# Chapter

TOPIC/PROBLEM
SECT TOPIC 3.2 3.3 3.4 Limiting Conditions Dimensional Synthesis Two-Position Synthesis Three-Position with Specified Moving Pivots Three-Position with Specified Fixed Pivots 3.5 Quick-Return Mechanisms Fourbar Quick-Return Sixbar Quick-Return 3.6 3.7 Coupler Curves Cognates Parallel Motion Geared Fivebar Cognates of the Fourbar 3.8 3.9 Straight-Line Mechanisms Dwell Mechanisms Single Dwell Linkages Double Dwell Linkages 3-12,3-72, 3-73, 3-74 3-13, 3-26, 3-27 3-7,3-67, 3-68, 3-69 3-8, 3-9, 3-70, 3-71 3-15, 3-33, 3-34, 3-35 3-10,3-16, 3-24, 3-29, 3-30, 3-37, 3-40, 3-43, 3-45 3-17,3-18,3-21,3-28 3-11,3-25,3-38, 3-41,3-44 3-19,3-31,3-32 3-2, 3-3, 3-4, 3-20, 3-46, 3-47, 3-49, 3-50, 3-52, 3-53, 3-55, 3-56, 3-59, 3-60, 3-63, 3-64 3-5,3-48,3-51,3-54,3-57,3-61,3-65 3-6,3-58, 3-62, 3-66 Function, Path, and Motion Generation 3-1 3-14,3-22, 3-23, 3-36, 3-39, 3-42

MATRIX

PROBLEMS

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 3-1-1

.PS PROBLEM
Statement:

3-1 Defme the following examples as path, motion, or function generation cases. a. b. c. d. e. A telescope aiming (star tracking) mechanism A backhoe bucket control mechanism A thermostat adjusting mechanism A computer printing head moving mechanism An XY plotter pen control mechanism

Solution:
a. b. c. d. e.

Path generation. A star follows a 2D path in the sky. Motion generation. To dig a trench, say, the position and orientation of the bucket must be controlled. Function generation. The output is some desired function of the input over some range of the input Path generation. The head must be at some point on a path. Path generation. The pen follows a straight line from point to point.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-2-1

_g PROBLEM 3-2
Statement:
Design a fourbar Grashof crank-rocker for 90 deg of output rocker motion with no quick return. (See Example 3-1.) Build a cardboard model and determine the toggle positions and the minimum transmission angle. Output angle 94:= 90·deg

Given:
Solution:

Design choices:
1.

Draw the output link 04B in both extreme positions, B) and B2, in any convenient location such that the desired angle of motion 94 is subtended. In this solution, link 4 is drawn such that the two extreme positions each make an angle of 45 deg to the vertical. Draw the chord B)B2 and extend it in any convenient direction. In this solution it was extended to the left. Layout the distanceA1B) along extended line BIB2 equal to the length oflink 3. Mark the point A). Bisect the line segmentB)B2 and layout the length of that radius from pointAI along extended line BlB2• Mark the resulting point O2 and draw a circle of radius 02A 1 with center at O2, Label the other intersection of the circle and extended line B)B2' A2. Measure the length of the crank (link 2) as 001 or 002' From the graphical solution, L2:= 1.76775 Measure the length of the ground link (link 1) as 0204, From the graphical solution, LJ := 6.2550

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Find the Grashof condition. Condition(S ,L,P,Q):= SL ~ S + L PQ~P+ Q

return "Grashof"

if

SL < PQ

return "Special Grashof" return "non-Grashof"

if

SL

= PQ

otherwise

P.L3.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-3-2 II.Q):::= SL ~ S + L PQ~P+Q return "Grashof" if SL < PQ if SL = PQ otherwise return "Special Grashof' return "non-Grashof" Condition(L2.LJ . Condition(S . Find the Grashof condition.L4) "Grashof" ::= .L.

. \ \ <. it was found that the fourbar O~B06 is non-Grashoffwith toggle positions at 92 = -71. Using the program FOURBAR and the link lengths given above.106 deg and -19.. The fourbar operates between 92 = +21.S + L PQ+-P+ Q SOLUTIONMANUAL 3-4-2 return "Grashoff" if 8L < PQ if 8L return "Special Grashof' return "non-Grashoff" Condition = "Grashoff" = PQ otherwise I I ~):< ".9 deg and +71.DESIGNOF MACHINERY Condition :» SL +. \ \ 1/ 6 / 8. ~~ '. -.5 deg. _ \ . A.. / / ~- I I / 11..I.>: \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ..297 deg. The minimum transmission angle is 35.9 deg. -.

and 0 13 := 360·deg 1 + t.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-7-1 Ji:S PROBLEM 3-7 Repeat Problem 3-2 with a quick-return time ratio ofl :1. .2. a. Layoff a line through B2 that makes an angle 0 with the line in step 3 (60 deg to the horizontal in this case)._r >: Statement: Given: Solution: 1. 3. each line makes an angle of 45 deg with the horizontal and has a length of2.4 See figure below for one possible solution.~. Start the layout by arbitrarily establishing the point 04 and from it layoff two lines of equal length. Layoff a line through B[ at an arbitrary angle (but not zero deg).180·deg 2. In the solution below. Label one B[ and the other B2• In the solution below. the line is 30 deg to the horizontal. 90 deg apart. a+ a t.9).4. (See Example 3. /\ )-f!353 =a 04 / .1 and 3. 5. Time ratio To . Design a fourbar Grashof crank-rocker for 90 degrees of output rocker motion with a quick-return time ratio of 1:1. a := 360·deg - p p = 210deg a = 150deg 0= 30deg 0:= 13 . -. .01 9=d LlIII<AGE DEFllIIllON . Extend 02B2 to meet this arc. ~ f / :*- \ : : \~ /.000 in. The intersection of these two lines establishes the point O2• From O2 draw an arc that goes through B[. Determine the crank rotation angles a and 13. . /l2 ~- I ! ----_.. 4.4.»> 13 Solving for p = 360·deg 13. 1 1. and the construction angle 0 from equations 3.~ 3. Also see Mathcad file P0307. Erect a perpendicular bisector to the extended portion of the line and transfer one half of the line to O2 as the length of the input crank. I I I 02 I I 02 -. \ LAYOUT -: I I I I / //>v \\ \ .

0353·jn b:= 3.000·in . For this solution.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-7-2 6.8637·in c:= 2. the link lengths are: Ground link (1) Crank (2) Coupler (3) Rocker (4) d := 3.0119·in a:= l.

./' r I I I I I I \ . -. . . LAVOUTOF SIXBAR DRI'G LIlli( QlICK RETtRN WITH liME RAllO OF 1:2 a=l. .DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-8-2 . the length of the output rocker (link 6) was measured as I> 4. For the design choices made (lengths oflinks 2. .000 b=l. \ \ \ -.~6 60'-~~ .250 t:4. . -.484 &=5.262 d=O. '.... .524·in.. -.524 y 13.800 c=2.3 and 5).

000 deg 2. STROKE 1 2.000 L5 := 5. Time ratio See Figure 3-14 and Mathcad file P0309. These two lines will simultaneously intersect the vertical line drawn in step 2. 112).000 Length of stroke S:= 4. Layout two construction lines from O2.deg I a'.000---- . each making an angle a/2 to the vertical line through O2.- 360·deg 1 1 +TR a = 90.1. Length oflink 2 (crank) Length oflink 5 (coupler) 1. 4. on it. Using the chosen crank length (see Design Choices). Draw a vertical line and mark the center of rotation of the crank. 7. Label the intersection as C 1• Draw the slider blocks at points A I and C I and fmish by drawing the mechanism in its other extreme position. 5.DESIGN OF MACHINERY ~ PROBLEM 3-9 SOLUTION MANUAL 3-9-1 Statement: Given: Solution: Design choices: Design a crank-shaper quick-return mechanism for a time ratio of1:3 (Figure 3-14. Draw a vertical construction line. Draw a horizontal construction line from point Bh either to the left or right. Using point Bl as center. parallel and to the right of 0204. draw a circle with center at O2 and radius equal to the crank length. 9. a distance S/2 (one-half of the output stroke length) from the line Op4' Extend line O¢l until it intersects the construction line drawn in step 6. 3. Calculate a from equations 3. draw an arc of radius equal to the length of link 5 (see Design Choices) to intersect the horizontal construction line. O2.000 a I p a + p := 360. p. 8. Label the point of intersection as the fixed pivot center 04. Label the intersections of the circle and the two lines drawn in step 3 as A I and A2• Draw lines through points Al and A2 that are also tangent to the crank circle (step 2). 6. TR:=- L2:= 1. Label the intersection B].

Draw the original fourbar linkage. Draw the Cayley and Roberts diagrams. L5 = 1.000·deg YI := -33. 4 --Q I I I I 1\ \ ----~-----2. Check your results with program FOURBAR. 5 B3 B. L5:=BIP L6:= -·BlP L3 L4 4. See Figure 3-17 and Mathcad file P031O.813 01 := -34. and align links 2 and 4 with the coupler. Calculate the cognate link lengths based on the geometry of the Cayley diagram (Figure 3-24c. which will be cognate #1. Return links 2 and 4 to their fixed pivots 0 A and OB and establish 0 c as a fixed pivot by making triangle 0 AO J!J c similar toA. Construct lines parallel to all sides of the aligned fourbar linkage to create the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24). 114).727. 3.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-10-1 Ji5 PROBLEM 3-10 Find the two cognates of the linkage in Figure 3-17 (p. p.deg Solution: 1.P. Point P has the same path motion in each cognate. B.5 AlP:= 1. 116). 5.813 B3 . Separate the three cognates.800 BlP:= 1. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L 1 := 2 L3 := 3 Statement: Given: Coupler point data: Crank Rocker L2:= 1 L4:= 3.B.

000 02 = 34.000 deg = 247.600 L8 = 2.800 L9 = 0.000 L3 = 3.000 L2 = 1. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LI LIBC:= -·BlP L3 LI LlAC:= -·AlP L3 LIBC= 1.800 01 Cognate #2 LlAC = 1.100 03 = -34.115 L5 = 1.800 L9 = 0. Verity that the three cognates yield the same coupler curve by entering the original link lengths in program FOURBAR and letting it calculate the cognates.209 L7 = 0. .100 03 A2P:= L2 deg A2P= 1.500 AlP= 1.000 L4 = 3.000deg = 34.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-10-2 A3 6 Cognate #2 83 Cognate #3 LIO:= AlP LIO = 1.100 From the Roberts diagram.604 AlP L8:=L6·BlP L8 = 2.200 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:= L8 A3P= 2.000 02 Cognate #3 LJBC= 1.727 deg 6.(01 + Yl) = 247.100 A2P= 1.209 LlAC= 1.000 deg 03 := 180·deg .727 SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle LJ = 2.200 LIO = 1.600 L7:=L9·- BlP AlP L7= 0.604 L6 = 2.813 A3P = 2.

000 I Circum in (i Open o Crossed Start Thelill cleg link 3 (Coupler) 13..on ~.200 Link :2 (Crank) in Cifcul Dopen @Grossed Lin!< 3 (Coupler) ~. ------_.t1~l~m lJrta:Ae Dam-Link 1 (Ground) 11..600 in dag dag OISi. from I 2..r.. Norlon· Copyright 1998 Ammation Screen SOLUTION MANUAL 3-1()"3 ~ ----------------_ ..3 to Coupler PI ~ . 1 02. -.. Cook DesIgn No. l.DESIGN OF MACHINERY II FOURBAR lnr Windowf by R. " j!1 I ~ Ii( ru tUIIIAl1 /0' ..25-1999 at 16:27:21 gognale #1 shown at 160 deg ern 8Ilgle I Am""nt..'n(iowl< - flv II I.._--------------------- Link 2 (Crank) 11.rp.3 to Coupler PI oeto ThetQ in Angfe 1rom Link 3 to Coupler PI 110 Thete2 deg Thomes A..l nri .. from 12. No.fln ~ Ym:te Delay.000 link 4 (Rocker) m Ii@:] in deg Dist.. l:n[ljl"1J~.000 In Della Theta Angle from link 3 to Coupler PI .

cannot trace out the entire coupler curve.73 deg ThOmas A.115 link 4 (Rocker) .813 in in 10 start Theta deg Disl.3to Coupler Pt 12. therefore.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-10-4 Link 1 (Ground) ~209 in Circuit @Open crossed in Link 3 (Coupler) 12. Cook DesilJ1 No. . 9 02-25-1999 lit 18:27:21 Note that cognate #2 is a Grashof double rocker and.100 In Angle from Link 3 to~rPt '247. fram 12.

0 Coupler point data: AlP:= 26.5 BlP:= ( L3 + All' .5843 deg 2.3571 3.270 L6 = 33.000 L9 = 28.243 .000 = 73. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.143 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:= L4 A3P= 20.270 11 := acos ( L/ + Ell.357 = 26. 125). See Figure 3-25a and Mathcad file P0311.500 From the Roberts diagram.243 L1O:= AlP L10 = 26.. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle AP B.: 84. Using the calculated link lengths. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page). calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 L1BC = 65.cOS(01) BlP= 23.500 14.763 L8:.000 L9 = 28.6548 L1 L1AC:= -·AlP L3 LlAC = 73.5 L4:= 20.= 63. 2 _2 )0.5 L3:= 14.2. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length L1 Cognate #2 LlAC L10 Cognate #3 L1BC = 65.584 deg A2P= 15.655 L7= 25. Check your results by comparing the coupler curves with programs FOURBAR and FIVEBAR.L3·AlP. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= BlP L5 = 23.786 L7:=L9'- BlP AlP L7 = 25.000 03 = 84.000·deg Solution: 1.500 15.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-11-1 liS PROBLEM Statement: 3-11 Find the three equivalent geared fivebar linkages for the three fourbar cognates in Figure 3-25a (p.763 L6 = L2 = L3 = 39.All-) 2·L3·BlP 11 :.0 Crank Rocker L2:= 15. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1 := 39.786 = 33.0 01 Given: .: 37.

. ~".DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-11-3 7 __..-..------------ ---- ~--------------------~~ ~----© Q." p -------~--/ ( /'" ~~ >:::------/ ) \ ) \ 4 ..

500 L10 = 26.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-11-4 SUMMARY OF GEARED FIVEBAR COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Crank length Coupler point Coupler angle Cognate #2 L1AC Cognate #3 L!BC L4 L5 L7 = = = = = 39.. Enter the cognate #1 specifications into program FOURBAR to get a trace of the coupler path.OO·deg 03:= O.SOO Link 3 (Coupler) in @Open o Crossed eleg End Theta F.655 L2= 15. Enter the geared fivebar cognate #1 specifications into program FIVEBARto get a trace of the coupler path for the geared fivebar (see next page).4..S.000 L1 A2P = 15.500 Link 2 (Crank) In Circu~ F. 63 7 L8 = 37.357 65.270 A2P = = 73.500 A3P = 20.000 L8 == 37.500 AlP= 26.143 L7 = 25. 2 03-03-1999 8116:49:46 LOrigil8I coupler ClIVe for Problem 3-11 6. link 1 (Ground) )39. Cook DesIgn No.270 25 . .000 23.OO·deg 02:= O.ooo in Link 4 (Rocker) in 155 Della ThBte deg Dist. 00 5 BlP= 23.3 to CoopierPt 126.000 Lj = 23.270 01 := O.143 .15. from 12.000 20.OO·deg 5.000 ~o.000 In 15 Thma2 deg Angle from Link 3 to Coupler Pt Thornaa A.763 AlP= 26.

Norton . COOle Design No.500 120. 4 03-03-1999 et 16:49:46 FOe: P03-11 .0 to Coupler cleg Gear Ratio Thomes A.00 11. L.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-11-5 • FIVE BAR 101 Wmdows by R. ----- ~one Link 2 (Crenk) 126.Copyright ------~~~~~~~~~~~~~---- 1998 Animation Screen _.270 deg An~ from Link 3 pt )0.000 Link 3 (Coupler) f l E! lll CornfJ!io cui! • Open Crosser:! Start Theta c1eg 115.000 deg link 4 (Roeker) deg Link 5 (Crank) 123.

. .000 L4 = 5. L3:= CLR·L] L4:= eLR·L] LI:= GLR·L2 S'_ .uft @Open o Crossed deg Unk 3 (Coupler) 15..000 S = 54.000 deg AP ee AP := 2. ~/~ = 2. See Figures 3-20. - i3 Unk 1 (Ground) Fum Unk 2 (Crank) kooo Circ. L. determine the remaining link lengths and coupler point specification.3 to C~lerpt fSS7S Angle from Unk 3 to Couplet PI 15 deg Thetlll2 cleo. plot the coupler curve.LJ'cos(S) 5. L]:= 2.. Coole: 4 [)es9\No.0: GLR:==2.878 Enter the above data into program FOURBAR. Crank dwell period: 90 deg. 3-2] .. "Y:= 72-deg Crank: length.oo Thomas A.! §. and Mathcad file P03 J 2.5: CLR:= 2.. FOURBAR fIJI .000 I.. single-dwell linkage for a dwell of90 deg of crank motion.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-12-1 Je5 PROBLEM 3-12 Design a sixbar. L. Norton· m ------------------------------------ Copy.I ~ Common link ratio..s Loy R. Statement: Given: Solution: Design choices: Ground link ratio. and determine the coordinates of the coupler curve in the selected range of crank motion. which in this case will be from 135 to 225 deg .180·deg -"Y 2 L3 = 5.iyht 1998 Animation SelCer. from I 2.5 =Li~ Coupler angJe.. Coupler link (3) length Rocker link (4) length Ground link (1) length AnglePAB Length AP on coup ler 2. Output rocker motion: 45 deg. For the given design choices....0 =BP/~ =2. with an output rocker motion of 45 deg. [ 02-24-1999 lit 11:56:17 FIle: P03-33 )Coupler clive fer desigl of Problem 3-12 . do ..000 link 4 (Rocl(er) lS·ooo End TI18ta 1380 Dell. Theta deg Dist.000 LJ = 4.

099 106.731 -3.228 121.201 -3. 180. label this point D.393 -2.638 6.822 128.252 6.617 5.753 7.744 6.153 6. Use the points at crank angles of 135.386 -3.603 -2.915 4.646 134.911 112.688 -4.858 105. Find the center of the pseudo-arc erecting perpendicular bisectors to the chords defined by the selected coupler curve points.093 119.028 6.813 6.548 6. including the coupler curve whose coordinates are in the table above.075 130. The radius of this circle is the length of link 5..178 -2.008 -3.396 123.673 3.935 6.175 3.520 -4.955 137.977 6.994 117.610 -4.267 7.840 6. The center will lie at the intersection of the perpendicular bisectors.961 -2.----fP-~-ll----~ X .890 -4.235 Layout this linkage to scale.155 4.054 5. and 225 deg to define the pseudo-arc.038 -4.450 6. y -------.375 7.DAT CouplerPt y SOLUTION MANUAL 3-12-2 Coupler Pt CouplerPt Mag Ang -1.924 3.595 125.527 7.128 6.956 5.992 108.839 5.809 -3.DESIGN OF MACHINERY FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200 205 210 215 220 225 3.930 110.119 7.424 4.176 -4.453 6.563 -3.389 5.351 132.257 6.598 141.351 6.PSEUDO-ARC B --~ --~ \ .274 139.424 7.671 4.208 7.921 144.302 -4.052 5.933 114.453 7.646 6.417 -4.293 7. Coupler Pt X File P03-12.

526 -3.968 -1.101 6.085 6.926 1.111 85.654 7.215 143.440 6. Establish this point and label it E.159 -2.883 3.437 128. See next page for the completed layout and further linkage specifications. This is the output link that will dwell during the specified motion of the crank.181 -0.534 94. Locate fixed pivot 06 on the bisector of DE such that the lines 06D and 06E subtend the desired output angle. Draw link 6 from D through 06 and extend it to any convenient length.985 3. in this case 45 deg.129 85. will reach along the axis of symmetry.762 5.359 4.414 102.142 88.343 3.158 3.133 162.598 4.631 0.286 4.126 0. which ever is convenient).892 114. the other extreme position will be located along a line through the axis of symmetry (see Figure 3-20) a distance equal to the length oflink 5 measured from the point where the axis of symmetry intersects the coupler curve near the 0 deg coupler point.271 -4. .998 155.933 4.085 7. Since a symmetrical linkage was chosen.628 2. FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 300 310 320 330 340 350 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 CouplerPt X File P03-12. As the crank motion causes the coupler point to move around the coupler curve there will be another extreme position of the end of link 5 that was originally at D.400 7.811 -3.869 0.478 0.623 168.222 4.068 7.054 -3.617 0.373 7.336 5.165 1.441 0. Construct a perpendicular bisector of the line segment DE and extend it to the right (or left.914 86. attached at P.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-12-3 4.DAT CouplerPt Y CouplerPt CouplerPt Mag Ang -4. The line segment DE represents the maximum displacement that a link of the length equal to link 5.310 6.495 167.656 7.354 y B / o o 4 AXIS OF SYMMETRY enO ---x 5.651 -1. The position of the end oflink 5 at point D will remain nearly stationary while the crank moves from 135 to 225 deg.

.878 o = 54.363 L6:= 2.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-12-4 y ~.000 L4 = 5.375 .000 AP = 5.833 y:= 3.000 deg x:= 3.---tf'-»----------- X SUMMARY OF LINKAGE SPECIFICATIONS Original fourbar: Ground link Crank Coupler Rocker Coupler point Added dyad: Coupler Output Pivot 06 L5:= 6.000 L3 = 5.0000 I y o o COO E ----./"z__ -O~ PSEUDO-ARC I 225 4 ~5.855 L1 = 4.000 L2 = 2./.

853 6.302 23.105 7.000 290.406 9.487 26.555 34.701 8.000 180.384 26.256 1.900 18.000 330.057 20.DAT Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Y Mag Ang 9. 3.147 4.182 1.000 210.457 1.301 7.154 6.257 8.507 0.974 7.000 10.137 7.209 0.110 5.569 7.000 270.951 15.099 7.201 0.834 5.911 17.958 7.000 70.000 30.792 8.332 5.120 7.430 9. Fit tangent lines to the nearly straight portions of the curve. 4.000 350.184 7.000 20.000 260.112 7.243 7.963 0.196 8.912 6.000 120.757 7.000 Cpler Pt Cpler Pt X File P03-13.671 1.391 3.746 9.000 50.031 9.152 6.008 1.750 10.886 2.000 240.000 150.286 32.996 8.000 200.376 7.809 6. Layout this linkage to scale.131 5.000 300.180 0.487 10.000 130.398 7.729.746 9.763 6.792 6.741 2.885 6.170 2.000 340.288 7.382 7.090 8.448 31.000 100.671 10.072 9.351 1.046).325 7.787 0.000 190.488 0.000 80.000 220.637 0.840 2.626 3.000 230. Design link 6 to lie along these straight tangents.742 4.051 1.815 1.779 6.632 29.233 8. 0.665 8.476 10.778 6. including the coupler curve whose coordinates are in the table above.000 280.353 9.446 34.458 4.480 9.151 0.931 30.854 6.177 10.755 6.194 9.316 0.000 140.847 6.030 4.073 7. (See next page).151 6.657 7.353 4.481 7.286 10.985 7.000 360.491 2.000 310.742 10. .167 10.537 10.976 7.503 7.779 9.978 6.000 90.708 2. The beginning and ending crank angles for the dwell portions of the motion are indicated on the layout and in the table above by boldface entries.886 22.437 12.300 10.098 3. which pivots on the coupler point P.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-13-2 FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 0.312 5.126 0.928 2.977 6.081 5.159 3.031 7.678 4. pivoted at 06' Provide a slot in link 6 to accommodate slider block 5.000 160.291 0.647 7.819 33.000 250.570 4.455 8.000 60.748 6.000 110.000 320.809 10.854 9.391 0.536 26.274 1.965 8.140 0.226 10.187 4.719 1.242 1.039 8.963 13. Label their intersection 06' The coordinates of 06 are (6.751 6.846 10.000 170.000 40.644 2.688 10.

. o.o o o o o y a o.

486 P03-15 Theta4 Mag degrees Design # 1 Trans Ang Mag degrees 0.644 106.159 A partial output from FOURBAR is shown above.355 -149.499 74.514 142.352 60.701 120.168 83.557 -58.134 58.134 -29. From it.387 86.000 14.103 125.696 157.147 80.134 -29.00 deg 1'llornIIS A.846 73.ooo Dist. Use program FOURBAR to draw the coupler curve with respect to a coordinate frame through °204. Cook Design No.846 -44.106 16.423 44.423 -14.423 -14.499 56.557 -58.173 0.473 109.312 170.134 58.861 64.367 61.500 Link 2 (Crank) Circui • Open Crossed ~.123 111.367 86.179 149. Use the program FOURBAR to find the maximum and minimum transmission angles.557 File Theta3 Mag degrees 30.604 68. 4.000 14.3 to Coupler PI Angle from Link 3 to Coupler PI 156.557 Theta2 Mag degrees -73.387 0. FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg -73. Link 1 (Ground) ~. we see that the maximum transmission angle is approximately 86.711 0.075 77. from I 2.846 73.472 60.423 44.490 -176.350 50.472 74.711 29. 4 02-22-1999 at 16:05:04 Fie: P03-15 ~age for Problem 3-15 .773 61.711 29.711 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-15-2 3.5 deg and the minimum is zero deg.566 -30.846 44.145 32.

Are they Grashof or non-Grashof? Link lengths: Ground link Coupler LJ := 9.216 Cognate #3 L1BC= 15.AI.400 L}O = 8. 1999 .000 L3 = 4.000 02 = -56.410 LIO:= AlP RIP AlP LI0= 8.900 AlP RIP L7:=L9'- L7 = 8. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.000 03 = 94.401 L6 = 8. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APR.eos(01) 11 := aeo ( RIP= 7. 2 _2 )0.000-deg L3 := 4.5 Crank Rocker Coupler point data: AIP:= 8.90 01 .500 Cognate #2 LlAC = 19.) 2·L3RlP Yl = 94.410 L9 = 10. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).5 RIP:= ( L3 + AI? .2159 3.114 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 ) A2P= 5.DESIGN OF MACHINERY ~ PROBLEM 3-16 SOLUTION MANUAL 3-16-1 Statement: Given: Draw the Roberts diagram for the linkage in Figure P3-4 and find its two cognates. Using the calculated link lengths.410 L8:=L6'- L8 = 10. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LIBC:= -·BIP LI L3 L1BC= 15. . Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= RIP L5 = 7.410 L6 = 8. See Figure P3-4 and Mathcad file P0316.4 Solution: 1.L3·AlP.2.114 2nd Edition.000 deg A3P = 5.9793 LlAC= 19.401 L/ + Bl.470 deg From the Roberts diagram.900 L7 = 8.= 56.4701 deg " 2.979 L2 = 5. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length L1 = 9.

000 02 .:: 7.470 deg 9 6.900 8} = 56.::::56.S + L PQ+-P+ Q return "Grashof" if SL < PQ if SL otherwise return "Special Grashof return "non-Grashof" Cognate #2: Cognate #3: = PQ Condition(L]O. L8 .000 83 .000 deg - A3P = 5.L7) = "non-Grashof" 2nd Edition. Determine the Grashof condition of each ofthe two additional cognates.401 A2P= 5.L9) = "non-Grashof" Condition(L5.000 deg L8 = 10.P.L6.L1BC.114 L5. 1999 ..L. Condition(S .Q):= SL +. L] AC.000 AlP= 8.:::: 4.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-16-2 Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle L4 = 5.

Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates. See Figure P3-4 and Mathcad file P0317.470deg A2P = 5.L3·AIP.5 Crank Rocker Coupler point data: AIP:= 8.000 03 = 94.000. Note that the diagram is made up ofthree parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= RIP L5 = 7.000 deg From the Roberts diagram. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).900 L7= 8.cOS(01) Ll 2 ~2 )0.401 L]O:= AlP RIP AlP L]O = 8.9793 3. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Cognate #2 Cognate #3 L1 = 9.deg L3:= 4. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L] := 9.410 L9 = 10.410 L6 = 8. L1 LlAe:= -·AIP L3 t-uc= 19.114 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:=L4 A3P= 5.500 L2 = 5.90 01 := 56.4701 deg 2.I sixbar to give parallel motion that follows the coupler path of point P of the linkage in Figure P3-4.400 LlAe LIO = 19.410 L8:=L6'- L8 = 10.979 = 8.114 L7:=L9'- L7 = 8.2159 Using the calculated link lengths. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LlBe= 15. RIP:= ( L3 + AlP .DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-17-1 J!S PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-17 Design a Watt.2.114 .5 RIP= 7.401 11 := acos ( + RIl2·L3·RIP All] 11 = 94.000 ~2 = -56. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APR.4 Solution: 1.216 t-isc = 15.000 L3 = 4.900 AlP RIP L9 = 10.

_...DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-17-3 OB A p'\''j_.-6 . ~ B 3 ._----.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-18-3 6 6 /' / / -: / .

Given: Solution: Design choices: Use a Hooken-type straight line mechanism optimized for straightness.1 mm L4 = 1205. i 620.181 L30verL2 := 2. Draw the fork lift truck to scale with the mechanism defined in step 1 superimposed on it.096% 1.800 Link lengths: Crank Coupler Ground link Rocker Coupler point 2..5 mm 3. Cy = 1978.5 mm Calculate the distance from point P to pivot 04 (Cy).DESIGN OF MACHINERY ~ PROBLEM 3-19 SOLUTION MANUAL 3-19-1 Statement: Design a pin-jointed linkage that will guide the forks of the fork lift truck in Figure P3-5 up and down in an approximate straight line over the range of motion shown.096%: AxoverL2 := 4. Using Table 3-1 and the required length of straight-line motion.5 mm BP = 1205.200 = 0.5 mm L1 = 947. determine the link lengths.5mm L3 = 1205. Arrange the fixed pivots so they are close to some part of the existing frame or body of the truck.= LIoverL2·L2 L2 = 430. BP:= L3 Ax L2:=---LlxoverL2 L3:= L30verL2·L2 L1 . Maximum allowable error in straightness of line: LlCy := 0. Link ratios from Table 3-1 for LlCy LloverL2 := 2. Length of straight line motion of the forks: Ax := 1800 mm See Figure P3-5 and Mathcad file P0319.0mm .

Condition(8 .L3.8 + L PQ+-P+ Q return "Grashof" return "Special if 8L < PQ Grashof" if 8L = PQ otherwise return "non-Grashof Condition(L2.P . Find the Grashof condition.Q):= 8L +.L4) = "Grashof .L].L.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-20-2 9.

000deg -39.000 02 = = AlP= A3P 03 = 3.485 = L6 = L7 L5 0.P+ Q return "Grashof" if SL < PQ return "Special Grashof" return "non-Grashof" Cognate #2: Cognate #3: 5.060 L9 L3 = 2.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-21-2 Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle L2 = = 1. Following Example 3-11.000deg = -31.060 = 1. discard cognate #2 and retain cognates #1 and #3.P.000 L1O= 3.893 1. slide them as an assembly along lines AOe and qq until the free end oflink 7 is at A' The free end oflink 5 will then be at point 0B and point P on link 6 will be atP'. This is the new output link 8 and all points on it describe the original coupler curve. Determine the Grashof condition of each of the two additional cognates. ° ° ° ° ° .461 01 = 31.674 L8 = 3. Add a new link oflength AOe between P and P'. / Os // / I 4.330 3.060 L4 2.344deg A3 / .L8.L6. Condition(S . Condition(L9.S + L PQ+-.LIBc) if SL = PQ otherwise = "Grashof" = "Grashof" Both of these cognates are Grashofbut cognate #3 is a crank rocker.LlAc) Condition(L7.L5. 6.461 A2P= 1.812 1.L. and 7 to rotate. Draw line qq parallel to line AOe and through point B' Without allowing links 5.Q):= SL +-.LJO.

6. The result is a Watt-I sixbar with links numbered 1. P P' .DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-21-3 p 7 2 8 P' 6. Link 8 is in curvilinear translation and follows the coupler path of the original point P. The walking-beam (link 8 in Figure P3-7) is rigidly attached to link 8 below. and 8 (see next page).4. making one ternary link. Remove link 5 and reduce link 6 to a binary link.2.3. Join links 2 and 7.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY ~ PROBLEM 3-24 SOLUTION MANUAL 3-24-1 Statement: Given: Draw the Roberts diagram and fmd the cognates for the linkage in Figure P3-9.101 + A3P= 3.06 Crank Rocker L2:= 1.2977 3.060 L7:=L9·- HIP AlP L7 = 0.000 n] 03 = 39.485 .893 2.cOS(OI) )0.] 2·L3·HIP Yl = -109.220 1.298 LlO = Cognate #3 L]BC = 1.22 L3:= 2. HIP:= ( L3 + AIr L/ 2 _2 .893 LlO:= AlP LlO = 3. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:=HIP L5 = 1. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.00·deg Solution: 1.2. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 L]BC = 1.5 BIP= 1.6560deg 2.461 A2P:= L2 A2P = 1.674 L6 = 1.344 deg 02 = 31.804 L7 = 0.8035 LlAC:= -·AIP L3 L] LlAC= 3.060 L9 = 1. Using the calculated link lengths.0 L4:= 2. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L] := 2.060 L3 = 2.33 Coupler point data: AIP:= 3.674 Y1 := -aco { + Hll} .812 LS:=L6·- AlP HIP LS = 3. See Figure P3-9 and Mathcad file P0324.06 01 := -31.AI. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).000 3. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.AIP.812 L6 = 1.000deg From the Roberts diagram.LJ.461 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:=LS 03:= 180·deg. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length L] L2 = = Cognate #2 LlAC= 3.

000deg 03 = 39.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-24-2 Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle L4 = 2.344deg .330 LS = 3.000deg 02 = 31.000 A3P = 3.461 O} = -31.674 AlP = 3.060 = 1.461 A2P L5 = 1.

344 deg 02 = 31.812 L8:=L6'- AlP BlP L8 = 3. L 1 BC = 1.8035 LlAC:= -·AlP L3 L] LlAC= 32977 Using the calculated link lengths.L3·AlP.804 = 3.0.33 AlP:= 3.461 L7 = 0.812 L6 = L5 = 1.cos(81).893 L]O:= AlP L]O = 3.893 1.060 = 1. 2 _2 . SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length L] = 2. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= BIP L5 = 1.06 Solution: 1.060 L7:=L9'- BlP AlP L7 = 0.220 L2 = 1. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L] t= Coupler point data: 2. .298 LIO L9 L8 Cognate #3 L1BC = 1.674 + Bl.06 81 := . See Figure P3-9 and Mathcad file P0325.000 39. A2P= 1.461 83 =:.060 L4 = 2.674 L6= 1.485 = 3.0 L4:= 2.= 2.22 Crank Rocker L2:= 1. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).461 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:= L8 A3P= 3.674 .00·deg L3 .6560deg 2. 2 Yl := --aco{L3 BlP= 1. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.2.330 Cognate #2 LlAC= 3.31.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-25-1 liS PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-25 Find the equivalent geared fivebar mechanism cognate of the linkage in Figure P3-9.5 BIP:= ( L3 + All' .AI. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 L1 L]BC:= -·BlP L3 3.000 L3 = 2.000deg From the Roberts diagram.] 2·L3·BlP Yl = -109. Calculate the length BP and the angle 'Y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.

.812 L8 = 3.674 L7 = 0.000 01 := O.000deg A3P= 3.461 BlP= 1.461 L7= 0.000 02 = 31. <. 0Ifi1PB20C' The three geared fivebar cognates are summarized in the table below.OO·deg 5.000deg 2 (_-------- 1AC <. 6. Enter the cognate #1 specifications into program FOURBAR to get a trace of the coupler path (see next page) Enter the geared fivebar cognate #1 specifications into program FIVEBAR to get a trace of the coupler path for the geared fivebar (see next page).674 A2P= 1.344deg 01 = -31.812 AlP = 1. The three geared fivebar cognates can be seen in the Roberts diagram.461 03 = 39. 4.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-25-2 Coupler point Coupler angle AIP= 3.804 = 3. 0AA1PA30C.060 A2P= 1.000 L4 = 2.OO·deg = 3.330 L5 AlP= 3.330 L5 = 1.220 LIO Cognate #2 LlAC= 3. SUMMARY OF GEARED FIVEBAR COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Crank length Coupler point Coupler angle L1 == 2.060 = 1.298 L2 Cognate #3 LIBC and = 1.060 L8 = 3.674 A2P= 1.000 L4 = 2.OO·deg 03 r= O.060 02 := O. They are: 0AA2PB30B.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-25-3

Uri! 2 (Crank) 11.000
In

Circuit

@Open QCro\$Sed
start Theta

Uric: 3 (Coupler)

J2-060
Uri: 4 (Rocker)

in

J0

Cieg

~.330

in

aeg

Thomas ". Cook DesI!iJl No. 1 03-04-1999 !II: 10:03:03

Uri! 2 (Crllllk)

Crossod ShV1. Tl'lela

(3.060

LiriI: 3 (Coupler)

110
EncIlheI:a

deg .

170

deg

Is-Dis! 12310 COUp PC

Delta Theta

deg

Theta2

E·ooo
~.oo

Angle from Link 3 to CoLlFller pt deg

Thomas A. Cook DesJgnNo. 2

03-04-1999 at 10:03:03 fie: P03-25

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-26-1

~

PROBLEM

3-26 Use the linkage in Figure P3-9 to design an eightbar double-dwell mechanism that has a rocker output through 45 deg. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1:= 2.22 L3:= 2.06 Crank Rocker L2:= 1.0 L4:= 2.33 Coupler point data: AlP:= 3.06
01 := -31.00·deg

Statement: Given:

Solution: 1.

See Figure P3-9 and Mathcad me P0326.

Enter the given data into program FOURBAR and print out the resulting coupler point coordinates (see table below). FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 0.000 10.000 20.000 30.000 40.000 50.000 60.000 70.000 80.000 90.000 100.000 110.000 120.000 130.000 140.000 150.000 160.000 170.000 180.000 190.000 200.000 210.000 220.000 230.000 240.000 250.000 260.000 270.000 280.000 290.000 300.000 310.000 320.000 330.000 340.000 350.000 360.000 File P03-26.DAT

Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Mag Ang X Y

2.731 3.077 3.350 3.515 3.576 3.554 3.473 3.350 3.203 3.040 2.872 2.706 2.548 2.403 2.274 2.164 2.075 2.005 1.953 1.917 1.892 1.875 1.862 1.848 1.832 1.810 1.784 1.754 1.723 1.698 1.687 1.702 1.761 1.883 2.088 2.380 2.731

2.523 2.407 2.228 2.032 1.855 1.708 1.592 1.499 1.420 1.348 1.278 1.207 1.135 1.062 0.990 0.925 0.869 0.826 0.802 0.798 0.817 0.860 0.925 1.011 1.115 1.235 1.367 1.508 1.654 1.804 1.955 2.105 2.251 2.386 2.494 2.550 2.523

3.718 3.906 4.023 4.060 4.028 3.943 3.820 3.671 3.503 3.326 3.144 2.963 2.789 2.627 2.480 2.354 2.249 2.168 2.111 2.076 2.061 2.063 2.079 2.107 2.145 2.192 2.248 2.313 2.388 2.477 2.582 2.707 2.858 3.040 3.253 3.488 3.718

42.731 38.029 33.626 30.035 27.412 25.672 24.635 24.107 23.915 23.915 23.988 24.039 24.001 23.834 23.533 23.134 22.719 22.404 22.326 22.614 23.365 24.632 26.417 28.678 3] .340 34.306 37.463 40.683 43.826 46.730 49.207 51.038 51.965 51.715 50.064 46.967 42.731

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-26-2

2.

Layout this linkage to scale, including the coupler curve whose coordinates are in the table above. Fit tangent lines to the nearly straight portions of the curve. Label their intersection 06. Design link 6 to lie along these straight tangents, pivoted at 06' Provide a guide on link 6 to accommodate block 5, which pivots on the coupler pointP. slider

3.

/

/ / / /

/
/ / / /
/

/ /

8
///~ /

// F ~~ ,~
/ /

45.000:__

,~'">, <, <,...... <,

",
<,

<,

"

<, <,

E

c

A 2 4

----_-04

Extend link 6 a convenient distance to point C. Draw an arc through point C with center at 06. Label the intersection of the arc with the other tangent line as point D. Attach link 7 to the pivot at C. The length oflink 7 is CE, a design choice. Extend line CDE from point E a distance equal to CD. Label the end point F. Layout two intersecting lines through E and F such that they subtend an angle of 45 deg. Label their intersection 08. The link joining 08 and pointE is link 8. The link lengths and locations of 06 and 08 are: Link 6 L6:= 2.330 Link 7 L7:= 3.000 Fixed pivot 08: Link 8 L8:= 3.498

x:= 1.892 y:= 0.762

x:= 1.379 y:= 6.690

955 2.508 1.207 1.000 310. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1:= 2.834 23.000 130.515 3.000 290.060 4.deg Solution: 1.967 42.000 210.702 1.000 250.719 22.135 1.105 2.576 3.203 3.582 2.810 1.412 25.06 Crank Rocker L2:= 1.107 2.654 1.077 3.943 3.062 0.627 2.990 0.253 3.550 2.718 3.388 2.9]7 1.731 2.635 24.088 2.249 2.000 10. See Figure P3-9 and Mathcad file P0327.0 L4:= 2.407 2.480 2.000 350.134 22.000 90.000 280.892 1.000 100.000 190.494 2.000 270.698 1.883 2.011 1.365 24.789 2.403 2.832 1.988 24.826 0.953 1.33 Coupler point data: AIP:= 3.168 2.313 2.858 3.22 L3:= 2.040 2.023 4.192 2.925 1.000 300.107 23.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-27-1 25 PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-27 Use the linkage in Figure P3-9 to design an eightbar double-dwell mechanism that has a slider output stroke of 5 crank units.000 140.554 3.145 2.730 49207 51.683 43.06 01 := -31.731 3.075 2.798 0.718 42.817 0.000 230.028 3.228 2.000 20.350 3.463 40.000 170.348 1.862 1.965 51. FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 0.000 150.754 1.761 1.915 23.592 1.274 2.063 2.731 38.672 24.707 2.000 260.032 1.064 46.079 2.731 .306 37.848 1.340 34.632 26.706 2.420 1.000 40.523 3.488 3.000 240.000 180.671 3.404 22.417 28.350 3.000 50.000 110.906 4.000 80.715 50.804 1.925 0.235 1.000 220.523 2.278 1.251 2.533 23.039 24.708 1.000 340.678 31.503 3.000 70.040 3.548 2.164 2.687 1.875 1. Enter the given data into program FOURBAR and print out the resulting coupler point coordinates (see table below).614 23.061 2.035 27.860 0.00.326 3.499 1.915 23.473 3.248 2.000 File P03-26.826 46.963 2.000 360.144 2.869 0.855 1.723 1.115 1.326 22.626 30.000 200.000 120.005 1.000 320.367 1.11 ] 2.820 3.000 160.029 33.076 2.477 2.872 2.354 2.000 60.380 2.000 30.802 0.784 1.001 23.DAT Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Cpler Pt Cpler Pt y X Mag Ang 2.038 51.386 2.000 330.

Attach link 7 to the pivot at C. including the coupler curve whose coordinates are in the table above. a distance of 5 units. As link 6 travels from C to E. 3 A \/~------- as 2 ~ ----- 4 4.140. which pivots on the coupler point P. Fit tangent lines to the nearly straight portions of the curve. . slider block 8 will travel from D to F. The length oflink 7 is CD.892 y:= 0. pivoted at 06.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-27-2 2. The link lengths and location of 06: Link 6 Link 7 L7:= 2. Design link 6 to lie along these straight tangents. a design choice. Layout this linkage to scale. \ \ \ \ c \ \ 0 0 0 0 o o o '0 ~--70. Label their intersection 06. Extend line CDE from pointD a distance equal to CEo Label the end point F. Extend link 6 and the other tangent line until points C and E are 5 units apart. Provide a guide on link 6 to accommodate slider block 5.762 . 3.000 x:= 1.

OOO·deg Solution: 1. L1 LlAC:= -·AIP L3 LlAC= 22.L3·AIP.2.500 L10 = 11.000 From the Roberts diagram.250 L6= 28.25 01:= O.All] 2·L3·RIP Yl = 2. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler Coupler point data: Given: LI := 45 L3:= 22. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.000 L3 = 22.000 L2 = 56. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Cognate #2 Cognate #3 L1BC = 22.5000 3.000 L7:=L9'- L7 = 28.5 RIP= 11.__ acos(Ll 2 _2 . Comment on its similarities to the original Roberts diagram. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LIBC= 22.000 03 = 0. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).000 LIO:= AlP RIP AlP LIO = 11.250 L9:=-·AIP L3 L8:=L6'AlP BIP L2 L9 = 28.000 deg A2P:=L2 A2P= 56. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-26) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5 = 11.250 L9 = 28.250 0.000 .500 LlAC = 22. 126) to design a Watt-I sixbar parallel motion mechanism that carries a link through the same coupler curve at all points.500 L1 = 45.000 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P= 56.5000 Using the calculated link lengths.cOS(Ol)) '\ 0.000 L8 = 28.0000 deg Y1 + RIl .000 L7 = 28. See Figure 3-26 and Mathcad file P0328.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-28-1 ~ PROBLEM 3-28 Statement: Use two of the cognates in Figure 3-26 (p.000 L6= 28. BIP:= ( L3 + AIr '.5 Crank Rocker L2:= 56 L4:= 56 AIP:= 11.

and 7 to rotate.~~- ~ --'8 A3 \ °A 4. __ 1_O I / / \ - ~.OOOdeg 3 -. Add a new link of length 0 AOe between P and P'. 6... discard cognate #2 and retain cognates #1 and #3.000 AlP = 11. Following Example 3-11.The free end oflink 5 will then be at point OB and point P on link 6 will be at P'. .-~- ~ -- / .' .OOOdeg L5 = 11. \ \ \ \ \ 9 / I / / 7/ \ \ \6 \ 2 4 A2G~ .000 02 = O. This is the new output link 8 and all points on it describe the original coupler curve.000 deg = O. slide them as an assembly along line 0AOe until the free end oflink 7 is at 0 A. Without allowing links 5. / I \ \ / . 3 P ~~------G~----~) Al \ \ \ ~ \ \ 7 2 \6 \ \ ~ 4 \ ~~ ~A3 0' B .~~-.000 03 = 0. Both of these cognates are identical. P \ \ I \ / I \ \ ~ ~ .250 01 L8 = 28.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-28-2 Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle L4 = 56.000 A2P= 56.\~~--f.250 A3P = 56..

2. Remove link 5 and reduce link 6 to a binary link. making one ternary link.3. and 8. It does not attach to link 4 at BI• ~L~~----H-----~ \ \ p' B1 3 P 6".6. Join links 2 and 7.\ \ \ ~ 2 4 . Link 8 is a binary link with nodes at P and P'. Link 8 is in curvilinear translation and follows the coupler path of the original pointP.4.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-28-3 5. The result is a Watt-I sixbar with links numbered 1.

cognates #2 and #3 are identical.1 03-01-1999 lit 18:36:12 2.OO·deg L3 := 1 Rocker Solution: 1.500 BIP:~ 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-29-1 ~ PROBLEM 3-29 Find the cognates of the Watt straight-line mechanism in Figure 3-29a (p. Use the Cognate pull-down menu to get the link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 (see next page). for this mechanism. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L] := 4 Crank Coup ler point data: AlP:=.OO·deg YI := O. Note that. .500 Statement: Given: 01 :".0.O. 13)). See Figure 3-29a and Mathcad file P0329. Cook DesVlND. All three mechanisms are non-Grashofwith limited crank angles. Input the link dimensions and coupler point data into program FOURBAR. Link 2 (Crank) in Circuit @Open Crossed sten Theta in f30 End Theta deg in An~ from Unk 3 to Coupler pt deg Thomas A.

. Cook DesIgn No.ooo Olst.01-1999 lit 16:36:12 .OO i1 Angle from Link 3 to Coopler pt . 1rom 1:2 .A fOI Wlndo .. 2 03-01-1999 0116:38:12 • FOURBI1.3 10 Coupler PI Dela Thela 12. I.-. hv R..COPI'IIqhl - 1998 Animation Screen Grastlot Cog:dl!:jor Non-Gfashof Wnkege Date ----...DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-29·2 CircYil: @Open LInk 3 (Coupler) o Oossed F·ooo i n deg deg 0isI:..000 JO. Link 1 (GrOUld) [ 1 (3 IniUlil CGllIfrtip~Lirw 2 (Crank) Circuit In ~. from 1 2.500 @Open o Crossed st6irl Theta Link 4 (Roclcer) 160 m End Thela deg H.2 (l3. deg: ThcInas A. NOllon s - . coac ~No.11.310 CoLder pt in Angle from Link 3 to Coupler PI deg: TtIoInas A.

0·deg Solution: 1.000 BlP:= 1.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-30-1 liS PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-30 Find the cognates of the Roberts straight-Line mechanism in Figure 3-29b (p.0·deg I Y I := -60.310 CoupIerPl J1. Note that.000 to Coupler pt n Angle from Unk 3 deg Thomas A. 2 03·01·1999 . See Figure 3-29b and Mathcad file P0330. Input the link dimensions and coupler point data into program FOURBAR. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler Lf := 2 L3 := 1 Crank Rocker L2:= 1 L4:= I Coupler point data: AIP:= 1.ooo n Circuit @Open Crossed Dis!. from I 2. AU three mechanisms are non-Grashofwith limited crank angles. Link 2 (Crri) ~. for this mechanism.17:06:05 2.000 [) := --60. Cook DesI!Jl No. . 131). cognates #2 and #3 are identical with cognate #1 because of the symmetry of the linkage (draw the Cayley diagram to see this).

DOC CplerPt y mm 319.20 -1.30mm 1. A table of these values is printed below. Specify all linkage parameters.57 mm L4 = 200.073.84 198.47 319.20mm 3.075.845 Coupler Ground link Rocker Coupler point 2.58 141.y coordinates of the coupler curve and the x.49 mm Calculate the distance from point P to pivot 04 (Cy) when crank angle is 180 deg. Enter the link lengths into program FOURBAR to verify the design (see next page for coupler point curve).61 -1.072.072. Using Table 3-1 and the required length of straight-line motion.58 14.09 104.93 -1.22 -1.72 319.95 319.03 13.99 0. Cy= 319.75 -1.54 -7.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-31-1 J?5 PROBLEM Statement: 3-31 Design a Hoeken straight-line linkage to give minimum error in velocity over 22% of the cycle for a I5-cm-Iong straight line motion.76 .075.73 -14.02 8.06 179.85 123.27 319. determine the x.60 216.55 File P03-3I.24mm LJ = 160.072.52 -1.975 L30verL2 := 2. FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 CplerPt X mm 235.74 -13. determine the link lengths.78 10.31 160.20 319. Link ratios from Table 3-1 for 22% cycle: LloverL2:= Link lengths: Crank L2:= Llx LlxoverL2 L2 = 81.24 mm AP = 400.076.31 85.46 319.076.72 319. Using the PRINT facility.75 -1.63 VelocCP Y mm/sec -10. L3:= LJoverL2·L2 LJ := LJoverL2·L2 L4:= L3 AP:= 2·L3 L3 = 200.463 AxoverL2:= 1.y components of the coupler point velocity in the straight line region.51 -1.95 VelocCP X mm/sec -1.27 319. Given: Solution: 1. Notice the small deviations over the range of crank angles from the y-coordinate and the x-velocity at a crank angle of 180 deg. Length of straight line motion: Ax := 150mm Percentage of cycle over which straight line motion takes place: 22% See Figure 3-30 and Mathcad file P0331.073.

240 I In 10 End Theta deg LI1k 4 (Rocker) ffiKi240 ~OO.1rom I 2. 2 1J3. COOk DesIgn No.490 In 1360 Defta TheI:!I deg DisI.3 to Crupler pt In deg Angle from Unk :3 to COl4*r pt deg deg ThorrIas A.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3--31-2 CircUlI in Lilk 3 (Coupler) @Open Crossed start Theta t%!.05-1999 81110:10:05 .

591 VelocCP Y mmlsec -6.695 -826.841 -861.289 211.521 182.847 -797.664 -0.385 302.774 -856.043 -861.010 122.378 302.385 302.800 1.DAT CouplerPt Y VelocCP X mm/sec -696.076 153.399 302.41 mm LJ = 138.426 0.217 -797.20mm L30verL2 := 3.378 302.499 64.368 302.774 -826.416 mm 302.311 50.664 -1.591 -755.944 107.019 6.093 78. Enter the link lengths into program FOURBAR to verify the design (see next page for coupler point curve).028 File P03-32. Length of straight line motion: Ax := 200mm Percentage of cycle over which straight line motion takes place: 39% See Figure 3-30 and Mathcad file P0332.416 -0.944 93.695 -755. A table ofthese values is printed below.398 302. Statement: Given: Solution: 1.399 302.398 302.994 -863.01 mm L4 = 179.483 -1.l :« 3. Cy = 302.41 mm AP = 358.000 0.y components of the coupler point velocity in the straight line region. Link ratios from Table 3-1 for 39% cyc1e: Ll overL2 := 2. Notice the small deviations over the range of crank angles from the y-coordinate and the x-velocity from a crank angle of 180 deg.82 mm Calculate the distance from pointP to pivot 04 (Cy) when crank angle is 180 deg.36 mm 3.731 38.052 0. determine the link lengths.500 Link lengths: Crank L2:= Ax AxoverL2 L2 = 55.019 1.043 -844.250 Axoverl. L3 := L30verL2·L2 LJ := LloverL2·L2 L4:= L3 AP:= 2·L3 L3 = 179. Specify all linkage parameters.y coordinates of the coupler curve and the x. Using Table 3-1 and the required length of straight-line motion.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-32-1 JiS PROBLEM 3-32 Design a Hoeken straight-line linkage to give minimum error in straightness over 39% of the cycle for a 20-cm-Iong straight line motion.408 302.483 -0.927 168.217 -844. determine the x.426 0. Using the PRINT facility.361 302.800 0.710 197.368 302.360 302.847 -696.408 .361 302.994 -856.623 Coupler Ground link Rocker Coupler point 2.992 225.076 138. FOURBAR for Windows Angle Step Deg 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 CouplerPt X mm 237.052 -0.

.410 start Theta 10 deg End Theta An~ from link :3 deg to Coupler pt ThorncIs A. Cook DesI!J"I No.1999 11111:02:06 FIe: P03-32 . :3 03-QS..DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-32~2 C1rcul <i~ QCro=d Unk :3 (Coupler) ~79.

ll6 from lilk 3 to Co. L3 = 5. L1/Lz.878 deg AP:= 2.Iple!'" PI curve fOf desg.000 L4 LI:= GLR·L2 = 5. For the given design choices.gn choices: = 2.. L.._ . 3~21.:ilk 2 (Crank) CIrcuit ~.0: GLR:= 2 .000 AP = 5. Common link ratio.0 BPILz. = 2. of PtobIern 3-33 ..oro I in An!. Use the data in Figure 3-21 (p.000 1. L/Lz Coupler angle. L2:= 2..5: = LiLz = eLR:O'O2. Ground link ratio.L3·COS(o) Enter the above data into program FOURBARand plot the coupler curve.000 £1 = 4.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-33-1 ~ PROBLEM 3-33 Design a linkage that will give a symmetricaJ "kidney bean" shaped coupler curve as shown in Figure 3-16 (p. Coupler link (3) length Rocker Iink (4) length Ground link (1) length AnglePAB Length AP on coupler 2. 120) to determine the required lmk ratios and generate the coupler curve with program FOURBAR See Figures 3-16. determine the remaining link lengths and coupler point specification.- 180·deg _ 2 y o = 54..y:= Statement: Solution: DS\$. 114 and I15).5 71:deg Crank length.fller) in [0 deg ~. and Mathcad file P0333.000 o.ooo ~_ooo Link 4 (Rodier) in Op6l1 Crossed 51art TheIs link 3 (Col.

090 in Angle from Lir* 3 to~lerPt f36. y:= 252deg Crank length.5: = GLR:= 2.090 AP := 2.000 L] = 5. 120) to determine the required link ratios and generate the coupler curve with program FOURBAR.000 deg AP = 8.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-34-1 J?S PROBLEM 3-34 Statement: Design a linkage that will give a symmetrical "double straight" shaped coupler curve as shown in Figure 3-16 (p.3 to CCJl4lIerPi ~.00 deg Thomas A.000 L4 = 5.y L3 = 5.180·deg.4 02-24-1999 at 11:56:17 FIe: P03-33 .000 2 0= -36. For the given design choices.LJ'cos(S) Enter the above data into program FOURBAR and plot the coupler curve. Solution: DeSign choices: Ground link ratio.000 Lilk 3 (CrqJIer) in o Crossed stlJrl Theta @Open )5.5 = Coupler angle. L41Lz_ BPILz_= 2. L3:= eLR·L2 L4:= eLR·L2 L}:= GLR·L2 0'. L. determine the remaining link lengths and coupler point specification. = 2. Coupler link (3) length Rocker link (4) length Ground link (1) length AnglePAB Length AP on coupler 2./Lz. Use the data in Figure 3-21 (p. 114 and 115). 3-21.000 Lhk 4 (Ro::ker) in 10 deg )5. ~/Lz.000 in DisL from I 2. See Figures 3-16.5: eLR:= 2. and Mathcad file P0334. L2 := 2. Lhk 2 (Crllflk) Clrcuft 12.5 Common Link ratio.000 1. Cook ~No.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION MANUAL 3~35-1

J?S PROBLEM
Statement:

3..,35

Design a linkage that will give a symmetrical "scimitar" shaped coupler curve as shown in Figure 3-16 (p. 114 and 115). Use the data in Figure 3~21 (p. 120) to determ ine the required link ratios and generate the coupler curve with program FOURBAR. Show that there are (or are not) true cusps on the curve. See Figures 3~16, 3-21, and Mathcad file P0334.

Solution:

Design choices:
= 2.0:

GLR:= 2.0
=

Common link ratio, £.;1Lz = L4/ Lz Coupler angle, y:'" 144deg Crank length. L2:== 2.000 I.

BPI Lz

=

2.5:

eLR:= 2.5

For the given design choices, determine the remaining link lengths and coupler point specification. Coupler link (3) length Rocker link (4) length Ground link (I) length
AngJePAB

L3 == 5.000 L4 == 5.000

L}:= GLR·L2
S := 180·deg - y 2 AP := 2.LJ'cos(S) and plot the coupler curve.

£} == 4.000
0= 18.000deg AP

Length AP on coupler 2. Enter the above data into program FOURBAR

=

9.51I

CireLli @Opell Cro:s:sed

Unk J (Coupler)

)5.000

In

15.000 ]

In

Dim. from I 2,310 COupler PI

in
Angle from Link 3 fo Coupler pt

deg

Thomas A. Cook DesQnNo.2 02-25-1999
81111 :33:47

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-35-2

3.

The points at the ends of the "scimitar" will be true cusps lithe velocity of the coupler point is zero at these points. Using FOURBAR's plotting utility, plot the magnitude and angle of the coupler point velocity vector. As seen below for the range of crank angle from 50 to 70 degrees, the magnitude of the velocity does not quite reach zero. Therefore, these are not true cusps.

Re1erenced

to Non-RohDlg

GIoI:IeI Coordlnlte

System

in
In

Veloc CPGrW'sec)

15 10 '<,

I

"-

-deg
51art Theta
End Theta

51.

'"

<,-:»: V
51.
Crank Angle (Deg)

/

V
/ lIag iii.

".~deg
Delta Theta •• deg

In

..• -=-

2111

...

Yeloc CP Gnfs:ec]

.,

<,
/ Ang

-.

-....

IiI2.

~
Thomas A. Cook DesIJ;J1 No. 3 02-25-1999
&111:33:47

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-36-1

~

PROBLEM

3-36

Statement:
Given:

Find the Grashof condition, inversion, any limit positions, and the extreme values of the transmission angle (to graphical accuracy) ofthe linkage in Figure P3-10. Link lengths: Link 2 Link 4 Grashof condition function: Condition(S ,L,P,Q):= SL +- S + L PQ+-P+ Q return "Grashof" L2:= 0.785 L4:= 0.950 Link 3 Link 1 L3:= 0.356 LJ:= 0.544

if

SL < PQ

return "Special Grashof" return "non-Grashof"

if

SL

= PQ

otherwise

Solution:
1.

See Figure P3-1 0 and Mathcad file P0336.

Determine the Grashof condition of the mechanism from inequality 2.8 and its Barker classification from Table 2-4. Grashof condition: Barker classification: Condition(L3,L4,LJ ,L2) = "Grashof" GRCR, since the shortest link is

Class 1-3, Grashofrocker-crank-rocker, the coupler link.

2.

A GRCR linkage will have two toggle positions. Draw the linkage in these two positions and measure the input link angles. A

A 3. 4. As measured from the layout, the input link angles at the toggle positions are: +158.3 and -158.3 deg. Since the coupler link in a GRCR linkage can make a full rotation with respect to the input and output rockers, the minimum transmission angle is 0 deg and the maximum is 90 deg.

090 L9 = 2. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LIBC = 1.959 = 0. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1 := 0.544 L2 = 0.OO·deg L3 := 0.356 Rocker Solution: 1.404 .090 L9 = 2.785 L4:= 0.950 03:= 180·deg .734 'Yl = 180.734 L6 = 1.01 03 = 180. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICA nONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Cognate #2 LlAC Cognate #3 L]BC = 1.09 01 := O.666 LIO = 1.544 Crank Coupler point data: L2:= 0.785 L3 = 0.0000deg 2. Using the calculated link lengths. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page). Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:=BlP L5 = 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-37-1 J!!S PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-37 Draw the Roberts diagram and fmd the cognates for the linkage in Figure P3-1 O.000 deg A2P= 0. See Figure P3-10 and Mathcad file P0337.959 L10 = 1.1216 l-ise> -·AIP L3 L] LIAC = 1.909 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P= 0. BlP= 0.356 Ll = 1. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.619 L6= 1.6656 3.785 From the Roberts diagram.950 AlP:= 1.404 L7:=L9'- BIP AlP L8:=L6'- AlP BlP L8 = 2.122 L7 = 1. Calculate the length BP and the angle 'Yusing the law of cosines on the triangle APB.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY Rocker length Coupler point Coupler angle SOLUTION MANUAL 3-37-2 L4 = 0.. I . I I I I \ I \ I \ I I 8 \ 2 '.950 03 = 180.785 02 = 0. Cb \7 6 . . ----'T-----@> v I I I I \.090 A2P= 0.: 0. .OOOdeg 82 ~I II II II I\ II II II \ I ..909 L5 = 0.950 L8 = 2. I I \ oA3 '.734 AlP= 1.000 deg A3P.000 deg 01 = O.

356 L4 = 0.09 01 := O.785 L3 = 0. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5 = 0.2.544 Crank L2:= 0.959 L5 = 0..404 L8 = 2. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.544 L]Be = 1.959 L10:= AlP BIP AlP L10 = 1.5 + BIl.909 L7 = 1.734 Y1 := acos ( Yl = 180.666 Cognate #3 L] = 0.734 L6 = 1.950 AIP:= 1.090 L9 = 2.090 AlP BlP L9 = 2. See Figure P3-10 and Mathcad file P0338.356 Rocker Solution: 1.1216 3.COs(01))0.OO.6656 Using the calculated link lengths. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.0000deg 2.619 L8:=L6·- L8 = 2. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L] t= Coupler point data: 0.OOOdeg From the Roberts diagram.AIP. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LIBe = 1.L3.950 L10 = 1..785 02 = O.deg L3 := 0.909 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P= 0.734 .122 L2 = 0.All-) 2·L3·BIP BIP= 0.785 L4:= 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-38-1 J?S PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-38 Find the three geared fivebar cognates of the linkage in Figure P3-10. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).619 L6 = 1. t-tsc= -·AIP L3 L] LlAe = 1.404 L7:=L9·- L7 = 1.000 deg A2P:= L2 A2P= 0. BIP:= (Ll L/ + All. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Cognate #2 l-t Ac= 1.950 03 = 180.

000 deg 6 \.OOOdeg 03 = 180. \.OO·deg 83 := O.OO·deg 5.619 L8 L2 = 0.090 L8 = 2. 7 \~ \.734 = 2.950 01 = O.909 0.122 L4 = 0. .619 AlP = := 0. Enter the geared fivebar cognate #1 specifications into program FIVEBAR to get a trace of the coupler path for the geared fivebar (see next page).785 AlP= l.785 02 = 0.909 L7 = 1.OO·deg 02:= O.734 A2P= 0. \ \\ \ 0a 3 4. OAA1PB30C.785 A3P= 0.950 L5 = 0. The three geared fivebar cognates can be seen in the Roberts diagram.090 A2P= 0. SUMMARY OF GEARED FIVEBAR COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Crank length Coupler point Coupler angle LJ = 0.000 deg A3P = 0. They are: OAA2PA30B. and O#IPB20C' They are specified in the summary table below. 6.785 = 1.734 L7 = 1.090 A2P= 0.666 Cognate #3 LJBC= 1.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-38-2 Coupler point Coupler angle AlP= 1. Enter the cognate #1 specifications into program FOURBAR to get a trace of the coupler path (see next page).950 L5 Cognate #2 LlAC= 1.544 L10 = 1.090 BlP= 01 O.

090 Link 3 (Coupler) fi7es -j Link 4 (Rocker) 1360 Delta Theta deg JO. #1 of ll'lornas A. JO.785 i ...734 l Link 5 (crank) 15 Theter2 deq Dist 123 to Coup PI. 2 03-04-1999 .:. @~en OCrO\$sed start Theta ISO Link 4 (Rocker) End Thetu 1'"1 deg ~.. Norton -~- COP'IrIQhl - 1998 Anirnntion Screen IniUsI Conditions ~ Circuit Ei @. Cook DesiI..ler PI. Cook DesIgn No.3to Coupler PI.Je from Lri: 3 to Coupler PI. ~. deg 1"hornas A.'ed 1fve::181" cogrrtte ------------. 4 Pr~ 3--38 ~1999 ..950 1150 Dela Theta deg DisI.0 deg nmeOeltJY [ [0 -.95O ~.7BS ~ An~ from Link 3 to Co.oo 11.from 12..J1 No..1 Oi] Gear Ratio ----------Phase Argle Jo.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-38-3 Link 1 (GI'CIU1d) ~.rapen Link 2 (Crank) QCrossed start Theta cleg End Theta 11. 1'"1 tteg Theta2 AAr.11:37:29 r 11 - deg os -----------linkage DataUnk 1 (GlI"CO"Id) FIV[BAR for Windows by R.11:37:29 fie: P03-38 .o deg )COIJIiI' CU"Ye 10r .544 i i'l Clrrut Link 2 (Crank) ~. L.

All) 2·L3·BIP Y1 .618 03 = 180.: 0.520 .: 1.330 L9.5 BIP= 0. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LlBC = 0.: 0.5960 3. See Figure P3-11 and Mathcad file P0340.330 L9 L8 = = = = 0.624 L7.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-40-1 .: BIP L5.520 L4 L6:=-·BIP L3 L2 L9:=-·AIP L3 AlP BIP L6.618 L7:=L9'- BIP AlP L7= 0.242 L8:=L6'- L8 = 0.242 L6= 0. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.: L8 03 := 180·deg A3P = 0.OO·deg Solution: ].: 0.618 = 0.22 L3:= 1.220 0.000 deg From the Roberts diagram. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1 := 2.2.: 0. BlP:= ( L3 2 + AlP .6240 LlAC = 1.2S PROBLEM Statement: Given: 3-40 Draw the Roberts diagram and find the cognates for the linkage in Figure P3-11. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:.L3·AIP..618 0.86 L4:. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle AP B.242 L5 = L2 = L] L3 L4 2.000 deg A2P:= L7 02 := 180·deg A2P= 0.0000 deg 2.850 0.: 0.242 02 = 180. Using the calculated link lengths.860 L/O = 1.33 01 := O.860 1.242 LIO:= AlP L]O.596 Cognate #3 LlBC= 0.: aco { L/ BIl .86 Coupler point data: AIP:= 1.: 0. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).618 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:.cOS(01) + _2 )0. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Cognate #2 LlAC= 1.520 Y1 :.85 Crank Rocker L2:= 0.

000 deg = 180.DESIGN OF MACHINERY Coupler point Coupler angle AlP= 1.618 01 = O.000 deg .OOOdeg = 180.242 A3P 03 = 0.330 SOLUTION MANUAL 3-40-2 AlP 02 = 0.

860 l-t Ac= 1.618 L8 = 0.520 Yl = O.618 ()3 = A2P:= L7 ()2 A2P = 0.618 L7:=L9'- BIP AlP L7 = 0.850 L4 = 0.000 deg := 180·deg From the Roberts diagram.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-41-1 .624 L7= 0.596 L1Be = 0.OOOOdeg 2. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 t-isc= -·BIP L3 3.242 LiO:= AlP LiO = 1. 1999 Li = 2.5960 Using the calculated link lengths.85 Crank Rocker L2:= 0. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= BIP L5 = 0.330 L9 = 0. Li := 2.5 BlP= 0.618 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:= L8 ()3 A3P= 0. BlP:= ( L3 2 + AIr _2 .220 L2 = 0.618 .520 LiO = 1.242 02 = 180. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler Solution: 1.242 L6= 0.OO·deg See Figure P3-11 and Mathcad file P0341.000deg := 180·deg 180.6240 Li LlAe:= -·AIP L3 t-uc = 1.L3·AlP. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).cOS()1)) '\ 0.R5 PROBLEM 3-41 Statement: Given: Find the three geared fivebar cognates of the linkage in Figure P3-11.242 LS:=L6'- AlP BIP LS = 0.2.33 ()l := O.22 L3:= 1.860 L3 = 1.330 L9 = 0.520 L6= 0. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Cognare#2 Cognare#3 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length 2nd Edition.86 Coupler point data: AlP:= 1. Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates. Li t-isc= 0.86 L4:= 0.242 L5 = 0. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.

The three geared fivebar cognates can be seen in the Roberts diagram.OO·deg 01 := O.618 L7= 0.242 AlP = L8 = L7 0. O~IPA30C' 0llhPA20C.000 deg A3P = 0. They are: 0AB2PB30B.860 = 0.860 AlP L8 = 1.000 deg 4.520 0.618 = = 1.000 deg 01 = 0.220 LlO = 1. Enter the cognate #1 specifications into program FOURBAR to get a trace of the coupler path (see next page) Enter the geared fivebar cognate #1 specifications into program FIVEBAR to get a trace of the coupler path for the geared fivebar (see next page). 2nd Edition.860 0.596 Cognate #3 LJBC= 0.330 A2P= 0242 02 = 180. 6. SUMMARY OF GEARED FIVEBAR COGNATE SPECIFICA nONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank: length Coupler length Rocker length Crank: length Coupler point Coupler angle LJ = 2.330 BJP= 0.520 03 := O.860 0. 1999 .520 = = = 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-41-2 Coupler point Coupler angle AlP= 1.242 0.860 = 0.624 L4 and = 0.618 03 = 180.330 LS = 0. The three geared fivebar cognates are summarized in the table below.330 L2 L4 LS L2 Cognate #2 LlAC= L2 1.OO·deg 5.OO·deg 02 := O.

-- lilt 13:54:55 - . 3 Q3.nimation Screen )2. P03-41 2nd Edition.520 Dist 123 to Coup PI deg 10.04.310 Coopter PI 1115 DeHa Theta 15 deg 11.l!falContWoD~Cirelli II • FIVE BAR for Windows l:.2 I 03-04-1999 III: 13:54:55 ~CUf'l'e lor lourb8r CO!J'I8te'" in Problem -3-411 £J In.oo deg Desg..220 j (io~ LInk 2 (Crank) o Crossed start Thetll f11S End Thetll deg [1.. L Norlon· Copyright 1998 t>. 1999 .860 In Dist.0 Ti'lomIta A.850 in o Crossed Link 3 (ColJpler) In st6ll1 Theta f11S End Theta Link" (Rocker) l deg ~..DESIGN OF MACHINERY III FOURBAR for 'l.-.8ao 10.i[]J:Iage DQI:aLink 1 (Ground) by R..660 11.220 Link 2 (Crank) SOLUTION MANUAL 3-41·3 bs' R.-~------~~g9-0am~ Link 1 (Grourtd) 12.---------- - Filer. lrom 12.-.ton .No. L.COP'Itight ~~--~~-~---1999 I ---- Animation --------- Scseen £i Q Centrodes 1 Q.00 Gear Ratio ' Angle Irom Link :3 to Coupler PI deg J1..one Circuit @Open in 10.1999 !ClJl4IIer curve for gea-ed fi¥ebnr COQI1IIIe 11 in Problem 3-41 -.860 Link 5 (Crme) 15 deg 10.330 j link 3 (Coupler) 10.330 in deg Angle tram L1nk 3 to Coupler PI ~.. No. Cook Desl!J'l No.I/1ndows ~~.860 Li1t 4 (Rocker) 1115 Dena Theta deg 10..

000 deg From the Roberts diagram.792 Yl := acos ( + Bl. calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 LIBC = 2.68 Coupler point data: Crank Rocker L2:= 0. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L/ := 1.85 AlP:= 0.82 L3 := 0.cos(Ot)) L/ Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle APB.850 03 ee AlP = 0.839 L8:=L6'- L8 es 1. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate#1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length L1 L2 Cognate#2 LlAC= 2. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).990 L5 = 0. Using the calculated link lengths.839 L6= 0.720 0.72 L4:= 0.680 0.720 82.792 = L8 . Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.850 = 2.0315deg 2.792 L6 = 0.deg Solution: 1.0. 2 _2 . .820 0. See Figure P3-12 and Mathcad file P0343.5 BlP:= ( L3 + AlP .97 01 := 54.5962 3.990 L/O:= AlP LIO = 0.596 L10 Cognate#3 LIBC = 1.970 AlP BlP L7:=L9'- BlP AlP L7= 0.212 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P= 0.2.All] 2·L3·BlP 11 = 82.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-43-1 J?S PROBLEM 3-43 Statement: Given: Draw the Roberts diagram and find the cognates for the linkage in Figure P3-12.027 = 1.121 = L3 = L4 = 0. BlP= 0.0. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5:= BlP L5 = 0.1208 LI LlAC:= -·AlP L3 L1AC = 2.970 L9 = 1.212 L7= 0.032 deg 02 = -54.L3·AlP.

10 .850 01 = 54.970 A2P 02 = 0.000 deg = -54.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-43-2 Coupler point Coupler angle AlP= 0. / I 5 \ \ .720 A3P 03 = 0.000 deg = 82.032 deg \1BC .

2 _2 BIP:= ( L3 + AIr .121 L7= 0. Link lengths: Ground link Coupler L1 t= 1.000 deg From the Roberts diagram. SUMMARY OF COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length L1 = 1. Note that the diagram is made up of three parallelograms and three similar triangles L5 = 0.L3·AIP. draw the Roberts diagram (see next page).212 Calculate the coupler point data for cognates #2 and #3 A3P:= L4 03:= Yl A3P= 0.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-44-1 ~ PROBLEM 3-44 Find the three geared fivebar cognates of the linkage in Figure P3-12.596 L10 = 0.990 L1O:= AlP L10 = 0.792 L6= 0.027 L7:=L9'- BIP AlP L7 = 0.97 01 := 54.1208 t-uc = 2.970 L9 = 1.720 L3 = 0.5962 3.820 L2 = 0. Calculate the length BP and the angle y using the law of cosines on the triangle AP B.839 L8:=L6'- AlP BIP L8 1.212 = 0.680 L4 = 0.792 ri 2.032 deg = -54. > aco { Ll + BIP2 .792 . calculate the ground link lengths for cognates #2 and #3 L1Re= 2.031Sdeg Use the Cayley diagram (see Figure 3-24) to calculate the link lengths of the two cognates.deg Statement: Given: Solution: I.990 L5 t-uc= 2. Using the calculated link lengths.027 L8 = 1.850 Cognate #2 Cognate #3 L1Be= 2.839 L6= 0.72 L4:= 0.85 Coupler point data: AIP:= 0.AlP'-] 2·L3·BIP n= 82.850 03 = A2P:= L2 A2P= 0.82 L3 := 0.68 Crank Rocker L2:= 0.2.0. See Figure P3-12 and Mathcad file P0344.720 02 82.5 BIP= 0.eos(01) )0.970 L9 = = 1.

Theyare: °BB1PB20C' SUMMARY OF GEARED FIVEBAR COGNATE SPECIFICATIONS: Cognate #1 Cognate #2 0AA2PA30B.839 L8 = 1. O~IPB30C' and Cognate #3 Ground link length Crank length Coupler length Rocker length Crank length Coupler point Coupler angle L1 = 1. The three geared fivebar cognates can be seen in the Roberts diagram.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-44-2 Coupler point Coupler angle AlP 01 = = 0.720 01 := O.850 L5 = 0.970 1.OO·deg 03 := O.OO·deg 5.850 L5 = 0.792 = L7 = 0.839 AlP= 0.720 02 = -54.596 L2 = 0.000deg \ 7 \ \ \ 1BC \ \ 5 4 \ \ 4.792 L7 = 0.032 deg 54.820 LJO = 0. 6.OO·deg L1AC= 2.970 A2P= 0.970 A2P = 0.720 A3P= 0.970 02 := O.212 BlP= 0. . Enter the cognate #1 specifications into program FOURBAR to get a trace of the coupler path (see next page).720 AlP= L8 0.000 deg A3P = 0.212 LJBC = 2.121 L4 = 0.850 03 = 82.792 A2P= 0. Enter the geared fivebar cognate #1 specifications into program FIVEBAR to get a trace of the coupler path for the geared fivebar (see next page).

oo deg Gear Ratio h·o Thomas A.720 Angle Irom Link 3 to Coupler PI p.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-44-3 Crossed Link 3 (Coupler. Cook DesVlNo.720 10 End Them deg Link 4 (Rocker) ~. 1 03-04-1999 lit 14:30:51 JC(kiIieI' curve for fourber cogl8Ie" il Problem 3-441 Link 2 (Crank) tJ·970 Link 3 (Coupler) start Thets tJ.850 Link 5 (Crank) ~.4:30:51 FIe: P03-44 .3to Coupler PI Delta Theta Thete2 Thomas A. Cook DesI!Jl No. from 12..850 n Iss 15 deg Disl.6BO Link 4 (Rocker) n deg End Theta .3 03-04-1999 . ~.792 Dim 123 to Coup PI J 80 deg 15 Delta Theta deg E.

866 SL ~ S PQ~P+ +L Q return "Grashoff if SL < PQ return "Special Grashof" return "non-Grashoff Condition = "Grashoff if SL = PQ otherwise .003 L = 111.764 Other links P:=L2b Q:=LS P Q = 40. Use the link lengths in step 9 to find the Grashoff condition of the driving fourbar (it must be Grashoff and the shortest link must be link 6). Shortest link Longest link Condition := S := L6 S = 23.DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-46-2 10.000 = L := L 1b 106.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 3-47-2 10. Use the link lengths in step 9 to find the Grashoffcondition shortest link must be link 6).425 Q:=L5 Q = 83.977 if SL < PQ if SL = PQ otherwise return "Special Grashof" return "non-Grashoff" Condition = "Grashoff" . Shortest link Longest link Conditian :« S := L6 L := LIb SL ~ S + L PQ~P+Q return "Grashoff" S = 10.000 92.480 L = of the driving fourbar (it must be Grashoffand the Other links P := L4b P = 40.

DESIGN OF MACHINERY

SOLUTION

MANUAL

3-49-1

Ji5

PROBLEM 3-49 Design a fourbar linkage to move the object in Figure P3-14 from position 1 to 2 using points A and B for attachment. Add a driver dyad to limit its motion to the range of positions shown, making it a sixbar. All fixed pivots should be on the base. Length of coupler link: L3:= 86.000 See Figure P3-14 and Mathcad file P0349.

Statement:

Given: Solution:

Design choices: Length of link 2 Length oflink 2b 1. 2. 3. L2:= 125 L4b:= 50 Length of link 4

Connect the end points of the two given positions of the lineAB with construction limes, i.e., lines from andBl toB2• Bisect these lines and extend their perpendicular bisectors into the base.

a, toA2

Select one point on each bisector and label them O2 and 04• respectively. In the solution below the distances O~ was selected to be L2 = 125.000 and 04B to be L4 == 140.000. This resulted in a ground-link-length 0204 for the fourbar of97.195.

4.

The fourbar stage is now defined as 02ABO 4 with link lengths Ground link la Link 3 (coupler) LIa:= 97.195 L3 = 86.000 Link 2 (input) Link 4 (output) L2 = 125.000
L4 = 140.000

5.

L4b - 25.808

6. 7.

8.

9.

,L------------------J
"-

I

130.479 --

,

=

50.000