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Enzyme classification

Enzyme classification

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Published by Shardul Wagh

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Published by: Shardul Wagh on Feb 28, 2011
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Mr. Shardul S.


Enzymes are biocatalysts. They increase the rate of chemical reaction taking place within living cells without themselves suffering any overall change.

The name µenzyme¶ (enG = in; zymeG = yeast) means µin yeast¶ ‡Enzymes are protein in nature. ‡They enhance the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy. ‡pH and temperature sensitive. ‡Specific in nature.

The name µenzyme ¶ was coined by observing conversion of fruit juice (sugar) in to fine wine (alcohol) and release of Co2 .Enzyme exploration was influenced by modern scientific approach of fermentation industry.

[E] + [S] [ES] [P] + [E] The image cannot be displayed. or the image may have been corrupted. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. . acting on a particular substrate to produce a particular product or products. and then open the file again. If the red x still appears.How Enzymes work????????? The reactants of enzyme ±catalyzed reaction are termed substrates and each enzyme is quite specific in character. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Restart your computer.

Complexity of Biochemical Pathways .


How to remember and name these enzymes?????? .

B. 6.U. 4. Substrate acted upon by the enzyme. Substance hydrolyzed and group involved. Substrate acted upon and type of reaction catalyzed. 3. 1. . classification. Type of reaction catalyzed. I. 7. Substrate that is synthesized. Chemical composition of the enzyme.Enzyme Nomenclature and Classification With continuous increase in knowledge of enzymology. 5. various systems have evolved to name and classify the enzymes. 2.

1. The substance upon which an enzyme acts is called the substrate. Substrate acted upon by the enzyme. Examples: Carbohydrate ± Carbohydrase Protein ± Proteinase Lipid ± Lipase Maltose ± Maltase Sucrose ± Sucrase . Duclaux (1883) named the enzyme by adding the suffix ± ase in the name of the substrate catalyzed.

Transaminases ± transamination.2. Isomerases ± isomerization. Dehydrogenases ± dehydrogenation.  Hence this classification is based on adding suffix ± ase in the name of reaction they catalyzed. Examples: Hydrolase ± hydrolysis. Type of Reaction catalyzed. Oxidase ± oxidation.  The enzymes are highly specific as to the reaction they catalyzed. .

Succinic dehydrogenase :. L± glutamic dehydrogenase :. The name of some enzymes give clue of both the substrate utilized and the type of reaction catalyzed.3. . Eg.dehydrogenation of L ±glutamic acid. Substrate acted upon and type of reaction catalyzed.catalyzes dehydrogenation of substrate succinic acid.

4.forms fumarate irreversibly by L ± malate. . Eg. Substrate that is synthesized. Few enzymes named by adding the suffix . Fumarase :.ase to the name of the sustenance synthesized.

carbonic anhydrase.(Prosthetic group) Iron porphyrin enzyme:.Catalase.  Enzyme containing protein & cation :.Pepsin. Examples:  Enzyme containing protein only :.5. Trypsin. Cytochrome c peroxidase I & II . Urease.( Zn2+)  Enzyme containing protein & non protein:. Classification based on chemical composition. Chemical composition of the enzyme.

Lipase.glucorinidase Protein hydrolyzing enzymes :. Esterase . Sucrase. Amylase. F. Substance hydrolyzed and group involved. Lipid:.Cellulase.6. exopeptidase.Endopeptidases. Examples: Carbohydrate :.

Malate dehydrogenase. (L.7. Each with 4 to 13 subclasses.B. I.B. Additional information regarding nature of reaction. Each enzyme has 2 parts ± the first part is the name of substrate & second with suffix ± ase.Malate +NAD+ Pyruvate +Co2 +NADH+H+ . Classification 1961 The chemical reaction catalyzed is specific property which distinguishes one enzyme from another.) L. 2.U.malate : NAD oxidoreductase. I. indicate type of reaction catalyzed. 1. The major features of this system are:Reactions are divided in to 6 major classes. used this criterion as a basis for classification and naming of enzymes.U. Eg.

I. Classification contd« 4.C. Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Class Sub Class (acting on CH ± OH group of electron donor) Sub Sub Class (electron acceptor) Enzyme Number .1.1. Example.1.C.) it consist of series of 4 digits.1.B.1.U.) 1.Each enzyme has been allotted systemic code called Enzyme commission number (E. (E.1.1.

Oxidoreductase (Oxidation n Reduction) Class 2. Ligases (To joint) . Transferase (Transfer of Group) Class 3. Hydrolase (Hydrolysis) Class 4.Class 1. Isomerases (Isomers) Class 6. Lyases (Lysis) Class 5.

Eg. Electron acceptor.1.1. Acting on (CH ± OH) alcohol group of electron donor. 1. (Alcohol Dehydrogenase) Enzyme serial Number.27) .1.C.Class 1. 1.1.1.atoms or electrons from one substrate to another. Other example is Lactate Dehydrogenase (E. O. Oxidoreductase (Oxidation n Reduction) These enzymes catalyze the transfer of H atoms. 2. ATP : D. Transferase (Transfer of Group) Catalyzes the reaction AX + B BX + A While giving name to particular enzyme Enzyme commission recommends that the name of transferase should end ³X ± Transferase´ where X ± is the group transferred.1) (Hexokinase) D.hexose + ATP D ± Hexose ± 6 ± (P) + ADP . Eg.CH3) (transfer from first Carbon) Eg.Hexose ±6 ± phosphatases (2.1 methyltransferases ( .

Class 3. glycosyl by addition of water molecule. Orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (E.1.1) (Alkaline phosphatase) Organic (P) inorganic (P) . Hydrolase (Hydrolysis) Enzymes catalyzes hydrolytic reaction. A ± X + H2O X ± OH + HA These types of enzymes catalyzes the reaction of hydrolysis of ester.3. Eg.C. 3.

L ± Histidine carboxy ± lyase (E.4. .1.C.1.22) (Histidine ± decarboxylase) Histidine Histamine.Class 4. Eg. Lyases (Lysis) These enzymes catalyses the non hydrolytic removal of groups from substrates often leaving double bonds.

Class 5.C.alanine D ± alanine. Alanine racemase (E. Isomerases (Isomers) Enzymes catalyzing isomerization reaction Eg.1. . 5.1.1) L.

X + Y + ATP X ± Y + ADP + Pi E. Acid . Ligases (To joint) Enzymes catalyzed the synthesis of new bonds coupled to the breakdown of ATP or other nucleoside triphosphates. .1.C.ammonia ligases. 6.3.Class 6.

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