee desire that this textlxlQk'Wi~l prove·to,be a :readable and useful~ooJ,prolridlElg bask b~t th~ ooverag~ of Old T~en.t: sur" .y.~ :~nd cl1ial]cngL~g the ~dcr tea serious invudgadofJI. and.pwGnal app.rop.riatkul .of God.":swth. as M'Vll:al~ in th~ Old! 'i~(mt. JU!,oIV~ ,aU~ we hope !!his text wiiIl.bctng a n,ew VJi_gor anrl!. extitem.el'l:t 'to,mestud~ oJ We OLd 'fBtame-nt as readers learn tD d~ .i:ts :!Ito~ ,for th~lvH,under~ stand~t,. :and, appLy~t, ttothrir liV~Si~d~ it {IS a, substantid piU't of (]OO,"$ tm',c£u,ticm O'f~f~ w. Uketh~ ·~.ma.y ·~whQ studY tJhe:

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(p,s:. :~ l~. :Z).

15

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T· tm. PUBUCATION Of m.t: o$em!'!Jd. (:d~tion '!lfmilS ·t~tbO()t a:f[ords; me yet <!~oth~r ()pporr;u~it:y toC'.red:it ~Q!T!,e Qfth.Q.sepeoJJ]e~·hQ h~¥~ '6o~trib!l1ie:dl1!0!' tDesuc.<;css of' thep.[lojec'1!. I re.main in deb lied to tho.$efQrl!1~f' te:illOO~ wh~~ exa:mple botih. nurtJtjJ~ed b~bH~:d.fn:i,th and enooLlf3ged ~clU!a[;lJrly 3chi'l'!y.em~t, especialy lUcih3ll'd I1P.atterso1lJ@ind the. late CliirI .B. Heeh,

Dorlli Johnl!!n.d .~are deepEr apiPreciatiiviIl! of1!:hOSf' colle<i;gwe~wh(i!S'e use ofA. SU11\!f)' oj.me Old Te;l:tit.1l,PTeni hss bllle.r.I respo[lsi.M: fOil' genern,t:inil elgibW~ prindl1ilg:\l 'olf rlll~~rllt tldiHC!!I'II.

W~ h~J\I'~ oofl:sdomlyattcm;'pI~ed. tn am'ij.po;!Thd to ~IO~~ m.ilIll),' helpfial 5Ug,gestiQ~we· bav-e recei.ve.di. over the ye~~ fQr' m!!lking m!': ~~Q~d ,~dlition 'i),i th.e bocIl Jilin il!\len m(llreus:emt tooloofmtr,oo,l;lcing S&ious students to,me Bter:lt!lmij~to:~ :Wld~~o!To.gy ,ofm~ Old l~l'3meilil.t .. We.mafilyoufo:Jj the in:pu.t',.and we: 'tftm. we h;nr.e listened w.eW[.

~.ammo!>t :~tefu]to S~Sin]e:lI 'Gundry 3:1:10 11<11&. Ku~ 3!t:scbek Qif the ZondervanPttlbli&hmg. Ho.U!Se :for .w,,"killig tlli1.e publi.atioilml of tbi\'l secotrUJd. edilltiQn pos;&i,h[e~ J:im Ruark .dthe mll.dien!l'Il1I. ooitol'i,als;taffSliso d~f'\!\~ com.mmdatcion. fui'u..'i1l :nl.<lfllr .mproyements :in this editio:IlilJ of the textbook.

To .my Qo",~utili1or, ,aoleagu~, m.n frl,el:l.d~ ~oltn. W,alto~, ] stin elrtend. my 3pOlogicsfoii hll.V'il1Ig8. sl1lllm;~mflthl!!t fJlmClerlc:ZS"W" ~[l.lIu: E,n.g]iSh~[ph3.bf1:, Ser.ioudYt Ifu:ij)nd. (D,~~ conabo:mtiol1. on m.t!· second ,edition. as m~u!ll:ti:flgas our .mitia]J ·eJJ~rt ~III, ',mti~ :theflrst ooHiQiJi!, I ~ontiin~e to benefit bo. pe:r$Ondly !!:i'J!d PJl~¥~iO:f.ia]ly from ~y ilssociaJijo~ witffiru J(ih:I'JJ.

Fm;al]y, .~. offer !lJWQ;fd. iOf a.p!pl:'OCi:ll.t]jonwmyw~k., Thrl,md. tl\i~ (now~ gow.n) ~jl:r~ 15. m our IJvei5i~J,~iI'JJ:'ilfe.r, Jesse" O:I'JJd. Jord.3!ll .. As ·a[\'\'aYlilYOll1 remalin my pcimary concern!O!Jlld gteat:est!l~)liU~e ofin:spirati.on aiP!.!rft.fmm the Saipttlresthe:msel.'I!Ies. M3Y God!',s ~Qocl! Spirit ronll:i;I'JJiUie ~l] lead. us all ()Il[~.ld .gmt'lJlId (h. 14.3d. O]I~

Th~r!~: 3Te m;a:fly~.pl~tothamtk.f@:i ~.pmj~ct such ~ this.. n~ st"ff3lt :ZOI1.~ de~!pa:rti~ruacly Jack .Kuh:i'l:.i;cllek.ancl ~~mRuOi1ik, h~ had ~fi: imfiH~a~ u:ra'Meimpa.ctofi the shn.pe RnId. ,q,uality ,ofdte ])ooJ, willi llielir S<Josi.tt'iJie l1I~d d~QemID,G: ~tod31 WClirk

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The 81,u:l:io.;v~ ~art;mf.!n.talt: Moody Bible Ins,ti:mte hatS aided. ~n~e design and productij)fjof SQrt:te of the charts.

My &mHy 1:1.3$ e;li:;~i$¢d p ... titmce~t!ghoutth~1 pl!!XeS$.. "E'Q my w;!~ Kimt who read most cf the :manuscript! and w' OUf ~.ree }S:-l'ofuliwan!

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Jos , ua, an·, ,1: . ~J owe a YtlD1!.O ,gra,titn eo. ' 1 Wil3nK:5 'especia ' .y 't.D my ]OliUler~

H;UV'ej' Waioo!lt 31nd i!JWy SOl'!. .jon, who oomreadthoe fl_M edi.UQR meticulousiyandnuilie many he:l:pful s~ggestiO:lls for~king It ID.o:rereadable

F~nally •. this book isfrir ,S'tud.e,ll,ts, but it CGuM neverbaVie eeme aibout without'th"-'!: sWnulat.ing input 'of my slud~n!ts over ~e Y-eMS, Many of the ide'as ~at:mab thiS book wtiqu~ am d1~ produot, of th~ cJ1assroom "Jaboratory:.ii 1 there:fore want loman!< 'me.manystudeots villa nav'e dl!al.llenged m@; bav@ as,ked h.a"dq~(JJlS:, have ,o:fferedtheii1 thooghu and id~lUld. hav~ motiva'l:ed mete ,rom.mullics!te:ilt:l m.OMll"ffeai,Ve'\ll!'SYs.

JOHN H. W..u.IDN

The ~Uth9~ ~!1d pubt~hf:~ .. dnQw]oog~ with Fijru~ thQ~ wbo h!'We' prov.id~d!. the charu~ .nlaps_.and pllatolgraphs.The SQufC'tSror cnam are' id~tilloowhere these iiliem.!iappea:r:, The maps have heM cr'C-o'lted. by ]l=Ulf,~' Haradline ,of Grand Rapi.ds:,Mi.chig;m.With me exceptions noted in captions, th~ p.h:ol'Qgmphsare fr,om. tlu~ colil~on. ofNe~~ Bie!rliiLog: ood JoeW

B'~ll: ' _,c., ,,-~ j,; th··_Z·c-J~-'"~H: l ntlJjoA·',,-~L.·,,:-" 'C.'.l)'!.I1'O. ·M··.' ·(,G· .. ·.nd

~o;~~mg, as OO!lJ nel;!! _8. c: .O~_. _ •• ~ n:.-!'Ut't',s , . _ ",,", ,., .. r:a~ __ .

Ran' w; ZondetVlfi ~999)" .Th.e timdlnes 3l'eill-fOwdedb ... Cm.a,J~cnr

'-.t"L ",. '" ~, , "-'j ,_ , " " ",_ '._ - -- '.,.. - , ,_ -, ' - .", ,- - _ ',"

they were Qriginal1y puhlbhed in th.e Zom/ervan NtV.Atlas qf'~. Blbk (989). of w.hich Carl C .. Rasmus.sen. ~s the au.tl!io-r •. and W(\I:f:: adapted. tor this edition by Leura Blost and. Rob Mmt8cell~. Th,eco-mposltion was :performoo by NanqWtl:son. The ()OPYeWWf' was La,ur:3 W@ler. Th.ClS,tilipet""ruin,g edi~r!.lO'3S Jim Ruark:.

17

Copyr-ghted materia'

Copy ri-gllwd image

The i!!~thO\iS@ff~~b.fl::ro]lQ~t'!g ~~gg.esticll_S~C1lc~ch.e;!'~ustim.g~hli5 ::n:!n1cy,

m. Th>e OO~ ~e(ld. not be .5truCtlli,OO 3!ocOlmimag to the order of c.h~p", .~.I!':S •• dtii5lbook.Web3V{ll1ie:illtJed! the Ibib[ka[ books in. cflimlllika] ordie:r,but other sequences (e,g., dID[(l!SlI)]Qgkil] are al~e:[[Iati'!!es, Addioonan:r~ tbe:re Me ill ~'lmiber of cn<!!p'\'ief$ Olfi 'vari,ous topia inter~persedth:rollgho!i.lilt theboo~. "fffiM! ~eachfw should e\'3.1~abe whkh of those ch:tlpt:e.rs are le~el'lti:al t@ :itli;t'j!!,te wle <tl@UfSe ilnd in~e_!fS:pem:: lih~ omern\vheremey Gt best: or ·~·the,mru;: ,ou~d~l">eading Oir as f~adi:ng flO,,· ~nro c.redit.

2 .. ~t ~s UI .inherel'l~ strengmina rourse wlhim the oouc<l!Uo.flllll objiccti.ves of tffiaell:lache:r oorI!1lspond to the ll1uthorn' objoctivl?s for the: ~e:riOOok .. Fo:rt~aehl!f.'s'!'iho d.esireto correlate thelr course obj:ccti.1,!~ ee the book's dbje~ti:\i':es, 'we li'ooomrn.end the fhl]oll!'!.ling:

A, Be able' to aWiti.Gldate th~ p~g~e'~a1d mess~g!l; ofl!'ach book !of *~ Old T~t;alrn~nt

B. Bef.3JmU:iarwim. the m8!J'oi!' eve:m:I'ts :mel:. pe:ople of the Old T~ent

C. Be :a:b[e lO c:ommutlilc~tetbe.'''b~g p~dure" ·~f tlli1e OkIT~me,nJt .mdril;lI.t~ the p3!rts ~g. th!l: 'W~bo]e.

D,Beaibleibo dlisclUi~thie majOirtheo~ol,gka.l~eme~ of the Old Teitamerlt

E, Be ;~brnl! to expl;~. th~ $ii~nifi~ce 'ofth~· Ok! 'f~tJmeflJt 'QiF <I!l¥ !ofits paJ~ffir :]1 G!)nt.empCl[::lI!:'Ybe~iever.

F.Be3bl~ tt:J! ::l!d~lllth~ fU1:J:!'l!d3tiQf!<l1 ~;jsmfi~;U']!oe ~f m~ O]d T~t:: fl:i!W ,the liifide.rM;'ifid~!'lg of the. Nel;i!,i'·r:~stEilme£i:t.

3. We. feQlJmlDmd th",t the ]3,.iJb.~~ be as!l~gned :reading aIDom;gliIDd,e this textb~k.r becilw~:the ~unl'ey dees H@~ !iimJl~Y restate~h!f; oonte:l:lt of the biblical boob

rightfo.r d.~ ~ctil!tion. of God's p~an. In t~al soose. creation is 5:irnplydte introduction w history. God.'s sovereignty .is ~njtiaUy ~utlcd by the fact tha,t he C:!Ieated"WIille thi~ ~;mnQt he-l,p bUlt ~y llf:Iy clalm 11;(1 oov~t:Y by oUter de:iti,es, its intel'l,uGFI! i"il'l,Ot to prow ide polem!ic a:galn.~t!be pagan polythei5!!1l. .of the day. Ra.ther than taking 3, negative appm.achtL3,t den~\I~afidrefu~es ,other ddli~,the .old 'fentlmenlt· w:esthe posi.tJive approach of t~Hing wllrli1l,tth~ ene true God is ~rlrJe: aad wh-at he: has d(l~e.

As history b~,gln:s. ~t w.iU he cibstm'ed tiha,tl:h,(!l Old, 'TMtaR1~nt: is 001'1.c,em;edwjJti!l political or socialaspccls ofhistQry on]y ~r.I, I!i 5CConwuy waf. Th(l primary-interest of 'tElls Msl:OfY is: haw God basrev~nl.oo ~fw peoiP~c ~nthe past. One rdect.i.on,of this can M found. in the HQH:l.es of God tbat permeate the p~~,ofSrnptme. These names portt'ayhirnasa God whQ i5: h(lly.alimight)~, moothIgh;,and the one Who ba~; c;l,used. e,,'eI'Ything to be. Yet he IS also a God! who .he:M~, .~~ :and. provides... The habit. t!al.rehel~on ~nd feeblemindOOness 'of humankind. sh(J\;'!l!i; ~im by (jon~ :I God of patience and. grac~;

Just i,!!l. crea:t:i~n.Hows into history, ,m hi!itiory f1o'l/!O'Smtoproplnecy,. God.'.! p~an 'WIlSitiitia:t:edi,n~h¢ begjnni:ng,wM wQrkd. (!jut th]iQ,~gh. hl~tQry~;md

'I'] .... ~"I -1l" .... lished.B ... , ""-d' '~II 11 __ ..1

WI I. OOl1ti!1l1C unw .ilL .u;. a.c{)omp_:.~utu. !lY~lng \Jl!;,l.c'.S p~af!!wiQrll.t:U out

iLn the .past (the Pt:!1.t.1'ooU(;h ood the .~cnID.bOO:b) and proJ~ into the m,ture~(proph(:tic ~iteroitu!:e), we can begin toapp!!eciatethe 'un_f~th-· omab~e wisd.om. QfGod.,whQ' ls"","Ortiiy of pmse aad worShip' {Psalms and

- . ...,~~~~ ~I'+""'r ''''',0'-,11. Th- O]d"T~"'":" - -t:- ;"1.- t. -.L"'--~d··'If.- v,,,w-~, ,,,,,, '-'-"'~.'. -_ ,

Y!'~n ,Uo,.o;:_~ ...... e J-- __ e .. _ __ ""' ........ en., ~1 ,~'u ... UJi ... ' De _ ,1",._ eel ..... a p. .......

entation of Cod's :atm'butcs inaction. We cllnlmawwho God is and wna.t

Ii.. , .~ "1'. L .. 'L· •.. ' . h". '. heh ·d.·.·· . ;I',.. ~& •• " d. . .. 0' •. ..' . '. 'I~

~~e iSii""e I ... y ne.m*,gW ... oJt, .... e' ~~as"olle atI~ '_ntefiw.: 000.. _ nee W'f: .11.I~IOW

who bei$and. what .he-is :bike, taleapPfopriaJt:e respcnses are wOJS!hip,com-· m:itm.entf and service,

'Ihe~'

At meco-re: of~s .~lf-reve~liIticn~ deliinea.ti!ng the plan of God/is the c.QI!'ICnrlll:l.t:.8vcn the :En~ish designation. ~Old'festam.eo.t" .indi.catailiatilie covenant is th.e core Qonccpt (If!~s coU.ection of! books (te,uaID.Jlnt. ~ 'C;:(lvet!an.t:). 1"hrough the covenant God lxIthreve;a[s what he is lik~;an.d Oibtjge:s himselho :a p~rtirn]ll-rcoon:eof:u,:tilon. His: 10Y'alty (lJeb. b~) to Iih~ Covtln.al:l!t frequmtIy leads him, 10 :lets of,grn.cfl' andmMCYj, bll.t jd.m i\s a_ls;Q built ii'i.to the c.ov'eMlltltc 'ensure aa:eufitabiility byhispeopJe.

SI:!'lce the ,()v~atl!tis the ~nstrnment. tl~d by God to ~.f{ect ~~]f~~v.~la~ tiQll, thee OM Tcstamen.t: often. :appt".a~; to' bethe h_htory o.fm~ oov~a~tJ 'liJf of.!l.SPects ·o.f lit, more than :a:.bisWry of'brad, So Genesis 12-50 ls a his-. tory oftheestabli:d\m~ntof the .A;brah;unjc ~Cfl!"en.:m,t. E:wdus .... Deut.ero.n~ lomy ~s a histo.ry of theestablism-nentof the Mosaic covemuwtat Sinai l'~ua.i:s alle-oow of COO's fa.iti1lfu~ne:ss to the cmrenm~~ w)ule Judges is: a te('Qr.d ,of lsraern.'s unf3:i:t:hfu1ness to tWte COll'IDlanJt.'The 'boob of Si3ffiu.ei 300

,21

Copyriphted materia'

iKm,gsare a. WstOJ}" ·of thec.ov'enant ofki:ng£h~p (the Davidil:c COVe.1l3f.lit). It is tih.e ~O.vMan~ :~ Goo'~ p~anth3l: is mo~ in.focu$. than.~[he: people who are in.voDvoo !K.elilcrotion am:r :g~en'ltiQn ..

Scver.SiI ·d!iffi!:rent .liIpproaches~o the Old Testam.ent are d~stingl.ii:i.sh.ed &om one iilnatntlii Iby the way each~iUldefS'I;and~ li.e cOYM.a:ntideaand the: relationship, ,of ~~e oov:en,UlIt5 IO o::ne another. N~ t~!!tre m<liny diff-i;"1~!:!:t 'C:;QiVeo"nts that independently !l,U!l'efn pe_riod.'l of histQry,. oraee there J~tsl one or tw'Ogo~{",ming: ccvenanis that h.ai.~e o,tffiller stlbco\ren<l_nt!> to offef ~xpansion and expLmatiol1! Is t:nffe::lsingJe u~conditioi]larn i.Jovecnant:'th.a:t contnipS.CQIld!i:t10nal COYlJ.o,a;o.ts within it~ or 1S the w.hole3 candiHonal covenaiRt'?

Th~ are the ql;l~tiQn:s mat;. aaswered dilfi-re!ltwl'l~ :by different $C'h()l~ ;;I[tS:. deBn~ me tffiaeo]QgiC;;I] (,'Ontrol!i'i~ie!l.",l~oll~ the oa 'fe;stamemA, it- .. reel".· itio:n5J~,ip 00 the New'Testament,. and 11.'1· relevance to 1!I;.1~o~hy .. The <t_(ISW'e.('S giv~~o·thClie q~$rtiQn~, hQw~v(:r; doou'C;; a he'f cll~ picltUfC QfGod t!h<it the CO'\l'fmaIlt Iilff~~ .. .only '1be: .sh:lpe .of th!m~()ID' is. :It: .Sit3Ib~l :il!lJclu~i-~ue," not: the n;'l~ur(lof Codas he isf~V~:llI.ed! tnm~ .oM T~t:3m~n.t,. E:\i'e.n~fMe is :iin~Jioooto dt'~,,1<,1 dfstin.d, SC[p3mt1.t:l:g ~in.c5 between the CO\,~Mn.ts, the or:g;utic t.u:liity ·O'f rlu~ 'COili'~liulnts Must not 00' ov~rtooked.

11: ts dtis ]3U~ ihllirn,c;wmtk ·wat. hdps us to' ~€the: plan of God as .ili mnsistel'lt. noiRed eo.tlty .. In thk. 'li'k'W~ me: (tlvenant w~a. Albmham, estabLhed Israel ~thc 'HY,e!1aKlry"'pooplc DfGod=tl!l:e people tihr.clu.gllli. whom !he ""'(l,uIDd oo"c,d hlrnself to the \'I.*G.rld. The law thatisgicvcn on Sin<l!i isa majior part of the revel.artion rhalll the ,COVl.1:rl30t \'~'1IS es.talblisl1ed. 1.\0 :pro"":i~ At m.e s:a:me time~ I..evi.ticu!!,. Die.1iNterOnJl'.lm:y, and JQf>h~<! contain. eovenant reBcwa1sthat teinfo(f('C the oIgf.eemeo.mt. The Dav.idic eoVeM!'It hrin~ to ful~ fl~~mt;:!lt ~Qm~ Qf th~ ~rnt!.,J :prom~ of God! ~Q Abr@b.<J!m (~,g.,.th<lit kk!.g~ w,otil.dcQJJt'C £(Qm .hWl)and ~tWesolmC time ~x~o1nd."1 the agreemcllt:t·Q rundud(l a. dynastk line. The prophees :speak of futW'~I[:«,,'ena.n.ts {t'f: [sa .. 61;B~Jer .. 31:31.-3.:1; Ezek.16:00-'63; JI4:l5~30; 37;1f)b.48; Hos; :2;].;8~l!fO)j :and ·th~· gf.'nelia!1y ~l:1;ll'e~o the eve!lU,~3[ftdfil,lme:M.Qf.a£peru (If the pre· vi:o~~ ('Q'!Iena~ts that hadib~nun'!"ea]~:l~d~'(ayse' of the fa~Lurt!!l of the ]"'!".lcli«..o;,;,

Bach (jf)v~!'l.t: will be diic.~dm,or~ fully in th~ appropl''I,Ol;!;C pD<l!ce8 in this sUrv'.ey. l'I:,tthls poinit it Is import3int:~r: u:$b) froogrnze the (;.e~tral!ii;y and ·the. OlK~ni'i::W'I]It'! of me ()O\i\~,OIint:; in the Old! 1enarncnt ~ they :relate to GOO"spla.naod his :Sel]f~re~ela:l:iC!n ..

AuIhoIItJ·

'Wlille lit is not iimpropcf' to study' th~· Blble f.(l,ma Htetary pe-P.i:~n:.':Ctive: :and to nppr'Gcia.1'ill' it :asgrn3t lliwra:turnl we. ~,aonot:rtopm~" If me Bib~c: is 'I!@oo~g:nlz'@d~. Coo's~Jf"'r'~c13tiofi,irli; must htl v!iewed :i;5; tept;e$mt. mg more than th~ OpWO'1il ofgOOly ~!ple, It! Q1th~r\'!i'ord$. if Gooi~nqt

Copyriphted rnaleri

undern,l!oOO. to be the-source oftbe O]d Testament, l~ canaetserve as a: ~ r~Viel~.tillon, If God :is the WU[1i.Cle of tlhe OM "f:est:lment, ~t. Can be, understood ::1£, ~essing :1I1!1th.ority~. We nudy X!iptl;lfe because we expect togee an 3lU:hQri.tative ""''Qf'd. from God,not the s~bjective opinions ofpeopl'e~ hem"ever va]ualb~e or true die latter may be. Autho:r,ity "s wha,t ma,kes the OM .-pL stan -,-.' c; ,-,-- tha~ lust 19,- - ]Iiti-rat'-'·-,-_ '~, - N~-w T<H;It-,-, - ,'t ~.L - ~-.:'~,-

"e:i_Jllen ... mOR: DjUS ufcle ,_,_e __ ure. u,~c, t: _ "~",,.amell.. !"uJ,~n:i:,}fe

:refm, to-the Old. Testamen! as,bei:mg GQd.~b:r-earlrue(t ,o.'"inspi[1ecl .. '-' ]nspiratinn is that qJ~Uiaruitythat designates, the source as God. a:ndguaJ'81iji.{~esth:at

th: ,'-_ -,'lL·' ,.,- 'W -""":"''''A-~d··'"''" h"~: -;11.,~L: ritv(2 TI~;''''''. 3: ,~II~'C .r'CS~ ... _t1ig _ []'I"."". ,tSm _ .. ' ..... , _ .... g,,,'YI,Q. -".1 ',.-_ ",h".. , ~,.,).

It stands: to reason" then, that. if we lool< to the Bibme fora,tJi,th.oritativ,~ revebti,ooFrom COOl the ::iut!hQdty m~" be ves,ted in wh<l1t it inten&to Qommuni.cate:,.not in. wib,atthe reader wa1!l:tst{) hear; Thisffi another w.ay In whiCh me BibLe ]5 different. from other literature .. When we reada novel or .3 ~,th.e: power ofcltc' li~era:ture can be measured by its albility to evcke a re:Pollse From the reader and b]end that tog;ethe.r with the Ideas of the writer tocfe!!ite !a!nd. recreate !lew"m.<eatl!ings~ each. time it is rea,d. In. thl!!W"y a poetn. c-oul.d. mea!l:'i OD,e thing to one reader and strike: an ,entireLy dfffer~~tchord in another mauer. Although this d.ynamic can be an cQ~t= come ,oftheapplicartio:o process la read:i~g the Old Testament ~. below}, the fad that the writtenWQro. h:a:s:31althority wb~1e the reader's :response does not sheeld warn. againstintefJnin,gllin,g t1hcm. 'The result:is thalt we cannot be ""onltent ]Mi'iili1.!l auf o'\i\.'n leSMins&om Scdptu~, .3:;. wLti1lbrue !I.S th~ may ~e.We mwst strive to disciJIVCT what Ute a,uIDo.r m.t~.ds to oo.mmumcate, f01 that: is where ~uthQri.ty i~"ested.

Vilhat are 1he Implications Ilf t~e auth.ority the text pOIl:!iesseS? The' :ftrst isth:3it w~ ;I;(.)Leptwib;lt it says acs.truth .• U God neverffl;)de:1l((f'\itenant With Abrahern er !!le>'er spoke to M~s on Sifla~;: ~f&e C-Ol!!,q~~ ii just an im;;lSinarypolemic for Isrn~l t:o defMd its t:etti:torial expansionism; if'the;i)3.vid!c m\i'~lit3nt b, nothing mQre th;anapo]itk.a~ p:loy by the Davidites to pmd;;lb:n d!iVJl~c~ jl.:!SdBcatiotli f(!!!'weir d'yna$1ty,thc::n it is nOil: Goo':sself;'reveLa:-don but i)s. sbnp!c prop'aganda a nd h<l5 ne fd~~e to us atai.!. If Ulert·is any .~S(l. In. 'whkh. this is God's, word, It. mtlist b~ :tak~n 3S'tr1UtbfUl.

Ase.:::ond .. fmir:dkatiQO is mat Wll needt'Q respond" ]f me Bible i:s truly Goo's :luth,ori."i:a:th'e; $emf~rov()~:I'Hon., w(l CiIlnnot ,afford. ilie fgno-reoJ' negle.et him .. He expecbi notouy worshi],\ but obed~mce. justice,~t\Yalty. faith:fu~~ ness, h.Ql~n~ rightooumos, ;Jlld lov"e.ln shart~ne WIliIl.t!iUS to 00 I~ him.~ that ~s ene of the reasons. h~lievreal!s wha:t he isUke.

How .. ,...., I1Ie DId .............. ,

If weaee to .(les;pond to the Old Test:a:rnent;,wc must knew bow\';ul inte.::pret ~tso 'iIi'~ know how to respond. Much afth@ spiritual truth 'ofdt~ Old! T~$,t:;:Iro.~iI: ~ ¢vid~t ev~ mf04gh .. $Q~rfl:,~al .read!ing of th~ text. In~ depth study cam yi,e]d even gnt.aitu resul.b but :is .ac:compililliw bygreatel

2'3

Copyriphted materia'

difi)cu]ties as w-cli.L VariQwprinO:plciii ;!nd meth't;u;tQ[Qf;ie~: that ~n1¢ a~, guicb:rot ~~$~ .md ~~ret .. tlon~~~ 'Qf.dy he ifI'trOO~:u;~d h~ bQt m<ly pro\i'.~d(! an.introdu.ction for the :stud~nt"

O.n.e ofthern,~Jn prh:lI:.iiples ofb:~blica] hl,terprdadoJ;l, has idfifradyb~1;tt:I mentioned: Th.e .B.ib~e m.ustb~ aUowed, ta :s~ak fOf'itslfl:f: This ~s. d:ifficu:lt to "fUtO b~~ ~very ~nterpreter has presuppo.!>i.tioills~ thS!ti'~ prefUm:ll'".d idees abom whfl:tiJh~ BibJe is~ what it S'II,YS, lind how ~t tits together. Wiltse, assumptio.ns: can shape the interpretation of the text: and can slant at' dJs:tort th(l m.t~rcts.rti.rrn .. Prosu,ppasiuans are ,ofil'm :subco,n:sdous.\'\rt-en they ,ilnl: .notmb,cmsd.o,~, they ate somedmes callS.idelled nOmleg(lti~b~.e. Propew ;i.nterpreta.t1on. doesn.Ol teq.u~re(ead!e-rs. tothmw OlW,;l:)I' all.p:rc5uPPosl,ti.ons, b1iJ:t it clOt1'S :i:n£ist tha.t:re-a.cl!et:5 [iecognlU: '~he PI':'~ppooitLol1s theyholdi, eaa"'ta:nltl,), reevii"~W!l:e thecm (or 'l!a~idi.t.y, and slloordfnal.e them ti] the t:e:x.t. of Scriptum.

The: object ·of this prlllaple is to, prevent interpretcr5trum m<!l1:ipul,at" Lng thet~ to ",mit thcl.J" a~'Wl!~c,et!d<!!S, ]f thet'ext is to s:p~ik witb"UimOf'" .i.tyj it mid enjioy a cert~inam.Oi;if:lit of ~utofiQmy from. the :i[Jitetpfoe,te:r.

In ]j'tI:fazy dn:l~ too;,t~ the~e t;Qnt!~u~wb~· much d~~(t!~~Gn .. brJ~lt the foclls ,cfW,eint-e;rpreter's alt'rnti(lo .. Traditionally the a;uthor~r!d h:is: b-ackgroundao,d.inte.[Jxikm I[either explicit. or .inferred) had. served as w.e key to ~n.wrp:ruti'l-ti.on. Mo(~ fl.o'Ol1'I1Iitly litN,lry' cri.ticsh.a!\'e cencluded that the impo:ss~bmty of a~hievLt:!,g ~y ~onAcl~TI'I: idcrrtirlica.tiORQf wh .. tme: .... ~ith(}r mtended!. demands that mearurtgis -me resultof me' imp3;(;t of t!fle ten; (:1.'1'1 entity iSCilatedttom :lJnd independent of ~ts aumor) o~th.e ~tl.(lli. v.idual reader: Iu 'w:e h<l!\i'~~~d .• hO\io!~Vl'1,if th~ !Bib:l~ ~s t.l) be yDnside-red. ufl~qllle1.ya~lth.o.rj.tati\i'e,.lt~.umot alw;a:ys be treatJed!as jwtanother pll':<.:~ of literatU!l',e. If m.1:'!: hil:il:ic'81~.Clx.tis ,a~c(;pteJ aS3~thClritati.",'c.thc .i.fi:t~ntkllj;J. af

"I.e. .':L . til.,.. . . .,lll~· I"~ '~, . . ' .,Lt;. . r .. '1. ., . . ,

me 3.I1mQf I(~~!~ tmu.w.v.m.ej ~ust:Jtlmm.nme lOCUS -0 itne .ntterpruter s

;)tteortion, One :resttlt of th.is oomroittnent iswaJt the-interpreter snQuldnot be ~g fl)1 hidd~n me;anili!lgs or my,stkil syffibQ]imi, .An.QtMler isthat cli.~ 3.1!llmor's m~g,tl: ought not to oeign.of(;:d or lrI.ug](;"Ct~d Ifill f:l:v'Of,ofhoc".",. til!! ]n~.rpret'8l' WaJl:lts to use th@l~xt fa caml!l~on practi.otl it'!lBiM!~ study' grotlps,andi sermons],

But how .0,0 w-e:try to dletl.mT.l~n(l ~~ in.tentinl1l (Yftbe authnrf Fin.!t, the .~(ll(': of the .Ilruature m.Mt be .d.cmrmincd. III ow iC'Qllt~mpQra;ryl:l.ter8!" ture, Mog~phy wnl be read dlliJerenitl.yfrom myst:eryl,!llld drama diff-er·, etl!tly from limenck. The ty:pc o:Fniterllt,llil:·eaffects. how ~h3:t 'wrlti~g wUl be I!!ppwaooeclarnd mterpre~ed. This,ap:pliJe:s e:quaUy t(!l' the Old.17e!!tarnefl!~. Prophecy ~sa dHlfereiRt. gear:e fro.m. pmverbi,alHte:ra.t:ure,. To begin wHh, then, the Interp.r,@termus:t ~oontify t~egenr'e' of wibJat he' or she i.s t.yilm.g tD in.t~r.et a:nd diScmre.r as mad:i. as pi)5Si!bl.~ ab out that genm,. This latter ,encieowQ:[ is opproachecl through. .SJwid!e: variety ,of critical m.ethooQ~,ogiC'$ (see'apprndix to th.is book),

&ped.t of.1Jtble .1ru~O,N

~'~{J_f l~fm

Copyriphted materia'i

Second, it is irnpol'tOO!t to. ·d:iSCQ·Yef all'wec~l'I"ab(}ut the auW!e1'I!c(l ror whom. the:writttl,g W~ in.ttl",~dlaflidthe drwnubn~ und.exwhi'Ch. it was 'W.ritt'en, These faC'tlS may afl't:ct tJhe Wll.y oert'ain ~SQt:ementsi!re~OI be understood ..

TIliLroj.Utl'QU,&, an examn..iflaltio:n of the (.{).nt'eXt, we sho~~d ti)'iIlO idnufY the purpu~~ (if th~author ordror: This pU'~ m:a:y b~a~d ~Np~ic~ itly, or itwa,y needtobe deduced fro:m observatioD:i conice,millg, the a1i;!th:~('s se~edi(};n.and.arran.geme:nt (If me ma:terial.

As interpre,~ if ""'e canutlde~d the <l!u'tbot,. the a:udi!ence,the sU~ uaHon, and thl!: ntl.'!1rMYgMr'ftasw~n:ilS possib[e, Wl'!:8f@' inagood.pos:ition to pu.t ourselves in.tb.~ .audience arod unooiiSt.end th.e woros and~mO!e imrportantj, thGm~g~ of the s:ectiol:1.mat is bcing in,1ierprowd. In~t;.t~l"pro~ taHon requires us toberoxne:, to the best of QlJ!r~biliti,es;, patt of the origlna~ audienc~. The message toU.,emis &esame'as the mess.age~ous"

AppII_-a:t- _.. "'-0Id' ' __ -&

~!!!! 'UIl- ' - IAIJ!!II!IIIfIJ .•

VVhIef:i :pr~'!:!p,pgsi!tiJ)ns have been ,evah,H!'tied. and selected :and.mlethoo~ QIGgi.~ pl;irsu.OO that ~~ oons~~ntwithth~ prestl:p~tiQ~ the gO\ilI(to iDterpret th-t: me.ming of the P<L~) l$l~ ~jghtibut not y~ !!.thie¥w" ~n«:fpr,etauon is: sterile without a:pplka.tlon .. In. apphrntlon we must not s:imP~)' ask, "~a'l:: C$f! I~~m?" Applk;S!til)o ('.annot bejwt:.a~aggfegate ,I,lfimpre-s .. siQ~ galru,!d from. readingtbe~t. In re~g JomU:a~J for ~pl~ we mi~bt: say that. we learned. to be moreoourageom a , Bu,tm..at is nort Wba,'lt·we are·lool:cing forr in app[j.carHoll.. More ~£i.(~lly, we: must ask, "'Whllt can I learn. nom what the: ten is,te.a'Crungr so applic'ationcan.be tied. dfemveIDy t01in:terpfe'ta'tiOcl1 .• lfth.e i~t'etpretl!tion identifi~ me a,udii.etl.G't!a!i; oorpon1te Isr3!dJ theprernises made may not be applicabl~ to~. as individil)la]s~ (Wen thQughehey &tiiUt~(h U1l~ about God. If the Old T~,tament isv.ie~~. as God's self-l1evela!.tio[l~ we wiU <!c~~: hl mO!l<t in.sta!nc~ to leam J]m.mme~ thif:lg abeut Goo. From that V!'C w.iU.th.en :And ,out what ,~mlPUcations, that ho~ds for o.urvle:w of se1£ Otllters,Of the world, around us, In :this way ~e m£:5SIl&Cl m.tlst~ep,thrQugh to our values.. cond!uc,t~. ,and world.~.iewand otffea: oW" decisions and! tibe :::I1tt1tuoo we mll:~tl~n.

If we feed! oune,]ves only on prroO.ftJeJC6, role models.. types, and ,,.thou"ts fo.rthe: dary .... W'e~cltoulf a!hility toko.ow God.,fur only p~ i:!'lt~tati,onmn bring us thefuU ~n~fit 'of God's .:'ltdf~rev,elatiQn, If God h~!:itru]y ~pgL:f!. ~t is j,f!.(;'U:mb~t 9ft ~ .: as h~ C~ .. tr~~Q ,~t;: ~ . .;l;b$Qr~ in hisWQrdwat, itbooomes secondlnature tous, It 0ll!I c-onvict '~. (hal~ lengc us, and confront m as 10llg as we diischa.rge our ~bl!li,1ty to r~ the Scrlp~ co~OO!tioU$ly ..

25

Copyriphted materia'

r I"1I1E HFSTORY OF th.Isr""li", .. tl •• de ve loped withi na s pecific geClgnliphfcn!l 'Qontt'xt.ror ·thls rensotru the .Elib~e takes geON<l!pky ~~ri"

'o~ly. lt.reeerds real et'etJ!iIS taking place intiime and space, The BiiMe is flJot a portal into o:.nOllrtiJidOlI.<!!JD (:(IntrivedN:nnJa·iike ~iterOl!:)' history; HOlNrevert the .BibJe is no,t si.mp]y a collecticn ef "lric,ient: .ann:a:l:s:,no~ is it ll[t~nded. to ooagazett~ '0;1" t:opographkill mannal, l;ilk.~ the scien.c~ of :3r,t::h8~QI.Qgj,;,g~o.sWaphye:!{pand:s' our knO'wl~)(lg~ of the: ~tti.ng 01: backgfOtl:nd of the: bih~i.cal ~a"Jtives andthus enriches our tlIndl"nta:llJJ:UlJg of a given Old 'Te;taml"nt tC'.l(t.

The physkal 'WoiJd of mc: OM 'f~t8m~.n.t was the am:]ent Neat E,ru:t, oomrnonl!yknQ'\w. wchy as me M~ddeEast er sometimes Southw,estAsi:a. The OM ''I~3men.t:: :h3ti1"atlv·es ,enc:o·mp:'lSli the regiut:! of .M.esopolam:ia in the east, Mi,(lj :Mi~I()f .or .Maltri[ia in thel:l,orth,. Siyro·Palestiiite :and. Egypt: liJ. the west,l!nd the Agbj<l!!1,P~'fiifl!!U~i! in theooytJinJ., The medern states of Iraq and.~~n {l'(,cUpy mest ·of a:n(;k1ilit MeJil()potarn:ia,V!'h:i~·e .A:sia ,MbMJ;r is now kr.!Oo .. m as 'Illlrk<eY, ;;t.fid, Saudi. Arabia, (o:!1lnol~ mQst;~f the Arahia!'! peninm~ .. ". Nc ... ~ly,fum~AJlli~ of 0[<1 Tesbmcnth_il;>tc,ry ~alke~ place L~ the area of Sjltro·Palestine on U!;l eastern M(!diiter:r::mean C'()~it TIl;!> territ'Q!:Y nnw indudestn{l' :st:ates of Syri3~ Lebanon, Jordsn, and Israel,

'I'M,QMI ........... ·WGIW

The &r:tiU. The wgt~d (If tie Old T~t~m!!.!1!~ ~y.;~y~:uy id~Jltffied wltllil !th,~ "fi:rtlle

c~ Cres.c:en.t"T.hisaJr,ea included tle NUe River yaUey an.d! delia, the nA3!UOW prnaiins j)~O:f!JJg 'the .M~di.t('mmeanco.ast of Syr&l~Le:s.tjinew and the Tigris and. EUPMa!t'Cs ri\l~r va1:l<zys. AdG:qu:iltG: rn~nfal!l3nd iir:ri;g:l!tion. alrmg these GQ.3:staJ prnarullsand n\'@f "an~Y!iper:m1ttedagrictl]t;uro andsGw.ed IifiJ.f sl"ingrise to &~ ~rI[@st dV.ai",:ations: of the .an,d(!n.t Nea!r East. The first part of this SOC~ t10n d~l~ th~ major g~Qt;raph~ba:~ r~i.o.n~ ilajo.inirlig this fwni;j(;:~~~t and the .FCS,p~~tl:\\'lil PI.";Opl.~5and. culnsres inflt:utfl.cilil,~ Hlel'!rLow his:tory;

Me$~potamia The mi:ame :Mesopotami,arnLc<lfllS, ~t~,elffi1id between. the r1.VCJS," nam.ely;

t~engll$ ilfidEuphrutcs l!:i"fgffi.Th~rorti]e strip of :b:n.d!,1I1Q.ng the rivers ex.'l:en.ds some ~l1:~Ui[)dred mi]~ From the mOU!]lIllino'l;Js regi.on:s Of!. ith.;: aerthern edge oithe Fertile Crescent t.o, the: expi'li.n:s~ve <lilJl!.tvfu~ plains at the :Per~m Gul!f, Likl~ Egypt, f!et'i. ... (lr~ofl~anO!~irri:g~tedtl!eAk~lGdpl:li~, m"k~ fngLowu Mesop<Il::iimia. espec:i:aI]),pmd{l!cti'~'\'l agricuhnraUy. Unlik~ !EID'Pt~ M~PQ~.3h3d nQ n~turollbaml;'1S prt;,ll~'!;;ting th~ re.g]on frQm()~tsid~ ~!1fll;u::!t~e aIIld Uw,,'asjo!'!, 'The dtY~5tal'e cuh,wes ·~f :S~mg:f a:nd A_~ad w~!:(:

R~lIo~ble for ~pmading 'eMb dvill:z1Jti(Ji~ .!)ortbw,ard a1cJng the riYC'f basi~

NorthCTIli Mesopotamia ~s; the .i];omCli'lfid of[sraclte origins in thae the Hebrew pntri.arch:s li\ted in the aro.a ofHarnn in .P::l:ddan.~.AAm. between tht:l T~griS::3ind. EiUphrn.tes.. Abr;ahSim is id!~Hfi,erl! as an Amorib'l' (lEzek. l5::3J. and rom~im.f! laitu Jacob sQ~ol'lmlt(l :3i~;o]'l\gAmO'rit:e' kinfilll inl PaddaeAram (Gen. 2:8: 1 ""'9). W~ 3ir,ea~ro told that Ahraham. t'nigraitled from Dr iii!.

28

Copyr'ghtcd rnalerh

Mesopotamia (or a ·'nctlr:ilien1J. Urnow5uggestced 0lS ;)n.3ltemati~e)n.o.rth~ w.ardilio H:U1IJJ.,. and.fl:nally to Can:aan. .35 he follewed ~he :r:ell'eIOl'ticrn and p.mmise ofY<1ihweh ..

. Lat~r I~ril!~lit~ Mstmrji! ~sg:re~dyi.nfluen.oC~. by dle- ~mpli~ r!3.tiQnS of M!~)pgt~m! ... ,\N:li~ht:he .&sy.r.i:(l:!l~ .B<llhYI.Q!liO'l~ and ~i3.llls aU mntruLling. the ~and of .P:'ll.lestinl;; at ~om~ pgiot intbci:r mle· ·Qf th~ ande:n;t Near .~ ern. wmld .. As.'lyM .3ndBaibyll}]lj[~ilwerealso res.pom!SibLc lbrthe diestruction of th.e di.vtded ki~gdhms oftlil.e Hebrews !lind the deportation of thousands of Hebrews ~1l.tD exil.e in. M€Sopota.mia .. Then, un.~ thflt'niighttmed.rule of Cyru~ allid th~Pe(~i.a~ th~· Heh~ exiles w.ef'e per:tn:itt.ed t(lOO.tum to tb.eir homeland and reh!Jlild the templ.e QfYailwle~.

The reg!Q!1 of !Ui;aJ MiJl.QI' $t~,ua~ed :nQrthwe$t of the Fertile Cte$Cerrt ~$ ilfia: Minorl <li rugg{.J~ mCI'IJ.'!ltaiOill:l5 area .. [t is ;l:div~ l.aJ'!dwjtiitri~h soil.totl Mcdh!cr~ ~ filneandiIn.!l!te m. the we5~ .<!r.1.d:S(){IlW,r OJ ,dry and ba~c:;entral p!.ll!teal~,an.d

steep moontaiM ill the eastteward Arro.f!oja. The ;Sto:re~ of m.i.n~r!lJ.Ls;:md

metal ores In dU:l e.mtnll mountllm. ranges Ilfford!lffiJdi@inhabi,tants or Anll.~

tnHa.ooady resourea for (nffiMefciaL ttad!i;fi,g lI!lith ther,est of the andent

N,earEast forfoo.d staples. 3:nd dnmestic warl'MoThe p~i['lsula W'ilS also th.e

land brid~ jo.ini11l,g coel:ltlCa[ .MSi aad .wutheastern Europe,. whkh .meant the

<lire .. was oft~ Stlbject ti> hlV,~io:nand. fi;r.rdgn cnrt'r03chment ond ~nf11il:en~,

During me second ml]J.cIm:l1l:ium B.C. the c,~Rtil<l1 portion. ofili.cmgion was home lli::ll the Hittite Bm!p~.3 powedUI rivtliL til) Egypt for (Qn't:rolot SYr()e P3i~est"in(1. The Hittiti,}SwGm IlMUit3ry POOP.l~f hiring 'OUlt: as m(m:~Mri,t'lS ~od exporting mi1~t2ry t~hm.ol()gy throughom:.tneancient Near East. The Hittite treaty fann hy wbi.ch HittitekirlS~ suh~ugil!ted oolH~.ue.[ied. foos heeame ani impo:rtaiil ]iitera:ryCO~itributioi:1. to the om;clefi.t world. 'Thi5lre~ty rom:. ·""ra~ ~imil'lr to thi!~y_~d.bli' the Hebrews f~ $'I;ruduring the wmt:lflg (If the ~g¥CJl~t bctJween Yahw-ch <Mld h~ peoPle l~eru i~ 'both Bl'(oous: (19- 24) and DooterooOimy; ThcreO'l'c·~· p.otroilJ:t!1is bem~ ~~ Hittite ~~'W:5i u<od.the OIdTcstameJ!ilt, and ~!)me b~blicaru .schalm ev'cnft~d Hjttit~ intlu· enee ill the fuml<!ocl. pr.u::tice Qfhhitorywriti.J1gr_1ll bt:ael.

During the nnit miHel1illimn :fl.c. the p~p·]e ofUra.rtu dom~nated. e~~ em 1\:Sli3 Minor' 3.ndwarroowilh il:Jhlt Assyria:lls fO:!" oOl1litrol orn:ort~tm:I. M~f){!t:ami~ .. ·ThIli l;ydhms mn:troUed 'W~st;ern A~~ia, Min.or dl.lr:ill@~~h(i N~ Baib~lQtllain period rca .. 6S5~S4 6: 0. c.) .

Ther~giQ!l ·Q·f Sy.r...,-.rM~tio.'C CQMtiili:ut~.,thc land bridge: bctwt':t:::nUtoc Syro. continents: ·o.f Africa: andM::I.This fQ1.1f~h~dred."mUe strip offe.rtile ];m,d p~., along the Med~temlne3nCOB.n was b01llndooonth@· wftS1:by th~ Great Sea.

and in the east by the A:r:abi~n .d~!lert and the deeplgo~8e of the Jordan

e:Joe" ... Syro-PboeJt.icia., Of ·the nortbecnl :port:ioo of tM!i land bridge;. ,~.

!,':iaUy ~nGompa5SeS the mod~m sta:t:e.'l of Syria .. allld LebanQIl" 'Palestine;. ,O~

th.e· southernpcrtlon oFdlc ].3fl,d bridg/e,. cssen:till]~r indudes tn:em.odem

~alt:~i (lif Ism.cl:3:nd part ofJQOOa:I1L G.merai~y Mount HC'mlon marked thf'

29

Copyriphted materia'

~ommu!1ity (.mdequa1i.tY~£Q(·eGod) .. ·e;~QnQa"J!k.illy the prQsperity and, wealth asso<iatedi """'Hh th~e eng.a:ged iin men;:h.a:ndlisitJgen~QtIrngedi!: ~S$ m;ateria]is!TI. Th~g.ave me to pf:id:e, arro,ganc:;e, ~U~tdllcie!l(:y:j and a { a lse ~ of se~uriity. Yahweh seemed itrele:vafl.t.,

The oosmopo~i,tan nat/1i,ne of Syr,o-Palestine :l!ilso le.dtointermam.agc t, ~- ~-~IH" "':I:_, - - 'Fil. - .d,'- m ~'i'ii ... kL~rs' Thk ,---.1th~, ".,' _ ,'Sin of

oeJ;W~1 _. eu.rew_ an __ -li"ClgJL_e!!i!~[IQ,!_- en~,g~ , ~ "

H.¢lbr<!'W ,reliigion, 'li!fith the ~ts of 8ael~, Chcmw, 1viI,~, ,andiso 'Oll-,not tibe ~CP<mltil;l~j wUq~ ,e:ndholme$$ G;KI, teq~ Qfhi$,~ ~t.dy it was ~:'l"religi'O'llS p]umIiml~dlat ledtcthe (Jvermrow mtihe Hebrew klltg. dams and mW-t'l in ,Assyria . and Bahylonia, (,ef.Hos,. " and Amos 3) ..

'I'IMoIoIical ~ ,of''_ 'Land

Pal,~i;:!~~, 'ot th~ l<trldJ (If Ca~a~1 !.f; ;iI~ :m ~mpo:rtan~:th!~l~;J ,~., lID1 in, die Old Th!ltamet!.t,.'ThJesre ... .l estate W~ a :major c{lmrpon~t i~God',~; in_itiaJcovcnoot. pro:!l1~:>~t(l Abram. [Geo. ~ 2~ 1-:3) at:!d,,~ mego!lil or ,de~~ nation 'olf me Pentateudrual ~;arratives. The e,,,od,w;fro:m, Egypt was dicrine dellverance fOIf me: purpose of ibringingthe J:sra.~IDites .into "a good ,and spaeleus land, ., .flQ'Wi:ng""~iih.lTljlk and honej'~" [Ex:od.3 :8), '[be lend of CWMfiYO'M bo. me goo I of OOVetl.1lllt 'obedience bef~' Yah.w.eh.md 'the ~ew~rd for nt:ailnt;lining his COV-en:lfl!t $tipW;ltiOns..

'The Hebrewposses.s_lon of u.,e land of Pale:stin,e s:ignaled.the displacement of th,e indigenow Ca]]aa!n~tes. Tfie Hebrew -oonquestunder: Joshua. W'aS "'l!iIoly war"agSliDst it~}e Canaanite:Jl. The Old T~nl.(ilnlt comiidttrs m~' (In~]allght ji~t pwtis~m~~t mt.'wl out by God through. tb.~C!"::I.tic &ra~ for the gross :$ina~~i:lted 'wfthth.@fertility culto:f Baal :and A:sh~. Th~ Oma1l!lJte!!haddccmed th~ landi, and.. by :pW'gmg the land of Can.a(i!JUte p~ 'lmce_ the Heo.rews themselves were demsoo (Le.v; l8:24-3Q).

Because it Wa5 pw1;.g.f God's ",oven~t promise~ the~lU1d ''Yo'aS ilnk'il~Uy inv,o[vea\'l:i,th the Hebrews' covenant nila.tiO-l1ishipwitih. Y:Ih.weh. The Ebal Ger€1llony ou.tillimro in .o@u,t~nam.y 2.7 and. en a eeed m §os:hiIiJi:il 8 ~. the tie~ blltWee:n the H:eb:rews,ilie l.arw QfY:ahweh .. andi!:he hm.d. afdlel' promise, AU 'th~ee wer"ein~l\':,tri.<;ably hound, to,g~ther' under Y'aihweh.';!'; SCiV~ creign rule, l1li~ ~ealllt God"$ p:~n(~and 'ble~lng {)"~fShado~d ~~l as they ob<;ycd ~he C't,,'IV'~'11~nt sljpy_l~u.QcM (.De!.l!t. 2;B~1-14], h~rusQ· m~liIJm,t that allY Isrn~illi.te trespass of the, ooY'enant defiled the land ;E!ind.joopm-dJlmd their claim to possess i't (Deut. 2ad 5-68l P:mctkmg the ~abom:jwm,Qmt' ofth.e Ci:l!llaa:n_~tes; would e¥'entual~y[1e:S'!1lltinthe furl"eiture ,ofthe.liUld;the. land W'O],1]d! "'VO.!llj:t" them out .3$. it had the Qn;;l.3nit~ (Lev. 18;2,4-25). S:ld~y; 3][ this cam@' to pass as !11 result of the po1~desail'n;d p.r<lct.ic~ insti~ t!u~ed by King Manweh. (2 Kin_gs, 21 : '~,()i-15; 24:3). ·~nf.act" the I.ength oJ Israel's (l!1J.i:e fr.omthe ~'!md w~ d:ireaJy .M!looatedwi~ the ()OO~ept '0.£ ";!.Ib-, badc~] re!!1:. fotrw,e CQven:ant l~nd {2: Chj"l;l1Qj :3 6;2J; see ~bo cb.~iPilteI:·'h "Leviticus"] .

41

Copyriphted materia'

The ald. Temment.pr('Jph~ts ~d. poets J',cmf_od!ed ~_:lI3dthal po~'S~ion ohb¢ l:and ~i.i:arm,tfioo .. n.jjuhC-f God.'~ p'~nc~ norhiJ;. bJ~jn,~: [Jcr. 7:'~ -n, The whole earth be~ongs to dIe LQrd (Ps .. 24:],]" (l~,Cl hetraaseends t.h.e

"~I d'" ., ':L _ .:L· -,1l.··b' ·L. 'f, 'I ('J" .i:i·~~11 'I ll' •. 1L k

.~an· .: I.1l 'w:at iUl~~aH.l![ lS:. 11~; mstootsmor: sa, \.IV: ~~. iiywe same to" .. ~n,

~XUe &om. the land oft:he :p:rorn~ did ~'H)!L !I1eces.sarily :si;gnjryt Godj~ aloan,d!onmefi~1 as lE.zt'kiel'~!icffilmot¥lsi.on t~f1,es {Ezek,] lThe thr~ne afYah~ weh h n1IOVilb]~ and he iSC'.1.palb!:e of seeing and responding to the il'.Lt'tIds of~s'f;:u~l tn ,:my location.

Nehemiah ]ament'ed me: ho]rown~'SSO\f~'SSif:ig the- ~i1m.d (}fthe p:rOm,~ ]se 3$ sli3.~tf,,'5to flltrcign po,w~ '~C3U$¢ O'f :sin.al1d 'co'¥~n!ll:lt U!lflli~kfUITIi~ (N!~h. :9;32.~37). He ~u'!;def5;tood that: ri;g~t. rel~tkm;shjp' t,o the land of OOVlmwtpf,om~~Ci w-:as roo,ted ~n figliIt relationship to God ~n (lQ,vcn.[lrlt faithfu]ness;

1':i''t'',.'i1V· w".... li.. .. '1- ~1"r[l;It"l2!1' ·lI·Li··<:; .. ..",ro· .... · .. ·"' .... ,o·r···t. .. 'QlId' 1".:..,...··~e,., .. · tv,"""'"

.1~."'.OUIh "' •.•. y,l .... '. -.'t>-"~~ \11 ' ....... _"" l",,,,~,",,, .. II,_U<; ... l _ ~g.a,.,..,,'... _. ".1, '"

infil;lem:--cdbythe geQgr<lphy·Qfthe landiQfthe p-:rQIT!±l5e. P.~alm ~3 ~oounds with. the-imagery o:fth,e land.r!lnd el~'here the: ps;almi:f>t likeoi1ld tli<ffrigh~ teouste trees pl<l!ll~edb)' flow~n;g wa~ews CPs. 1.:3).'The premllJ.ll.l en 'water i~ thc!!Jrf<lc;;Uma:t;'\: '!;If the N.;::a:rE:;I~ ·con.d!iliQlled the lan:~ua;ge of 'l:he :p~het5; as well. asthe psaln:dm_. Th.c If;;'Iln and ,d!eW<I!re ,often symbols of (rod's blcmog md v.indical,tlofl (e.g.,. Joel 1:23; 3: 18]1. Like.W:iS:Cj.~,"e!l~ the epithetll for' God :!I,llu;h 11S."Rock~" "Pclrtress.," Wla "R:.c,fugc'i were probably insp!wed b~ the rugged mdbouLd~st[iewn.~'emain of the Sin::ti d~rt and! Jud@3n Wlldm:l€SS (Det1rt. 32:15)' Evc:tn dll..'! rnf'eril'.1iIt:1e to Canaan as a bnd! "nowiing;witffil. _Milk and hon.ey"pi.ct~.ro th,~ rnic:hn.ess t'Jif d1.e! ~aind fur sup:PQrtilL1:g the ]ffe~tyles Qfp .. s~oral'nn (Le.,the~milk" off.l!ocks and herds]

.JI . "_."." •. ' 10' ~t_"h.. ~. ':11; ' .. d.' .~.j )

Wlu 1l,g_m!1.-W"tir,e U~ •• UlC .O[ltzy~ or :ncc,t;lU' {l~ crops ~ ... p.r'outl.oc .,

.QVE·SrtO'N's FOR FLIR,THfR STUDY AND 'o15f:UCSS,fON

1. Wh.y isa kn.Qwledge Q:f geogrilphyil'n:portant to the st,udy of the OM 'Jestament?

.2. In wnatWl.l.:Ys did th-e: gooy.apny of the ancient Near .iE 3.$tinUuence doe hiStory '(If'lsrae]?

3., V1hilt'O\l';lS the mooLo,glca]sJignJi:fl,cOliflae· of lli.e ~ .. nd.O!r Canaa:n for the Hehrn\\'S'?

4., Hml!'wa."J ]i:fe f_f.I Po11eslil!'u.'l: d~ff~nt for th~ Hi."lbrt!ws fmlll :th~if lif~ as cs:ptille'lin Eg}irptl

fOR FVRTHER ,READING

Ah~l¥~hana.th 1M .Land I)J rhe Bible; It Hls.rOl.rud C;~.~y. Rc,\;';. m. nariS, I .. ted ~.y A.. '1':, Ra:ln.ey; Philadelphia: ·We.itmil'lfi~~I;, i :;)179, CQmpl:1e4:1lelil:5;1ve and authQrltati'i'C: •. m, ~~l~nt: ~i!"iCe.

Ah~!fOOi" Y-Qb:ao:u'!l:m.d~(I-!;l~l A'Ii'i.~ Y-Q!'l~h" The Mi1cmi11.iut Bible AIL-lS., NewYhrlk:

M.acmillal:l,1968.

Copyr'ghted rnaleri

'The;'·.R.ve~book" d!Lv.i$ion (If the Ren:Utt-w.ch i~: :r~3l1:l :s(!:~'ondary p~r:ti.tionlttg o-:fwhJlJt ,,.vasinrtended. to be aunHflied,. Hter:ary\";hcil,g, Th.eP(lnta ~ twch '~fI:betl~r u~!tde~1iQOO as ;:l. ~Hv·e.'¥(lI,tlme'"'oo(lk, a H,ve-p.ur:!! :m~rd"'~~r:i:es of SQrtll, D. l,A, C1~n~ (1.979') has ocnlv.in(lnglYOlrgllll:ed!tk;u:. m.~ p(;"]iIit[t'{~uch hiS] two has:icdiivisio:l1ls, Gf'n~5is ~~l'~rundiGenesf's ] 2~Dot::ut:e!t(mo~ny 34. Ifl vi,(:!I'!' 'nftb.e fall ()fht!lm!mkind. <lind the b:ro.k<!Jtl feUowship bet\!i'eet:l God and h't.:!:mani.ty~ the firstd:ivisilZ!1l poses, theque!rt:iQ[I~,"'.How cilln that relaUQ!l:l!hJp, be repaired Of T'cSU:lrod?" The seci)l'Id d!.visionth~n prov.id,c:> ,:11'! an~ or at least a pfirtia~.aiiS;:WCIl to me biJman. diilemma, dewietooin Gmes;is ~,-ll.'The solutioo ~s rooted m die idegofQo·'I,lei!1@!1t: bondiQg hetwl;:~!1 C"~ <md Ab~m in Genesis: 12:;'~ -3.Th is pil;,'JS>tge COlootltilite the fOl..;o.l[puiJ:l,t; of the second d.iv.islor:J,and actual1y!)ummSiri:lies ib.~ 'key ~hemll,~s (lithe ~n~ t.3!t'eUdtal narra!tives~Y ... hweh.':s (:Q\1~n~Jl!t, Abraham !spf~<iterity, d:W.iJli,e ,el!e-c,t!QII <lQd bl~~5mg;. af!d the: graf!~. of ~ "promlsed land,"

Part lex:pbins the o.rii,gi:nis elf du~e:!rthalild hlUilrl'Hiik~n.d, ex.p~lajfl'~ the na:tu:re .and p~rpO!ie 'Of .hUR1I~Ulity created male ,and femarue, receeds the m'~~Qf!' Qf~m i.n.wGQd·~gQQd c~~tiQ!1, ~mi ~c::,,~ ~~, (;h;l~\1I';;t~r QfGGId, who how. jiud!ges b:umansln (3iO wjttle~ in the FloQd i~CCQ1;mJ) .;Iud d!;al~ ma'oruny "tim f'aU~cf'ea:tio~ (~seen .ill! thegrace exrended to Noah and .hi~ rllm~_ly).

Part: 2 ~x!p~3,i9IS how lsrad (th:rou;gih ,A'b:r;1,h.:l,I1],)1 hCCSiliue the elect COVCllowt !poo'p:~e a.fVabwehO'ind Ged's i£lsirnm.ent for re"'ealing h~II.Il.sCU andrestor.in:g the broken and ,eomlp,ted relJtio:Rsh~pbetw'ef.,;n tl:J:e Cllc'ator ood hirii cte~ijQfi.The ~t~teuc:hd<:!(;C(l!on~ are sigfl.~fkant 'b()~. for lsrael due:tQ clle:ir Wliqu:C:l Clovcn~nt ro'Ja'ti.Qnmfp w.i.th'lrl~hwehf"l'ld fQrthe ~.atiI'Hl£ of th.e:· world} :slin'Gf' the desHny (If humanity isultiJma:t:e]y tied to lsrael's ,(o~~nan.t: w'ith. GOod,

'The umify.i:!lg th~!]~.Gll th~~t1: Ilrlh~ r{;!n~ate:lilcbi:s Y.ilihw~hj~ C'O'!i'e!'!:l:!l!lt pronuse lO .J\hr.:lmim Genests 12:3.,. Wh,at nUlini:l'lThki]'!Ld was unable to do in. all J:t:5prlde and :self~s1.limd~ncy (e,Plt'Qm:lZ!edin the Tower of Babel), God initia,tedin his ,co"!'ru'tootpromm. The .1.ii11!Gmry pl3in. of'the ~ntn.tm1eA 1$ but an 'el!:pamiQ!,! of rlte iliree-'p'lJrt Qt)venOint promise extended lo Abrnm, as 'ol,nlilined inngure 1.1.

'1\ePen.tI.t'etu;h,. Of Book of the taw,is a rich ~(lnection oflhternfY g.en~ r~Q!f l)i'~ This dlitr~ty of~tetafy t}peol e!lhanc~bo1:llfi1 the anistic nature of ,th~ work :tndthe .k:cyth.~I.Qg[cal ~k~m~ ~,utifyi!1lil, the l):rr!thQ]oID'.B:~' tJhe same wken,. these multirple and rom.p]e,x: lite:raryrorm:s h~!,IebC!Cu directly respons:iblefur .~ ongoing de:ba,tic! ove:rthg 't;QrnpQ;)!l~On and! date ·(If dlc .Pafil!t:at'eU('h,.

48

I I

AlUM 1.1 -,me' Litemy Plln of HIe Pentateuch Genesis I-II: Creatic:;m,fall, and Judgm~t

Gefies~s 12-:50; Co"tenant pro.mise, dection of Abrah;a;m .• .and providentiaJpre5e1'\F.lt!o:i'.!.CJf his rnmHy

Exod~; Mjra~ijlgu~ '~·]ive.aill!ce of Yahweh '5pcrop.leIi-oM ibo:ndiag'e l(J1 Egypt, eovenant r;e]a:t:Io.nship expa:ll.ded~olSr<lcl as hls people at Sinai, and the ]:tI,wgivr:n as a th~dc ,e.barter for lsracl.

LeviticU!l,: Expam:ion. of cCu\O'enaot law for the purpese of boliness :amom,g the pE!lop]e ofY2hweh, siince be will dwelli~in. their midst

Numbers::: T~ting. PlHgmg, :8.!Ildpu~ 'ofY3hw~h's:

COli"f!!lOOil: people ~nthe SiIla:i.wil.dern.ess W>lind~g

De:Jiltcellofiomy::' Co\rena:ntr,eneWl)l andtb.e s~cnd law-giving as pii'e:pa[:3Ho~ fur ~ntry ~ntQ the~~~d of the - promise byth~ .~Q!'!d. ~r!.'Cr.!.ti!Qn ·Q.f¥~h,wl:h·s poople

Most of the Penta!teuch,!l!llitf.'rartu.re· f,s p~ narrative. The narna,t[ve is .~ .5l1mple but direct andforccl'ul. The t~x!t is ]arg~]y i.ltb~rd:""PCf$(ig 3ce{Jun.t Ntlftidflf! of'ear]y~sr~~ffii~ h.ist;o,ry ill;tmpersed ·'WWth p.r:a:~ speeches, ~and,other types

'of direct di:scoru~ (c.Ig.., AbrahamJ'!S .i!o.ter~.~pJ'~yc;:r {'or Sodom ~n Gen. ~8:22~3·IYah.w·eh's speech. to Moses in ~od, 3:7·-12,. aad me ex[han,~

between Phar;i!oblin.d . .Mo:s~ mExocL Ukl ...... Zl).

The narr:a!tiV(lS .3J'tfu1Jyble.nd h1stoficaJreportm;g a:ndtheologic~i inilier-PfflWti.fil'!. This m~th~ ~JU~,t~ucb more man. :a mere register of chron.OtlQgi~ii~[Y omer.ed e'!~erttil yet rom.etffiling ]ess~haApOinmd! r~1~gious. propaganda serv.in.g t'Q exp~a[n QrjustiIY 'i:;.erbio, .aai,ons:, e\'ients, mn:iitJati~ or theologfca'l teach~ngs.Pe.'haps the bes;t. exllmp'~~ ,of ~isblell.d. .ofbistori .. cam rt:parting and!.~lbgical.~terpretation. is tile pro'riden:t~a1l!Uldtlrs:tand~ lfig ,ofJoseph.'s malls as bencllJ~g all ofJacob"$ fatmil,. (G~ .. 50~lS-2]).

The]angun:g~ of tnl! p;en.~1euch is. simpl'eandbe3!liltifuJ.. It:, U$~ ~th_rQpornorphic Jangua:ge (Ii.e~ ascriibing hum:m. ·quiHties to Gld)I,. and ftequ:mt rererence to th.eophany ('Le,~. ~ v:is:ib~je and arudlMe IrJ;awfeWition of God. to O)J humanbeiif!g),.The deta~l~d cllamcte:ri7.:ati.ons andrepetit:Jousp]otsin.~e :stories have led some sehelars to u~·~ltl1n$1ib~mytlr';of·;ngilj~·~fuldore.t md. "legend" fcr ponians of th.e Pellit~~u(ha~ nar:rn.ti'iiies (es~aUy Genesisl·T~tion.;y:; ,~ang~!ic81 scihd]ar.; r • lhi1vebal1~!!!t employing sliJic:h labels for ·the Pell.m.teut:h~ Ilafnliti.ves lot the 3lXlmrun13be thQ11.&ht of 3$ £i«io.n. The: 1fi;l,bil:i,ty 'ofn!lodero~Jao1~hip to dll'fl_ne th~genrcs or Htenuy CII,t~ gori.es ,deady .bas also oontrlbt!,too to this reluctance to 'UiSCth~ tenns.

Copyriphted materia'

(Num .. 23-24)., J,aoob~s Blessing t.Gen. 49,), and the Song W'ld.Blessmgof Mosil'!'S (Deoc :32~3.3). Th.e ·dartes far ·the current form oftlesepootic texts r:an&~ from the thi!rteen.th to the elev~th. centur:i.es :D.C. accordin,g to thiS, tedmicarn .analysis.1

Specific p~cforms .iintne fltmtat1:iUcchLnc:lude

•. !P.fa1yea (e.g.., tihe Aaronk benedktiotl" Num. 6;22.-2.7)

• Songs Qf praise (e.g,j. Miriam"'$ SOIil!g, Eix.od, lSi21; ~mel.'$' ~ngj Nwn.21=17-18)

.' Vioto:ry bymns if! epic ~ma. style ~e,g,t yah.weh's tri.~mph IO¥~ the Egypti;)f!i5 in M~ Song of the Se~,E;l{oo. lS)1

• Bl~tpSS on family ~em~ ·by paQta:rros (~.:g.., .tl!t~ b~mg of Rebekah,. Gen. 2.4;00; Jacob's ·de4iu..:bedblessing ·of hils twe~ye .!iO~,. Ge.n.4:91)

.' iProphe:tk unerances ~e,g~t Yah.w.eh's pro:oouru:e:llent to Rebekah. abotl~ her ·tMnmns" Gen ... 2.5:23; l:talam"s 6rad~ tolsn~L, Nu,,". 23-2'it}

.' Co.y,egant~ {e.g." Yahweh's pro~toAbra.m. Gen .. l2::1~ 3;rn.~.U]1

.' Taunt songs; (e& .. , Lamech'sUunt., Gen. 4;23)1

P'mphetic 1li1~~ure in.th.~ OM T~amlCmt mdu:de5 both. ~eWng (or ProphtU; divine revel.ation]13nd expos]!tian. (or interpretation] ofYw:rwtih'!oovenant- Rewlmbt orieored ~rcv·e1:1!.tio'n. to Is(~et The Pentateuch contaim cx:amp~es of both,

Prophetic r·eveiation in th.e· Law oc'ClU'Sm.prosenamtiiV;e .and:poetic forrl:\S.. For ~P.J.E~i· ti,ere .15. Y:mwcl1'$ revelation ttl AbJ:&mreg.atding the oppression ilnd slia,ry«y 'ofh~ descendants: (Gen. lS:12-16) amI MOKll' pro.salic fore~~ a'~1iltapr(liPh~ whQ willl ,ap~ Inl·~c1([)eut. led?- 20;. ultimatelyfhllilled l!lJesusofN~ aoc~tQ,JOhn.l:45).~aro~ pIes OfpoeltiC prophtlCY in th.ePentat~uch incl.udeJacdb"s patriaocfwal blessi:n&whim QQM.~cts ~~p 'with ~~ tribe of Judah. (Gen,. 49i:B-l Z),. ~l1d Most'S' i~ pronotincenJell.U ¢f!!I'et'the tribes o.f Israel (lDe'lli\..33') ..

The: cl~81'-=st <e:ampJes afprop:h~<l-likc Qommentary or iinterpmation ofYahw~h's div.~RN~~tion:8.!fe M~'limdmstand!in.s of'.lst:ad's eadiet ~ov~nant, hi51tory and God,'s prov:id!entialguMance and~atinn of h15. ~(J'ple (in the so-called . .h~(lri.ca). :prologue of .owt. 1-4)ind M,oses' poiinted exposition .of me stipubtiOfiS by whldl Yahweh would. ~forc:e covenant keeping in lsrae~ by meil'1lS ·()f b1mil:lg$ :and curses. In ,each case. ~tion ttl ,th~ lsr:aelU~ is fQMow·¢d.by .admonitiO!l$ tQ·oo'?enmt obt!di~ enee ([)eu.t.4:1 -10; 29.:9}.

,-

J. q: nMJ: N. ~. ·~.~.ad'n:kJ·m ~.Htbmu~ .. ill ~nl. hI!! Dei;nu~ Mlg)uy.Mu mOod" ,rd .. It M. emu «.at. (Oanh: ells .NJ(:.~ J976),

5S~1()7. -

51

Copyriphted materia'

LawTh!! ~.ka of law was nOll ul1~qu.c t:o the Hcb~'o\i's in th<:1l:lld!~tt:l!t N~a'1i E.:ast. Law colie:cti()!ls were pubQhOO!. ill Mesopotamia a.sea.1i]Yas .2000B,:C, .• rome £i\'C 'centuries (.Qr.~o.re) beroretb,ctimc QfMol;~The bctte:rkrlown of these lega~ doeumen:ts;are the Sumcri>lri b.w.s of liIr"N:'{m.mu (UfH~"

D - , c")l'!:CA"046.. . .. ··h· h' . SI- l' 2CM6]flg9) .. d l;' .'

)'n,asty, kW':I-" _ _, ox per ... 'apl; .. ~s oon _ nu:gl,._- _- ,;:i!~ _" aU lEnt·

Ishtsr [ki~lg .of ls:illl, lB75~H:l164!]~,aud d~i;l: Old. Bilhy~,oil'!li,an. La!\.v~ of E:;n, ~Yfl!na (nitl.t:teenth. (;)rnwry B.G)i1nd Ha!T!mur.lb~ (king ()if'B~by~gnt, 179'2- .~ 75'0). The influence of theaneienr Ne,!.f .Eilsternllegal tif'aJlitionon the :form, and fundi,o]) of Hebrew bw is undeniaMe and w~dd~' doc;ymentiew.:P

A1Qn~; with ·th:isCQnt~;po:ro:ry ·cultu:rali:nfl:u@nce:. 'l!nc- Old T~talt'!~n:t .. mrms the di,vineo:r!i,s;in of Hebrew ~ .. wt:hrou.sh .Mooes as: Yiiw,r,eh's ];.n .... · gi,ver. Th,~'Pentlteu~bis: :mos!l ·o-ftenassociated with LIw~ .as mOC_IliY of t!he H~brew tille!i for the n"'eboo'ba~~, 'irheE!iliB!1$h word It(W tnn~:I:.ItlL'S tll.:Hebrc:w WQrd tlJ,rah" and aid T(!stament law indtH:1(~ eornmendments fHeb .. m~:l, statut~:Si (lHeb. b~),alild, orwnan.t--e:;; [Heb .. mt.tpat). ... MQI'C' than !It'(h.undlrw. laiW:'i .are containedin the boob pf~xodtls, L'iY\\'mC:1[I:S~ Numbers,. 8.ud. Deuteron.omy.. The pu.rpose' (If the hiib.lkal.legis]aHonwJ.s to or&r nndr:egula.tedte mom1.re~igioWl O!rceremQnia]~and civ.illife of Israel in 3Clcordiln.ce with the halinQSS nGc~ssa'1r fCI!' iIlMlll:ilt::liinirii!1:the CO\i'en;m:t: :rebUonmip w~th. Yab.ll'Oten.

The purpose of Hehr.~ law alse iuul lmp]i.catiarls fOil'thelU;{"mry f:arm of OM T~M·t .~egis1ation. OI.dTI.::5tam.ent law was w ... ~e~\:ilntl:a.w; ~t Wal> (:.I)JltI1~ctMllaw binaht,g <liod. dblJgating 'two ~.p<l!r:<l!te polmes,Thc o']"v~n<tnt Jaw p~lleled.thes~caned :su:z.era~nty eovenants of the ancientwerld, !GspeciaUy th.OSG of m~ Hittiws,.MostG:x:e.mpl::lryartl the CO'll'l1.'Jla:nt CodG (Bxod. ZO-Z4) :lind lhebook of DeuterOi!'!fimy; T~.e !iu~er-Jlin(:'(Jven:.1lmt;s were granted by itl.dl.l'.pen.d@'n~ and POW:erttl] ol;'ed!ords'tio dependent 311'1d weak~li"vassaJs, gua:rall~ee.illgth.em certain benefin;,inchl.clling !pmtect~O:r1" Ill. ret:umI.,the v.a.ssal was oMig~tedto keep .specific stlipu:la,tions ,ec:rlifylllg ]~yailltytQ the .su~r:aioalone ..

:10 gen.era[:term!'it OM 'f~stl:lm~flt[@W (,omprri$ed de.r..::Lamtl.'lle and pre~r.ipti.ve: c-ovenantrnpu]lI.tions mFthe~i.{e of the Heb.ew poop]e (qU!.te lit~!'ally i!l"l! Deut 30: 15~,ln'l'illebulk 'of 1l.e OLd 'Festlment ]e;gi31 materliai~ ~s. found in Ex:ocb:J!S2!([I."""D"mte.rolmomy J]J. and tht:ys~~m fn:·;m 'C;Ollii'mant 3gll,~m!!!lIIt Of ~(l:"i;f .. ]c('~m(J!iti.tl:~ .at: MOtl;liU SiQa] and MOounl N~bo, Sw~ eral fm:po:rta:llI!t ~tibc,u:ego,ri,elIJ maJybe .i.d!e;l;iitifled:

I.. Cast!i~tic or COI_se law;,l.!sll!IaliIy c.asti,1j\ a OO:l'IditiQnal·~if ... ~ht:n" fOmiu~a" makiJig referc'nc.c to .;i .speci[lc hypotheti.c:allcga1

,2 .. ~ .~du:' ~ OJ ~Jlh ,d~t:if.ljJ;Km, .. ~Iitr p.j'.roll1l& ~~i!loo:mt N.mf.ft.I:s.lml !l!MOlJ j['~.I3w !tal"'(! ~ JMh !!iii'it}lr,l' ~ f!l.1:: fI, Wmro.'l), AU.ci.o;:m:ttH.~~li.\c :li~~t·· ;Jt~ ill Its Cuhutll.l ~;~i!:lt: (Grt:mJ Rapidt; .~. 19'89~. 69-94; .a.nd H., 1. .&t!dtiit; :l'.a,w ;al'idith~ Admi:m!lstrntioo of Jiol~U~ :m th~ Old. "fa:tilirnl:!I]~ iilll.d th~ Arlck.nt N.::n E~lit, tm~ J M~(M'lij1'tdf'O~~A~~ j980), (,6,..116.

Copyriphted materi'j

si1t!!,l!atiOOl,!ForeXamiP~e,·"I.f a man l1s; :OOtlnd ~sleepin,g v.ith ano,th~fll'tain'swi:fei I.£Oo] both. the man. who ~ept\ioith her and the WOrn:m mu$t die,Yo,u :m,Wlt pl:!!\gC: the eviJ ~m.I~r.!el" (D~t. 22.:22).

2;, Apook1ti<:; fiIW or .d:icec:t affiirmativtand ne..ga.t.i.ive COnmt.wl.w ~etti.ngme bQ1JH:!.& of appropriate bcltaVior in He~"w ~.,. ely. Fbrexa.mplel "You $MU ha~e nootlt~go&: b~ 1M" (Ex(l(t 20;,3) or ~H()n.or your father and mother; so that !i'O'U ma.y Wive IOf:lg, in the land the Lam Y'olJllr God is giv~llg :Y01il" (Ex.ocL 20;12],

3, Prohih~tion Of a n.~8.tii.v,e oom.mand ref-erring ~C) hypotheticaru offenses and ~tatillg no :fixoopenal,ty, FQ:rexample;.~Do not ,wrsethe deaf'or put a numblfng b:~ocikin. front oftiAlI'l bllndw but fear your God. I:am ~e LoIt'D~'[Lev.19:1~l

4. Dea,th l:a~;a bybnd of~e p:rohfbiti(ln that makesa disti~a: ~.e:gal s~t!ementabC1iJt.5pe(;iik. crime:! meliting the de;ilJth penaillt}t Fo:!'~~mpl(!:."'Anyon'e who .rtt.acb his fa,ther or his moth~1t must bepnr to d~dt" (Exod. 2: I.: ~.5).

S. The rurse~ a. dl!Vt'!l(lpment &om bo~th~ pmhibitio~. and the dea.m law add[~Itig ,mma eummiUoo. LI'I .. oocret. The ~ w.as d:esi.g~ed tOo protect the oo,ve-nant Qomm.tll'Jii~y from uncleanness du~ to violation of Qovena~t .stipm.ation:md to bring: di.viine judgment on the pcrpe1J:amr 'of the crime. :FQ.r ,example .. "Cur~ed is the. ~n who, motves his tJ.eighoors boundary stene" [Deut, 27: 1 i)orNCu.rsed ~sth(! mao. who kllls his ~e~ghbolt secretlyill' (De:ut. 27;2~]i.

The content ofal1cienil::: Near Easte.m. ~:lwmay be summarized under thr~be41ding,s.:· civillaw~ ceremonialla.w, acndcultic: law: The subclivisirms Qfdvil .~~. included~arriag,e and f~Yt inherltan~prQ~ ~v~ debt" tax:es, and! Wilg~" Common suihl;u~llIding:; ulil.d~r ~mQniaJ law w~rn m]jif~ der,. adultery and mpe,. thefl', sexiIJia~ ,deYla:tiQfI~fa]se w~tness, .assa.ult" and.llBI' 'Milty .. Culli.e ~3:W org:a:nbl:ed.ieglslaitio!lunde!: rourmaj:or Ideas indudiing sa(fi6c:~. pml:nca.tion,n1too£ or object: C1fwors~p,il:nd. f-estl,r"'al Ob!;~Nan.G~:.

''rile Pei ......... I .. 1IIIIorJ

The fi.~eboo.ks of the .Law nO!!r:rate a time span from creauon to the HinQ'I'kal dead! of Moses ,at Mount Nenoin Mooh;u priot to. the~nte conq:~n~t lkdtgrmmd of Canaan, .. Obviously~ it is lmpoWble to 3iSCle.it:a:ia3. ldam for the odgi:n of

our ~3r:th3nd its soEar syst~m, While: C!:'$tiflUlit~ {ortbeo date of (:r~3tion

range from tens ofthowa:n&ul hilHam of years,. it ~ best to .~eav"f: ·the

cre.a:t:i,Qn event an. '''undated. ,m.yste,ry •. ~

Ro.ughlyspe.aking,the Penbteuch:aJ.I'!':l:rrativesfrom the caJiJ 'of A!bram (G(ln. 12) to th~ dr~th. ofM~ ~ut. 34)I.mu.y be a:ssigned.~o,dle; Ml!ddl~

53

Copyriphted materia'

history 1(1'£ l'srad .. O;:u1.'O'erc!>dy, priO'PQ~eT!i~ of ¥orne: fo-;rm of a "recenstruciI;~on:ist'" view (If Omd 'Testament hiUo:ry g'cnc'raUlf diseouat ~he d:i.vineor suprunat'!:.tml o.rigin of tffi:Ie ibi.Mica~ HamI!H\;Tes.TMs pfeGonvktkm aceeems fctr their' ai,tica] ~ce towar:ddl,e OM 'I~l'Imellt :is :I. flaw.ed. hurn1'tn afid iPl:~ientifi£ documen.tilnd. exp~9:ins diu: nsedtn f'einitl."'fJuet or RlGlrlJ'atC' l;l~b,.~ hj~,t'Qf:j> jg Hp~ Qf ~~er"lhibli~allitt:!4!Ji' ~:fld ~rc:h,,~g!Q~~"~ d~t!l @]j,d !I;:ontempcrary !'!odQpOl~t:ical rnod.glls.

'1nWIPNIaBOn of HM: PentahudI

Th Old :Evefstnc1e the time of ~he ,glil,ol>ta;c. he:reticMardon (A,.D" ~~x}nd ';;Ie~,·

Tes<tam.mI: tury), the ihii:lr'd]! has ba:ln mnfro,n:t:L-tl wit!l the prob~~m of determining anJ.lh8 the right&lpla(:e of the OIJl 'festame!]t LI:! the Chri,~tla[l!j¥ Bib~e. MlIrdon CIuUll~" reprreSfl:Aits ORe ~xtf'fm1.e, namely;, lllittill' reJ~pn of the Old T~tilment and

Cb.rn:ch its "m£~notG()cL'"Tod:lY th.G oth.er iGxtrc:m.G may he fou~d~m~,)1:iig 'those groups who iI'OOogniz.ethe abmlute 3uthQri.ta!ti.l!t"l n3ture of thft Old le.sh~me.lllu\mti.qgs·fo.:r ~,e Hfe and doctrine ofth.ecbu:n:h,. More recen!:l)l' this 3:pp~i.c:aHQnI of the authority of the Old 'fest;l!n:l,eilllt~. espee;i~ll:y the Law,w the life of Chr.wsti,a!lfl5 has witnessed a :re.'iufgt';m;:e In ~he jjd:le:g,1il.t)lm:~c'i~ m.ovmnen.t, or Dominion, Thoolo.gy. 4:

The prob.lern. of teOOndliPg "taw-# rutrd. ·'gra.c:e" Wive rise lomu]tiplem~.th" ods of interp.!i~ltat[On. of !!h.t"l ald.'17est::a:m.ent during the Mid.dl.~ Ages .. Si,n-c~ R wasbelievootlhatrevebtiioo Wito; oot!he..:.x~sed and hi.ddel1 ~n ili~ text of ihe Bilble, se"~.herm.eneutka~ o.rrn.te-rp.mtive approac.].cs were used tin underf>tand the propCf meaning of the Sc::t.i.ptu!res. .iFOur~ basic methods emerged:' (l~ the .litemJ,m'plain"taking 'me B~ble iltface value; (2) the ,aUe~orica~~ o.r biid~ cl-,; meamfi~.mc -'eeITn."blirid"m-ti!iIi- for---an-I fHth· n) <Ij -,- - ,,_c'

__ ~ _~ !.g, __ c~ ~g. e_ ""_ea:!_~g.S ~_o pe~rs_ otal _a:!_", t ... t~oe .murou

Qrdid3ruc~ d.i:ructing Ch:l'i:stian beh;],m.or; and (4Jthe- ana:g_!):sic~<l], f-i.x:tk~i,t:kg Q!I1l, me consummation. QHai.th and meuhi.O'1:3,te hope of (he Cbr:i~d<!n.

:srn(;edtt:Rdb~O'!tio!l;. Pr'Qte~,toli!iltc:h!urch~ haw ,Oittempt~d to :resoiv(~ thet:e!lslonbctwC'en.tnc ~~8W" ofrh.<l old ()o,'!'c:mmt3:nd the ~,gra:cc" (!f the 11C'\iV' OO\'(lnant. by Ol1!G' o.f two, bask appeeaehes, The first he_i:g'noonsth.ed:iscontinui.ty oflih@ two covena:nts" in, v:,uy,i.~g degrees." by means of .~."djs," pens .. tiQl~.d~' illtetprcetatifUl. that ide~ri:B:es~e~~e:J]. aelf-cnntainederas, er dispenss.t:ic,t\:s,. of di.vin.e rn\!'e:I'a!ti.on. TMs :ap_prl.1l1ch d.wws ~"h;arp dtfit:i~M:tiQ!'is hetween lstae.1at.ld.the (;h~rt~3!nd e.sse:n.tiaUy mnsti.t.ut~ ... s a messi:ank suspoelWQn Qf Old T~mt;:nt .Iaw, The .~eo.~md"!ppr-Q,,~h, c~v,cn"!Il.tlhool,qgy" t:l~ph01.$l!~thecg~i:L1l:wt¥ of t~~"cQ'Vel:l~lt ·ofwort:k:;" omdt:he ~ItQvena!l.t of :~ilCC" ,and u:nderscoros:thett :il1lt(lmJ1a.tiQn:snip}

,4.Gu,! l.&~~ ·I'h;e'mom~ jllli Chfif>tiilii:l E'tb.!cs (INtId~) .MJ:.:Ct';;'j~~fu;jw, .~g79). ll'cdllUm c]~ drat 1M~mi~re cmm.ur o[Otd 'l~tlJm:.tnr law is murnl. n111loo fJ:!i GttII .. ;~~ L$.ffi'11 ki'IJiIlg C"_ - ur~ S; ll!!i~~,rJ' W ~ C~l~ .;4. Th~!WITI!~+.". :R~J·QI;,m.!e'J CrlU:qll~_pfd$:~, J99O).

.s. Cf,D. r. f'liller., ,al:!~,PI'j and! l,oa,w; Ct;.._nt,l!;~t Qf ~thl,~l:Im:~ (Gmr.td ,~p1d:~. ~rJP1Ulru; H;l8Q), 1--46,

Copyriphted rnaleri: I

John GQkLrng8iyoffers .a he:lpru] su:rnma.ry 'of contempolillryviews rt;gardmg cont~nuity and. disc-ontinuity het'we:e.llthe Old. and New Test!!!,ments, lronka'uy, his categories lO!rgely P'~raille1th05eOf bilbHcal inteil1Pre~ tation. ditlil'.ing th~ Middle: .Ag~. 'Th~ frr.st con.teMpo.raryv~I.!W, the Old Teru:men.t as :a:. "~y of 1l!fe{'equa~ 'with ~e m~ interp,retive med~;od of the Middle Ag~, which viAW.~ the OM T~~~m~Jlt OI~ <tb.w1ibook 'O~ perseeal etMc$.The $eClQ!!ld,the: Old 'Ie$ament <l$ :a ~wiitne~ to Ch.dstj ~ emphasizes aUegoricaloodtypo]ogical ~_nterpretatiGn. much 1ike the "hiddenme .... n:i~g .. apP.ffi!3!cfi ... The: m~td, the OM Te!i'tament 3£ ~s:dv;ation !his, tory~." eslls attention. to me GOO! who,aCl:.Sllooernptive[!y ~n human. histnr:Y. Uke the: .anlg{lgk:a~ a:pproa.dl,~.lt:hls me:th,od points to the Chrjst e.ven.t ,!!i$ tibe fU.nd!am.e.ntallink b:!,tw,ee_ntb.e Old and NewT~mlt:mIi;s. G!lJ,]d~ngaY';1i fin<ll ca:~eg.ory. the 01d Tesbme~t a:s '~Scri.pttlre;~ hjghHghts. the de\i'e~(}p~ ment of canon as the autl:io.n,tati¥e voicefofbeill~ef and p.ractice .in. the. relig~o'l:!soommY!ojty;(i

AGc-ol1rnng to lohn.Bright .• only th.eapproa:c;h th.at tallies seriously the Old T~tam.ent as Scripture .co:rrecdy und.e:rst:ar:uh the text and elevate'§the oldoovenant to its dghtfU] p.lacein. the Ch:ristian.'s: Bible. There is; II.~· in wruc::hthe otherthree .appma.ches (the .oM Testament as .:ilWaI'j! of ~ ss a witness to Christ, and as salv;i,tiful brstory)1 redu.ce: the old OOVeI!l3nJttO 8! second rank ill, oompariOOn. witihi the New Testammt. ror BrigtJt, this reading of the OLd Tmam.entwith. "New Testament glass~lOro'bsth@ former af its :auth.orl.ty fCiI'thc Christian chttrc:h. Si.nce the D.M T~men.t is !n.trlns.i~ caUy a1i.Jtb.o.ritat:i.ve by virtue of its c:a:nonka~ status, in the Chrisd:aro. 'Comm.lIDlty. it too is hind~ng onthe ,chu_f.(-fi in wha.t it tiead:liesexpllcidy ,and ~ffirrnsinlp]idt1y: ThL<; ·canQf!~al st;:I.tus, alse m~ th 3tth~ Oht T~tame.!lt is authoritative in its entirety and cmnot be appea_rned to seleaively. Only th~ bi.blicalt1heo]Ggjcal .approach pre~~s, the div.me authority of the entire OM'restam.ent fOr the oommuruliy ,of the New T@stamenilt church. 'This;m.ak~s Paul's stallement ~nterugib]e; "Fii)re:!i'(l~g thai was wriiteu in the .part. was ... ritten. toteach us" (Rom. ~ 5b4; I Cor; 10:, 11)..1

Jesus :a.ckruJ'wledgoo thalit.the b.w was "legalism" in th"c: sease thllt it NeII'IlfUtWllml demanded obedience to, detailed Old Testament pr:eseri:ptiom and. S1~pu,· Urulenta~ l<l,tiOin~~ instituted bYY:lhw,eh fOf Israel (e.g., ti.thing~, M;:ltt.23:2:3,a). B~tthe oIOld'&$fa· tnu'l nature oflaw.acoord:iE;g to Jesm:. went fa.r beyond the ext:etn.al beh:a.""~ m.etU LAw

lor prescribed by the.legalc:code .. Old 't'esta:me.ntruaw oo.mp~dJ e5SeRtimUy

jW1~c~~ mercy, and fa:ithfUl:ness: {Maitt .. 23:·23h}..~!Il~ ailmned the law as

hoLy; spirit,uaru,.r:i.gfitoous,andgooo (Rom. 7: 12~l~] ..

;.Awr·l(Il!th~,w OllJT~mt rll~,(~ G~J~; 1!lU!rVan;i'ry Pn~ 1 J.

7. Cj.Jokrt .1:lri6"1"ihe hucl\io!ity 'ofth~ Old li~I~_mml ~, Gi"!UiJ RapiJJ; ~ 197:1;. ,~~ .l ffi:l ~60. ,mnJuIP'lIr:tg t.taJl'ipM af;~Old nrt~:'i: a)I-rIwti.Iy lit !t$ ~Wl"o:l ~I· .~. by tmp}kitprindpk t1lm ill rll~.rms· ~~ .ilyr~'~~!!9 ql~N~Ti:SM~.

5.9

Copyriphted rnmeria'

tiUti.on. cf' animal sacrifice is s'1ll!~d in the perron and work. ,o~'J~ Chrirt ~ a gtre!!Otew h~gh priest!!!il_,e;! the ~'o:n;C'e-tor"lall" atoofog S!!CJiflCil' {Of hurtU.!Dsill (Heh. 7: 15-28:;9':] 1-,]'4).

Ho\'!·,ew;-i, tileun.d!ergi;roinlg rliIeril.Qgircarn pr,imdp1es of O~,d,l'~.nllm~,I'Ii:t.I3W rem.:ainrntact apartfiom the &nrnolil,al abrog.al:ion, of aspects of the civil :md ,~e~mol'l:i81 Jaw byNewTf,'$tllm.ent,~~('Jlk!;g~.~ ~God,&bflN1Jth~d,ijrev,~ ]a,tiQo (2, Tim, 3; 16),!th~, O~d Te~ment Scripture!l~re iBb~tly au.tho:r:i;·· tati.ve~ w.!h:edH!r in ex;p~k;it reacbJng or iltl,pllki,t theOlogica~ idea .. So whl[e Jesus Christ is thePassover Lamb:,fefider:ing .aflfUtther Mnal .:mcr.iflc-e5: o050o]atiC' .:lind unn.ecassary (1 CO,t,. 5,7),tlliie New Test:imeJlll! .Sitill admon.rshes an l~Ii.evo@iS In. Ch:ris,t~o, pr:esent thll'!!mse,]ves 3s"Liv1:ngs:3:crifh:eS~unto God, {Rom. 12:1~2]i. ti~Wi:s.6f allMli~~!:$, 3f~ oMi;g,a.te:ato be holy '1rV~ a s Gedis !holy [l 'PefJeIi W: 16) be:caUS\!:th.eYI'IiGwconstl:tuitel aroy3~p:cl~ boodin Christ Jesus 0 Peter 2,;9}.

QUE:5'1JO.NS FQ,R: fU,RfH£R SnJD'r' AND Dj'S(,f)SSIO'N 'l.\!Vliiat is thes:igm.fi.c,ance of the :s]mi1aritie:s and di.tIere,nces between I;he ~egal lherat!llire of the H:eh:rewP¢n.tateuch 111iId ma.t, 'Gfth.erest of th~ ancient Near Eas,t?

2. ~Iha:l the de~:el~t of :lb . e cona:pt of.coven:uttinthe: Pm.:tatcuCh. 3 .. How .SJ.rn~h(l :fivl!! books of me Pentateuch uhted lil.'WUil_yand th~ ~ogic;aUy?

~. De:MC' thoophail.y:V:ih:at lis ,the S~flCii'ire ofthcqphany iin the Penhlit~,u~h~~ n:,u'J!'atives?

S. How is patriarchal "reljgj.o.n."s:irnilar to Mosal(.: "~J~g:iQ.n~!in. m~ Ptn.~ t;iiteu~h? How is ~t dli:If'er~t?

6, !Explain how ,...~ ill an !'epi.c ~ero;; Cd L Rykenj. Howr£! R~ thee .Bib1eas l.it!:Mturt! [GllIndRapi.ds! Zonmrrv,;to •. ~ 98:4]" 78-81].

7. How .;lir:'I!WCffiet11 portray,ed :In. the P:en.ta.teu.cl:l? Does this oom,P8f;(" 1;!;'ith the fees:!: of the Old T~en~?

,FO.R fURTHER R.EA.DING

Hright" Jo.nm .. .A. I!istmy OfT;MUl', 3d ,ed!. P'hibdel,phia: 'W~~t,. 198 1. Esp.. 69= 1 ] O,lmtfom:l3lti.~ ~u:on it! suppwt (If fl>l!:rl~.c:h:ll. h~roddty;

,~, f:LE" ~~~~ !sUE. Rev" OOL GrmdR!JpUk~ 1986"3,:f4U-S:3;. Clin~ D, ], A. Tht· '71!mIe ojlm. .Penta~. J'sarsSI.'O.Sb~M~Ei'iBlimd~ JSOT' !Pr~ 197'9'. 01~(: m.oilQgraph troting the !.':Ct~an.t 't!hem.,e l;ltIli£)ing th,e U~ til:lreand th,eolo,gyofPent.1t;i(tl.l:Cbil narnili~

Dymess,. WilIiarnA. ~in Old Tt!:;fidP:Plmt~. DQoji'I!"'l~ ~v¢, llL: Jn~I:IVaf5ityPres:s, 1979. Esp. ]B-42.

~PJ5.iY{),r's B!b& Comm.mri;!!')'. 'Vb1. 2.·~em,..,.:NumbeJ:s.'; Ed'ited by .r~r1k E" Caebdcin. Grmd Raplm: .ZOnCkrv.a:I, 1900. ThtU'Qughts ~.gdk3llmah'" including lmlp:f\d b:i!Mi,gg~plties;.

6.1

Copyriphted rnmeria'

Uke,wise, the general lifestyle and culture of the patriarChs .has been. authenticated by ,arcbaeQ1Qgk~ findings.

Though nwnCf(l~;:lch_,olarshaveOO:Ilit:estedtlc historid.ly of thi! patri~ archs, neither the style of the literature nor the :nlltBe: of the eYetl.t! m1amd m 'the' aerounts nor' the cu1turaJi or g'eOgnfpbical :setting offi:nlan:y ,r@iISOn to dou!bt,thlit what tih£5e narrntiv~ p~!!'Ve is ~c .and true. O~:presuppositions that ru],e out Goo's m:vo:mveHli!entwith h~d eBD~. thecon.tentlion that these are merely :legmds ,deviSed to explain :Isnudl.te origins.

,An OuIII .. ,oI GHaIII; I. Creation [I ~ I ~2i3)

n. ,Before the PamsJl'ch!l: 'Th.I!, Need For a, ,~t P~pI!e:

A, 'T~th '(lIf Heat'lml"i :arnd Earth, (2:4-4.:216), ,8, TmedOd! 'of Adam, (5: 1-5d~)

C. 'Thw.roth ,of Noah (6:9~9:Z.9)

D. TbWdorh. of Sbtml, HamtiUld Japbeth elO: 1-11:9) Eo TQlCdoth ,of Shem I( U: 10-26)

m. 'fIN: Pltitiatclts. in ~estine: 'The .E$blii$hroent of iii!

Covenant People

A" Tafedarn on'erah (11:'21-,25;1~) B., 7Qledmh ofbhmael (25d2-l8)

C. Tol&lmh ofIsaac (25:J9-35:29}

D. TQ~th of &au (~6~ 1-8]

13, TlilleJQth QfEsau (36:'9-37:1}

IV. Thill! Pmia.rdt5 i:n,Egypt: In'WNtlnn for 'die Qr'"leiiPiDt People A TOleJm1t of jacob ,(3'7:2-50;26)

PurpoH,ancll ......

The purpose of'th.ebook of Genesiis .is to tell !how and 'wffiliy Yahweh cam~'to cltQ~ Abraham's family and. make a covenant ...w:thdltem.. The covenant Is die IDunda.tii.on of bmelite tbeo~ogy and ldendtyj and .its .hii~ 'mry is dt~rQf'~ o:f undmtandablie signiiicaru:e. Thll! book (1mi1tinuestb~ tate (ii-f how 'the ,covenantWa5 estab1ish~d 'by daUng mt" various fl'Y:mblmg blm::ksa~d thr'@',8'itSt.O the OOVletlilfit. :Fm8]1fy, we discover how th~ lsrne1i.tel ventured to Egypt, thus ~settin:g th!! SCeDJ! for the exodU$.

The m"ess;age o·f the book has seve:tal ~ First of aD, it provides an. appropriatemtroCiuction to, the Israelite God" Y3hweh. We find that .he is the sovereign creator 'o.f a woild made espetianlyfur humin habitation. Already ~n dtiswe can jdentify an int~tiona1 contrast: to, Mesopota.mian theology developing. In Mempootaml3n m~ (;reiltion was, giiven. two, emphases; On the one hand, C«!a:tj()f,l. of o~e forces: md. e.kmenu was gen(':rn1~y' d~bed by' the b~ of dle de~ty tha,t had ju.risdiction of that

GIIIUISI~

67

Copyr'ghtcd materia

some contrast to the .Me!lopota_m~:an""iew is cviderl.t .. There the gods had not p]M!.n~to!liPare $!'lyon~. Rath~.; itwl!$ an aet ,of betray.ai by one Qftl~ gQd.sthat !infurm«lAb'a'~i'I~i$ .~fthc imp{l~'u~lili[)g dJ~r. M~~v~:f~ wbie :in IGenesli$ It was humiiOkmd tha.t, 'W$ $;I:ved by~B:!:ing N·oab and h~!!I f'lmiYI A:tra-l:Ias:is; saved civilizati.on by· lndudl:ng. among .M 'pOlssengers amsam .of ihevanDusc;rnn gwllffis .. 'The contr.ast is that lil'l.Genf'Sis Godhead 1'10 ~!in~t~Qnof :$av~ng ~~.dy; in :rome ways ~tW:lI.$ $o(:i;~t~'· tflllt I:!~~~d des.troyin&

Aftej'th~ Hood ~e bl~1>ing W'0l1il renew'~d, but dC,geOCfati.on occurred mpidily.1'hewmpiler cOIltiJ:l:ues:toibu:iki h,is case: for tl·e insi.di,QUS effect of m!m'~ ~Q.~atm'·~~~!1 ~V11:!1 rn NQ~hJ~ QVffi~, 000.'.$ ~twti!f'~P'9!1~e tQ this cttun'f:d. whenpoople mov.oo fromsc~emmg to. maiketh~ves ]1b:: God to dtstomng God lin iI:~e1r minds .SO;lS to make him. mote ]:iKe memselv,es:. We believeilhis: to bethethresheld that was: ~ssed when. the :;!:~ggurat (th.~ Tow~r ofB:abei) was co:ns'l:ftlIcted ,on thepl.aln oaf Shi!lar (II :6} God :dJ.m ·pl:aoed![imitatiorlls ul:lpoople's a !bUlly to uf.lit!e iFllr'~~]~ lion. He ,did thi$ by c.u~.ng them t:~ $pc . .;.);, ·diff~oCi1t ]<ingll.i;'l~ t'h:at l~d. to geo~pbk: scattering, 'Ods; flQ,t: on~y ",~ct-ed In:Yn~~ O!l)~b!tJ to ;!.<;:tin ;SQH~ darity, but ~·.set tJhe ~~ne for God.'~ c:hange (l.f wakgy; God'$ gra~e nQW lbecame evKlent in h~ detemJiruation. to re¥ecl.himseLf to :humaru.tytm-mJ!gh one man and biS fiu:nily;

";'irb·'il··--' ealo -'cal CCOn/,"-,ili:' =se is --u_bil'.dh-d ~~-, NO;!lI\- in ~ 'L,-1L'a.-

"HL.e .~e_~_~ __ ~ c_.JifL~ty __ ~ __ ~ ~J.!:j;_.!!_. uOlIil ll~ __ .n..PiIoULID,

there .li$. ne att.ernp1i:.IQ est~b1:llsh OJ f .. ithco'IliU_~ujty .. l\lor"h,a!!l't is iI1Q~ tlltrodu~ed. as. arigh!teotlS mae, nor ~s, he ide.ntified.ln .Eliny wa.y as oQntmrung with. thll worM amundhim. Oth.cJ' Smpt!;ID;1makn:s it clear tn:J.t.Abrnli3m·;s family did not wl:l~Mp Yahweh (ef. JO$h .. 24,2). $0 h1; 3. re.al ~:r the t(l,.d am.e to Abmh~rn "~tof the bl1ll!e."'I1l.eftirst; g:mrbct is described in. ] 2: 1-3, where ,Albraha:mJ wa~ j~oted ~o uk-.e drasth;; <!w()~to~epi!rate himself from his ~ ,~ that a Ht:W beg~!tIlm,g ~g·1i.:!M ul)! p]a(i~"':ia.hiW'eh ~ked. Abraham to le·avehis ~and.. hjsfam~ly; and! his illlher:i.tance ,rfathe~Ws hQ~ hold} and. p.!1'Omi.'sed him in :fietum his, own lad, his own famiiy. and his, own. inheritance ,fJblcssmg). They wd not aetnaUyen!tcr into. a ,cov~na:nt agreement on tbi:!iOCeasiOIlf but the "fIN Wl3.!S made to dom enee th@c co.n.~ ditioM Wi!;!"(! m.et.

Chaptets 12-22 present the ched:.l':I!ed hinory of the es:t:ablishm:en!t of the 'CQv~f!;iilntb~twe:m Abraham and the L(l(rd.. On~e AJb!1ah.nf! left hi~ home.behilndjthe next forty orSifw years: pmv,ided. co:n:tin1t!al ~U:5pe:nse ,c~n~ (j~g b.Qwm(: pro~:I ,of God. would befulfilled.lio' Abraham .. 'The nar- 1'Ilun: is ury ar;tigticaE!y GlI.1~tm. so as to~p llie f~adc:r~~_n,g how ming5mtgntttlrn. 'Ol),t.

The pnmary S!pproach of th.€: narrato.is tointr,OOU.C@ variouselements that p]a<:e the Cio"enali~. pFOmis.es in j,eop(l![dy. As. eaehebstaele lSS1IJrmowted. a ~.ucQffii.".e:;;tep ~s introo,uced toward 't:he :fiultjUmetll: af the

J1je, .~m.

Pa.lathu: ~ NtmtUiva (11:1] ..... 37:1]1

GOVIl:ll::mt pmm~ Obstac~~s V'3liklusly t3b the' form of a]tema.te .h~rs ,or me Form of tnft!' ... .tIliAl'og ,si;tu:a,t;ions: fQ,r me primary ,characters"J

The first ili~t ceme whenAbr~h:!l:rn. and s.a,rllh. we[l~ dawn to Egypt to~3p~ dl~ farrdn~ in ~e land of CanaJ~n,Th~ d<lio:g~r w;l$ili!}tthe pharaoh :m:ight t:likc Sarah, into his h<l:relfi OJ tnillt,aclilld bo~ to :S~h O'I:!!.y oot be ,i\!braharm/.s.Th.e mre-;aJt was e~inlinated, ",,"ben, Abmffiruam and Suah W't1re ~smrl!OO out of Egypt.

Thelirstobst:ade: tOQ,veroome- t.I~gardifl:B an heir 'WllS the pres-ence' of Abrnham's: nephew" ,lot" Since Abraham. a:ndi Sarah had! no 'chilci!ren,tot Wii~ the heir apparent" Hi:!ipre~~e with A'brab~m i!l~ij.~oul!d afgua:bly have give:fiI h:it'lila ,I,aim to thcl.aI:l!;L The Qh!ltil;dem~ remo¥ed ~m, ochapte_r 13 when, Lot ehose '~he p~illnmward SOOom for his da'im,,~,g hUn out, of the lan.d.Thffi 1m to tlrte:pJ'OJlU.o;e: to ,Abraham, rl1iat, an the 18~d, w(lMld now bdong to him, and his, descendants (13;: 14-11l

.At this point in t!he text lin a:ppmd.ix to the Lot !l1,l!U!.tl"'e·~ included ~(!IW!!'lting how AbrahilOl ~ed Lot and mlliny Qth~ ·from. an mv~di_ng ~rmf; There3ilGEJ fur lfldi.idmg this mtlybeto sihcwthatAbrahiunderivw none of bis w-ea,h:'b. from the Ciln .. ani!!tepopu~atiQn, (l4!::2.l-24)~ t~ou.g!h it.

~s dlH'l.ru]t to be eertain, .

Thenarrntive coJ]!t:iniI1e5 in chapter ru.5 with th~ tl'!uoou~tion of 01, second alte_rna,tc heir, El!ierer:, the b-ead of Abmh:l.m's ho·m:ehoM .. Th,e Lerd indicated, .. how"eV"Crt th(!l1!. Abrohaw':lj heir would be :his own chiM, so mou..er' obrt3de ~ J·emoved.

'.F'he end of cha.ptet 1 SrecG'Ilnb the ;!l:ctualtaJtific~tion of the COl!'<m:ant between ~e l..QJdiJ_!Ild ,Abraha:n:t Ag;llllth.e laadwas guar.mteoo. to AhRbam, but he was also .girventhe ~n,£ormation tha:t:the land would not: a.ttua]ru~! aomfl intD th~ iposs:€'SS:i(}:i:JJ "this fantib for anMh~[' four hU1'l~d y~"'f$.

In ('h3pt!~rn 6' 3. ~iru 3[t~.m3t~ heif (:.tme (10 d<: ~ene, In this ep~ Sanh syggl!'li;kd t._hat slnce :5~e !had been u:na:b~e 1.0 ba\!le c'hi~dren,th.ey n.eeded", different p~an. Abraham s,h.()!Il]d foUow cusmma:ry' procOc'h!ltt'! whereoby ~ Slave, .i.n. :the h~oLd serves ;;1l!;j l'I: ~tute wife fo orJ.er£or ,thl!l Lm~ tebe ceatinued, l~ tnisllUlinne.-lsihmac] waslrom" a full a.nd~egiti~ Illarre son ·ofAbraham by u..e cus,toms of the day,

Tline:en ye-arn "II!I'~JiLt 10,',. du.tiog wih:i,ch tiim.e,w~ ,i'lsswn~,. fl:brahamconsi.dernd, l~m<l.cm 11[:'1 heir:. ID. the mirutof roocivi!'!.g ift~C!tioIlS· £OF tihe!iign ,of d!l'01md~l!(,Ion and rt.."CC'iv~og ~f1i:r:rn~tion£ro·m me Lorothat he would become a grealt: nation (chap. 17), .. AJbrih:a:m. w8$sn«bd 'to h~ar that:. the: prol1'1ised .hcir had not }"et been bO!!"Rbut wou.l:d be. 'the :n.atma~ eM~d of Sarah (w;~5-21). Thi~ mess:age wasreeonfl.m:ied I[cha.p. :t 8) by the visit. of th_te.e men to .A.bnba.m'$ tent

1. ,L, Hd)'f,7, "'l1Ie ,~IW.I! ""AMmt .. !md wt; .IIJ .5~j:&a!la iI:I au: fut!iwdtm N:(m(!,' ~!i!!!'.t ~JSrn .26.(l!nlJ).: 77-88.

:71

Copyriphted materia'

The flarnlUiJof nnw keepll. :u~i~ ~tI!Spenw.by re];Ii1:i:R.g tvl~o :;l.gn!i±1~<Ifltevc:nt:i that took pb.oe; p.rioi!' tQu..eact1!la!<ln:lval. ofIsaa.c. '~.'befir.st was thedesnuetiQ!1 of the cities of the pillIi.n, fr·gm which !Lli)tandh..~ dau.~htm w~rcdeli",,· .erecILThi$ mi.sed the p()$Sibili~ity of un!$; .reentering the p~nure, but !the th_~t W~ qw'(._kly eliminated when he (;h~ to. live in the hin""

The second.threait: wa:s much mQ~eser:iouS), Chapter 2.0r.e]:l,teti :;It! 1~Il,cJ·dent iii! wllii:ch Sarah wasabotu: to he tak.a!Lint(.) a: fOfei[gfl. litiflg~::i h~!!~~j Oli scene f,emi!l!~'!C~'JH of'the irl,cident recorded iLn c_bapter 12. This time ~he kiog WIIS Abjm~lnn .of .Qeri1lli:, 'TIllis threil.t WID> ,S{J aln.rmiin.g beceuseIsaee was supposGd to be born within th~ y-e:ar, If S:tJrn~. w~r.e t:llk.~ll il1l'tO l\Jb.i:m£-" lech"s harem 'f!,,-"ll'n brid~~ questiom\lO'oulda-ris(l asto ~'i[h.eth(rr ]s~:).C;w;a$ act'UaJruy the :son. ;(If Abrnh;'lm. A~ifi HIe piroh1em w.1&av.ertM when the Lor:d .alMoo Ah~me~ech in a dreaml th<1!~ S:arOlh",V3S Abrailam's w~f~ and must be ~e&~ored to h,im .

. Ein.JI,y, the lQng·"wl!itedc_b;i~d, [~~C. was born {OO1!p. 21), . .md the reader l:sinclined: to breathe a sigh of [1ci1ef that eveJy:tb:ing has '\'\!or,ked outwdl. in the end. Brut the .!iws.F~e i$ ~,Qt O'¥ef yet, Wefl_;_~d 'OUlt q1llkidy that bhma.e:I. WOISnotto,I;Je'$i)' easl~Y dl~. fromcomlt~ntio.n. Nevertheless, even W;a!t last O!bs1'3.el€ to heirship was removed.

And yli!ti' as w·e: would e.Xjpe<:1 from a. skillful nil.rr.ltoli~ just wh~ lt s~n:n,s t!hi!!it a]l ii<l ",,'en, the largerotand. mo~t dlm~tlh: pmb~I~U'llim~g~Jil.~b:i!!,l kU;:l~'l'U over the ho.rizon.

[I) the account ofGiod'sa~kll1g Ab:r:ili::'l!mto :g,Q ... ~d sacrifice h__~ son Isaac (chap,. 22], we l~ ~at the namIto[' has bl!tvu8ih~ us tD the dimll"; of the n<l1!Tati'+te,TbeLord nild vrom~dA!brnh~!n th~t lsaac was ~.Ii:' ~.n!ml thmYgh whomthe 'C(:l<li'enant prl~mj;s~~ 'WOu]d b...::: fu.1fl.ned~. !lind .~G' 'we CQ'V\rnant W~!i agam ~!l gJ1i!:at Jeopardy: All tlile prcviow; oib!!t-..dcJ';. and th!!lc;iIt> c~rne (TUIn humaH error or d~i$iQn. cni~ Ofl.C came fmmddty. M the t~xt rel .. :te.~ (li'; 12')~. the fi.mction of this:~flt W:3.S to proV;id€1 .Ab:mh:lm with the oppl)r~ mniit:yro demonstn1!te that he filtatrOO Goo. '1'0 be sur~, Abn~h:'lm had been (;h<!r.!(leri~d .~ obedient a~dwU of faith thmughout tffilii;! narrative,but. it ili much e~ier toO dOe)' whe!l'Qm~ SltOlf;!d'i to p~u:fit :frQ[n(~~e':::; ·OIc;:tiQ!'!ll. Here Abraham. (:ow.d .de;mo~tl:te to tfr<e Lq.rd. that his ob...Jl~nc~ was (]!lotiY.~;tl;.iI by feat ,o.f~,e Lord, not by what.he VlOilllldJ gain b~r .obcFrung, Once th~tbr~t ~:;; ~JvOOj the P[qlTI_~~ wererepeated to .Ahn.lham (1i'V; ] 6,~ 18;)..

The :~aining seC1l;irall~ of'the trl.f2doth ofTm:ab (;p.ntiOllC to ·offere .. rcnu peru.~mim:g to ~h,e e:;·tib]ishmelmt nf the (jOV'~I1I.ant, t1b.au,g;h the suspense nas been br.-olf!'lil. C~apl~r' 23., while fl!Calli.og dl~ deaeh ofSarnh,,~pp:areJ'ltlyi!! ffidyded.beca~ wi's re~Q~c.s the ollm~· tnne wh,r!n.Ahnd~.S!r.!i.l purcha."edlamd in 'Cm:!<'!;II1. Since the ac:qumtion ofilie ]<I!nd was part ofthe OO'!!'tl1lilillt :prom," :ise't it. isi.mporta.n.t t'O t:el1·o.f t.h;is!im instance

For .Abrnhll.m eo h3~G Ii Mg Huniit"Yt fiotonlJi' l"FIUS1: the.!te lia.ve been :1iJ !5Qn-\i but a son who. would m:3rty ,and .hilill'e SDIlS of his; own.,. Th.eob. .. tade 'l!o t:hi~

Copyriphted materia, '

(d'ap;.24] was tQa(!)uire a:wif~ for Is~3C: in :Bi wa.y tha.t would n~th~ lc,ad t:o ass:im~L:liHo:nw:ith t!l!.e pe-opk· ·of Om,~an :nor require Isaac to leave the l:Llnd, 'Thlis "VWj: ,!!coompl~hed byAb~<:Im.'~ h~vJoghi$ ~rYmlt fcl(;h 1l.bride for ba3Cfrom Aibr.ah:am's mf!nded f~mlly~

Fimally" the aeeeuae ofTer3h;s :fa:m.ily enm w~th me ide:ntiiA:catiQI1. of Ahr,aham.'.!i: other: ch:iMren-agafll" these were potentia] heirs, so the text .lhow~ how they were cared. f"or fn theirlheritanee:-3IndAhraham,':s dea,th. Amld. nm'ilnryobstac]~~,th.e.r~fore"lhe eov,enantMcame: estaiblish,oo.

In keep',itlg w~th. t~e pra.ot:i<1e oCtile nalTll,t.()r;, the n,Q!:1!covetl,an't l~n,e iifi traced, before~he story returns to the .malin eharaeter, So tb:eattount ,of hl1mael. precedes, that of lsaac,l!!nd. ~e .. eeeunt of Esau precedes that <of J!~cob,

M.ost o.f the aiocount of base coaeerns thlli conffictootw~ Jacoh and &ila,Ui)Rd its: ·eve~fuaJ :[,~~jjJtigA. The oo~ruct it:M!Lfw:u;a. thr,e.:l:t.to thEi covenant because lit was ~.QM~nQ~ghmat ~t ()g·ul,d~ead to m,wdtt and the e_xtiOctiOfi ·o:f.Abraham.'s family (see 2i~45,) .. Beyond (hat,; J'O'!oob"s l~av'ing the land for seme twenty :Ye"'l$ also tfilleakned to undo the {;(!IVeJ!anlt by opening tllepossibiilEty th.lit~be fluni~t (lfAbtaham 'WouJd simply rerum to M.ew.pobm;ia, Fromad1eO']ogica] st.afld,point, it i" a]sc:1i clear th:l!Jt Ja<ioo "",'as not th~ man of faith that .Abraham heca:m.e,. This leads th~ Mader to wonder whether this might j ust tum ou,t to be another fWlled experiment h .. Is m~ Qonruc~tha.t g~v~ iStrtlct,un::t:o thIs section. The covmant IS :sti]~ the. main foc~

Whi!l:e most oftbe aceeune of Isaac is lli:e'reforeundentandiMe as ,COO.~ tintli~ng ,covernge of the aOVl?n:a:nt :strl:l,ggl~1 the :narntiv~~a.t frame w jacob-Esau ~Qnffi.ct prove a bit mQre difflOIl,1t to undeMJmd .. Ch~ptei!!26 and 34 appear to be mtfil.tl.a:Gs ofson.s, sinoe they !h3Y~ little direct relation tache covenant., Uke maplers 141 and 23~ noweveri clteyrel.ate h:l!::itknts in whkh ;l:gITeernents: were made wfthpeopl.e of the' land of' Can:a<1n. 'Th~y have WV~ilItl,t signjfic,3iru::~,furdt~yco:nc~m th(; land. and 'the dhnic distincti.'Y'eI'l.ess of Abr.ili<l!!TI's faITliWy.

The Joseph 8!Ilory ISO! ,cQ,he~iveDar:rati'o'le w.i.th. the 'e:xlce.ptio~ of chapter 'l1#

38. t1b: the othe!: mt()f[udfl(:hilpt~ this one: 'oon~rmooQC~nsio~wh~ ~: i", there w~ u ~lllrl~tip f9.rm.~ betwyec;lp A'b~!lffl':'!i fomilly ~d th~ ~pl~ ligyp't! 'lh of the laad 'of Cairuulo. The epi.&odemacy also ·bei:nten.ded! to 'cOIl.tt:ibute to Joseph Story the em~ prume o:fJlldah~ whG had great :si~cllnmfo .. the ]aw trlba~ (3l:2-50~26) rus'tJary:

Judah'srele I:n chapter 38is pa:mU:el to Jaeeb's ineha/pteil' 37. Likehi:s father {37:32~33.J. Judah. was .d,ec~1ved a:nd.asl:ed to recognize a piece of e¥~de:!)ce oonceming id.e~Uty (3a:2S~26J, In thi.s 'W~y Jg,dah'~ actiQn5 ~g~in~~. Jacob and Jo~pih w~re <1il:r'oa:dY':Q~ii_og bad~;t() ha1il~it him. The end. cfdhaptm 3 81!iUo' ~hoW$ 11. younger $QnfQrcdng hill way OI,1.t jU:lt w~en a~~!5eemcd lQst (vv .. 2;.7=3'01. thu!! milin.g I!! "breOlGh'" (KJv) •. 1'b:i:fi was

73

Copyr'ghtcd rneleria'

oe:rn.Cit!ly what Jos~ph pn_l{;c~('d to d!owhcn his story resumes ll;~,aiQ in oehllptc:r 39,~

The rnainintell!t OfthCl JCJ!&'ph ~tory appears te be' itO!I'ooount h'CIW the fami1:f af Ab:ra:nam. <md!Gd !!lip in . .Eg)ltpt. In :this way il:isp.rcparatory for th~ exoous naiTa,tilj~es. Thou:gJ:t the eQl<e:nant :is barely mentlened, God's prg"lidmtilll came of Jos:eph_;i![n~d. i5ov~i,g~, control, of history:l!!l:c QY.idenll as the pruo~ develops .3!11d is resol.ved .

.... ,Thines

l"1u! The book ,of Gen.esis makes .ilt d:e:arth:a.t the Lerd did not eheese Alhr.a·,

COtl'6tlm:lf ham Mtd.hi$ :f'arnily because tl1~ wCt"~r.n()roright'Cli)us,mor,e fatt:hfu]" mom

and' E~ P~Q~ gr .!:nQf¢ d~~f'i{ln;gthan "I¥)' q:t;h¢r family. l:ll$ ~l~~ting t;h¢[H w~\'IJn act 'of gta'Ce- P~nherm.QJ'cjwh_ie the coven .. :n;l 'cou~d not be.~tifled l.iLf1til Abrnbam.lefl h:i.s'1tI1ly~, no clear ,co~,drutions were placed an the mlV'en3nt :itself. To beswl!e, the benefi.ts oftlle (loven~r)!t:C(lit!~d 'be lost fOf period .. 'of time~ but no Ii1r:um ti on ~s:m i.l!de of the possibility of 'i.':a~c@U3tkm.. The f~IU'" iilly of Abraham, f'or good 0[' i1t eenstlrared God's eboseiliilpenple"

In GhFim:iifiI:t~, when. .~. spc~~k uf the dtu:fd:liiS Goo':!! propie,. w!! ",erer to 'those wh"ha-,!i\e ac;c;:eptoo s:31vation throu,gl!lJ [alth, spcci:6caHy faith ~n J~ CMist. The ,c!hrtlKhcPtlid tbeoofore 'be idmtined <lS the people of God! :iH ni$Q~crlo~ogh;:.lliI.-i .. c ..• s.al'li',3tiQn:a]~·s"",'t'I~c.. Un.dou·blt~d]y m:aIil:yls:ra,eH:ws of the Qld.'T~,ent (Qu~dibeiden.titled :~~G()d 's people by li'~rt1J;!e ,of th,eir fiith. inYah,~e!h.81il1 til.err di.'\i;:ne eleeuon and the ,div.irle ,col!leo3:ntrnade Ute JSI'i3~]~t~ the: people ·of God ,o~,ly in a~~yebllt:orysense. By thl~ we meaa 'th::'!t God ch~th(!m as hi$inI;,tn:lmcn~ of r~\!II;'!Jath:l!:'!. God. t["1II(;:!l;!{_~ him$oI;'Jftothe world. tluvugh .ID:;tad-th.ml,lgh th~ law he' gave to' thcm,th~l'QuB;h ih,e.ir hi.sto:f}t '(whi,ch dern,Qllru<wteZi· his benevolence" gl:<l!c:e, fili,thfl;l~neiis" ~l:Iid wvere~gIlityli duo1i.1;gt. the wdUng 'oftile BiMe~ and most of il]!,.tiuoygh the bmh,[jfe~ de;l-dl,nn,d. resutrlectiiofi of J~$H'$ Gh:ri$1lt,

The c;:ovenant thus becll~.e mecent:erp~e'c:e of IDsrilJeliite theo[ogy; It :sp~3ks of God's intentions to bless th,~m and ~,on.or them $ chann.ds of God',:; rev~liaJtlQi!'J,. 'Th~1iiligh(Jl;!t th~ Old TL'St'o'U]'I('nt we ~l;llm muM :J.bQtl!tt:he :1l::U;t~re of God :by ,see~llg bimaot iII ace.:arda:rure with h15 (Qv-cnOl!.tlt: promises and by s:harmg :in the be fic fits 'of .his revelati.on to and mr(lugh .~:'i-niel..

MOttOtArism G~.,".ra.ll!y:5pca.kiH,S:, mo:nmhcism is the; 'Wi'Qrih:ip !Jif QIl~ God, Th~re iI:I'~"

h(lwe'!o~r, .SC'lcmffi. levels o.f m.onotheism;, ranging from pref~ren~e for one deity, to worsllip' of ene de.i,tyt to bel:i.evm,gt:ha.t only one d:{l~tye-X1Sts, .Eve:n tbe'"Jen Co:mma:odm,ents: insi:ilt on~y (In a practkal monotheism (t'~dusave wOifli:hip ~f ODe deJW) if<!ther ti!l!~ on a pbil~phiC:8!l mO:llotbeism ({)n1y one G:od ~i:stsl, Th:is leads us to inquire whether the p!!!t.ia:reh.s were

4. ~. ~ u: c~,"Ti!!~ Stmy ojZi!lPI!IliF.wi ,}uMh.,·' .lllih!H'CD~ ,~nd Q,rkntll! Stud· w". ~, 1 [Im.!s:-alem: M~ I9.iJ],. 29-40',(a uprI\!If.&I tI 1919 ,(lInk1!!); .-J:tfll },tlJiJh GillJitl, "T.~Y'~ Smt: or:: n~ D~ G~ 38 Bdo:ng7" JBL 96 (19n); 27-4'4.

74

Copyriphted mate 1

82

TheWftq of the BoGIe

A'Ocorrung to J~wiish !il!Jl!d ,Ch.i:su!1!fI ~~dWi;:!onj Mq.s:e~~·v!r1;lte the bcek of &<00,115 .at tt..ecommlllld ofGadin,(;oIlJllectiorn1l ,,~tl.~sm~l·5 QO\1\C.m.m:t: Q!xpe· ne'n()e with Ya~weh. art Sinaru (c:f. IIi 14;24;4~ 34~27}, So:me scholars ,COIlsid!ill$' MO:l!~s to h:avewritten maj er pertlons of iExodl;!s<\viw eertaln <i:dditiOcDliS m;Jd~·by l~l~f; ~d~rors (e.g.,th~ .g':f:I~ilo'gy ll'!! It): ]4~~i)" StiIDI tlth~ e.f8l:iega:rd EXJod~ <IS the litmiIYP'.rOOud QfMoses' suceesser, JO!ih~a, Q~ of Elea~r the prie5t, b~. o~o!1il u~cl~II:i()I.n r.~ceivelli. frolm M·oses :lnd. Aa.rol1 .. Ul~t:CI.)I; !3!Umese v~ews ackIlow.l.edg~ Moses as the seurcs ofthe 'l,/l,ITirt~ tel'! dO('il]meDt~cordJng: the e'JIlOdusmom Egypt.

Scho~~i:u:s: wholo1icce-p~ Mosallc ll:uthOOiihi.p for all or part of Ell:OOUS .misign ili~ work to i1.~' "ee.l:lidJi 0:1" iMrrteen.lh '~Mll!.nyEl.C:., diepend!ilil;R Olil. the vaew taken. fOil"tlle dalt1llg, of the exlodm evens,

Bi!btrqt] schQlars wh(!l' aee oo:mmil!:'l!oo. to solne COm:! of 1l:lllltl~le 31ll:tJaolr'Sh):.p a&'5OO.a.rod wiliihtihJ@ d.0<MlncnfSI.ry bypotb.~is fOJ the compo&i.tion ofth~Pi?Jli·tlJt~llch divi.die .E.xild,us in:tiOth~~5:or soUrrCes: the J (or Y3JnM.~]I, th.e E. (or IElbrust),3nd the P (or' Priestly) decements, Ghaplm-s 1-34:100 g.~,rn.ertd[y .~.~ .. ;1. ~:!ipIiliGmg" of J .1l'nd. E aJi1dP;.~:ile chapters :3 S-40 iiliro oom1id~ .. ed p:u:iestJy n1ate.nru [P). 'f:rad~tiO:r.l3!l seuree ana~:ysis~tlil:r:iibulies the BUill. ·"'1\'e.<li'ili:ng; ·Qf die lliitera_a:y :iQ~el.m ~~!I.Iti [llito 01. c,ompl.ele ~·ext Oir boo:]k to tll:W10'li'.':I1I. p~y au:thofSnediitDrso:f tbeexil!i.c Qr ponexW.cpenoo I~C3, 600~OO :1lC.} ..

A~~ to'th;is h:ypoth£sis;.·the omlb:llditio:m onwhl~hilie book ofEx~ dus was based t1lliie:t'!'W.enlt mnsideu:aM~ .upil!nrSi:OI'll, liev'~oo~ 3ncl.I\e~.vl1tffig Q'!I'\er the' oourse (lf~ve'irnl '~er!lturi~ (i .. e,~e ~nth tome ·A:ith.~~ntywti~ ItC), FDr tbffi re~~ Clitioo Old T~~"t!.t d(l.l;'i~ip maJi[!~iml:; 3~tance of ~idQ:mJ .~ wbook'$ H~!'Y ~n~ll .. nd $hlpti~rn tOW:D'd. ttl> hi5toliidty.

M ~amina.tiO:i!! (lfiihe ·tcJrt o:fE.'XodUil ~o:!1H!'Tt'i~; M~~ic ;3!uth!)r~hip for: .. Jtl~~~ fOUlr s~rti.Qf'I$oft11e book.These fo~r Ht:¢rary unlit's '.Ve'E'e rlpp;u¢ndy wrlitttm in. ;lssoo;'l.ti:onwith 'tilil:e events dlle:y record :(li!:ld ind~~de dll:·"mem.ori;1l~ of th~Ml3rmth the Amilil!:ki.t.es (l 1':8-'] G;: esp,. ·i.l;W '" 1. the eeven iilfl1i cede 0 9:1-Z4~18; c£ 2~;4; .34:27). the SOrlg. of the Sea 105: 1-:21 ),. and the add~t:ion1.lil. covenant st:ipu]atlcrm;. (34; Th -28; esp.v, 27).

C Th~ 'Wlldeffl~s (,f Shur 0 5 ;2:?:-27]1

D. The Wildem,ess 'orStn 0'15)

E. Th@' Rock 3,tRephldim r~ 7) 1:\, ffl:'!thfO 3ind Moses (18)

11, COVMlllnt md, bwat Sinai, A.Prt'lliFu1r3"io[ls for Cov,em:ant (19) B, The Deca~ope: (Z{]I:ID-17)

C. 'The Cove;na:l1I:t c.ode, (20:.1 8-23 ::33)

D. Ratiflic-atian of Covenan~ (24) E, Th~Ta~mac~e (25=40)

t. :8peclfi.catia[lS (25-2'7)1 :2. Th.e pri,eru; (28-29]

3. ThKl~,ture (300)

41. The cta:rumen (3.~ ;']-11]1

5. The Sabbath (3]:12~'~S)

6. lsroel's bre<iJch of,~ovcnafllt witl! the g,~]dl!fi calf (32:) ,. Yahweh and MO!lC!l (33)

8.Co,vlmat'Wt renewaill (34)

,9. Construction ofthe tabernacle '~~S-38) 10, The ,pd~y ig<lm:l~~ (39)

]]. CompletiQlland,ded.iC(lti(Y.n Qfthe ubernade (40)

a. __ aIMI ... -_.- .. ',

- --r--'." -- "'.'

The m~s~ 0'£ Exoo,\U r. .. sum:mari:red jm tll,\i'O p'~,g~~ the commissien

of Moses, (6~2-'~) and the pr-efa:ce ~Q theoorv-eil1,ant ceremony <lit Sl:rloU (19~~- 6l The th_~ basle QomponenU of the mess .. ge jndude (l)thce judgment ~L'tih -, ,c ---'I' -,,- -if :n:i.ti',an E,fi.· .. =.nt- (:nthe delr:vetilifiG-oUsrn-Ift,-m slaw -C:' in

OJ; _"e opp.e:~so -0.; p_~ . -:J _" ._e __ ~_ . e_ ._O:L. __cry __

Egypt by tn¢ .. 'rnigJ1ty arm" of Yahweh, and (3) thE ertab]i.:. .. hment of Isr1ile.1 ,il!5 God',s ::'Ipeda] PQssesslom, among allpeeples,

Sev~nI~them~: or emphases .. m~:IY the EXOOU5 na:~rati.ves" Jrll.1,g_merlt alfld de1ivera:n;ce£i~ prominently ~n c-hap1iers ],-12, and. Y8,hweh's parernal g,itl!idmce in. the w.ildem.ess aad the promise ·of se-"lJirlement in Canaan fol· Low in n~18. 'IhsOCr3iticcDVMIIl1it: ,:In.d..~a.w combine: to form .~5rn~1's cha:r·. teras the poop.l~ of Yahw~h in 19-24" and th<l book mndud(ls with prep.l1imdQrls for worship'of the ~HQly One of lsrod (2:5~40).

Thehis~odcal p1!lf!PQ.,"Ie ef :Exod:w:wast.bepreJ,ef'!i1l.t:ion. ef accounts ~!p~<!i!lj[lg 'how me' Israeht~ ca!me' tobe ",L1!!'!les in BID'Pt;. theil!"' dd~\',efance, and thei,f presence in the wil.dem~"i ofSiinai.'The Ex.oo1!IS narra.tiivl(;; ~Qrm:s a hridge between the patri.a.r'Cha~ ~tories with the: later history ,of the theocratic nau.o.n. ''I!aIKmg possessien or canaan Cd. 6:.4).

Th~ basic thoo[ogkn]PilifP08e ,u.f'thc book ii> diifJne ~lf-d:joclosu:!'e God h~<; not only ren:u:!ru.~ Ms 'COVlm31i11.t:pro.m~stJo the Hebrew p<IJtrl~~rdrn.,s;~ hut ar&o has RQW rev,eail.oo hJim.se]f to brae].(1.$ Ya~w~ll (6:2-3).. Aillth.Qugh

88

Copyr'ghtcd rnalerh

mis revelation. 'of "iaww-eh. oceurs ~n,a Y~lie,ty of mll!n:if~tioru:, the end ~ultisthl!!thl;!:win~jk(! lsra~J Fot h:i~ peopte ~Ddwi11 ~t&.eir God. (6:7).

1.a:Btj the didaoti~ purpose of tne booki.ndudes innructioil'li en the ~mpOi!1an(;e of maiot.tining cONe!'!!l!ltrcla:ti.Qndlip with ¥~hweb and the importanci!' of the ~!aw .as· afli~meI1l!t WI' ,shaI,ing .and plfese!:'Ving Ismel',s ld.mtityasi Yahweh's peop~e (23:Z0-2ll. Only ~rough dbe&e~:r::e to the covenant :stipulatiollS can lU:I1:ld be II, kin,gdom 'of pri,ests to Yah,wch and a holy Dation, W:1fiJ~ing her dlvl_noe destinyamo'ng aU m;c nat1o.m (l9~'s-~"

~·ancI"",,&aHon

The: book ,olf Ex:odmis e3siy ar:ra:ngoo inm ~ lug~ bLocb of n:u-rn~ tiive matm3~ based GIn the: Stiq1liefiC.e ofgeographi~a~ lOC31tionsfor ~la$ tJhey j()l.uneyed frow E;gypt to Mount S~[I:aJi;:

1. h..ael in. Egypt (1;~ ~:~3;16)

2. Iseael's wildiemess trek (~3:,li~'~B:27)

3. b:l':3iel at S~rlai ng:l,-40;)B),

Thet:naticeHy Ya.h.web's: delivenlnce ·oftffil:e Hebrrnws fr·om, bondage in Egypt: as: tuld m IDlodns ci'lnnerumce deliv€:.:anoo of Jacob's dMi. by Joseph (Gt'n,~16-S0)land.th.@' deliverance of the Jsrs~rui.te na.llon by Mo:ses; to the tih!l'eShold of the ~af:l,d (lfp:r'om~(Nu:mbefS:a.nd. Deuteronomy),., Exocl,us ~the book ·ofYahweh's. redemp:t[on ·~·fhis ()Olo"enant people ((Imp]emenu Genesi!; .a:s the book of the; lnaugt;l1il.tiQn ·of the ~ovin.mt 3!i1Ld :llintil1;~p3!leS levi:t::kus as ttU!' book of ho~iinessrQ.r' the CQvella11l!~ people. ..

The language andconte:nt of Fxoousalso bear de.]ibetate ffiathoftransitions .i:nd!icao,Mgth.atthc Daffiit1.V't')S of Gen~j Exodus". and leYiticl.i$ are to be road toge'l!:he-r as a.unificd document. For ,examplej. th(l repl'!;tition :~ Exodus 1 ofthenan:n~ of Jacob's sons who fl'I.igftlltootQ .Egypt: ties the EXl;)dus aCQ(lUJlits with the story (jni!!oob's oojoum ill Egypt (Gm. 4~'~.l.i~~ wiseth c n 1u':!:!n- .c, c ~.' of Eodus d crilb',tb. f: ... 1· -. of''''' Iif-· ..... 1. •

. __ , _e _O"C .. W.g pa:ssage_. _x ... _esc .. _ mg_ -i!$.I,ory _~anVl'~HS

fill~g thetabem,s.d'G' (40:J4-38)antitip3t~ th~d~aift:tlfl:! on5f3c:l OO~ Sinai. Jed. by the d.Q!ud. of guid!lllce {Num,UH 1~3S). Last;, .11.5. ~n the books. QfLev~tkus .and N~m~ IDe divin~ Qrca-de fOnnJda i5. fQUf!d rep~t~dly :lin. Exodus I(Le., ~alld the l.ol!IDsaidiio M05C~,t HJ.:21; 25:1; ~t BJ.)~, wibik me .!nitrQdudQ.ry ph~ ~th:isis what ~e loRD has co;mmanded"coonetts the l'egis1atio~ QfEx(Jdtl.Sand Le\'iti~ fe.g.j. ExOli.35:4; :Lev. 8:5,.i '] 7;2.).

S&'"tiun. '] tells the :'i.-terry o:fthe judgmen,t:ofE8YPil:and.the'dJel!iv~nce of btaelt1ro:m ~1,aVli'fY. First, Moses; :is introduced .as God'.s :imtrnment for S'ec;Il:ri:Dg t!h~ rde~ of the Hcbr'~5:, and then !he is: 'cQm_:_m:i~io!:l~d and eqltli.ppedwaccmnplish ~etaslk. Gocl!.'.s ~ongsuffmng and. the pre:em:inenc:e ofobcdieoc:e to his oo:mmwds ate undetsootcd in the pass<ige Yahwieh .aIDso be~o,~ OCQr:L6:rmmg ~gn~ on, Moxs andilippo:ints Aaron. a.s. hls spcbsmaJn. He a:ffirms t~e success of them:lss:lon by :r,ev~a1Mg hlmse~f'as Vahwe'h.-an

8$1'

Copyr'ghtcd rneleria'

Cap,(rlghlod 1m ge

~edl,<'!usti;b]e' :rescluroe forrnA1:' ~!I~k of bringing out ~h~' Hebrews Ho\\' ve't; ber'OJI~ :MO$.~ can d!~U~r'I~~l from ~gypt to (O\!I!~,ail\'tt :rotilicl).'lio!1, Voith Yah.w.~h ilt Sii'iilJ .• he mu:~t :fir,st obey' ~.~!~ mpLilatl.Oils of God's eil:l"l1er cov~nu;t itemu 'W~thln I:ils own ~y 1((£4,:18-2:6).

God's method for demiverin,g Isreel by means of aseries of pla.gucs w, de~ign!i:dto 'bring di:rine jrudgme:nt upon the Egyptian nation (12.:: 1. :2,}i .. The instHudon o:fith~ Passo\!\er :Feast was ,II, 'wad~ing rnemortal r'o.r futur~ ge:n~ -.;:rn,ijom (lif lsrnld.i't.~".AF. lli rernmder QlfYilhw,e!J'i's might')' act in hi tnry;it was intein!d.cd! to in!ipiCiell'cv'emnoe Sind prompt worship amongthe Hebrews (12: 1;1·-27)'

5«-tion 2 ,e.xp:]a.mll: hOlllll' Yahll,reh t:um~d a mob of f()mlIe:r :sl.avcs tnte a "sp;i!cla] p~i.o:n'" as his C;OVM3~t.peop~e by means 1)'£ ~, ~>ef!::a.flt iII,g)ii"e!l~

90

G yr _ht min ri

m.f:!lit. at Sinal {l9:lli-6}.. hIS[iOiW' wrudeJy .acx:epted thBtthe Hebrew covenant with Y~lb:w~h p.I!tQnels die Jit\ernryf9l,m Qfth<l Htt;Q~~"~1l! trna,u¥ ·ofthelate Bronrze Age. The treaty form was a 'common way fm- '. a

l:· ..... 'L' 'd-'b- ~.dl" L.~ ~ lst . . .. h L, din' 'f"d!

nlJU.16 . .or - .~.) ,exact 0 'wlence H1Jlf~ V.asso . stal:esHl.tl e OJR . ,g o. • ..e ser-

vant through carefully prescrilbed covenant sUpulatlQZU. COIl$i.d~r some specH1.c @~emtIDts of the treaty-form in the covenan.t cede ofExod.UlS:

Pfe8!wb1.e: .20;.28 H:isOO:lic31 Prologue: 20:210

Sti~~atioru;: 20:3-17 [~necilogue)f 20:21-23:;19 ~tand Public Reading: 24:7

List. ·ofWitnesses; 24; I-II

B.'--- -;"'. -. - -'-;'0'.' ·Ctl:tSe·: 23:2(!1-3···~(··d-·1;'- . ~,-;l.. . .ff!-- ,~:l' ;':

,Les5in;g5' an s< __ . __ ._ ,;:i',t:I_H!.eau:u m,ore ~l,Iooa~ y u't

leviticus 26)1

Th.erU'!lill~ .S&tlon giv,es details of' thetahem.ade ·ofYahweh and !its fUr~ niishingS. 'The 'Wry' presence of GodwouIDd be established in themLdst~ of braei through mis T~nt ·af Meeting [25:8),1'h.e ()lid_3.tio~ (If Aaron and his 0000 aspliests forthe SO'Inotuary helps to e'xpJalH me indll~jon of the getu:ajogy (chap.. 6)1 which Iegit:im~~dthe .M'cnie pnesthood.The idola~ -. ..; l '-1;,' -U:i" .' -. ,- .f~ -E- -~ t::'ud d 10 - y--~ '""W1dll" '- ~t,. ~ • 'C-~ lush - .JI t:h .' '.- ar-

"") Mli~ rene on 0·. gyp-J _gf: y ._~L'I;,!Un Y'!~·~X\;,K,! ill,,! _Cg; p __

aUcl .in the golden-calf 'ep'.isode when Israel 'was eneamped at ShtaiL. (c:E 32:1 ",,·1 0). Thcwratf:! of Yahwm was sta:yed by~e intlerof'l5SOry prayer of M~ for Imclj, and tfue mercy ,ofQ:,d m:ade (jO'lv~mtrenewal possibJe Cd 32.:'11-3~: l7)<. Giwn ht:ae'l"s pMch:u'J!.t fOr rebellion. 3ndw~yw3roness fforn Godj• mis p3~char<l~t~~d :muc;~ Q:fh~ history mtnft; OldT~~t. Sm:a]l won~rth'@; new oovenantwm be Ofj;~ W1i:iltten on the heartl not (In tableb: of $tQfie (cr, Je!',3 bll-.34},

The rev-eta,tiQfI. of me o III me Yahweh, (or lehovah)to Moses. as the Yahweh divln,e~y appointed deliverer of .Israel :marked. a new rtag~ ~n God's pro-

gres.sive' se~f~lQsur:e: to the Heb~w peop]e .. The namf! is U~3ru~y tmns-

l:a:ted"J AM~ and 'CQMCltes theperson::il" eternal ... and. aID.l--roffident ~

of God!'s; na,wreand. ebatacter;

At issUiI.'l isth.ecccummc.e ·ofth~ nam.e "Yah.weh~'in the C,enesis records.

Some: biblical Khobn: have ammtedltha;tthe Heb.teW' peim.a:rcm did not know the name Yahweh for GocL.·1b..ey arguetna:t ,menam.e·yahweh was written :intothe toext. of Genesis .anach[;(l~isticaUy i(j,.e..;,ilfier the fact) ,or ciLs@tb@bool is a compilation oflalt~r writln:gs: that. il1lclil.u:IDtN:I. th~ divli1l!~ Aam~. In 'COfI!U1'1St, .• ~ bibl'ica1. :scholar:soommltted to 'the :anltiqu~tyand ~~egrity of 'the Pen.tBit'mJcb ba'lt'! 8$5medthat it i!: mQ~:re8.SIJnabJe~o assumeth.at the patris:rchs knew the name Yahweh but: werel!l:m:fami.l.iar with the ~~, nf;~ dimeo!l<ion QftheQtQgi~ rne1m.mg b' the ngme th;!1; stemmed fmm Israel's: exodUs «:'!xpe:ri'mc:e..

91

Copyriphted materia'

The' U!rl"'c~iing (~fthe d!~vine name Yahweh was not the 01:11y way ~n whkh Goo(~ea1.~d himsclft\o. ISI'j;(jl d~ thtl exodus tlxpl.'ti.c.nc(,l: G~e p .. 76), S¢\!'~ral othertypt's of theophanies: 3relleported in. the PeJl!~alte,udi~l n@rtp,ti'i'\~ FGr ~mpl~ Y<llhweh"~\1~aledhi~Mture and p~nn a~ we]] as In:is ""r;I]~ <ind di.vine purposes for :Ime] hY:li variety of mean_$;, indud,llJl;g

• The .angel of the Lord (Exod .. 3 :2; 14: [9)

• Other angeljc ag'.~ts {Ex.,,(tnao~33;1)

• .r:vtiracuWow event (;Exod,.8: 16~'~ 9)

• A. fliam.em a b~h (E~d .. 3;2)

• RN~·. smQ~, d""lind~j,af!d Hgh.t!ling:aJt Sinal (lE~od. ~9d.:B-20) l1li Vli:iioo:wd dream fef.. Num. ~2:.·6~8)

• Vollee and d.irec,t comm:Wl!ilcOItiol:l (E,71i:od. 24: l) l1li' Theeleud of glory fExocl. 16:'~ OJ

• Thec'loud ·of gJJ:i.danceandp:i_]lar of fLlIe I[Exod". 40;34 -38]1 •• '~FaCi! toIace" with M~ (E~od. 33:1l; cf V'o:'. 20-23)

Dw·Tm Pl#gu.a

9'2'

MOr~im.po.rtant than the vSidety of diiv.ine m,OI:11,ifes,tatio:ns to the flebrew~~'as the oontC:=~lllt they ,d:isc[osed to br,leJ] about this, covenant God, Yih.web. He was a God

• '\iVih~)f·eme<mb~h:is p~v.i.Qtjs 'Ctw~.mult oMig;ni!Ol'ls (2:24) .. Of jUdgm.EOil;, ,aQd dltliver.tJlc;{l (lli2:~27J

• 'TramctmWrn.t" Y«l!t immanent 09: 1 0- m 5; 25.: 1-9)

.Wbo m~esthe nstiens fior the pNvidentj,d beneflt ·of his elect, Israel (15,4-6, 1:3.-.18)

.. Un~qi,ie ,;;lii1d ~G'])" f~f ab()veand m(};feiPow~du] th;;l!i'i the gOO$ uf "eg~tiQ~5 os~n; 18;10-r2)

• GOO()tlS and merciful, w~o· relen,u: of :(1ng~r and rosp(!n.& L-a,yO:l'1.. aMytomtefcessory prayer and repentance (32~ 11-14)

The text o:fExodu:s dedsres thOlIUneoo:n:fro:n.t;)ti.on betwee.n Moses and Pba .. u"his a(:ti1;.udlly a, ()omUc st~ggle bet.ween. the true Goo .. yahwehi• and 'th~ rl'lll~ gods of tnt! E,gypt~ilIn.r<lligiQfi. 1[(£ E;l()od. 12.:·~ .2; .. ~ 5,1 Th; 18: 11). Yah .. weh el~vat,oo MO$es to a po5:i.uon ~,JS God~ so that Moses could. oppose ~Ph~~Qh .~$i !Q:!. f:!ql,l:~~~ :ill'!G~~eQ.mcs~ of the ph:u,ao'h Wii'l~ the phiY5ic"al. oexiP~Qn of the $un gpd At.e;n, or R:a {c[ EXQd 7:1) ..

. Mthough m3ioy biblical scholsrs ailft:empt to irl!~tif)!" apartiodar deity .~ meobje~t of ea~h of the i!;efl p!la~es (:;:eefig, 3"2}, it see:mll, beU~r to understandthe p]ague5 (;:g]~ective]y as j~d;gmrnt against the whg~epa~ .. theQo of f.gyptiOl!lgOOs, However" the f:t_o,d tv\<"Opi.agli:!e'i!00 appe~r ~Q be .:limed. at the primary Egyptian deity and his e.artbly .representative:, tbe ph:a:raOh. By bJottillJigont: the SM in. Egy;ptand permitting daylight in Go~hen, ;1/nd by in1lerrtlpt1>:i:g the p,haraolIlik cyd~ of d~~I:YIn the aiC;;lith. plague~. Y3h.W{!~ showed himself Lord to, the Egyptians ..

T.hi!in~Hili:ut.ion 0':1:' the Lord's Supper,. Ol!iE~]clladst. :us,l'It'!ot~d in fho(" P~ver rhe, both from the standpomt ora mecmoria~ feast (d; tullie 22: '7- 30) and ill th~ ato:ll~ng d~]I:\!I'Cr3.nc{l· of the Pll;SChal Lamb of God (ef Rev. '-5'~· .-] .J')

·.·u~ .~.I.

A]OO, AAown <IS; the D~c-alDg;ue' o: r "'T~m 'iV'o~ ~the Ten Commandmen.t .. a.re roe(urcdedin Ex@dius 20~ 1-17 i!li1d repgated i~Deutll;_~tQ~Q~y .5 ;6-21. ln oonb'Mt: tQthe ~f,e~t QHhe diMnely :reveal,{':riI legis,]~tiO:[I @Hhe PentIte1.l;ch, :M.ooe.s i~ not d1ied as the m.edg~tor of t~csc jln~uru;:tiiotls. Instead, Godi:11m& se']f!!,!r.rit~ the commandments Qnt~hlebl and. ~peab aireedy to O'lJl. the He:brew.!! (2o.~]; 32~.l6]. l:!1!iLi~resti!,!:gly" Yahweh i!!ldk .. tes he h~~ 8poken t)i)

~ ., . ',' .

the ~~t'lfrom hQ,n.ven,. not £rom .. M.otl:l'!lt S:I~i!ii~ i1fit~~ deliv,eri:ng th~ T('f! Coml'm!lldimenti ~o dte1:sTseUtes (20:2:2; c£ Lev; 25: ·~~~perhap.s denoti~;g; the perfect .a;n,(J. ,etema~ ch:aJmc::toe. of I:h.e Docalogue.

On~.y two olf the :Sl~liI;U:tles are cast in the: fOm:l. of poiOitiv.e illlpetlltives: the foUllith, ~Rel:l1~MOO[ dl~ Silib:batll da,y ... /,an.d! the fl~thf '"Honor YOtllt f .. t~u~'f <tfldmOfhlo':f' ..... ,; (Ex:rn:L 20:8=lZ). Ei6t Gfine tenlaw.~ are probi.w b~Hcms O.~.~ th~ytakiC ~~c: lOm1l"¥ou ~halU not ... "'). 'fh~ p.arH,:u]ar grammat:i!;al(;(l~rnQn ·employed 5hoy,.~th.at:th~e ·[ornma!uib were to hav<=' Ibind:i_~gau.thori.ty fo'.!" th~ ,~,t!rrent~~d,dl flrru!"~ g:0ner.'!tk~f!s .of H~b,r~w poople.'fh.e harsh tOtl.ti ,of the D.cca.l~,~c~j:!I:ed. by ,th~ repetition of the ffl,Q·~tSel.!'~re :noeg:;l:tinn p~!IMe in tlite Hebrew l~f1gu~gl;: s.ewoo to\ioder· SCQre the~boolt!te n~tl!;!re and pg[m<!:~~t dl!<!rnl;:t~r Qfth~ d~vtn:~ l~w;

n~ T~ Commandmer:lt:i ar~' patterned ;a;(1;~!ithe lter;;Jry ~orlt1 <Ill; of the Htttttc:: su~endnwv$s;llrtre<ltyw·j,th () prc~mble, hjst~rili:a] Pro]O!li1l:le, and .<} Us:t of besie stipulations (see· ~Strucj'I:UreJ1nd Organiza:tioo') .. The fl1'St four sta:tjut'GS circumscribe t'nl.:! ffilntloru::hip of tbe ·\tsssal. (J:s:r::lICF) to ·tht: suzarain (V3hweh)~, wnile the last !f,b:comm3~d.merl.ts older human re:l(ltio:nsh:i~s: '! ... r~tMn ith.e: ''ii'l1ss::d (ls,rne.l:iiliei} c'Om.munity .. Uhirnat~ly ,the D~Cido;gu.~ wassn ~.1;¢~:5i(ln ofYahwt-h's g~c@ to Israel already' d~mO!l;5:tIi'at!OO IftL dH~ ~od!us

.f::, ... ", ... >''rl.., 'r:! .• ,r_ .... ~I" - .·'·b·--·c·~. ,"- F···f··;':'.·~",;-:- .c·' ..

.• mm .. L:.ogypt. Hie J,·cn '>...V.m.manwnents ... roUg~i,t 3:. ·s.c.ns~ 01 r:~~"tt.'OUS(El,CS:l to

hifae]"s rd:igiOrliDnd oodal Ufe.br<tcl'~ OOYICJl<!:ot oht>.dience was but. o.l f'C:5PO:nse o.f.gro.t:itudc :to. thegflloc of God, not ;). burdensome dyty by which they Ci:irnOO. ,or merited Goo.Jsfuvar and iIT.'demption ..

(rhe !i;'3n3i,ti.ons rnthe' De:u.t:eronomy :5 rendering oFt!h.e [)e:Calogu.ear:e 3G:(:ounted fior !by the c().verulintr,l,':t1IJi1'wl11 proc:~dute, in. whk::h tneh:l!>lC leo"\!efia~t sti!pu]~tiO!1~ '\YeP! mod!iflt:d (If ad!olJpted. te aQcoif!'!moda~e chang· ing b_i$I::Qri.cil ;1M ~ilo~~gk<ll dfi,;lMlr~~rll;;CS,)

A,\)~ordil)g to, G. :B" M~:d.enh.in,. 'the purpose of c(!!v,cn,m:t ~ to ere a t·e !le'\i\!r,d!ltj,.oMhi~ w~e:re::I5 the pu~ 'of ]"w ·15 to re.gu~<ilite·c.x:i~ti:_llg relatio~jp$ by ordcringthe :means Qf tl1{i_n:.gthe '~Ofl..ditiOM requlred for rn'!!mtlin;i;llgl'lln .rmoc~ation. The' e-:x'p]~c:it perpese of the Uec:ll.o,(p:le :i~ stated. LII E;xQdu'O 22::20: ;r ••• ~h,8!t thefea. of God. willbewrl:th you to keep y'ou fro.m si:t1nillg/' The 'Ten. Commandm.eill!ts ~x:pl1ess theet)!!I:i[la]~yperfen mOira I.

The 'len Co~

96

Copyriphted materia I

cha;~gf'iahwehi aad as such they oonstituted the basic principles gov~ng (or ~!ordmngth€ me-.ani')of th~~ife I()f faid! for th.e H-ebr~~

M law, the D~a]og,ue is connected w.ith. coven.:m.t in that th~ re~a~ tions summarize me covenant stipUlations, toqUii.'iftll fur m:a:inhilning ~t(l 'Iweement betw'een Yahweh and Israel, The .Deceloguc: p,robablyaIDsoif'lmc. ijpnoo as ~gMe~.:~tem~rt; 'Qrm~ bw for brae:~~e sodety. deli!n.elJ~· mg "mouscrim.e~ in r,ebtion to oovenmtw:i,th Yahweh. Tb:is was essential to the wen~beling of il:he:~1HlrlOl1li; beC.3iU$e: an. offense ~gainst YOIiwweh's (;()'v'en!ul.tjeop;a~ed. Qeenltire c,oveMnt com._mul1tity.

In the New 'fe!itaJme:flt~, J!~ :iumm:m~ed. the theo]ogi!cal and. social dimensions: of the oo\!'enant stipulations in Me Decalogue in two 'CQJnImIndmen.ts lUaU., 22,315-39; ef: Dmt. ,6,5:)1: and tm'ipbasil!~. thatdte essence of the Old Test;u:n,ent ~<!W ;$ jum.Cf::; mCf;CY, aJndi fW.m.(d, Masn. 23~2:3J.

One important QU,tconm of the (;O\~en;mt agree:m,enlt hetw~fiYahweh 1h ~ and hraei wou me verrp~e!'lc.e of God i!(l;.orn_panying the Hebrews, an(J/,Gotl

their jo:um~yfrom Bgypt 1iO the plains ,o,f'Moab vfa Mmm!tSin:ai.Al!thQugh

thts mysterious Pf~~c::e: of God was .rmd,(': m[Ul~~ t.Q brae~ indtem.artive

fo~a eleud ~d a.pilIDatof ~tbe ~tial·tlmm,of~e Ptnuteud1,al.

Jian:a,uw is th.e "lord. dwelling in the .mJdst of hi!! peopl~" (Exod. 25: 8).

The tabernacle structure described in ENOOUS .25~40 was d~gned~o, symboH:rethe ac:dve presence of the Lord. among. me Hmrew~ {~ Jig, .5.2 on p. 12'2') "Thetabemade was ailso call1ed. the'Ten:t of Meeting, because mere God oon.vened his ~mbli,~ With Israel, with &e hOly priesthood ordained to, :repr~t the' Hcllr-ew poop!e before YOihweh, (d Lev. 1 {] l In part, clle presen>oe of God!. assod a ted wi~thetabem;B,de restored the:mti~

mafn felowslri- ~ ........... k..;.. GOOmd rtt:m and: w-· :,',' .. th-.--' ,.>, ,.

. - . -p - Jo,IJe'U "'1 - ---"---- --- - oman m_ e &Y e.xpe-

~encebefQrethe,fuU I(Gen. 3:;8:},

The New TestaJment: renews this theme of God's p~(:-e a:mQng hum:mki'ndwith me a~noun.c.emeTIt f~.und inJ~_n's gospel] that~'m.e Wo,rd. became flesh and li.ved [or 'tabernacled·']1 am.ang us" 0:14; ,c£ Jsa. 7:ru4). Pe.~aps th~s: return. of th.e"div.ine pr:esen()e~to, Israel fuffiHed H.aggai':Il pl:'Ophtt~ 3ibou.t. ~I.'l b:tt~g1orY' of th~bl!mp,]l!bcingf3:tgre3itff than the glory olme futmer (i.e., So]QmQn';:l] temple (He,g. .2~~9; d. Lili 2)"

QUESTiON'S fO,R' FURTHER ST'UDYAND D~'5'CUSS'ON :l.\iVha~ Is the: siytificance ,of the: name Ya~weh for QW"und.ernblnd,., .Lng of the ~k 'ofaxoo~?'

2, How do we exphai:1l Yahweh's hardleaing G:f'Philfaoh/s. h~art?' 'Rha.t does th~!i! diSdbse about God."'s dea]i:ngs willi na.tions?

3. q G E. ~a; Thf'Trtlth GeMnlI:i.mrL (II4JtimOOl'; Ja/ul.fM~ U~~ JfJi7!J), WI1~.2J4'. ~ 200.

97

Copyriphted materia'

COP}'r all ed 1111,l[l'

IN., ...

,. l1te ImfJna:s o/(;o'(l

.ne'puri~ ol'h~~~m

,commamizy

,.ne Finci.Ple ,a/substitution :in :tie' sMJ:rljki.al ritutiJ

<+ lie priNCipkofmediafin,rt. in ,fhe ~ce o,fthepn'~'~'

.. TIre tifldeem1ng of lime by means' ,of.r1te .tJ/tu~l ~~

L EV1TICUS,; THIID .BOOK of th~ P~fltat!~uc.h, is aIT:1,~r.!uiil of priestly r'e:s~I;a:t:io:ru; aful du~es and ::1, ~1I:mlbook of insl:nJc~~O:l1!S pre':scribiillg piGliCtic:.d "'holy lIivin;g~ :001" the l~[;lli~lH:eco'YeIlDt[C!'mmllJll:ity~ the Hebrew title of lliebc;u;lk, "}\:_Qc! he. c .. ]led,~ ~ taken f.rO[!l thebpeni!lg verse of the tJ@'rt, iiAndithe: Losnealled unto MQS(!,5~ [KlIV). The ErlWiish n<lm.e ·'levi.ti~~ d~!'i',,'es flXlfO th~ Greek ,ti'dJ~ l~!:I~tilwl~~ giV'i.'!lil in me S~p· magi:!'It@i!1d !fif:!3ning "pert3ill~[lj,to the Le',.i1i:'~"

'!heWdtiIll of .... 00 •.

The :hl1:malli a:nthoii of Lev:id'!:usis n.ot fl],e:J[tiol]ed ]1], the rU:M):k:. Yet the phrase '''1th~ lO~D ~;!lid to M~$," ooc::u!,~, mere tha[]. twe~ty-;fh,feUITle:l f~ th~ '~~t Ortl,eM~ O!),OI"!:m ~V~ dl;,lipt'Ci! <exo;:pt z, 3, 9, 10, and. 26]1. Orllio~ do:x:J,ewisih. and 'Chmti:lIl schfila:rs h.avetradi.tioWlilly attributed the booktQ MfiiES. thel:a'!!l.~glver (If I$raJel ALt:hough no dh"jne oomm<lndmcrlt is~iverl fo!!' 'lie fe(':oltd:i~g ofilhi:'l; ]e~latign de.livered. ~o MO!5e..'i, it is simpl.y assumed bya,nalQgy tQili:~ book of E}.'j.od!us that Mooe~ 'ir,i'Wte down. the wonJ;s, spo··

~e.~ tj) ~lm by ~e :Lgrd {cf. El'I:i:Jd, 11;] 4; 2~~4; 34:Z7}, .

Scholar:; ~ol.ding to m~ tmdlitiiol:1.:al. Mosaic ot Singl.e=-a,uth,or\itie~,v set rorth tw(iJ1 optloMfw the d<lt:eof~ti.ng of Lev:iti,cus: (1 ) those committed. to an

.100

Co y(gllt d rna'orla

..,_·TIMI ....

The oonua[t;'ClacNng ·ofLMti<:us is: summarized! in mel command "een- .HDl:lneu se:crate yourselves and belloly, for I am holy~ (Lev. ~ b44~45].;. The first

part of the oook g~V'es the procedures {or apprMdlin:g the Holy One of

ts~e'] ~n w(Jr.;hip' (dt;li~ l--llJj. The~ctmd' p~b~how th~ jiQioOO coverl:antaUym God. translate the idea. ·QfYahweh's hol11l.ess to the sp.here

of daily ]iviDg (cha.p!" ] 1-:27)i.Tht': bask purpose of Lev.i.tic1I.l5,. then, Wa5i1lO pliov.id<.':instrucuol:l tb-r the Hebrew oommumty in. "'hDtyworship'i and. "'holy

livling:" 00 thalt ;QS. the covenan:t people they :.m:ght eJlDOY the blessing ofYm-

weh.'s presence (.cf.. 26: 1-·~3J,.

The Old 'Testament word ,hminess ,esset'l!u.ally (;Qnvey:s~'~e nGtioll af "separatio~"·from the: ltJ!unu.me Fo[' $l!1i'\'icea:ndtor wfi~ip to Yahweh, w£l,(I, Mmself is wholly separate from his c,eatioR. The: ]e,giis~a.tiYle b.cilin.e.ss of Leviticus (Jowel prol!il'~ ·tdtectiV'e only a5 Isra,{l!1 ~:u:acti.cally 1m:P:]l!ITItmmdth@ ideaID of"'tbe h(lly~ moo the everyday humon experien.ce. At issue was di~ c:emme-nt bect'!Ween the .ho~.y :and the ,(lommon .and b~~ the cl~an. and theunc~e;3n (l 0: 10-1 ~ l

A:P'p~yingi!:hc (:-Qfl.(:~pU of the hQll(; ~-Q!'!Ut!o!n, cle~n" and 'uJ1icIDc::an to the physkaJ; mi:lta1I, and .spiri~.u realms ·I)f ~i£e wasbaslc ttl the ancient H~brew worldview:.Th~ distinctions alIDoWCld thl!! ptlOpJt: to on:k:rthei.rr(!~ilti.oniliip to til!!' 1l3,Wral worM ln su.rn. &\!I'I1Y t!haitili~mlght: .indClm. '1:m holy~.iiS tho Creat'O.r is: hQI.y.

On Me basis ofl- iltical Jaw· - cf' .. ..,k·:~F in lif.·- WllIS:-'ith-'. - -h -+ c· c'" c· .--

• oev'_ __ __,. ev_q""!'! __ ~. ~ e e1!_e'f __ o~y OJ Win

man [Gil the He:h.rew.s:. Those thi~~ de~emmed .commo:n·were suMi.vided

Uldud!mgth.e, ll'atioussacnlfires (dt:a.ps.t-7) and tne,requiremM'tS for Ute, prilesthood ilin. dlarge of the Woorship.

'The remajnder of the 00 ek contains [aws[eg:u~itltiJig. ~e lif~ (if lh~ H b ] tih .. ~,~ n God' b r ~. 1 . III

.. Ie ._·rew~~u;: se n .. ey· ml~l,l fe· ... eet ,~.:S ., ,o.tll.(l_5S .as. I"IS peop. em t'dl:

-- - ··t' ,.,! .:L·11"1" 1':v;na ~c·[ t:' .... -.l .] 9·~ ·.C. ·h"p.··"r" .~ 1 16~dd!r~ variOU!l

fOU l~~I '\.d·'ua__), '-~-~h'ib ~" A· ~A'w'~." :'IIVJIJ -._.J:.g,~_~""JI.;;I1 IJ'_!-""'_ ~ ",l:. __ '_' ~ __ I

ilmpudti.~s Inhihiting proper womp and community relatiQn~p5, while chapters 17 ... 25 constitute: pract:lcai ~es forholJ:llll.vir!g so that hrael'i'i roligi.ous .3nd.~s@:CU]at·'life might not be mutuaUy exdusive.

The 'l~tl;Wio'~haptel:'S of the boo;k_ (2.6-2:7) :reinfu.!.:;e the cO''iI'e'f!antaloontext ,of rloe levitic.al leglsla.tioll. The basic: pUc~ ,of meboo!k is outlined. i~ cb:apter 2!6,indudin,g the .I}ecitation of the covenant hl.essingsa:nd ~ This .~~apteralS(l~(lnlil.eds the ~~,gji:datiQnwlth :tn.~ 'C(ilv:efl:aJQ.~makimg; p~ at Slnai ootbat Isrnelntlght belti.:l prop~eand. Yabw~h :migh,tbe theD" God (26i:4S-'iUi), The oondud:ing cha:PteTilppear:s to be: an appen" ~,aruched beC:11J$e (jQvenanlt reJatio~p':I$ really "oath taking"bd'bIe Yihwe:n (d the :simU:ar:i,ty in the mndudlng formulas .in. 26',416 and 27:34). The: Jaws: i:nvalviftg \·ows:l.nd. gj.fts.futrth_erimtn:lct:the peoop.le oflme oolenm and S3cr.edn~tu~ of th®!: "'ow~befor~ Godl.

105

Copyriphted material

b "I· .. '1."..1 .. , A'I!. -H- b s:acrffi' _I· .l~~_ .• ,

ium.wtytop.acate me g~ me r: e _feW ._._ .,,~Cloq ~ .. w:1S ~CUIV!!

in. th.:~:t ~rt W3iS ruvinely reveal~and! was.,~ toWlltd the gpat (if~

and (,omm'l[lni,ty haUn.ess (liJg,,4! .2:), .

Pi,ve 'bask types ,ofsacr:iflce;s.or Offeriflgs,. Wefe institut~dI as part of Fo~ mal. corpar:ate warship and, persona] ,edebra,tio:n, in Hebrew rem~gioU! expressien; (1 ) cereal 'Oil' ,grain offering, :(2) feUoWllbip er peaa: offen., {3:) w.~ole b1!lim:t offering., 1(4) sin o:liering.,afLIJd (5) guilt af trespass. ofR:rmg (SIJi:": fi;g:. 4".2]., These sa:crifice~ describ@dinl.evitic:us, fe1l into, MOcate~ gpries,: [~] those offerodspontanoously to 'God in praise and th.anbgiv,mg for Mrnjn~reQelived Of' fav'or;$ graated (e,g"" the cerealer grain offering and th,e t~'I'eetypes of peaceoR'erin,gs, lev:. 2: 1 "" 16; 3: l ~ 17)~ (2) these d!!M>'I3tnd~, b~ Yahw~h 00n. th~ ooGasion ofsi.n.in, tl!:tl' H~bfew community (e,g .• tnebumtj S~13i1l~ ~.~ or guilt oOff~riO~ la, 1~3,-17;; 4:1 -5; 13; 5:1 4~6:7) .The form.er w~ g£l'It'!.~fu1 r'~!1~(!S«l' the gpodness (If G~ whj]ethe latter woere necessary to pur:ifydte holy place from. th.e d.eseaa.nQn brought on by sin. These purifying saoifiQes led, t'Q .reconci1iationwitb Yah.wen. :and :~tQred the ~nitent$i!'lner to feUow.:iihJp with other peBOM andGxl.

Ac(:ot1dillg tD I£v.l.ticus. 17.: Ll, the prtn.cipie of life is mprnsMted m. the blood. Thus. blood upon the alt:;w w!!t!Onoe(~ry fot the symboti,c(;te.am~ng ·of'Goo's presence (d Heh '9.:2.1-2:2).. The word "atonement" 'I:lred here represen.ts the word group related] to the Hd,rew root kpr; In. ib v<!fbal f@rm$ it ref~(1; ~o the p'Ufging Q:fb()~]:y Qbj~ from the effects ofsin. SQth_Al altar would. be p'U!rgOOo!ll: behalf ohhe ·offerer whose iSm or mpuri.ty had riitualltytamishcd ~t The purp~ was to mai:n!tmnthe santti.ty Qf God.':s p~c.e' run their mrdst .. Therit1!l3!l~, ID::e:l dis118:fe:nn't, isf!.~y~~ but ,can bep'mv~ntJati.v~, This d~oon.t3.min;tion. ·of the :saru::tu:iliry renders the- off~'e':I" dean 3.nd.p:3!\i",e,s ,the wa;y fOr his recondlia.uon 'with God .. The same term is .applied:t.o the grealt Day ofAtollemen.t ritual ofLevitic.1!lS 16, known tOOD.}!, uVom Kippur,.

n... tea~I.~-~·· both th . Old 11 ' .. ... d tit . N'TI -. -_1_~.;]

J.'_~e' _U~~: IF!, _0 _,~ _ > I~enlt:m_ _"Ce o' 'ew-_restament ~,_.y

" _,II! · .th . -.-!_.~.'I _~._:,t:: .. • .. ....- • dOO - . '.. [ . from. th-

my.jC1!.'Ii~ _ ,at~WtW ~ y~oes we:!"e not mtrn . c _to SlJ1o!'e' pt'Op~~ _ _ _ _. _ .~'

sins or t.o. g«t. th~to h~IPrnll.,. ~3d" th~ prcscrv,ed~he .hollne.ss ,of God's pr,~('~ a:nd. a healthy relationsbJp between the people and God. The bd.ie\i'~under the' old cov~~t wasOO'll~ted :a:s righR:oUS on. ~ b:rdsQf faith in¥:·fi·-"='b-cdF.utlifulfn -.- roth - ClOV:-- -.;,t- -d,1 , .... " :~,.' _,~t.-~I~~ 11.1'._ .. c. _

_ ~ _" a __ wert aI'! .ess e __ . enan_ !lin_ h", ~YpwaYQ,11IIi ~e.g."

Get!" 15:6; Hi!h .2;4).'The~,ern.al act of Ifi,w.a], samf'i:ct was symhdl!icand rep.resentaJti,ve of the .iJltemalia,ttiitudeandi disposition. of the heart.. Psalmi5t,. :5<1,ge.an.d'prophe,trei.terawd 'tletruth, that GOO ,dbes not d.e:.sire ,saa:i.fl.cq, but repentance lead'ing to obedlienoe (c£ 1 Sam .. lS;22-23; Ps. Sl;l6-11; Prov;. 2] ;3; Isa, 1.:1 2-~ 7; Jer.. hZ 1-23; Hes, 6;6; ARlo::; :51:21-2-4; .Mit '6:6-8)1.

In his l();v~!1;glindn!ess God granted fO:fJitv-eness to. anYO:f1e man~festU:l8 "the braken and con.mtt': lean:" of Sfl'lCeretqJentatlce (e'IS! 2 Sml. l2:B;

107

Copyriphted materia'

Ps .. Sl: I ~ .~ ,1)-17) .1h.e ,effect,u:li~rll;:mova1 of~i]t .and fbrgi\!lmess of silln were ll£complished. through oonf~sion and the pe'lition andinte:roesslQn. of pt.'iy~ t'P ~h,egrnci(iIIi:S;l:nd mer6Cui Lord (e.g.,,!E~, 32=11-13, 30":3S.:

I 6·'-tJ IJi' .. 1 th ... '. fHh '. 'Ai '.' . . .... . ..,.1l.'

~Sl!!,.~;;:'-.· '\ . 'J;im .... te_y _~~e p!;l~ Qb ~ ~e_ rew' ~Q1.,cc.e W'~~Q w~~>!-,!:!!p

God :and to p~rv,e Go.d~s p~nQC in tJhelir .midlst. The l'itjual:s 5Cl:'¥edi to. instruct lfH~ Israelites in the prindplesof God's hQlm~ hu.man. sl:n.fidnGSS" s:ubmti:l:!iQn;uy death as :a response '1:0 humMltil'ansgt'esslOO, and the need f~r repentance. They provided deaming and reaewed reHowsn:ip within the ,comm.unity:ilnd wi .• Yahweh ..

Ihml~r:it,u3!;S fu.mishM, H[ustrntio.nsand :a. basis forrundet'$undling th~ redempti!!>t!:'WQrk of j~~. QfNaz;)~th ~ M~~ah. John the B~pti:st reoog~ ~I,.-d ;md proclaiLtl'l'ed Jt::'susas!ihc: I..amh ·of God who t~ aWiI.y the ~In .(l.£ th~ world !(John l'2,9~:rM). Jesus ~e1If u~demood. 00 ro1e ~, me good .5~epbero whQ ] .. y~ dQiWfl. Ms Hfe for M~ sheep ~Jdh_n l()~ 1-,11 )1, Elsewhere New U:stament -writers interpreted the c:ruci.fixion of ji~U$ CMist as the ~oncefQr alr sacrifice forth.@ S~I1S cfhumanity {@,:&~ [R.om .... ~~h6=11; Ht!o, 'W:10, I. Z}, The~teroo t$1t;!, Heb~~i~ fa.c:t:~oMea:ed the Day of Aronement cetemotl!}' with me d.eol\h ofJesl.:!S Ch_riS1:, wihkh became m awning s:auifice duo,tIgh the offerl_Q& Qfh.._i$ body' (Reo'. 9-10; d L~; m6),.

Fm..u.y;the· New T~ent writcrsrollmdthe new covenant eqmvalent of ritual :!iacr:i:Bice lin "spintY!a~, sacrifices:" offered hy Chr.!iSti,l!.ns~o God through Chri!i~.JG:ruS (] Peter 2:5].. These .spiritual!i3mfkes .~n.d.1llde

• GCrle.Qus and ibeerliil.givi~g {,Phll4:1gJ'

• Won.hJp, especia1!Jy p!'<!:ise .mdtbooskglvin,g (:H.eb. 13,:15-16;

cf; Ps, 50; 13-14)

.. P:raye:r {Rev. S ,8; 8:3-4)

" iENSillg-e]is-m. CRom" 1 ,5: 1 G~ I i; c:f. Isa, ,66::2)0)

• SdHeiI:;I serv!(:e to Ohri5t-~l.'C[1.~o d~'th (R.n-m. 12; 1-2;

PhiL 1; 17,;2 TIm, 4:o;RJev, 6:9)

]~tl'rre,rung]YjOlll the le\o"tio] ~J::pi~tQn' or .:nornn.g!lacrifk:es; ~ fbr"llllWi.t .. tin( cQ,,"ena'll!t violations. Therewas no specHlic' sacrifice for prernedi,t.4li1ted 3tnd .m.1l:h_>J(iUS CO,\!Iijn:lii'it tt;Ui~~(in Of ttih¢l!li{ill.

ThI.l'I.eviti:c3i prc:5cripllansfQ:rho]~¢l$SiI!H¢b~ ]ir~ extended even. to Sablmth ge'~ the caLe11idar: Th~ ~at; l"()fig.tQ1US fC$tiva]$ wer,e ordered 2,(1cording:ta,the dnd agri.Ctlh.ural cil~:endar ofP..l~estille so that the lSra.e.l:ites .m:ightilGknmv~edge Str1ibati:aJ Yihweh a~ t~e~r proll~der ,and sw:ltainer (tev~23 ~4! -44). The ·co-m:maftd. to Y-

o'b~rv«:: Q~C dllY if! $¢Ven ~ ;). S~b:b()th. ~t 00 Goo pref!:i.ces thisr'eUgio~.

<tali;mdm t(U'1t. .23; 1 -31

The: Sa.hbl3!tn o:rdinancc~~d .I$raelt!hat Y:ah.w-eh wasth~ Crc":3tot' (cf Exoo. ZO:8-1·~ ).It alSo brolJis,h:t 31 sense of"'timl!lessness-to the: WOr:5rup ofYa:nwein :li"Jid a. ~nse of "hol:i~ess;' to the hum,;!!i'i idea: of :time .. KeepiilS. on~ day' hQ~Y~o God! meant res,t. :and refreshmer!!~ fOf h1!,li~a~kl:nd mil

109

Copyr'ghtcd rnaleria'

animals, butn1loru im.portant~, it. :SMJ:ctiBM.the human end!eaVnTf;iO that in the othe.r six dill.!!!; 'of tlhc weck Oilie m~ght. Ny "eat, dri:t:ik ... dfmden~oy~

-. . - , '1. L...,_". . "ftc- t:O-· ~;l{1 \:'-. ] :2 24 20:::' '-'18 2n)

ment rn one f!'~u<J~. M.Ii! ;1;1_'. 1.I'Qm .-~VY;I,:~. ""~~_, ...=.;...= .-'_'<,Jt;:l·;l" .-_""',

The Sabhath 'Wa!l; acovenant .s~gn b(l~MYah.wdt and Israel d~Gtmg brad's speci.a:[ :rdO!,tio~h.j.p"tith. Godafidt,estifYi_~gthi'lt: Israel's h-ollin..es:; was lfOOt:ed in me Ho.]y O:ne_!miot in law and. ritmil (Exml!. 31: 12-17; d Lev. 26:2:). By l~e:ti:me IQf Jesus, the p:racti.cal Sll'd. htlttl811~tad_anbenefi!.t:s of the Sa:1)bath bad been obscured if not fQrfe~ted by the leg~Li.sm cf Jilldam (d,

M-·· I· .. ·.,., 11..,. ;14- ." ·-M-a,,:TI, -1'· .. J _ .-J :3 \

' . .a."Il-_1I .... "",. ~ '= ~" I ~A '.' ,"""". -_',:J'"

The Hebrewlleligious calendar proviided f.o.r a ';sabbath;, of r-est. furt'he land of th.epro:mise i1S well ,After six years OfSOY.!1[1g1. cultivating, atuj.hM~ .• = ...... - _. ':,1L, .] .. ..II ... -, .... ].,. r·]~·II.V " - ~fL, ._,. c·· .~L ·cc .... (.~ --'Or. '2c'~7)-_ 1):....."'·"""I;O.g, me. ana was· ON ue ra .. KL. m tne sevenm,.yearl,.e., ..... ~-_." CF'!C-·

ti(;<llly s~king,the pOQr ~~d ~~a]j[y disadva:ntaged~re ·dl~ 1b~cdi-Giaries Qfth~ s a lbbat:ioCa~ y~!UllIS ~ey Qou~dgle,Bn the p.nxil.uce: 'of the falQwfand (£xoo .. 23 ~ 11}. 'Thel~ of .Deu~e-:fQnomyex:panded the sabbad~alpr-ogr,am to ~Il,du.de tile can.cdl:Ol!tionofdl!ibts, g,C'f},f.!_I)om fernier for the poor, aad the release of Hebrew slaves (Deut. 15:2.-18]. The ,sa!hbatical cycle culminat-edin.theJ~biIDee. aryear o:f eltL<i!lidpa1t.ioli. (lev .. 25;S,-24lAJtetsev-etl. sab:batical,year cydes, theLmd was "sllnctifled.~ in the: fifti1eth y~u; Mlong wfu.th the sabhati,Ca~ year sanctions, pr-,ope:rty reverted "ito,mefilmilies 'Gf Its ori,gii.n<J[ ewners,

The S:abbaltffiland- SSibba!ltic·a~aye.8ir orcl.ina:nJc;oes were designed to foster oocial and econom.ic eqIi.ility ai'id to m~~~ate im~ft:ant ~OWf!Alnt commlloit)' pn_o,(i.p]es in Hebrew $oci,~lty~ ~n.c.I;!)&l1g (1) tihanbgi"iJng :fur pMt pmv.ision and fa~dJ. i:n God"s c-Ollunued suslellin,eed!uringtne: fallctw yea.::. (2]1 forgiveness in tlhe remiSsion o:fdehts, (J) respect of ~Il$ 'Qrna,t;ed in .~ .. - ~ - . cr--G' ~"'J ',-;;,~:L - ~; -,~ ,(y·· . :~QC' 0-'·1':··, _ -of· -c~ ... --'~d. 1~4~ ~It ... -.,~ tne .Im<l!ge 0" _.UY ~_~ 1iJ.1t: mafLm~_n_r fl:.~l':ase _, .. :!l_OWes. an .. Ii. .. ,~~e prnc

tic~ of gencrosi~ and. the ~dell of stewardship In the redistrlb uti on of the ~ov~n~!'!t land. 0$

.J\c-oor,dingtotihe prophet JeremimJ !l~ect. oftht: sabba:t:icaru laws ia!ull me ~o~q,uenrl:~iec;ti:On of the rovenantiin5trudlon menmt. .in. the commands were r-esponsJ!b!e: for rllefaU ef §~rusalem and tf.lI~,H~brew exliIe in Babylbn. (c£ Jer .. 25:8- ~ 4; 2: Chromo 3,6: ~ 7 -21].. Qna! thes.abbauca[ qclc WillS· mter .. mpt(:d .• theco:mm:lli1ity _:n,a.tutal!ly rej~ the leg:rl~rn.'oil tii'id~.g t!besabba.th principles. God hadn.o diol0e but. to· ed.e hi5peopille '1w,til me landenjo"red.lts sab:Oadl~" (2. CMOIl" .36:21; 'cf. Lev, 18:2;8),.

111

Copyriphted materia'

Copyrl:;:Jhled Imag~

Neyld ..

C+ God$ /tli/hfidness to hu' w~ .J:n'iOmi.ses

+, Gad oom:rnu~liH8 h~ "ttUm mro'U#t du]. ;netiifm" Q!:au'ltUt:fJ

O::j.God~s: SOI$~~; mk. Q/me n.atians'

~;,. """ " '0 - ,- t. __

.... ' ~~te5ting (i'.' .m.a:fWm

mntiue:s

THE 8,oOK Of Numbe~!l ~s the :fourth bo!Oik. of.lhe 'PeJ;g~teuch, a,nd it ,car!'ti~u~s, tb~ s,toty GJr thelsraeliee exodus ~rom Egypt, the oo~r-e~a~t ~(ienMMWY at Mou~t Sinai. and the j01Jn~:ey to Canllan,. Th.e book hjghligh,~ th!i::wilderl'lf;S~OOsti!'lg afldl1~b~]~i!on of ~he CIOV>eI1,:!Itill pcop.ie' durillg :W.e £OirmBitlve period of !the Hcbr~'I-"I' n<l!tkm'srdatial~ship with Y<ltl:l:w~la ..

The HebrewUtle of the boek, "in tb@\II,f,ild@meJ.S:, "is ta.~(1;ll! nom. the o:pen]l'l,g Vll:r~. Th~ JlJ3meisappropria'te, becaase Nurnhersl'ec-ords the sig~ific.:m~ eltenUM!:oc::l:a'bed wIm thepetliod! lif'idffien: warn.deringi• prt10r to tffile death of :M~~fld the Hebfe~v O(;;(:jL:Ip<!,itiOt! ·of Ca:na;a:n. The E[lgllis~ tiide"NLtm.he:rs" Is :I 'ff3Ils]atj'oll oftbe: Gm~k.md Testameill;t itl'ill'Dle for the boo.k."J-\rit'-moi/' rellectio;g the' 'l;wo~eflS1"W5 to'l~!:I&5 oft:he Hebre\Nis:r.eI,i3it~d in chapter'o'll ,iillrld 2:6.

1'lheWdtlng of lite, IIHk

Trndidolll,illIHy, Jell'!'Is:h and C~ial:l schohll::s .h~\loeC'lied:l~~d the \""ri;~j,ng of Nl1mibe:rstD MOSCli_ the Hebrew b:~lI'gi'!'e~" Yet th~ boo:kitself corrtains only enereferenee to M(l~5; as aO,au:thor of me m.<liil:eti:rll, and t:hrrt is specHl" cally .l1millted to th.e itinerary of the ~sf<l!d,i,~es: jIll th~l.il' desert trek fn)ffl

H4

Copyr gll[oo rnmeria

C S('!bk and B3iLaam [Z2-.24)1

D; Israel's ~do.l.a:try':l!ndllmmo:i'3~i~ at iBul~Poor 1(25)

E. &--':fiiiid Nu:m~':fii'i~ oHs·itl'I~l (26)

F. Inheritance: C~: ofZd~p~ehad'rs DOIughte-.rn, Part 1

(2;hi-l U

G Se~ectiQn ofJool:iu;]: ~M05e$'S SU\Jc~ [2.7;12-23) H. Additlo:md LegW<l.ti:~fI.on Offerings and Vows (2:8=30) 1. W::!f Agatnst Midi::lnl(31)

1. The 'Ir.m:~jordan Tribe< (32)

K.ltinec.Siry OifIsrJ,e['s Journey :from E.gypt to Canaan [33:1 -419) L A]~Ortm.ent IQfTra,mjordan. bn.& {:l3 ;SO-3·t:29}

M. Levitical Ciues and ClUes of Rc:fug~ (35)

N. Inheri.ta:nce C~ofZelQphehad':s :Daughters, :Pan 2: (3S)

Purpog ancI Misuse

],h~book ,of Numbers in litem!)' ~erm:s Is a diary of lsrael's ~ar~y days. of CQvenQm!t r·elati.onshi:pw~th Yahweh ~cf, Deut, 8~ 1-:1 0'), ~sr<ld. expmcficoo fm,thand thetra:gj.c eonsequences (lfdJsobedl.efice~o the (OVeTI<Lnt stipuIDEI.~ tioru: (C'.g .. ,. Num ... 16~25_,50; 2.5:1 -18).Th~book·sMess:il;g~ is twofuld!:Msti. ont!' of GOd.'~p3tl,~ce .3:i:ldf\3:ithfub.ies5 in the :faoe af~sta,e['s oontilnlua[ ~m!bHng .Il:nd fe!b~l,li{ln,and seeend, on~ nffurther discl!osuf'e Qf~e f1rature and. ,~barnu~li Qf Israel's oo v ~naJ:liil: God, Yahwcih ..

'Th~ atl.S;t~~i1: hori:nt"Ss ofYil:hwCJrn. .r~maimcoru;tam.tthruughoUlt:. but o·th~r facets of God;;~ pe.r':>(lIm: arc r¢'~'~a]¢dduringth1:s~vdop'm'mtal ~'ulg'e' .of lsrael's OO1;'{';n;en1! rolatio.nmlp,'!,{:idlthe .Lord .. ThG' dcscrtexpcri.e.nc.e gWGi lsrn:e~glimp;ses of Yahweh asa pa.ti.mt and faithful p.rov.idtrr, ::J:SO\!\~ and pWl!'id!enti:aoi 1l1ite,n'enerj a compa:s..'il00attl responder to intie1"Cesso.ry prayer, a'tliJd.a jealous a~Jd. Jll!ilt God ...

The book ofNumhep,j, :se;f'Ii'e~, an important historibl. purpose in itscata~o~ngof<:i!riy Hebrew experiences 'Qul$l:d~ Qf.E.gyp"t:,.'The r~Qrd Qfls:ro.cl.'s .~,C!u.rne:y from SiniU tom.1ll p]Wn5 ofMoa:h co.nitinucs the narradv~ 'ofExodus ;mid! Lev1tkl;!$liInd.ih:e~ps e·x":p[ocl). the Hebrev;pl!'eSen~e in the land of Canaan .. Numoor:s ev~ryw~1ID;'l 311ti.d,pa.tes the OoI:Xupation. of the land .of the (01Ilena,t1!tprum[Sl',th.1l:lS hr.id8il'lg the legis~atia!llJ of S:iI1:{1!i!!!ndt:he COOL quest. ·of Pai:estine fFor examp1e, the sec,tiol:t 33:50-36: W:] is devosed to the pnssesslen, distdbution, hollness, and .~nherita!nce f.ights ·of the bud. of COln;3i<ln-ct. 2.6::52-56; 33~51-:S3; 35 ,31-34~ 36;9,)

Thoologj.e.~ny,;the purpose (lINumbers was tQJ prese~ the 3.COOUnts .of the initial ph~~~ '9fthe p~ct!{i;lil out'WQrk!flg.Qf,Q;d'~ :r'e(,"¢Ody ~ibl:!$hed ~9vena!ltw~th Israel, The oo~k empha~~~

• TlIe ho~il1iess ·of God

.. n¢~nfijfl~$ ('if h];l):naruty

.. The nec~¥ty of obedie~Qe to Yldtweh

I

I

U9

Copyriphted materia'

caused to d)"QW~ (dellotiog gu.Llt]i. .AiI!llio'l.]g,fi the pf~(bJ]~ for the Hebrew ~~dultery t~t,_i was more ~nlliiskten.ed than. th:e Me~:pQotamia:n river',olided., it was still a, male-dominant ~eg31 trndith:m, m tha,t the test was ,glv'en only t:CI~, female,

or course, the ilJi~ellit of Yahweh "vas to esubliis1:i holj;Il~~ ,llImong: the people of Israel and pre\irerJlt ,erimi:n<!!lviolatiofl of the covenant stiptdilltiO~ wlhe:ther his reveJa.tioll took (onventiamal sociel ilIind ]e~fumu or totally stliPe:rseded! them. Looki_~g atYMweh's re''I'e']ation rlli theccntext of human culture yic~ds two, ~mpo!tm;t principles: (I) God demo,JiSt:r.jt~ his respect ,and ~ppl!ecia~~ofi for human Icultu.re h}r working dtroug:h it rather than

See fuli1h~r tile Ifildl dllis. usslOl'I, "Society alld Cumtluein tlle Old Tot:a<tllM'tt by C J. H. Wrish't, .lbl !!Joe [ilf' i'l!'llzye, 1'hil' Plllc:e aJ Old l~,i:Mtm~mt E!I,!r;s T~ [DIlOilri1!~ Gm'l'l; [II., IntI!!l'V~~tt)' ~r~ ]9183), 174-91:),

l.2'7

·'b -..,- - 0 ~;J - j,~-' d jl'1~ t!he:hi,.,k r--~lf', - 'f -- v' ;-t -"'~diel'l-- .:t ·:11

a. o.. e or _ u I;JC _'"" :IlL ,,",-,iI' ---,-W.o!e- goa~ 0, (JO enan_ QI;!I~L __ ~.~ce _fig

pem:maWand. ootpo:rate ho]~n,ess ~m.ay necessitate !,igP"U;u~tQ!I apprQaclll!!ii ~Q!ig]3tion;:l1 :n:Ur!~(:;'Irrled put in the flame ofY3~W~h.

The anrti.qul,ty ,of Balaam'5 pOe'ti~ tltt:etaflCes as pr.eserved, :iB Numbers 22~241 h;l~ long ~n~gni:zed!. T1:UlY l~nstitut~ an important. cQntrlb'll'~ tion tf1) th~ ~rly ImelU!epoetry ,compriSIng, du~ .KI~il;[I~,~rimary History of the Hebrew .B~ble."

Undoubtedlytb_,e poetry is mQre' Wiidelyknown .fQrthc humomlilli mii~~

._,,J-,-.~ ;, ,.~ ·,·f' ,-, - - - ...• p' ,; -,-b· -~ hil' d·l!...·:,:,L. 'M· . - ,b',fn, B~:lak to 11r,s- '1''-I'.1el

~'i.J'vcn~ ,_ 0, a pag~n I. rop _e~ __ e ... , we, .. LOil ~,~ _ <I!l 0 cu __ e ""' _

and th~ a's.-si;S.t .Moab in def~tirlg them in battle (Nuro," 22: '~-6}. Attf:irst rloe lord!comma~,ds Salaam !!I,at .b:I gQw:),tll, Balik; then, he relenes and I:et~ the~rfu]~ow e'Silak to ehe brnelHecamp., .1.. verbal ex!chaflig,e with the a!ngel of the LQf,d a, n d hisewn dankey easues, appaire!l!t[y due rodiv.ine det.eWOR (If Bali!lam':s i:mPIlliI)e' motives (cf. 2Z~32). [roTI!i.G1tUy; B.ullarn prlo" nounG-~$o\l'!)ly bJessings:upon the !peopLe of Israel and curses upon th.!! natiQIlS; ,of Moab, Edomjand! lUnalek (24~ 15-2:4)"

T:ltemc~wion of the .Balaam.fitadesin the Nombersllamtive ,enhan~ the hasic message of V3~W'eh:'S c:oVeDa.nt £ait~fut[less to Isrue!l by remind~g tihem they are a "blwed~peop]e (22,: ~ 2]. Ilurt~ued and, protected hy Ye:hwcn"sV'ery' presence (2:.3 ;21-2:2}.The PQetf)!' alsa serves toencuufllge .ilsraelas they joumey toward the laud oft'h,e pifomise b},d,<;mofl.$ua.ti.JJg "'i!'lhweh'~, S(fv,ewdgncolltrol everthe nations ill the region, MoreoVefi, it .extends 'tihe pftml!3e offu.ture messiOlJrUc kingship in. tlle propj],eq of the :$W. omd ;~ep~~ (24;17; d. G~n.4£1: 10]1.

LarU:r .Salaam joined. wlith, the Midiiatnites and! tndi.rect,]y succeeded [0 ItU_rs.ing' br<l:eJ by inciting them ·to' :p'deipate ~n ,the idolatry and. i~JJlQriI.~ "h:! •.. .c.~b. -, B·· ~~I.'"4-I'i: ,-f,.'flo:!' (N .... ,c,wn.15:ru -,3'.' c£ 31 :8"-(6). In. th·· N --Tf¥" .• a-

,1,~.1 OJ we .. aall om .. 0 _>e __ ~. . _ _ __ _, 0 _. .• e_ .ew'_=41

mt:fl,t" Baiil!l!!m ~ ~ited ~ .orn: ~mp~e of ~ f .. ~prop~l;1, oOO~pted by gJ100d .ntd thedes~' fow :pefSOQal gain (JiudJe 1 I],

A fragmentary i~pdoowritJten in Aiamah: ona pl~-ered wan at Derr ~Alla!b ~nJo:rcla.(l. recouats a:l'loth,e~~ol:J of <Ii seer named Bal~m, ,oe>nvey.i_iI'l\g th.e :m~ge ohbegods,~ola di_SQhed~ntll_ation" [f tihis is, mdeed the Bel!'Jam of NlilI:O!bers 22-24, the ~eg;ivl!S (!vjrlf!nc1! of mep:rophet's ioutm,g and. widespread~tI~n 35 a '''diwner;''!!

'flr..e~.

Omde:,s.

,4'. Of WilJfum .E Albright,. ~ ~, ~ il.:ltuam," nIt 6:3 ,(1944): 20.7-53; anJ .1lI!1!fd .'N. ~ __ , Pn~I)'; PoetrJ,) ~ Pmph«y: StudCe! .inEarlY H,e'6r~w Po~try Winona .Ltu, lmL' EWnbmupu; 1'980)1, 77-.1 7,fl.fi:'l!dPniln'J .~·riear~ H~ .~'~i:llrfng tkt "~,~·ind.·fk'.r~tlf _~ (am. .f,slJ', Til~.StJI'lg.gJ!~SM (&H" ·!,5), T1it' ~ of~. l{Mum. 23'-.24). '11u 'f~81d ofkfrwtt fDnd,- 3:.3}, TAt ~ BrOth"mh (MI(; <PI4~ ~~u ~, 17:16; N .. -~ 6.'2.f~:}rj; I0;35'~.36'~ 1 Z.'(i~8;

,~M!'4~ . 4,:i.;~~h, J(id2-1J)I,

S .. AI~Mati'Cl! ~·d~!I ~,~ t~: . .;d.,~wfll! t~~r.t!.p{!ct!rf~./rP Old "f~jt(,!~~ ~suly b,pv&U!~ ml HlJ/djur~M G, WJ1,~ ,Kwij\. Atilmiielem fromllRir "J\l1!ah flri,.

Ji.m; anN:, 19''6). .

Copyriphted mate' '1

1 I

Ccpvrio IlXllll<lg

KeJ'''''

.. 11u!. impfwttl'IICB ,ol'a CBtJ#m 1POTSldpp.lace

., The' mqJMs&on the. 'mune ,o/"God

.. '1'he cwgtmizmim qf laws wiIi, nJ~' to ;the, Tin ~,

.• 7:&e,~ of,~an.d' ~tJw,~God

T· HE ,BOO:l{ OF Deutewnomy does not give!!. "::lec~fid law'" <liS the :nmllefilU:gges~ but m~er provides an ilnPOfiW],t sum~ of 'the history of:trh.e 'IJlf:Ildeme~ period a~d, orgll1ll~IatiOIl ,('lithe 1e,gai !Daterial, ,Framed! [nmewoiidsciMooes ihottlybe{cUie hisdeatth,th.ehookmes to gil!'e"the [sraieHtes 8,1(uload pempecti\!'e (In th-eeverru~ o:fdte'preri.oMg.en~ti.()In e :it. affords the opIflO:rb.!:m.i!iy fOJ the :ref.l.ewal o:f tlle covenant.

..... ·WrHI ... af _I .....

The datillg of Deutero:l:lomyha;s; ~ed! as the basiS fot two [popUlilit mt:iI:;;;lli meQf:ij~ ('If rnG~grn ijfn~~ ~e D(!~~'tMyH~ O'f 't:b~ ~bli~ teueh (see Pl;ll S76-87) aad ih~th~:Q'zy gf th~ D~.y.~ro:!,!QMiSti(;Ht5tol:J I($:eepp. '[ 6'9\-1" 1 ) .. BOoth m~ ~teDeu1eNlnomyw the latter pm. of the ~y,ef'lth ce~t1;l.ry B,C. Olnd vle.w It as 'the fOilJo.datiM d(.'!CtlIDlent mr w:e refOrm~ 'Qf K:i.~g Jo:;iah in 622 (:ZK]~gs 23; ~ =3).\!\Ihile l~ moctio:n ~Iit JO~~;Jh':i reIO!!!'ffi! Is uaqiUJ!';sti~~d.th~is a ~wing (lp_OJi1itbat D~.t~~ orny(;QIWt<l!immuchm;'l!~maiith:(lt must b~ Vl~W~ as C(lnslidtmlihly' ~aflim' ~:,ha:!l. t!he seventh '~:e!:iimry;h ;lJ res~t;. ~t!$ ,on the na~ oonJt)e~t,. :at!'!d origin of the e8!i'liestronn. of [)etit~orii1Y ,3bO'lmd.

O~lflroeaSQ.n seholiliSh1l!1!re far noit: remini1'l:g: .Moses'asscdaiti.o:n w~th 'the book is that [letJt.etO:",omyt:ei'l!c~e;s; d1;ilIt won'~jp ;shw1d be Ciilmtttabed ,;311::

13.1

guiltl:es!i these W~IQ do. not t<like hlrn ~er.ioY~hj.~:ri!.cl !1f;~thf;:~ shQ~~J!the 1~ri!dj_tJ:~ hold 1iuch peop'I,(:gtlilde~li. Wh He ~erjol!l:l-n~(l:[i; ilbout God r(,"<.1mr:es~e~re action in Ma,tant~ cases, it: requires: a, response t'hat ls l3iho\'ie reproach in, 'tffil,@: mOF~ "'!Jbd~ areas of eeaduet, So chapter 14u:ses the dida:l:)~ laws as aneJCo:!m!pIe.The~m~y ccmmirted person WQil,dd demon:strate tha,t, dflvotio:n in diet,

Co,~"':

R:~iumul ~(Jf

1lt!i ... .(n-o.~

-·-vt:~ ......

14~~12 -16: 17,)

C~~5:

Human,A~ (Deu.t. 16~J8~ 18:22)1

'God has :a rl,ghtw ~G~i,v~ hono!' from~f>r.ae] inrec,ogni:fion of his 'Wo:rk increati(trt (E:.xod. 20:1 n 3~d in, gratitJud{!ro,r hls d.d:iyer[ng ~srae] from Egypt [De:ut 5:'~ 5). Hut tJhat i:!j tlo,t thcl:imh:. of God,':~ daim, on, .his peC!lp~e, Because he :i$ the source Qfthdr gwds as wd[ ~ of their fT,~~dom~ it is app.ropnilt~ Jor the lsra,~l1w5 to dedk:.:l,b;Jg;oods to :h~mal'l,d,~ooffer gO(M1l<o andfreedonrl!. toothers ~n his name. All the iei!;isl.ation of'this section suggetit5 wa~i'$ that trus canbe done)ilhus: mov~ng beyond the issue of the Ssbbath, wh~.ch iL~only ene ,example ofthe bO]i}or W.OIi[ i~ God's r.ight andi.his

] i .....• , '!] poop..e S P£1Vl eg~.

The text!1O'W GQIl!5~dfeI'S me realm of human relatloushlps, ,"Vhen .~t'e!'tJjlJ)fJlY';iI~esllil!uman :li1lithOrity~ we fmd it.1s notredy concerned about how we: ~ond to !hum:lin.3uthor:i.ty~ as m~ghth:3!ii'(;l !been. inferroo from. this ()ommandmentR3th~iij it ~eb to ,~ta.'bI.Is;h human authority~s :i_mpQii'tmtfo:rmdcJ:.!,!gsy:r~ th<!t me 'CQ,ve..".uwt ~ pr~er\i'~,P@ref:lt~' be!!'lg, ho:n~ by ,'nl!tdren is a.t the eere of this, for it i5 in the horne that, ~in5tn:lcnon in me eovenantteek place (6:6---9J .. Th!s cxp:lain~ the connection Qfthe phrase "t~a.t. you ma:Fli.ve lon:gandt'h.n ~t mary gQ well with),oll:;!in the' land" (5';~'6)r.

Other fuff!'!:'> (If a.lilithority have aro]e tit) phi.y in the eh~ ofinstru.ctio.il. in. ooci,ety, including jud:g:es, theking,.p:dd,ti, and prcphets, The b~bH~;iJ a.uthot moves b~t!hJ:'o~gh.the' linc ·of.<l!uthorit;y;

L Goo. Qommun:iiC'a.~ his instructio!:lSl. through the pfg,rhe~ z. The prit:~ i~ctw.e~lP~e ll'lIDt: Word ·of G'Ild. 3,KingS a:rcoospotUilbteror sctti~,g up a sy.stem b.:lc~!;.-d Oil the'

l'll5U"UiOO,Q:I'Is:of Gnd.

4. Judges m~t enfi:Jr·(e the sYlitemt;h.:1it h;'ls ham $~tIJ;PI

Th.ese human <lll.thoriiti.e's need to be honored, fo.r' eao'll has a. si,gi[liilk:ali1ii~ '!"O1!! ta, p]3,Y in ClQml!'t1Ulnka:ting God.'iS instJ1;l!c,tions. .. It i~l~lewise (;"!;st,'TIti.al that th~ officials .not,jeoparoize the ,~o'Venant by tai.1in:g. to carry otltdtdr respO!'lS!ibi~it:i~

Copyriphted materia

1M ,R~

~

142

Co:nforming to God·sexpect.:ltiQlm~is ;!Iewarded" and violating GQd'51 !Commands brings punishment, Th,lIIt is how God eperates with natioas. TIm WsoCll.mf:~O be understood! asthilil wa)~ GOO, deals wi.t~, indlvidullls." a conc:ep,t,dii;c:loscd in IDecontext;,ofpo<e1l:y md, u.ewisdbm Uleratun~. God's expectations of br.ae]wer.e' deljfieii!te.d!i~ tffile ~aw aad reeerdedas ~tipul<l!·' tiom ofllie (:()"iCQru!t. Th~ blC$Si~Wi (If m.~~(!!¥'~~antw'QtlM ~'f(lofr~~t~d if its oonditiQ[!$ were not ~,etj' "'ough~ d(le8 llotmC:1nth:at the':::0v~a[n: wouMbeeoroe entir'e]y null and '\i'(liid, The (JIlillies, .rtto1ciledtlom,emvun:mt fligtlffld, promil'l£!Jldy later on in th-e ]nd~ctm,(\n.t. bmughtby th~ d3Slric;l!l, p:reemc prooph.ets..

QU.ESrH)NS fOR FURfH,fR SnJQY AND DI.5CU5'5~ON LWbat ~igm:A,af!(~r:;an be a:ttad;1~ to D~utero:!1(ltfJly'~ ha.\!i,ng a $ln~ dard ~~,ty forma:t?Wh.a:t does tha.t: add ee Ot1r ulil.derstandrnlg oft:he book?

z., ,Ho,w is ourunde:rst.aJndiIlg of the theologlceleoneept of ]aw enh:ltnC'~d byinterpr-etmg Doo.t:emnomyns :l.n. Gli.':pos:itimil. of tb(l IJe.calogu~?

-:I,UIjl,.,.- .. ,-.:_.:L>....,..- ,.;,<;t.,;;;,,'d' w,..I- ........ ~-c.·r'~Letih .. ' ·.·tl..at'D· uteron-

,", .. ,n na~ are we .... eII;t; ....... om ",a.N!"",,"es O~ Ul ~ _"etJty _~ .. _' ~ etLeT ~ __

Q!fiy' 6-26 ~~n.ds t:h~ spirit of the- l'~ CommtanG!ments'?

4 .. k histoq. stiIDl r:e"velati.on? Suggest !II. 'OflU,-mpg~ th..oolQgy ,@fhistory.

5. Some 'c:onS::l~ DeuooroiA!Qmy~o o(lntBin t!he m;g~'t ~iSn.ifi,c;[l1;1t theo.~ogy 'of the Old 'Tes'tament. In what; waysc:an t__Ms view be supponoo?

FO,R' FUR:rH.f,R,' READING

!B,rown. b-ym.orn.d" ~ .~ .ylkiur~~. DOWIliers G]1oo''i~~, nJi.;lnt'ltV-ml.ty ~~991.

Ctaigi.e, ~ C. The Boo',orDni~. Gt3n~Ra,p~&:£ofnim31l~ 19;76 . .Pnjbablf die best. gfUie '~!!IUv~ {!(li!ri_ment~~ili[,iyghit ,w~pijb]i:ob~.prl.Qr t'fj StephM Kaufman'iS semm:al artid~ on Dcutm'onomymd clb~; D~a~ogtm.

__ , cThe.~ (j~T in tM 00 'n.:!1~mmtG",!ld R:;lipid~;,Bc.1:'dnlans, 19'78.

u .. I·,,'AI,.'l.,_ ..... 0,",01. .. , ~"'p'" ,""f·I',.,_ .. IIT;~"l."'-lv - ~- "~' . -,', --~ th c· ,,,, - ,;"-t

1,1 .• ,q.T'jY!l <;.11"'1''"'''' I,' '.U .. "".1,..... _ ........ ,~ no '. WM' Ol-p~In5<"" e ...,:anaan~~,5.,

Driver, S, R ... .I!J. CriticalaPld.~ Cc.r:t;t!'ll~~ry arl.~fmm,Ii).!'l)~ Edill!bw;,gh; 'f; &,T. Cbtk., 1895. C~d ~~It:liti.(l!!i, of~c m1ikalli ~t!d~n~ng,lt)fth(J boO~.

KauEmaQ,. Stephen A."1be Strucltlr~ 'of t!he Dcul'erol"l;{)m_i,( Ll1iw.·' Maarav 1. 2: (19i8-79)::: 1.05-5:9.

kMe; M~dit'h C. ne T~ of ~~ Ci':ma:t .I(in,g. Grand R~pi(b~EerdII.,ans, )963, Evangdital'e;IIpoGitIQo1:I. of the treaty futmi101 of neu~eron()mya'lld ill;$im.p~~c~li,(lfi(j,

MCCI!.I'thy; Del1:tli51 "frM!;' and ~it •. Rome: B]bl!ic;~l. ]nstitute Press, 1978"Th.e umst; th.orough ~dy of the forma] a~p;eQ8l.'lhre~;t:Ie-s ofth.e ~!iI('ietl!;t Neal" Ea~ and th~ b1'blicail oovm8nt.

I

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'Qm~~ and irK"illlitaiUOtiWere p:oohib:i,ticd 'to Israelites; by me law;therefure, giv~n th~[lecurrtl'flc\'l: W'orld:v;ie:\\f<, they saw the need, to conffirrR to the '~ovC'nant and. koep the law (vather 'tban.re~ying on, t:ertain rituals) in order OOex~rt some ()ontrol Qver h~t{l!)'. Yahweh w~, d.efined by h~ <littribute!l, wmen w'ere .con$t!lll!'l:t,:md he had. committM himself tospedfic obUgIltions through the O(lIl,eo;S!n,'tS.,

Asa result, theology and history mef:g~din Isra@']j' nol!:: ttLr,oiUjgn ritual, butt:hrou;gh d~e covenant. The acHons of deit,y Go,uI!d not be predicted, ~h:ered, er in any w~9' ma~ipula:t'edby dttl<.lt Rather;, when ewer lm1e~ was unfaithlill to the ooven.a!llt" the [l,oro Qould be expected to p.1.l!un, maceo rdan(ew]~h the aoVel1l:an.t. Humanacti;\i'ltl/' 3!1lid! d.ecis:i,oru faU mto,pamcuL3!1' paUf!rns, ~!'!d to the same ,ext"ent! God's ,ca,use-,and-effe:ct activity in, history foHQWS COr'irespoimlding patt:euts., Both the cycles ,of th.e: booik: of Jiudg-e;::; i;,l!m~ the r;ep9~ oJ w&~ ;;l:p~.y i~ th~. books gf){i:pp b~;:w mt~ .~ to the :prlndple iIlJ ~cc. It i!ithe fQu:n;datiiiQfi 'Of Deute«lnQmlc: theology: The .anKient concept ofbJstof} can :th,e_refure bedmibed astheoLopjicalin. contrast 10 th.eWeste.m. V~el~. which is ,entirely sdaf.

I ...... Of HiItoQ MiiIia& in IuMIMII ... . AnCMaI·INaarlad

Iv> wou1dbe expected, one's mn~pt of hils lory is dect:e:d. m the pur~. Jhrr'ecDrdling history; .~fi WCst.em soci~ti~ th~ are: ~um.~ rea$Q1'I$ why hjst:ory might: be wdrtell .. ln a wxthocikJ hlstmy lis writttlo furp~: oft:eaihm.g; a,rr.m.l!teV'lmts or perhaps so tha!tJessons :might be leamectfrom the ,experience of others. JournafistJ; rec:ord.thlstory fOr mfoffil:U:lOo."s sake but often llItt:emrpt to ~d:~ntjfy ~u:ild ,an.:iI~yze ,~l~m,enilS ·ofc:ause :and effect. Thesegeneee o.fbm.ariograpby are largelydlriv€n.by 3) desire to :reco.d what actually .hi'lp~n.ed .. The print mernama.;r iIso hav.e om~ 3~.$t'l;das .S'Il~as ,def~ndin,g certaia princjp~.~m' promoting oertainopinio.ns' Differenth:istoricill Oleai,!! orgen:res .ma.y ha.ve ·wfferent PUIIpO.5eS, and. it is. importan.t for thcreadcrn of that mstor:Y to know what the ptl!~ w~

In. rlteancient Near Eastthere w~, V3rI(IUS genresClfhinoryw:rit:ing as well, Swdie5 have rn.ggested that llie h_is~l)ri(l~p.hy of the ancien,t Near East: was: r.nelyi:n.tendJed to p~n,t ;'It!. obj!!cti.l(.Ie vicw ofwbat ~~:lil1y happen.ed. More aft'en, propaganda. was: ,cio,th.ed in hhi'tori~al .attire with the ptili'po~e ,ofbc!'!efiti~g th~ in PQW~ •. R~al i~ription:;; We'fe gotten. ~rnf;, ~rvhlg dQClilm~Jlit5 whereby ~l.Ul'!g .;guM bQMt gf hi!>~ct;om.p~l$hrn.J\'lnts, Cll'!Ibclli:shin,g thc:positl,vcf .~gnoringthe .negati.v~.;md. at tI~es ta:k:i~ credlt forme aclU(\vem{l;m:ts of his pNrloccs.sor.'Wlll.m.t:hepurpose :Is Selif.,3ggtandlzement ;u'l.dthe~;ards are poW·ef and prestig:~!lIC~ ibeoomesnfllttle (:OI:I.Cierlill. As a resllllt, h~stO.d,o~!phic:al dOOlllments of tbe anctent Near Ea~t ha ... e to be lnterpr,~t;edllefY ca~mny if an. 30c:U'tatlt'f account ofth.e events is to, b~rt;con$tru.cted ...

1'73

Copyriphted rnmeria'

SoM~ m.terpremrn of dle: pas!t have centended drua'l: ~smel.i,s hi!i:to:ri:OgTa· phyli.kms;~ ~fL~at~d Il propagan.d!i:stic 4,s;endia. Sq" [oJ! instanclIil, the fact U!l!it,tfie Da~di-c· d.~~ ~ei!oI'~ddi'VlLn~ eadersernent fhr,o~gh. the CQ¥~ant reccrded in 2. Samuel 7b;}sfiJSi~,eted S1ilSPlC~CliJl (:o:nc~ming :its audl,enfticity; Yet ttmustbeadmlrted th,n ti:1er.e :~~ atl,1Jil'UY ¥t::ty litclethat th,(l: Deutcrollaflliist has tn say :aoout the Davidk dyfiilsty t:~a.t ls pO:'li,ti'o"e;, Eve,n. DavidrumseLfis portr:ayedl ill. iSu.chawaythat. his f'imlt:sare <IS eviQt'!ntas hl.s Ilehievements.. The book of 2 Swuu:c] wo!l!tLd make very m,ef~ feC'liYflp,ropag;m,dia.

'Nhl~me hificriQ.graphy ,ofthe :)nclet1t Neat 'East fOcu~ gene.r:ally o~ u,f! king ,~dh~$ mi.ll:ta:ry <lAd dQrn~M;i,~adh:i~~menU, ~~ ls de!ir~h~t bf?~~'~, h.iSt;Qric .. J lJI<liITati~!!re moti;\i:'atw. byU!,eoJ!ogici] concern5. 1'ht:p'i;!ipQse Qf the histori.ca!l.1~t'l:i!'atl;JIeof t1te Bible ili'IltQ ~ihollv thcw'ay:> in.\,\lilmkhthc Lurd hasadoo. in rusrory torulAn lliis c:oven.81'1!t p.rOm.lse,S and to ca~ out his n:g~da.. On~' cDtlM C!l1Il.it didactic [grrirlg inst:rucHo.n) in ~h£sru:tsG' m.3t it is~~elaltion of who God i$. by [~(I:rding who':l!t he h~s doo~ To the extent mat the Gtllltenantdfillt'lS ~ial st'atu!O fi:l:f Isroe:], th]$ emphasi.o; lL::o,urdibe v~ewed .is.bmfigprQpa,ga:!l!di:!lti.eva]y~~ but ~]!:!ch a purpo&e 1Ior ~he ~i.tt!ra· tiire ~!i liIegatoo,by 11e (70m,tinuaiemphasis on the £~~l~llesalld Ull!fOlii.tib WI'!·· ness of Israel. Both didactic ]iter:a:tureand pr:op~,gaJld:i:'!t:iclite:ralrlUf: wilill !he sd.Kti.v:e a:bouUhe ,ev,mts(l;_nd detail5 recorded- T1H~ :sdoction ohhe didaetic:auth.or "",'iU be motivated. bya desire to focus: on the lesson i!nv~ew.

Dcityis ~Il ia$ the ce:ntnd. Cil:~ of me ev~ts of hi:.tory iif!. the il.nc~efilt NeoJli" E~ as a whg,]e, but ~."1)th~ngi!1 th.~ h]5t()fi.(lg!f3iPhic~1 ~i.t:~f;1.tUf~ fUtl.c~ tioruspt:ci'icai1yrorev,ea] God. There illsli~~jSC! 11G hi:storiogrnphk~a']\vC!~k that trea,ts 'lhekind of .huge liMe span eevered iby the~ Deuteronon'JJ.imc His1;(If)\'; Is:rael':!i Gad is: revealed as On!l:'I~ho has a pb~ [Dr hist0irY and who in~ervenes teensure that the pbn bi e~l;:ecuted, While .f.srnd'::> i:1Jeigh1:UJii'S be-Hellen dt~t &tit gads aittimesinitetvened inliIistiory,. ~h:e ifitli:"ITellti.(I.[) W3S genetal!ly done 101 majntalll a sta~tus qlJl'O.1 The G~of]sraeli hQ,.v~ ... er .. bhter· '\!'e.ru~datt.iJn~, ~:o,·wo.rk towllrd a goall!hat:.had ncver yet: been achieved .. He hiotJ(M'V'M~ to punlm hi:; own people w:h(,!l n(':Cc~£lIry,Ml GOO.'~ :il!lit'er" venti.o.n. is fOcused. toward a oo~~ gool: thellX~uUo:11 of hisplan .

............. HIItoricaI Llhndure

Th_,e OldT~ent hi.'it:onC!ir] lite.rawl\e needs to' bel;!~de_r.lt;()Qi.iW'i!dlh~ me ~m~ of ~!'!.(;:-ed!a,tit ill; a ~tegi~ PllLrI; Qf G~':'i.liclJ·reli'd~tlM. AI; w~ noted e.a1"Li.~rf .ill al~m, 't¢n.den~y .1$ to .!'~g,!!rd the mC$:;o:!gc of the ~W~· torical.l1itera:tiilre 8S bcingthcro~e' mooel~ offc.cn by the perootl:;w:ho CrO~$ it!!: pages. In oontrast] as God's se~f~re\'elo.tiQnj' Its intention Is to Cion'l~y iruru-uation. :abouli:. and. mo,wl.edg:e of GOod. This mes.sa:ge is m:lil!'!i'eyed not: so much by inruw.du;a[ n~flaU\i'~. but by th~ POltten'WS ~nd C:\f~.I~ of histtuy poMyed. generatiQna:rter g~nerntio:n.

174

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Copyriphted matei Cl'

Some r-.eade~ a:reilltdil:iH':!d itO leek for new :iflStiJg}Jits .3nd~essons in esch 3,oaOlJ:i:I~. But rather than mu'seekin~ Ollit "[es!iOIlS&om the ~ife o.f Asar. or "]~r1s&Qmth.e life 'of S:a;u]j~ 'therexlt wnti:nu,al1ypoiflt5 w ~o p;lu'Cm:s;. cllJemes~ aiIlldITI.otif~th<!t ""ve Q1!;I&~~ ~:Q~e ~1;!,~@v~r!g m~ h~tQ._ri~ ~p~ :intQ" ffi.li.~.tute of the $ove:reigrli God.o,fme (lovmatl,1i:. The ~c:ance;·ofe;l:ch mr,ead £5. the contributkm ~t w<!kes to the tap~; by itse[fthe thread hss Lrtlille !l) offer; The .qU31li.tyO! its coillor b<1lSlloiElh.er,e[l.t vru.tle:.bun: its; ru!l'l(;tliOIl in thetll;pes.try heJPli to cr:ea.1ie dlim@1lr;ion and. hue, So &e Eiilimtirvesmmt be ;l:pproac~m through their: context, and God must be seen as me f:bcu:s. Thill: tapi;"ililry w~l] b~ui:iv>e[loo, .~ eaeh h~bUC3~ book is stu&ied. il:ii:ts: tU:IiiJJ.

Q'UfSHONS FOR .'FURT.H.fR' STUDY AND tnscossso«

w. How canwe aeeemmedaie buth the51uperna.wraJimcvie:,.v ·of Old Testarnwt :story and the c~rre:lIt tre:llIdlrowa.:r..(lS!nilyzi:ll!g humannatllJ!'1S!l, cause ~rld ef.f«Jt. behind h[:itor;ic'~lellen~?

2. Why W';:IS di.v-ina.ti.Q!l. forb~d~tll tl" ~srnel?

3. Why.1:[; h~tory an lmpQrtn1lli1:: pan, of Gad's se~f';'re,!le]a;tion?

4. ~fan I!:cool.m:t: of ];jistnry' 1<5 ~~]octiV!er is truth. oo.mp.romisOO.? Eli;p]am ..

Wh\llt are t:l!ae: .i:mpilCaitiQ:l'Is of se]ectli.vity for b~bllica~. inerr:l:I1q'?

FOR F,fJRrN£R R~ADlNG

AlbiDcl::BQii.. Berti]. fl~ .~. the Gads:. U;ppsa]a:: Lwd, 1957. A !'ti~!uJ..gtm;g ~y cW'Jj~a:rll1g th~ ,1~rne~l!totli~:nds,nci@nt Neru- :East:emViffls iOffl~ry.

l!Jt~., R.Ql~l, "fite'Iln:.r;ljfii'{;limlNarrnlivt'., NcwYoJ.k:lbsi£ Books, H.i8L

CBte, R,ohert L. Ji.!'l! lnrmJt!ctl"o~ rorkS' Hfu",toria:!l Books oJ fh~ Old T~Sffl!\l'!~·Il~.

Nasn;v:iiUe: Bro<lom;Jn :Il:1Jd Hol:man'f .~ 994 ..

1F(~~beimu. T~n!cC;. lJeutenmomj, History; lST. NasllwIllie. Ahil'lgd.on" 1993 ..

Ges;e:. H~rtmY!t 11Ie ~dea ()fHl~\Ory iill dilJeAndie:!ltlSbu:E~t :a:nd the Ord'Jest!!· ment," JO!fnm~fCrTh~logy'(;usdtIJ~ Chli!dt (1965]1: ~9=64.

HQw~wd. D~\lid M. A~ l:"t~UGti~n ,to fhe OM TIil&tarnet~f Histt'J'rical Ba'(lk (3j(:iOlJ,gQ: .Moo~y Ilress, ~ 993,.

[.00l&. :EllllI:ke o. f'€rriKi,tg>: lIViJ~ 'u! 1l:1trodu'(tlon W HiSrolU(d Lit.mtru~ Grnnd RJ!!pi.d$; El;;«Lna:Jl5, 1984.

175

part wnlll::inging~e viictory;God :1l'I.i.fac.tiillowsly ~Il,terv'elled both j~ boner~ng Josh.ua's request :abouttllie sun aftc] mooitiL 00:: 12= 1$) and insendin,g hailro batter the' en~y (1 0: W~ 11).,. ("fhcSindt'l:nJt~ book (,f J:ash;ar, which.

IL-.- ,,-,~,t-b,--c-n"""'_"'~~I·s .... ,~:--"-4 to as '":liF:i'!]..,...~ .. :~ .. ,~L~·ev·--cts;,)-'IThlc ,I!!:

~]as no . een r" ...... _. ",eJJ!, ,It • o;;~t: •• il!:u __ _ _ '", _[]_u .... _ .. g, I.U __ _ _. en ~ _

m1)iippin,g~uiP opera:tion [10:16-43.) showed! Joshna's fai'th:ffiuJ~nessrn [ilIa ~Qwing God's iMtmdicos fega!l"d:ing "'the ban" [see p. '189).,

The tJ;.artlH'ltn roali.tion 'was the nat :army tD corlrontilhe JMaeIj.~ .But .since thewe mno :m.enti.on 'Ofa:.5peci£k~ ~'o~ di~em~tlJ:m:" me M:JTItiiJre.~ nothing to repon about the battle. It teIs only w,ho 'was invOlved :md reports that the, l.o:rddeliveu~dthe ,enemy .mto m.e·l:sr::JeThtes" blinds 0 1,8), Chapter 1:Z conclude;; thiJ;:.sediOfl by]Jstinsthe kings who .... \efe ,ch!~ated.

Section. three Sives: detajled descripUons of the boundaries ,aftlh,@ terri· tory .a.l.1oVied t.o each. tribe and 10.50. doing helps us to identify:the P'!!u:pose of the: bOOk o:f Josb.'liJla .. [fGod Wall ¢;ll;llbUn,g :~srae!l to ~. the land!, he would affiso.~ thmwsposltion oft!:. This c.orutit.umclm~ fuIDrutmmt of God.'s, promise, The lIam'1til'lO'e IlU!kes this po~nt exp~id.t in thecondu· sian of this sectiOIl:;"$o the LORD gave lmelo:d!l the land, .• , mdthey took possession of it and settled ·tlitere. 'Th.e LORD ga.ve them. r,estM every Sllae. ... The Lmw handled alii. their enemi.eso'V8r to tl!Imn,. Not Qn@ of au the Lom'sg.ood.pmmise:s to the house ofJsrael fatl.ed;: ,every' one was ~l. ftl!]ed.~' (2.1 '::43-15). That is wbat the book ofJosnua is an ;l'Dout.

Chaptel:'5 22-24cQJlcem I;s:rael',s reipanKW the ooc,upe:tioftland. focus on. the covenant .' Espedally ilmportant is~the' covenant ttn.ewala.t Shechem oont:ai:ling arnstaoommt of what. God. had done I!.Ddwhat. tEt~ hncdites a~rooo

.MIjor ..........

[n Israel 's:pel"(;epti.on Qfhe.rselfasihic CQvenant people of God~, rmihin,g CoW'mllJt ~5 more' ~tnl m3f!J me: land. God had prom.ised. Abraham. a la~d~ though .an,d'!ANl' ~~. Wa'i· not to b~~ongto hies famUy f()l"50n:!e four C~!ltililries (Gen. 15; 13=

21). 'The ~Wivcnr (If that land iOlto' me h;~& ·of I~~ .iisth~ focw: of the

book of §'!)Sh~.Fo~~ :aft~ the land ilill viewed lin the' ~~ ~d ]i\.cra·

tun!. ,of lmud :a5~' of'Qod's having ch~. ht!t::iShl:;cov,~t. people

and bestowing hill favor on.th.em. When hme'l's a~ .~glti:Mt t;he Lo!d

required. jlJid~.tj 'ItJ:te '"M')m: Sll:Oltl~C-e: fhact me: pmphe.t$ ootcld de1iv~r was

th~th~t, ofbanis.t!ln~t from th~ ~d.lnthe :~~ m3M~jth~ h~ (If

~tiQn omd a fY.w;n;: ~gdj}m.w~both fOOted mthc prom_~ d!,~t the

Lord woulkl :rqiather ISr<lel to the ]and.

Th.ebook of Joshaa, then.has greatthooJtogical :significance;,fiJr'iits narr::ati)VI!S demClruua~moredum t!Jllyt:h~n.g ebec-Qu1d,~at the Lerd was ~ing 'tfJ.e; (lo,v,en:mt pmmi.ses he hald made to Ab:rtlutm. Ii$!:, IS Isr:lcl did nat come out ·o.f Egypt by its ,OiWOPOWU, so t'h,'I,! la:nd wasnnt taken by ~s;rael'.s mlrni.brym~it o:riby Joshua's stnt~es;.

Copyriphted rnmeria'

Pu .... , ..... Meuqe

The plllrp~ (lft!h:e book of Judges is to e!(plOre,,,,~al happent..J. theologksJIDy d!urmgth:e )f'ea:rs bev.~een Jos:nu3",nd DavId. The Lord. hadgiven the Israelites dle ]~nd~:a.l!!!d the)i'1:t3d forrmi:a.hz.ed dleir' comrn:itm(Jnt to t·el'ii,ijjififa~thfu.l t:(I him by (;nv"e~;1Rt at S,h~l;hem (Jnsh .. 24), Bur there ~ued (~nt:llr:ies of fil~l:uref~rl aUy hro~lght eo an erldby the Lord's f'Cfr:n1;al in:SlaJ.i]a.tion ofki:ngshi'p by c~veman;t [2 Sam. I]. Now Wilt> God working be'l::WeeR tihesc cove:n:ants, .1Ind~ .. ;hy we:re the lsraehtes not CJm.Joyiffilg tle hlessh'lg5 Qhhe ()OVetlafl!t?·

The m~age of the book iSl:ha.rt thIlproMcmW;liS not the l.ord'sf:auJ,t:~ but was created and ¥!;L~·umed.by ~:S!cI!le.I.'$ il'onti!llleci disobedience. Tle j.udgesperiod W~ ch.a.t:ac.tenZiedby acts of deplf::lvity;.not jUl:."1l:ndividu:aH)'!; butcs thetrlb!l!l!eve~, Th~~ is. '~Q:!1ve,'edh-y th~ li:wo ~ts of !fef'raiI)~ d:!:i!t rec!J:rin th.elTIie:&pective seetiens efthe bQ()k, E:a,chc]ilde ln ~ha:pt,~ 3-16 lis.intro.Juc-.ed by the ObseliY.ai!:IDJi th.at "the lsrnel ltes di,d. evll In the eyes, of the LORD" (2;] 1; 3:7,. 12~4:1.; 6:1; ~O:6; 13:1), indic.ating th~ tt::nclency tow,ar:dtheo~ogi(;al3PO~"t'asy:Thtl second rdhlinse:r\'~si as an. "indusio" by ~~tp:pearing tit: me b"'g!!'ltlt!lg, 3:rldit(:id ofchapt!!ts 17-21 (17::6; 2] :25): ""hl. thQS(,':~YS th~r'e '~'3$ no king in brnle]~ f,lveryone; ,Hd:as hessw flt .. "The f1!l'St ba]f of cl~:e phrnse ]s used :in.Ii:w'Q Qth.er places as wellee sustain. !:hft n3rnl~ til~'l! bl betw'een (1:8: I,. :~9::q.

TILls second section i(chaps.1 '-2]) is Mt 51) di!i;ti!m;~t~y c~~ven:(lj~n()·ri· en'l!edi.1Ui the fLrst.~'1i~n (chap:>. 2-16), W01i,lgbi:;.I)¥C:J'lllnl vl,ol<1.tior.ls :;JIOOund. It rather' shows,eh.at inj ustke WitS the l:I<!ht_ralby·produot of tnelsl'aeli.tes:' apostasy; S.inc~ thereJr.e1n appears to Name the oOll!d,~ti.o.ns 011 the ~!l1lcik of ki:n~slh~p~some have ,sean ti:ri~ seetio'fiJ as a:n.apo:.logetk for monarchy. Though this seems to us doulhtful, t~~ mrrni:n. show:s:tha'l: tribal ~(tad.~rship was .l:ne.ffective In.main:t:oining QQn:formity to. Goo's ·GQl!fl?rm.oltan.dirule:,.

Ifitl1ese refmiM can. 00 seen. all cih: ... :iotliii ccmtT'J.st to DilV.id., who"ha~1 d<me WlilOllt·was righti~ the eyes of the LOR[l~ (lKJn;gs .~ 56}, hUlt tbe·books ,of Kin~ !iih.owthat th,emonarc.hy was .alsQ U:flSYtXess;ru~, in iIl'<eeping people faith~ rut to the (jorllena!l1t. Yet in all these times, thongh apostasy and ]n;jusHce brotiis;ht PUniShmMI:" the mercy ·of li:t; Lord was .il!lso c",:~dent. In, the books .Qf .lGnm God's merqis evid~nt: in his .!flllcsir1lg up of prophetJ> to~l!tamthe JX'QpJe; irn. Judges ilt ~ e .. 'i1knt in hils rois:i_ng up juds~ to dcliver thepeOpJe. The me~ge emphasizoo Yahweh.·slon.g5uJferi~ gm(;~ ill the face' of cOr)tifl,ua~ and[aJnpatl.ta~y and :i.~jumce among lll."pe<lple .. CQ\'en,::tO!~ fai]A U1'eS of the peopl~ were met by cevenant f3jlihfu~n~ from lflf': Lard ..

SbllClu .. and ..... ba&onl

'Theftm~etiQ.n of the bQQ!k e$tab1~!f;h~ the fOiiJuf'c of [s:roei t'O C:lrry Oll!llt the ~tIOt'isofth(iL,ord. to putg~ t~~ ruafid. of the CiirJJa:mi:k"'i:i, The fh-u]t 'W\aS that~ a1th.ou~!l:he[a:nd had been finnn1'l1l)!' gJ.ven into the co.ntr,oloftke

Copyriphted rnalerir

him? Is it anattemp'tto t\X.pl:ainandieJfhl:lSe his furei~n .-.:n;cemy? D~ it intend to, show diirine~'ide.u:e at wof-lk. :1111 preserv,in,g the Hrtet~ which be WItS heir? Ot~ers, secillg the boo:k:'s connection to David. ail: .~~(u:tdaty, :th:inkth,(: purpose ~!i1ei.tbet te prom~te 'C(ll:1i,,,,·~rsio:r:. QHQ[1t:~g.n peoples or~.Q' dliscou~gc ,bnu:lit:e lntermamllg,e with them. Both jde~· are dliffi~,1iJtt ~.Q' supportm(OlI:J.5e QFthe't.u:rn. o.f.eY~ts meed in tih:e book and! because onts gentl~tol:1.e

AJthou:8h DaVid .5'Ro,uldnot be i:gn.ored in det'e.rrnining theint:.ent of the authorjtheac,tuaJ purpese Qfthe :ru,Irnllnvl? mOlY cSu~ :an:l1'rniW focus mi. DaiVld i1,Qfi~. Th.e iud~:;, pffiodtha.tiPi'm·i.d~dth.tl: :seui;r:J.g was !:1,otmious flQr itsa~ and '(;Ov~1!~;tal ~gn@Ml!'!.ct:: :l:!i!d Qff~~; f~i~L~ "f.1,~at 3. p~¢~ milun. How ,did the faith o,fblfilie] :i'lurvlivc:'? We ~u,gge:5ttha,t it ~U"ii'ted ~ri, 'tt:i:e:familes ,ot' ,corom,on fo~k such. I!!S .Elimd.e&and NaQmL 'The QlIc(;aU pi<.-tttm was gI1.!1!m, but tb.~ w~faithiwll indi.v.iduals .. 1"his issue is ~ot '¥it!~ out ii,wtificanC"e fur the reader"sullcll:mand!ing ofn,¥vjd!, 1ti the bisOOrical namlti.ves mQveJTorn the jud~es period'lio the mOfl::lrchfy~ the- reader may find :a &i.th. ~ike David"s diffi.ooltto. believe" H01\ilr ·cou[d fai.th lilk.€: this still ~ after· fout .ht!~ yea_rS ·gf,cQ,nditio:i1.il ~udh a5 thm;e ~00d ~LQ tihe hook cnudges?'The sl:O'.ry QfRutib, dJrawn :rno«ll Davld's anCe.'ltry, ·offe:rn ,<If! eJIIplanaticnofthe sum.val offai:th.

Th~ messa~ ismiit God p~~cd. fa;mmcs otfil[t:h and. I::b.art fn;nn one such famlly~g .David came. AI> Hubb:u'dhas :po:int~d. our, dle!preSl!tv;il:& ticn ofdtisfamtly .suresm.::my motifs with c;oo"s PUeservllti01lJ of the pam.· areh53 ''rhw itpil'o",,~des: a.nO'the!:" ex .. mpl.e of God's. Qov>enant lo:y:dty and the [aim it ~gende~

1JN Kbttmrm~

R~

The levl~te ~~ i!i ~PQ1i,]nded :in the legal .ut:erll.t,ure: ·of Israel in Deuteron(Jmy:Z5~5-'lO. U~d.er ~~ law,if.a H'li<!;n dicd.witharut havlng::3I sen.hts brother was 6Migated.~o bear a sen by his w,ld(fw .. Th;ilrt.~()n would thereafter be considered mehei1 to me' deildbrothe(il hQ~boW.~n .t,lili wa.y fimili~ eeuld not ,easily di.e out

.h expa'llded lllterpretati:o:n (If thiScmtom. Qflevintem;l!!r,r,iag~ is ,mmhin.ed with land redempti.on rights to proY:idetb.e le,gal :setting for the book

'Q- .f·· n .. ~It,,_ ·Th· -c", He' I~:~_"" .... """", ~t fL;:.,._ .. · ... .,.~.Ji-· ...... rr iJ~. "·'k"·rn1 L",_th""

-,. ~~'Uj=· .J._~" ,.,~!f,'!r'!"!' !Ir'T!Ii~"'lir~· ~ l~.iI~~'.J if.'..V"ir.'~!"i!;_.i~ .. ~ _T ~.=i9'r.=~ ,U"""~'I'_.~ , ~.

[!Iitld redemption. Jaw (l.ev: .. 2:5;25-31,47-SS) . .AQCQ'td:i.n;g t{l thi.$ ]:.1W~ Land saM by IJPerson oouldbe botlghtback by a relative :so ~~G keep tffine lllnd in. the fami:ly:Both. thfl land law and l~viratt! m3m3iFiC1iWl2T.f'iDltmd~d. t!o ,presewc family .andl.a:rlli:-C-Ol!i'eMn.tm.aitt.ers of the: first degree .. They were 5OC~all p.r,o.visioM bywhk". God's OOVell3init promises mllJdcO'Dlti;l].ue to be .n:aliztffi. ,gvm {Of familiH .m. crisi.s.ThI!': ~~l provld~ 'tl!:!e .m~a,n;$ by whk~h

Copyriphted matei p'

,~eopardjzed covenant b~~jn~ ,cou]d! be regained. and thus ~d as ·an appropriate mrta:p'hior fbrGod':s graee, Y3hw~h ,constant.lyactedi .. as glYfl for Israem~ :lll1dthe New'festarlll.mt was .quick. to .a:ppm.yth:a.t COIlC.ept totherele ofCh_;_r:i~.

Rel:at~ MrnSt: frnq.u~ndy teeoven . .ant. loyalty;. tn.e Hebrew term ~tstd J'n'td envdops aU thef3.r-If~aihir'lgimp]k:ati.olisGr Ya.hweh's IO'Y:iI~t}' tG~lti5 cove.nJ.llt. The King J~ml;'$ Ve.~iQ!1 freq1[:!~dy tr:.m!>late$. th~ .~~ "~~,~

while the: New.A:rtu::rl.c .. n Standard. Ri~ble chOOSCIm:C eempouad term lovillfJcittdness. These oru.y be.ginto, introduce ailw.e'varied. ways wt'!feby GJd demenstrates .his ,CQvmaIlit loymt¥J sad this v,m~ty is roflt1ctlNim the doo.~

slon by the ~I~t.ors (!if the: New International Veffijl)n to 'use il!n:i!rr:~y cf

terms: ki:ndm!ss~ ~ ·loya1rx and more.

Ruth is; a book 'of ,~$edo.nboth the htlmanand ~edivine~~e!l~, Th.e mQ..5t e~plidt ,~!tatem,c:nt of t!h~ is f~u!ld m Ruth's nimng e.xpfe~iQn of cQm_m:ib:1i:1~:t to N agm~ n ~16--17). Itilli .!:5 Iqu;uitymat gaif!$ herBQ~'~ filV·(llf 1['2:.1.2), Boo~ is likew.isepj'~il;ed fur the bes~d b:eshQ(\~~ to Naoml f2;20~.where the ;subj;ea is most: U~]y Boaz: [sec th~ NlV] ra.'ther ~ Yah.~ w~hJ" 'The i~,ue ·of fvt~ed s.erv~! ::Is the prerrtise £.or the ~ssiQn~~ BO<li~ and R,uth a:s. oegotl<l'tio~are made (3:9,-B). The Lord·'·$lm~d is introduced. in 1 ::8--'9' as the. factor tffiJ.a~ will eventuallv lead mille SUCOe55"

. . - "- ' , '" ~'- _.' - - - - ';,' - _'_ - . - ... _' - '-- - '_ '_ - -

ful remar:r:iOiigeof Naomi';Illd:aughte.rs·ln·ia.wj.~1 that it cannot help but be rctogn.ized in. me prcrl/isi1:Jn ofa J!jYel for Ruth. (eI4:::l4J

Al this demensaates that ltesed to one il!noth~ !i5.amoQg the [!l(l5t 6.~. ting: vc~id~ God (;ill!1 tJs~ to di$p:lay his (IWt! be~, This ag~npfOvtdes .a ~O!:l.~t to me book of §udg.e~, ~l'Iwbich loyalty w~thin ~e Mttl'ldl$ QHh(! co\'enant 1s ~eaf(!l!,

QUESTIONS FOR FURfN'.ER SrUiB' AND DISCUSSiON

l, What a:rewe v.OIirlQU$ ways in wllicl! ~. ~ exp~!ledm ~ebook? 2 .. What sig~ificanc@ wouM~h@lsrae]liws:a!ttachl'io the fac.t maJt Ruth was from Moab?

1 Wh:it did mep!iindpi.eoif lev.i.!,~ilJe: IT!!3rri;ag~ im.ply f,eg~tding the f~~ily 1,\;ult,1:,l!!:e gf ~cient b~e]?

4. .. ~y did, th~ book ofRuth.~ome ~ated! with the F~an m~~ ~o:;t 10 ~ .. ter Jl!tdlai5m,?

FOR FlUHHE.R READING

Atkir:lson, OavidL TII,e'W~ of ~Do~ Grove, liI1.:' IfliterV:~rsity Pr~ 1983:. Bu~ .. F.rederic.. Rllth.lf..s:hn [),a11:1S~ Word., 199(i

Cam,pbeU,. 'Edward. F; R:1I1h: .. (ra~ City, N.Y:~;lXiublNa~ ·U~75. Straightforward ~lIId he~p:frll~, ,thrn.l.gh not ~'lI_fi!Wllical..

Cunib:Uv Artffiltu;;. and l.eo:~ M{l~. JwJgs .WId .R:n:m. TOrC.. ])owlJ]ers Gm'll'wWlL IntetVatJitY Pre~ ~968-

R.I~lnl'

207