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Drexel Learning Center
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) Application Series
C on fid en tia
Continental Breakfast Introduction and Icebreaker Session Overview Introduction to the MBTI tool and Best-Fit Type Process Lunch MBTI Tool Team Analysis Introduction to MBTI Applications
Finish the Thought
• “If I won the lottery, I would …” • “The song that makes me want to dance is …” • “On weekends, I enjoy …” • “My dream vacation would be to …” • “My favorite dessert is …”
C on fid en tia
Continental Breakfast Introduction and Icebreaker Session O er iew Introduction to the MBTI tool and Best-Fit Type Process Lunch MBTI Tool Team Analysis Introduction to MBTI Applications
Purpose of the Workshop
• Introduce all participants to the fundamental elements of personality type theory • Verify the true personality type of all participants, as possible • Explore MBTI applications, with an emphasis on academic counseling and teambuilding
C on fid en tia
• • • • • • Be present and participate Respect one another’s type What happens here, stays here Watch your own biases Keep an open mind No one has to share anything they are uncomfortable sharing
• “It will be a good session for me today if …” • “What I most want to learn today is …” • “The one thing the team needs to look at today is …”
C on fid en tia
Continental Breakfast Introduction and Icebreaker Session Overview Introduction to the MBTI tool and Best-F t Type Process Lunch MBTI Tool Team Analysis Introduction to MBTI Applications
which was in part as response to his falling out with Sigmund Freud 6 . skills. or abilities • There are no right or wrong preferences • No preferences are unhealthy or inappropriate • Type is not an excuse: we can all use every function and every attitude • Team members are the best judges of their own preferences l History of MBTI • Carl Jung first spoke about his theory of personality in 1913 during the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress • He published his theory in 1921. it is not about knowledge.C on fid en tia Key Type Concepts • Type is about preferences.
that the collective unconscious of archetypes and images which made up the human psyche was processed and renewed within the unconscious. • Jung believed that the unconscious also had a creative capacity. l History of MBTI • Jung’s theory said that we’re hardwired for personality • How one self-reports and/or expresses “true type” may change based on circumstances • Type ≠ Trait 7 . Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires.C on fid en tia History of MBTI • According to Jung (though not according to Freud).
– Factor analysis is a statistical data reduction technique used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors.S. 8 . with the first published form in 1942 • Current Form M published in 1998 • MBTI is the most widely used personality inventory in the world l History of MBTI • MTBI Step II Form Q published in 2001 – Included 20 additional facets based on factor analysis of a representative sample of people living in the U.C on fid en tia History of MBTI • Jung’s theory was operationalized by Catherine Briggs and her daughter. Isabel Myers.
8 – First. sign your name on the top line as you normally do – Second. developed skills Four Attitudes/Orientations • Source and direction of energy – Extraversion (E) – Introversion (I) • Preferred way to structure/organize environment and plan & complete tasks – Judging (J) – Perceiving (P) 9 .C on fid en tia Handedness Activity • Introduction to Type (ITT). p. sign your name again below. but this time use your other hand l • Natural preference v.
C on fid en tia Four Mental Functions • The two perceiving functions – Sensing (S) – Intuition (N) l • The two judging functions – Thinking (T) – Feeling (F) Self-Assessment for Best-Fit Type 10 .
C on fid en tia l Introduction to Type Video Self-Assessment • • Please complete the “STEP 1” statements on your handout Check the corresponding options that most reflect your shoes-off-self or perfect-world preference • • Record your self-assessed preferences in “STEP 2” We will continue on to “STEP 3” when everyone has finished 11 .
C on fid en tia l Reported Results Reported Results 12 .
or Ability l • What clarity does measure – How consistent you were in answering questions designed to differentiate your preference towards a given pole – Reliability of reported type as an indicative of “true type” Reported Results 13 . Skill.C on fid en tia Clarity of Preferences • What clarity doesn’t measure – Strength of Preference – Type Development – Knowledge.
C on fid en tia Reported Results l Reported Results 14 .
C on fid en tia Reported Results l Agreement with Report • 75% in agreement with all four reported preferences • 95% agree on three or more letters • Due to a multitude of reasons. the TF and J-P preferences are generally less reliable than E-I and S-N preferences. especially when the PCC is “slight” 15 .
and aggressive. insensitive. 16 . he found it difficult to trust and use him dominant extraverted Thinking judgment.C on fid en tia Factors Influencing Accuracy • Lack of Type Differentiation • Conflicting Expectations – Parents – Work l • • • • • Life Crisis Situational Influences Misinterpretation Social Pressure Period of Rapid Growth or Adjustment Example • An ESTJ boy reared by an INFP parent learned to see himself as crude. • As a young adult.
” • Her self-esteem suffered greatly and she learned not to trust her dominant extraverted Intuition. Inherited Preferences) 17 . l Geert Hofstede Expressed Personality Culture (Learned.C on fid en tia Example • An ENFP girl raised by an ISTJ parent was consistently told to “stop daydreaming” and “be realistic. Specific to Group Or Category) Human Nature (Universal.
S. and South Africa l Distribution of Preferences in the U. China. Nigeria.5% 46% 18 . Korea. National Representative Sample Preference Percentage Preference Percentage E S T Males Females J 49% 73% 40% 56. Brazil.5% 75.5% 24.5% 54% I N F Males Females P 51% 27% 60% 43.C on fid en tia Appropriateness of the MBTI • MBTI cannot be reliably used to identify type preferences in (“collectivist”) cultures in which “the interest of the group prevails over the interest of the individual” • MBTI has been used successfully in cultures where group social values are important – These include Mexico.
C on fid en tia E-I Dichotomy • Source and direction of an Extravert’s energy lies in the external world of action and people • Source and direction of an Introvert’s energy lies in the internal world of thoughts and ideas l E-I Dichotomy • Which expresses a preference for Introversion? – “Let’s talk this over.” 19 .” – “I need to think about this.
C on fid en tia E-I Dichotomy • Extraversion (E) – Focus is on breadth and variety of experiences in the world l • Introversion (I) – Focus is on depth and intensity of private reflections E-I Bias • E’s think … – I’s don’t participate as much – I’s are disinterested – I’s are not good leaders • I’s think … – E’s never shut up – E’s aren’t as dedicated to their work 20 .
C on fid en tia E-I Activity • Break into two groups – “E’s” will assemble by the water cooler – “I’s” will assemble by the white board – Participants unclear about their preference for “E” or “I” will serve as group observers l • Answer the question: What would we want them to know about us? S-N Preference • Our Perceiving Function – How we take in information – Kind of information we like and trust 21 .
details. possibilities. please. and the future l S-N Preference • Which best expresses a preference for Intuition? – “Just the facts. and recent experiences • Intuitive types focus attention on patterns.” – “I can see it all now.” • Which expresses a preference for Sensing? – “What do you mean by that?” – “Just what I said.C on fid en tia S-N Preference • Sensing types focus attention on facts. connections.” 22 .
have seen • Please select a group recorder now 23 .C on fid en tia S-N Preference • Sensing (S) – Like hearing facts and details first – See problems as needing specific solutions based on past experience – See the trees – What is l • Intuition (N) – Need the big picture first – See problems as opportunities to innovate based on inspiration – See the forest – What could be S-N Activity • Break into two groups – “S’s” will assemble by the water cooler – “N’s” will assemble by the white board – Participants unclear about their preference for “S” or “N” will serve as group observers • You will be given an opportunity to observe the next slide for 45 seconds • Afterwards. as a group. you will be asked to record what you.
C on fid en tia The Subway l The Subway • Please take the next five minutes to record. what you have seen 24 . as a group.
C on fid en tia Sample Responses • There is a green figure slightly left of center. • A green figure is suspended at the top of the picture. colorful advertisement exaggerates the dreariness of the cold. a long nose. • People are sitting in chairs along the side. and outstretched arms and legs. bored. use a new sheet of paper to describe what you did yesterday 25 . and troubled people. • One man in a dark hat. with a large. coat. • The woman with the saucer like eyes cringes away in fear at the sight of the green leaping ghost. and pants is bending forward toward a door. and a small person is by the dark figure’s feet. • Colored pictures appear at the top of the scene. open smile. • The subway is full of tired. • The man in the black hat and suit is angered by the ghost’s haunting. drab subway. l Yesterday • In your current group. • The contrast of the happy. smiling.
using impersonal language – Feeling types focus on putting themselves in the situation (empathy) and making decisions that promote harmony. logical decisionmaking. impartial.C on fid en tia S-N Bias? • S’s think – N’s … l • N’s think – S’s … T–F Preference • Thinking and Feeling describe decision-making preferences – Thinking types focus on detached. using personal language 26 . objective.
C on fid en tia T–F Preference • Thinking • Feeling l T–F Preference • Which best expresses a preference for Feeling? – “Is this logical?” – “Will anyone be hurt?” 27 .
C on fid en tia T–F Preference • Scenario – Matt has gotten a “D” in Math and a “B+” in History. I know how hard you worked in all of your courses.” l – Which type is Mom? Dad? Matt? T–F Preference • Thinking (T) − Seek logical clarity − Have an interest in objective data − Look first for the flaws in an argument − Firm but fair • Feeling (F) – Seek harmony – Have an interest in people and situations – Look first to points of agreement in an argument – Empathetic. making exceptions 28 . Dad thinks I’m stupid.” • Dad: “What are we going to do about that ‘D’?” • Matt: “Mom. His parents reactions follow: • Mom: “I’m so pleased with your grade in History.
all expenses paid. There is only enough money for half the team to go. How do you decide who should go? J–P Dichotomy • The J-P dichotomy was developed by Myers-Briggs to help practitioners identify which of the preferred functions is directed outward (used when dealing with the outside word) – Individuals with a preference for Introversion always extravert their auxiliary function – Individuals with a preference for Extraversion always extravert their dominant function 29 .C on fid en tia Team Reward • Directions – Break into your respective groups with “T’s” by the white board l • Scenario – Your team has met all its goals and is being rewarded with a team trip to Madrid.
and prefer often prefer spontaneity l J–P Dichotomy • Judging • Perceiving 30 . like to keep options open and gather information. organizing. and reaching conclusions – Perceiving types exert energy in the final moments.C on fid en tia J–P Dichotomy • How we want to organize our environment and plan & complete tasks – Judging types exert their energy in planning.
” l • Which best expresses a preference for Perceiving? – “Want to go to the movies tomorrow?” – “Let’s get the paper and see what else is going on.” J–P Dichotomy • Judging (J) − In making decisions.” – “Let’s wait and see. come to closure quickly − Rely on their plan to finish tasks by the deadline − Quickly commit to plans − Work comes before play − Avoid problems by anticipating them in advance • Perceiving (P) − Put off decisions to consider new information and options − Rely on their internal sense of timing to finish tasks at the deadline − Reserve the right to change plans − Work and play coexist − Solve problems if and when they arise 31 .C on fid en tia J–P Dichotomy • Which best expresses a preference for Judging? – “Just do something.
C on fid en tia J–P Dichotomy • Who procrastinates more? – Judging types – Perceiving types l J-P Activity • Break up into two groups – “J’s” will assemble by the white board – “P’s” will assemble by the water cooler – Participants unclear about their preference for “J” or “P” will serve as group observers • Answer the question: What do we appreciate about them? 32 .
C on fid en tia l Exploring the Type Table Constructing a Type Table I I E E J P P J 33 .
C on fid en tia Constructing a Type Table l S S N N T F F T Constructing a Type Table 34 .
Serious and concerned. and structures. and achieve objectives.6% ISFJ 13. and to belong.8% INFP 4. National Representative Sample C on fid en tia l ISTJ 11.1% ISTP 5.4% INTP 3. Theory oriented.S. definition. Seek to understand the principles on which the world and things in it work. Want security. Want freedom to choose their next action. Focus on strategies and designs that achieve long-range goals and lead to progress. Trust the past.7% ESFJ 12. meaningful relationships.8% The Temperaments Temperament Guardian (SJ) Percentage 46% Keyword Tradition Description Search for unique identity and meaning. Generally enthusiastic. Read people and situation and adapt to changes to get the job done. tradition.8% INFJ 1. Like standard operating procedure to protect and preserve.5% ENTJ 1. maintain organizations. Want to make the world a better place. Trust logic and reason. Focus on logistics to support people. Seek adventure and experiences. finding a purpose in life.5% INTJ 2. Focus on tactics to help others and get desired results. sequences. Think in terms of integration and similarities. stability. Hunger for responsibility and predictability. Skeptical and precise.2% ESTJ 8. Want to be authentic.4% ISFP 8. Value empathic.U. and authority.5% ENFP 8. Artisan (SP) 27% In the Moment Idealist (NF) 17% Identity & Meaning Rational (NT) 10% Theory Oriented 35 .3% ENFJ 2. Trust their intuition and imagination. Think in terms of differences. Hunger for spontaneity. categories.3% ESFP 8. and bridging differences. and associations. Think in terms of variations.1% ENTP 3.3% ESTP 4. Focus on developing potential in others. Want competence and thorough knowledge. Absorbed in the moment. Optimistic. Trust luck and ability to handle whatever comes up. Action and impact oriented. Think in terms of comparison.
C on fid en tia l Type Dynamics and Development Type Dynamics • Hierarchy of Functions – Preferred Functions • Dominant • Auxiliary – Non-Preferred Functions • Tertiary • Inferior 36 .
C on fid en tia Type Dynamics • Steps for Identifying the Hierarchy of Functions – Identify the function that is extraverted – Identify the function that is introverted – Identify the dominant function • Match the first letter with the like-directed mental function l – Identify the auxiliary function • The auxiliary function is the other mental function within your type – Identify the tertiary function • Psychological opposite of the auxiliary function – Identify the inferior function • Psychological opposite of the dominant function Practice • INTJ – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: • ISTP – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: 37 .
C on fid en tia Try These on Your Own • ISFJ – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: l • ENTP – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: Try These on Your Own • ENTJ – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: • INFJ – – – – 1: 2: 3: 4: 38 .
C on fid en Would You Like Additional Examples? tia l The Eight Jungian Functions • Extraverted Sensing – The focus is on information being acquired in the moment • Introverted Sensing – The focus is on information recalled from previous experience 39 .
C on fid en tia The Eight Jungian Functions • Extraverted Intuition – The focus is on recognizing patterns and identifying possibilities for new patterns and methods of associating the information l • Introverted Intuition – The focus is on synthesizing information. defendable decision • Introverted Thinking – The focus is on applying system analysis to information or data in an attempt to ensure consistency and precision with individual internal frameworks 40 . identifying the deeper or ultimate meaning or symbolism represented by the information The Eight Jungian Functions • Extraverted Thinking – The focus is on applying objective analysis to information or data in an attempt to arrive at a logical.
C on fid en tia The Eight Jungian Functions • Extraverted Feeling – The focus is on external reactions in an attempt to arrive at a decision that maintains harmony in the group l • Introverted Feeling – The focus is on internal comfort or discomfort in an attempt to accept only decisions that are consistent with core values Type Development • Goal – Comfortable use of a dominant and auxiliary function in opposite attitudes – Ability to draw on the non-preferred functions when appropriate • Life Cycle – 1st half: Specialization – 2nd half: Integration (Generalization) 41 .
recreation – Often a source of creativity – Offer illumination and revelations l Non-Preferred Functions • Negative Characteristics – – – – – – Our Achilles heel Persistent mistakes Touchy. defensive reactions Projections Childish Can develop skill. emotional.C on fid en tia Non-Preferred Functions • Positive Characteristics – Provide balance between conscious and unconscious – Bring a childlike quality to play. but require energy 42 .
C on fid en tia Stress Triggers • • • • • • Too many things on your plate Not enough rest Unclear reporting lines Conflicting decisions and decision-makers Competing needs of family and work Overuse of the dominant function or nonpreferred energy orientation l Inferior Form of the Functions S N T F •Obsessiveness •Overindulgence •Grandiose vision •Catastrophizing •Excessive criticism •Convoluted logic •Emotionalism •Over emphasis on logic 43 .
l Stressed INTJ I could go for a drink. all mine: my precious … 44 .C on fid en tia Rushed INTJ No one would understand. It’s mine. Oh. never mind. right about now. anyway. It’s too hard to explain.
C on fid en tia l Please help yourself to lunch. Team Type Table ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 45 .
C on fid en tia Agenda Continental Breakfast Introduction and Icebreaker Session Overview Introduction to the MBTI tool and Best-Fit Type Process Lunch MBTI Tool Team Analysis Introduction to MBTI Applications l Introduction to Type and Teams 46 .
C on fid en tia Color Jacuzzi RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE INDIGO PURPLE What stops you or turns you off? What energizes you? What inspires you to be creative? What is the silliest thing you ever did for money? What gets you out of a blue mood? What is your quirkiest habit? What would be your first action if you were ruler for a day? l Type Hallmarks ISTJ Dependability ISFJ Commitment INFJ Integrity INTJ Vision ISTP Ingenuity ISFP Sensitivity INFP Idealism INTP Logic ESTP Energy ESFP Enthusiasm ENFP Imagination ENTP Initiative ESTJ Decisiveness ESFJ Affiliation ENFJ Responsiveness ENTJ Drive 47 .
C on fid en tia Types at Work Salt of the Earth Behind-theScenes Leader Oracle for People Designer of the Future l Walking Encyclopedia Gentle Spirit Values Crusader Blueprinter of Ideas Self-Starter Everyone’s Friend Spark of Energy Classic Entrepreneur Take-Charge Leader Servant Leader Values Spokesperson Grand-Scale Organizer Team Type Preference E S T J Team Type: Number Preference I N F P Facilitator Type: INTJ Number 48 .
as their attention span can be short regarding specifics Express ideas about the big picture Take time to create a personal connection. as they can be sensitive to clues that others do not value them or their input When communicating with this type.C on fid en tia Team Strengths/Blind Spots SE SI NE NI TE TI FE FI l 1° 2° 3° 4° Communication Styles of the Feeling Function Pairs NF Their style … Tend to be socializers Are apt to rapidly shift the topic of conversation Like to share their feelings about what they are doing Are generally interested in many things. it is important to … Be positive and upbeat Avoid details. particularly human stories Their style Tend to be kind and helpful Often want to help others even if those others don’t want any help Like to give longer and more detailed explanations May feel they are not “doing their job” if they do not take care of you May experience more feelings of guilt than other types When communicating with this type. it is important to Be sensitive to their needs Politely mention time constraints Reassure them that they are valued Be patient SF 49 .
C on fid en tia l Communication Styles of the Thinking Function Pairs NT Their style … Like clear and direct information Give data. the sequence. and grounded in reality Reveal the source of your information. it is important to Be precise. in concise sentences May lose focus and interest when too many details or opinions are given Can be direct and clipped in their approach when frustrated When communicating with this type. Avoid discussion of issues on a subjective level Tap into issues of personal relevance to them Give them plenty of time to respond Team Analysis • What might this team emphasize? • What positive contributions might this team make to the greater organization? • What challenges might this team face? • What might this team need to do to be optimally effective? 50 . etc. it is important to … Be brief and logical Sell them the big-picture benefit Let them know the payoff Outline crucial information on paper for them to digest later Their style Tend to be very thorough about everything Attend to the details Provide the background logic and support analysis Take pride in being experts in their field ST When communicating with this type. and want to receive it. thorough.
and an estimated timeline for their completion l Agenda Continental Breakfast Introduction and Icebreaker Session Overview Introduction to the MBTI tool and Best-Fit Type Process Lunch MBTI Tool Team Analysis I troduction to MBTI Applications 51 .C on fid en tia Additional Thoughts • Things you value about your work relationships on this team • Things that make work relationships on this team difficult • Things you can do to improve your work relationships on this team • Things the team can do to improve work relationships • Two concrete steps you can take and two concrete steps the team can take.
• My psychology professor is driving me up the wall. 52 .C on fid en tia l Introduction to Type in College Identify the Preference • My roommate and I hit it off immediately. I don’t know how I’ll ever choose. She jumps around so much I can barely follow her. but she won’t tell me. I feel like I’ve known him on all my life. I want to know exactly what I need to know for the test. I gave up trying to take notes after the second class. I want to take as many different courses as I can. • I hate all of these required courses. We’re the best of friends. Everything seems so interesting.
l Choice of Major Typical Fields of Study or Work by Preference Combinations ST Management Accounting Law Enforcement Engineering Skilled Trades SF Health Care Teaching Religious Service Office Work Community Service NF Counseling Art and Music Journalism Behavioral Science Education NT Law Physical Science Computers Management Research 53 .C on fid en tia Choosing a Major How Students Choose A Major EJ I want to decide and then get on with it. IP I wonder what I’ll want to be when I grow up. IJ I want to be sure. EP I want to experience it all.
” work with them to improve their internal sense of timing 54 . may benefit from reading chapter summaries in advance of class • Encourage F’s to get to know their faculty personally • Encourage P’s to keep track of all due dates. if consistently “cutting it too close for comfort.C on fid en tia A Few Interesting Facts • Students with similar personality types get along better • Students of opposite types living in residence together academically under-perform their similarly-paired peers • IFP’s more often exhibit nonassertive behavior and benefit from activities designed to boost their confidence l Learning Styles • E’s are more likely to benefit from an informal study group • N’s may struggle in fact-based courses.
C on fid en tia MBTI and Millennials l For Additional Information • • • • • Introduction to Type Introduction to Type in College Introduction to Type in Coaching Introduction to Type in Organizations Introduction to Type in Communication • Introduction to Type and Teams • In the Grip 55 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?