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TWI

BASIC COURSE

This work was compi led and published with the support of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States of America.

J.

E. REDDEN

N. OWUSU

AND ASSOCIATES

FOREIGN

SERVICE
1963

INSTITUTE

WASHINGTON, D.C.

EPA

MEN

oF

S TAT

TWI

FOREIGN BASIC

SERVICE COURSE
Edited by

INSTITUTE SERIES

CARLETON

T. HODGE

For sale by the Superintendent

of Documents,

U.S. Government

Printing

Office, Washington

25, D. C.

Price $1.25

11

BASI C COURSE

PREFACE

The Twi Basic Course is one of a series prepared by the Foreign Service Institute in its Special African Languages Program, coordinated by Earl W. Stevick. This series is being produced under an agreement with the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, under the National Defense Education Act. The course in its present form is based on classroom experience with a group of Foreign Service Officers. It is designed to provide basic structures and vocabulary for the situations in which the foreigner is most likely to need Twi. The linguist in charge of the project has been James E. Redden. He was assisted by Nelson Owusu, Siegfried Ayatey, Jude Aidoo, Anthony Aidoo, and Robert K. Nti, Language Instructors. stitute The tapes which accompany the text were prepared in the Foreign Language Laboratory under the supervision of Gabriel Cordova. Service In-

Howard E. Sollenberger, Dean School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service Ins titute Department of State

iii

TWI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Lnt.r-cduc

. .. .. .. ...... . ... . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . ... . . . .. . . . . ...


t i.o n

iv

Identlflcatlon Tone terraclng Sentence Symbol llst Unlt 1

and locatlon .....•

lntonatlon

.... . .. . .

.. .. . ... ... ...

ix x xii xiii

Use of drllls Sound drllls


Una t 2

1
2

Dlalogue: Nate:

'Greetlngs'

•.•...•••...•. pronouns

14

9. 16. 11. 12. 14.

Vowels and vowel harmony SubJect and possesslve Possessed Sentence nouns Drlll model Noun plurals

16

IB

... . . ....

19 19
20

Unlt 3 Dlalogue, Note: 'Do you speak Twl~ Vowel before /r/ SubJect wlth Negatlve Spelllng Nasal-stop two verbs of verbs asslmllatlon of double nas~:s

24
26 26 26
27

6.

7.
11. 12.

17.
Una t

31
32 33

4
'How do you say ...• '?' Impersonal Imperatlve or passlve
•••••••••

Dlalogue: Note: 1.

B.

...... ... .... ... ....


iv

of verbs

34

BASI C COURSE

15

17.
Unlt

Suppletlve negatlve of Spatlal noun compounds

/w-;) /

38 39

5
Da.a Logue t Note.a 1- 3 'At the offlce.' ••••.•.•..•.•.•..•..... , /ha/ and /ha/ •.......•...•...•...•.....

40
41

4.
9. 11.
12.

/ t1.Ul1i/
Future POSl t i.v .....•....•..•.•..•.•.•. e Verb obJect order ......••.••........... Sentence r.n ona t aon ...•.•.•.•....•...•. b Statlve verbs .•..••.••.••••.••.••..•...

41 43 43 47
47 48

13.
Unlt 6
Dr.a Logue s

r Fufu

'

•••................•..•..........

Note:

4.
10. 11.

1.

5. 8.

/ag99/ and /amee/ ..•...••.••...•....... Noun plurals marked by nasal preflX .... Progresslve posltlve of verbs ...•...... Redupllcatlon of adJectlves •.....••.... Comparlson.............................
Verbal nouns

49 49
50 52

50 50 59 59
60

22.

Spatlal/possesslve

compound

nouns

....•

25.
Unlt 7
Di.a Logue e

/na/, /,/, Secondary

tones ...••........

Note:

1. 7. 11. 12.

' Buya.ng f'a sh ' •••••••••••••••••••••••••• Aux i La ar-y /ka/ ••.•..••..•...•..•.•..... Di.s br-a.bu t ave plurals................... Double nega t.i ve verbs .•............•..• Negatlve progresslve and future......... /ma/ and 'lndlrect' obJect ••••••.••••.• /pE/ plus verbal noun •...••..•..•.•.... Compound nouns .••.•....•.•••.....•.....

61 62

15. 19.
21.

68 68 68
69
69

TWI

Unlt

8
t

Di.a Logue Note,

'At the doctor's' Agent nouns

•.••••..•••••.•••...•••• •...••••.•••..•... •.•.•...•......• ••.••..••

70
71

1.

•..••...•.•...•..•..•..•....•• ••••••••..•••••••••...•.•.. compounds

4. 5.
7. 8.
Unlt

Tone of ob jec t pronouns Locatlve Emphatlc Mascul1ne nouns

77 77

subJect pronouns and femlnlne

78
78

9
'Have you gone to eat yet? Past posltlve of verbs Perfect posltlve Perfect negatlve SubJunctlve 'I'h person i.r-d Negatlve Negatlve of verbs of verbs •.••.••••.....• ••••.•.•.•••.••• ••••...•....•••• ....•

Dlalogue: Note:

79
80 80

1:
2.

••••••••••.•.•••.•• ••••••.•••..•.•...•

3. 3. 8. 9. 13.

Past ne ga t i ve of verbs posltlve

4.

and cohortatlve

arnper-arve ••••••..•........• t •..•.•.••.....••••.•• •..•••.•..•••..•• •••••.••.....••.••••.••••

cohortatlve of /d~/

81 81 81 86 86 87
87

15.
17.
Unlt 10 Dlaloguea Note, 2.

/w~n n5/ as verb subJect

/~/ / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

'I went to Accra yesterday.' /kv/ plus consecutlve


I

. •••....•• ••.•••..•..•.• .•••••••••• .

88
89 89 89

of purpose present

'I 4· / seesel1/ and lmmedlate 5. /b 8/ of purpo se


9.
Uni t 11 Dlalogue: Note:
l.

3.

/se/ wlth dlrect quotatlons

95
96

/na/ Wl th pas t tense ..••.••.••.•.••.•.•.•

'An a.nt.er-v i.ew ,

••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Days of the week and personal /Wl~/ wlth verbal nouns /s~~sel/ Wl th perfect, vi

names

•....•

97 103
104 104

2.

Passlve wlth thlrd person plural

....•....

6. 6.

.•..••.•...•..••.. 'have Just' .•....•

104

BA SIC COURSE

7.
10. 11. 12. 13. Unlt 12 Da.aogue e L Note: 1.

Indlrect quotatlon
I I

of commands

•••.•••••••• •..•••.•••••

8. /te/ and ten~/, permanent vs. temporary •••


Promlnence
Rela tn, ve

of lnltlal posltlon
I

Ineal

105 105 105 106 106 106

Compound nouns wlth /ase/ •.••••.•.••••...• I Tones Wl th verb ob jec t s ••••••••.•••••.•..•

4.
A.

5.
7. 8.
Unlt 13 Dlalogue:
Note:

'What t i.melS l t?' Alternatlon of /n/ and /r/ •••••.•••....•.. Spe ci.a uses of /ss/ L Numerals.................................. Compound numerals..........................
If clauses........ .......................
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

107 108 108 116 116


116

/ne/, I

'to be r

116

'How much Colors.

lS

thlS~

•.•••••...••••••.••••..•

117
118

3. 6.

...................................

Contractlon

In tlme clauses •.•.•.•..•...•.

128 128 129

7.

14·
Unlt 14 Dr.a Logue s Note: 2. 6. 7. Unlt 15 Dlalogue: Note: 7.

/ta~/, 'do often' •••••.•.••..••••.••.•.•.• Spe ci.a uses of /fiy~/ ••.•••••.•. ' L ••••.••••.
I

'The telephone.'

•••••••••••••••••.••••••••

130 131 139 139

Spelllng of borrowed Engllsh words ••.•••.. Progresslve wlth noun subJect •.•••••.•••.. Noun-hlgh-tone-adJectlve compounds •••••.••

'The bus'

8.
9. 11.

Spatlal compounds and phrases ••.••.•...••. Instrumental relatlonshlps •...•••....•.••• Partltlve constructlons /ko/ as the second verb •••••••.••••••.•.•. 150

vii

TWI

Unlt 16 Dlalogue: Note: 1.


2.

'The flll1ng statlon


'please
r ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

.....•••.•.......•.••. .•••.••.......

Ibe-I of purpose wlth future 4· I-wa/, I-mal, I-bal 5. Derlved nouns wlth I-el ,
I

. .
.

6.

Ina/

plus perfe ct

151 152 153 159 159 159 160


170 171

Unlt 17 Dlalogue: Note: 6.

'Dlrectlons to the ma r-ke t. ' Dlstrlbutlve verbs


Pr-e d i.ca t i.ve

. ........ ...... .... ... ..

8.
Unlt 18
Da.a Logue e

a d je c t av e s ••••••••••••••••••••

Note,

3.

'The cocoa farm' •...•.••.•.....••...•..••. Empha t i c que st.a.o •...••••...•••....•••••• ns


Di.s tr-a.bu t ive

172 173 173


5.
Unlt 19 Dlalogue: Note: 1. Unlt 20
Da.a Log'ue s

Igul

Secondary

tones ...••..•.•....••...•.•...••

180

'What wlll you do lf It ralns~ Plural of accompanlment

............. . .. ...

•...........

182

183

'An

a.ntir-o duc t i.on '

•.••••••••••••.....•.•.••

192

Note,

1. 2.

Taklng leave •.•....•.....••....•....•...•. Promlnent subJect wlth Id~el Double spaclal relatlonshlps

4.
Glossary

..... .. ... . . .. .... .... .. .. . . ......... .. .... .... ...... ............. .....

193
200 201 202

viii

BASIC COURSE

Introduct~on Tw~ ~s spoken ~n the southern two-thlrds of Ghana, ma~nly between the Volta and Tano R~vers, but ln the last few centur~es ~t has spread over a larger area, espec~ally to the west, so that there are now a large number of speakers ~n cont~guous areas. There are about three m~ll~on nat~ve speakers of Tw~, plus about one m~ll~on more persons who regularly use the language. All d~alects of Tw~ are mutually ~ntelleg~ble; but at conversat~onal speed and on some subJects, speakers from d~stant areas may have d~ff~culty understand~ng one another. The f~rst grammar of Tw~ was publ~shed ~n Copenhagen ~n 1764. M~ss~onar~es began to publ~sh ~n Tw~ ~n the second quarter of the n~neteenth century. Akuap~ Tw~, spoken ~n the south-east was the f~rst d~alect used for B~ble translat~on and other l~terature. Because of th~s, Akuap~m Tw~ became the prest~ge d~alect and ~s st~ll regarded by many people as the 'real' or 'pure' Tw~. Fant~ Tw~, spoken ~n the south-central area, ~s rather d~fferent from the other d~alects and also has a fa~rly extens~ve l~terature. Th~s manual uses Ashant~ Tw~, spoken ~n the central area and by far the largest d~alect. The speaker on whose speech the mater~als are based ~s from the eastern part of the Ashant~ area, and some d~fferences w~ll be noted between the speech of Kumas~, regarded as the standard, and the form used here~n. An effort has been made ~n the footnotes to ~nd~cate such d~fferences. There ~s also the tendency to use the name of the local d~alect as a name of the language, e.g., Ashant~ ~nstead of Ashant~ Tw~. Often Akuap~m Tw~ and Tw~ are used ~nterchangeably, a pract~ce wh~ch speakers of other forms of Tw~ don't always apprec~ate. Because of th~s, an attempt ~s be~ng made to subst~tute the name Akan for Tw~. Akan ~s an ethnograph~c term referr~ng to all the peoples of the area and consequently ~s not felt to favor anyone group or form of the language above the others.
ix

TWI

The Bureau of Ghana Languages has developed a common scrlpt for all the Twl dlalects. The transcrlptlon system used ln thlS manual lS the standard orthography plus a number of dlacrltlc marklngs to lndlcate tone, WhlCh lS not usually wrltten, and to make lt clear how a word or segment lS pronounced ln cases where the student may have dlfflculty ln lnterpretlng the orthography.

Some words have been respelled; but to 1nd1cate th1S, the mark e lS placed before a respelled word the flrst tlme lt occurs, and the regular spelllng 1S glven ln a footnote. Engl1sh words, WhlCh

are very commonly used even when speaklng about everyday affalrs, have been respelled as they are pronounced ln TWl unless the word lS one where an attempt would be made to pronounce Engllsh fashl0n, e.g. lunlv~rsityl, but Is{r~nl, I lt ln the 'shllllng'.

Twl, 11ke almost all the languages spoken south of the Sahara, lS a tone language. Each syllable has ltS own tone or pltch. It lS Just as lmportant to get the correct tones as lt lS to get the correct vowels and consonants. There are many words that are dlstlngulshed only by thelr tones, e.g., Ipapal 'a palm-leaf fan' (wlth two low tones), Ipapa/, 'good' (wlth two hlgh tones), and Ipapa/, 'father' (wlth a low followed by a h1gh tone). TWl has three contrastlve or phonemlc tones: hlgh
ma d

Llke many West Afrlcan

low tone systems, Tw1 tones are terraced,

1'1 I II 1"1
1.e.,

mld tone lS always a downstep ln absolute pltch from the precedlng syllable, and there lS no upstep ln the sequence mld to hlgh, but the pltch remalns approx1mately the same. After a low tone there are two poss1bll1t1es: (1) remaln on approxlmately the same pltch, WhlCh lS lnterpreted as low, and (2) step up to a hlgher level, WhlCh lS lnterpreted as hlgh. After a Juncture, 1.e., a pause, there are also only two posslbllltles: (1) hlgh, or (2) low. After a hlgh or a mld tone, there are three posslbll1tles (1) rema1n on approx1mately the same pltch, wh~ch 1S 1nterpreted as

BASIC COURSE
hlgh; (2) step down sllghtly, WhlCh lS lnterpreted as mld, and (3) step down a greater amount, WhlCh lS lnterpreted as low. After reachlng the most usually the flrst hlgh tone, gradually steps down so that may be lower than a low near promlnent syllable lS usually promlnent syllable of the sentence, the pltch level of the whole sentence a hlgh near the end of the sentence the beglnnlng of the sentence. A stressed, syllable l.e., louder than surIn

roundlng syllables That lS to say, on anyone

anyone

posltlon

l~

the sentence, there are at the most only three posslble tones: hlgh, mld, and low; but the absolute pltch of the syllable lS Ilmlted or determlned by a number of factors. The flrst tone ln an utterance lS more or less determlned by the natural pltch level of the speaker's vOlce, and somewhat by hlS emotlons. (See Unlt 5 note 12 for explanatlon of statement and questlon tlon.) Perhaps dlagrams wlll make thlS clearer. lntona-

TONE TERRACING H

xi

TWI

SENTENCE INTONATION
H

L --~)

---21'~

The above d1agrams 11lustrate the p1tch level of a sentence be1ng gradually lowered by elther tone terrac1ng or sentence 1ntonat1on; but 1n a real sentences both of these factors operate s1multaneously. A slngle low between two h1ghs 1S h1gher 1n p1tch than are

two or more lows between h1ghs. In add1t10n, the second h1gh of the h1gh-Iow-h1gh 1S lower than that of the h1gh-Iow-Iow-h1gh sequence. Because of th1S, the sequences h1gh-Iow-h1gh and h1ghm1d-h1gh are eas1ly confused by the new student. US1ng the f1rst two d1agrams as source, compare the d1agrams below.
H~
\

,
\

M
\

>0

\ \
\

\ \
\

~(L)

\ ~

(L) xii

BASI C COURSE The system for mark~ng mark every syllable. sFllables tones used ~n~tLal ~n th~s manual syllables syllables does not after a by

Unmarked

and unmarked

after a low tone are low. Word

Unmarked

h~gh or m~d tone are h~gh. spaces between words, after each space.

boundar~es

are ~nd~cated

and the tone ma~k~ng

system beg~ns anew

In the f~ve column chart g~ven below, symbols used ~n th1s manual, ord1nary orthography, g~ves the p~onet~c symbols,

column I g~ves the column IV

column II g~ves those used by the and column V ~s an approx1IDat~on of and French sounds for compar~son.

column III g~ves the phonemes, Engl~sh

the sound uS1ng Amer~can

I Symbol p t k ky b d

II Orthography p t k ky b d

III Phoneme /p/ /t/ /k/ /k/

IV Phonet1cs [ph] [th,

V
Approx1IDatn on E~n tl.n come ch~n be do go gem fee see 1. hoe whl.spered he me no Sl.!!S_ double 1J ze pronounced through the nose 1.

ec ,1.

s
gy

s
gy f s h hy
m

/b/ /a.!
/g/ /g/ /f/ /s/ /h/

[c] 1. [b] [ d] 1.
[g] [f] [s] [h] [ ~]
[m ]

[0]

[J ]

1.

t
s h by

m
n n I
~

n n ng n

Ih/ Iml In/

[n]

fl fiy

/nnl In/
/n/ xiii

/n!

[ nl
[1J1J]

[p] [pl

ng

II

TWI

fiiiy

nny ny ng
r

/nn/ /nn/ /n/ /r/ /w/ /w/ /kw/ /g-w/ /g/ /gw/l. ,/gu/ w /h / /nw/ /nnw/ /nwi/

[PJl] [Jljl]

1. 1.

doub'l e

Jl

ny
fig
r

double Jl

Iji] 1.
[r,r'r ] [w] [ q ] 1.
[c. q ] 1.

II
t_£ee, ladder want French lul. sl.multaneous chew and w
a amut tane ous

w
" W

w
W

tw dw dw
I

tw
dw

[J

q ] l.

lmnp and

dw gu hw nw nw nu
nh

[J ]
(5 q ] 2.
[h q ] [lJlJw]

sl.multaneous ..Jump and w

gu hw nw
I

cr. dw
sl.multaneous ~ and when lJplus rounded lJ J1 plus rounded J1 rounded J1 plus nasall.zed 1 lJplus lJwlthout VOlce hum

nw

_"

[pJ1 t[ J

nu
nh I

[y q i]
[lJlJ]

/nh/

1 v
1

1 v
1

/1/
/v/3•
/1/

[l,r,rw,d] hello [v,f,b]


[ 1" ]

avenue beat5 blt balt5 bet bat bottle

e I

e
e e

II/, /e/4.
/e/

[I ]
[ e"] [ e]

,..

e
e

/ci
/ee/,

a
I

a a

/a/4

[89 ] [a ]

/a/
xiv

BASIC

COURSE

0 0 0
I

0 0 u 1,1 e,

... 6

e
!
~ I ~

e4.

e ,~. a,~ a,~

lui, 10/4 lui Irl Iii l't.l I~I lal

101 101

[0 ]

bought boat5 book boot5 nasal1zed nasal1zed 1


I

[0'" ] [ U"']
[u" )

[r ..] [J:'" ] [ ~,.. ] [ee ...) [8.) [ 5] [11"] [u" ]

na aa Lr.ae d e nasal1zed nasal1zed nasallzed nasallzed nasallzed


EB

a
0

5
~

o,~·
o ,~. u,u

151 1fJ./
lui

u u

'Ii

1://=1
III

step down In pltch on preceedlng syllable and pause pause and/or step down In pltch on the followlng syllable elevatlon of the whole sentence level and a steep, abrupt fallon precedlng syllable. precedlng syllable at least trlpled In length below.

,
?

,
?

1II1
Ixl

A number of speclal symbols are also used as explalned (


(I

) Enclosed speed.
r)

Twl elements usually translatl0n

ellded at conversatlon of the TW1.

Llteral Engllsh

xv

TWI

/ / In the chart above, elsewhere, occurr1ng when enclos1ng When 1n th1S grammar. lat10n 1n Engl1sh.

th1S symbol, means Engl1sh,

TW1 phonem1cs; used of trans-

TW1, 1t means

the symbol1zat10n

enclos1ng

1t means words not

1n the Tw1, but needed

for clar1ty or accuracy

#I

Standard

Tw1 orthography.

Spaces between words

to mark

word boundar1es

are the same as those used

1n the orthography

except as glven 1n the footnotes. NOTES 1. In general, before front vowels all consonants of allophones, espec1ally are to a but 1S

greater

or lesser degree palatal1zed

and stops affr1cated, of /n/,

the exact d1str1but10n qU1te complex.

2.

In Ashant1

/gu/ when followed

by a vowel

1S pronounced

11ke

/dw/; but 1n Akuap1m nounced /gu/.

and some other d1alects,

1t 1S st111 pro-

3. /1/

and /v/ are used 1n recent

loan-words

only. of /e/ versus


I

4.
/e/,

In most d1alects

there 1S 11ttle or no contrast

/ql

versus /0/, /~/ versus /a/,

/e/

versus

/e/,

and

/0/
to

versus

/5/.
w1th Tw1 vowels the same. 1nd1cated vowel 1n the transcr1pt10n. vowels. 1S somet1mes marked. 1n contrast vowels Wh1Ch sound somewhat

5.
6.

There 1S no y- or w- offgl1de

Engl1sh

Nasal1zed

vowels are regularly orthography

The ord1nary Where

does not usually the nasal1zed

mark nasal1zed

there 1S amb1gu1ty, 1S marked w1th

In the transcr1pt10n, 1zed vowels

only the f1rst vowel of a cluster of nasal-

/-1.

xvi

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

Unlt I

Unlt I conslsts of forty-elght that are dlstlngulshed

drllls of palrs of words and vowel dlffer-

by tone or consonant

ences that often cause dlfflculty On the tapes at the beglnnlng are translated, tWlce. ldentlfled

for speakers of EngllSh.

of each drlll, the two words

as to how they dlffer, and sald In the flrst

Each drlll lS dlvlded lnto two parts.

part, ten palrs of words are glven. to the palrs and to tell whether dlfferent.

The student lS to Ilsten

the two words are same or

Space lS left on the tapes so that the student lS glven

wlll have tlme to answer before the correct answer for verlflcatlon. glven.

In the second part, ten slngle words are

The student lS to ldentlfy each word by lts dlstlncas explalned at the beglnnlng of each drlll.

tlve dlfference

Agaln space lS left on the tape for the student to answer before verlflcatlon lS glven.

UNIT

TWI

Drlll 1 - tones he opens, low low a woman, low hlgh 1. 2. ~baa hlgh, hlgh, 100 llh 100 llh llh 100 lhh 100 llh llh

~baa ~baa

, ,

Drlll 2 - vowel length a ch i.Ld short, ~ba , a woman, 1. 2. long, ~baa

, ,

,
,

~baa obaa

,
, ,

~ba

, ,

~baa ~baa ~baa ~ba

s
1 1 1 a 1

3.

3.


5.
6.

obaa

4.
5.
6.

,
,

obaa obaa ~baa ~baa

7.
8. 9.
10. Drlll

obaa ~ba

,
,

7.
8. 9.
10. Drlll

s
1

~baa

~baa oba

,
,

obaa

s s

oba

3-

tones

entlrely, hhh, small calabash,

koraa ,

4-

tones

1.
2.

koraa , koraa ,

,
,

llh, koraa ,

brother-ln-law, arlthmetlc, 1. 2.

' lbmlh ak ntaa


,

lllh, ak5nta

..,

hhh llh hhh llh hhh hhh llh llh hhh llh 2

ak5nta

lllh lbmlh lllh lllh lbmlh lbmlh lllh lllh lbmlh lllh

'" ak f5ntaa
... akonta' ... akonta'

3.

koraa I koraa I koraa , koraa I koraa ,

3.

4.
5.
6.

4.
5.
6.

ak 5' " ntaa ak 8· .., ntaa ak5nta


...

7.
8. 9.
10.

koraa ,

,
,

7.
8.
9.
10.

koraa ,

akonta

,
,

I " ak !Jntaa

koraa I

akonta

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT 1

Drlll

5-

tones

good, hlgh hlgh, papa

Dr-a.Ll,

6-

tones

father, low hlgh, papa 1. papa

,
hh lh lh hh lh hh lh hh lh hh

a fan, low low, papa good, hlgh hlgh, papa 1. papa papa papa papa papa papa papa papa papa papa

2.

papa

, ,

2.

11 hh hh

3.

papa papa

4.
5.
6.

3.

papa papa

4.
5.
6.

11
hh

,
,

7.
8. 9.
10. Drlll

papa papa

11 11
hh

7.
8. 9.
10. Drlll

papa

papa

11
hh

7-

tones

- vowel length

a fan, low lOW, papa

father, low hlgh, papa 1. papa

,
11
lh lh

a fan, short, papa to pat, long, paapaa 1. papa paapaa paapaa papa paapaa papa papa paapaa papa paapaa

2.

papa

, , , ,

s
1 1

2.

3.

papa

3.

4.
5.
6.

papa

11
lh 1h 11 11 1h 11

4.
5.
6.

s
1

papa papa

s s
1

7.
8. 9.
10.

papa papa papa

7.
8. 9.
10.

s
1

papa

UNIT 1

TWI

Dr1ll 9 - tones and length male tW1n, low h1gh, ata , female tW1n, low low h1gh, ataa
1.

Dr i.Ll, - tones 10 to speak, low low, kasa a language, 1.


2.

ata

h1gh m1d, kasa


I

2.

ataa ata

, ,

lh 11h
lh

kasa

hID
11 hm

3.

kasa kasa kasa


, , I

3.


5.
6.

ataa ataa ata ata

llh 11h 1h 1h 11h 1h llh

4.
5.
6.

hID

, ,

kasa kasa kasa


, , I

11
hm

7.
8. 9.
10.

ataa ata

7.
8. 9.
10.

hm 11 hID
bm

kasa kasa kasa


, , I

ataa

Dr1ll 11 - tones 1t lS d1fferent, elephant, 1. 2. EsonoI I asonoI I EsonoI I EsonoI I esonoI I EsonoI I EsonoI I Esono Ill, Esono I I lhh, EsonoI I lhh
111

Dr-a.Ll, 12 -

tones

to hold, 1. 2.

se1ze, low low, fu~

slngle, one, low h1gh, fu~


11

3.

lhh III lhh lhh III III lhh III

3.

fu~

lh lh 11
11


5.
6.


5.
6.

fu~ fu~

lh
11

7.
8.
9.
10.

7.
8. 9.
10.

EsonoI I Esono I I

lh lh lh

BASI C COURSE

UNIT 1

Drlll 13 - tones

whlte, hlgh hlgh h1gh, fufUo ,. fufu, low hlgh hlgh, fufuo
1. 2.

Drlll 14 - tones

fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo fufuo
#

to tell a lle, low hlgh, bqa to help, low low, bqa


1. 2.

hhh hhh

bqa bqa

11 11 1h 11
lh

3.

,.

4.
5.
6.

3.
hhh

bqa bqa bqa

, ,
,.

,
,


5.
6.

Ihh Ihh
hhh

7.
8.
9.
10.

,.

bqa bqa bqa bqa

1h 11 1h 1h 11

7.
8.
9.
10.

,.

Ibh Ibh
hhh

,.

,.

,.

bqa

Drl11

15 -

vowel length

Drlll 16 - nasal vowel to take, oral, fa to be hoarse, nasal, s s


1 1. 2.

some thlng , long, hwyy to beat, short, hw~


l.

fa
o
o

hw~ hwy

2.

,.

fa fa

3.

hwyy hw~

3.

4.
5.
6.

s 1


5.
6.

fa. fa.
fa

n n o n o
o

7.

hwy

,
,.

fa
fa fa

s
1

7.
8.
9.
10.

s.
9.
10.

hwyy hwy hw~

s s

fa.

n n

fa

UNIT 1

TWI

Drlll 17 - nasal vowel hand, oral, nsa I.. palm wlne, nasal, nsa 1. 2. nsa

Drl11 18 - vowel length to be hoarse, short, fa totterlng, long, faa


0

1. 2.

fa faa faa fa fa faa fa faa fa fa

s 1 1 s a 1 a 1 a a

ns~ ns~ nsa

n n
0

3.


5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

nsa

I..

nsa nsa ns~ nsa nsa

n
0 0

n
0 0

Drlll 19 - nasal vowel to dlP, oral, sa to lle along, nasal, sa 1. 2. sa sa aa sa sa sa


N

Dr-a.LL - vowel before /r/ 20 to mlX, Ef, fera I to put on natlve dress, u, fura
0 0

, ..

l.

fera I fera I fura fera I

, ..

2.

, ..

e I e I u e I u u e I u e I u

3.

n
0

3.

4.
5.
6.

4.
5.
6.
7. 8. 9. 10.

, ..

n n
0

fura fura fera I

7.
8. 9. 10.

sa sa sa sa

, ..

n n
0

fura

' .. fera I
fura

BASI C COURSE

UNIT 1

Drl11 21 - tones to thatch, low low, kuru a sore, hlgh hlgh, kuru 1. 2.
kuru

Drl11 22 - vowel before /r/

to leave, to grasp,

11 11 hh 11 hh hh 11 hh hh 11

kera I kura kera I

, ..

e I u

kuru kuru kuru kuru kuru kuru kuru kuru kuru

3.

2.

3.

, ..

e I u u

4.
5.
6.

4.
5.
6.

kura kura kera I kera I

,
,

, ..
,

7.
8.
9.
10.

7.
8. 9.
10.

..

e I
u

kura kera I

, ..

e I
u

kura

Drl11 23 - tone s

co-wlfe, hlgh low, k~ra to hlde, low low, k~ra 1.

, ..
hI
hl 11

Drl11 24 - tones soul, hlgh mld, kera I 1. 2. kera I


, I , I

to leave, hlgh low, kera


I

, ..
hm

2.

kera kera
I

, ..
,
I I

3.

3.

..
I

hI
hl hm


5.
6.

hI
11

4.
5.
6.

kera kera I kera I


, ,

, ..
I

hI
hm hm hl hm hl

11

7.
8. 9.
10.

hI
11 11

7.
8. 9.
10.

kera I
I

kera
,

, ..
I

kera I
I

hI

kera

, ..

UNIT 1

TWI

Drlll 25 -

f'r-a ca tn.ve s

Dr-a.LL 26 - palatal

a.f.frlcates

11ke, as, s, se lnsert, hy, hye: 1. se: se: hye: hye: se: hye: se: hye hye: se

(alveolar) (palatal) s
s

to cut up, vo a c ed , dwEt to cut, vOlceless, tWIf 1. dWIf twlj. twlj. dWIf tWIf dWIf dwlj. twlj. dWIf dWIf vd vI vI vd vI vd vd vI vd vd after nasal vowel
~AI

2. 3.

2. 3.

hy hy s hy s hy hy
s


5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

Drlll 27 - vowel be.fore /r/ to tle up, b i.nd , Y' dwyry to crush, mash, e, dwery 1. dwyry dwyry dwe:ry dwe:ry dwyry dwery dwyry dwe:ry dwe:ry dwyry y

Drlll 28 -

to lle along, wlthout n, sa to return, Wl th n, slfn 1. sa slfn sa s¢n sa sa s¢n slfn sa sa


t.,.. t. ...

2. 3.

y
e e

2. 3.

v vn
v

...


5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

vn
v

y
e

...

y e
e

v vn vn
v

...
...

y 8

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT 1

Dr a.Ll, - tones 29 he has, low low, vwv 1. 2. vwv vwv vwv

a snake, low h1.gh, vwv

Dr1.ll 30 ~ tones
..,

I don't buy, llh, mento

,
,

I wouldn't lh
11

buy, hlh, mento mento mento mento mentv mento mentv mento
l.' .., t"

l.'

1. 2.

..,

,
,
,

llh llh hlh llh hlh hlh llh hlh llh llh

3.


5.
6.

vwv owo owo owo owo owo owo

11 1h 1h 11 1h 11 11 1h

3.

t.'

, ,

4.
5.
6.

..,

,
,
,

t.'

7,
8.
9.
10.
Dr i.Ll. 31

7.
8.
9.
10.

,
,

mentv mento mento


..,

..,

, ,

- tones
.I

Dr1.ll 32 - tones that I may buy, hhh, mento


I don't buy, llh, mento
..,
.4

that I may buy, hhh, mentv s= :» I wouldn't buy, h 1 mento h, 1.


2. hhh

1. 2.

mento mento
..,

mento
t.'

t.'

h1h
hhh

..,

, ,

hhh

llh llh
hhh hhh

3.

mtnto mentv
t.' t.' , ,

3.

mento


5.
6.

hlh hlh hlh


hhh hhh

4.
5.
6.

mtfntv m~nto mento' mento,. mentv mento


t. ..,
t,

mento mento

7.
8. 9.
10.

mtnto mtnto mento mento


t.' t.' , ,

7.
8.
9.
10.

llh llh
hhh

h1h hlh

llh
hhh

mento

UNIT

TWI

Drlll 33 - statement

and questlon

Drll1 34 - tones

l. that I may buy, statement, mento. l. Should I buy, questlon, mento?

a glrl, Ihhh, abaawa , a servant glrl, lllh, abaawa 1. 2. abaawa

1. 2.

q s

, ,

Illh Illh Ihhh Ihhh lhhh lllh Ihhh Illh lhhh Illh

abaawa abaawa abaawa abaawa abaawa

3.

s mento",
l. mento

3.

, ,

4.
5.
6.

q s q s

4.
5.
6. 7. 8.
10.

7.
8.
9.
10.

abaawa abaawa

s
q

abaawa abaawa

m~nto'?

Drlll

35 -

tones and length

mouse, Ilh, ~kura , vlllage, Illh, ~kuraa 1. 2. ~kura

Dru.Ll, 36 - tones already, Ill, dedaw , .. an old thlng, hll, ded~w


I

!}kuraa ~kura ~kura

Ilh 111h Ilh 11h 11lh ll1h Ilh lllh Illh Ilh
10

1. 2.

dedlfw dedlfw

III III III hll

3.

, ,

3.

4.
5.
6. 7. 8.
9.
10.

!}kuraa !}kuraa !}kura

, ,

4.
5.
6.
, ded~w dedlfw ,, ded~w

III hll hll hl1 III hll

!}kuraa ~kuraa

,
,

7.
8.
9.
10.

,,

!}kura

ded~w

,,

BA SI C COURSE

UNIT
tones

Dr111

37 -

tones

an agreement,

rather, hlh, mmom

, ~,

Ilh, mm5m

Drl11 38 -

a bear, hlgh hlgh,

8181

to cheat, low low, 8181 Ilh

1. 2.

mmom

1. 2.

S181 8181 8181 8181 8181 8181 81S1 8181 S181 8181

,
,

hh hh 11 hh 11 hh 11 11 hh hh

~,

3.

mm5m
,

hlh Ilh hlh hlh Ilh Ilh

3.


5.
6. 7. 8. 9.
10.

mmom

2.'

mm5m

, .. ,


5.
6.
7.•

mm5m

mm5m mm5m

, ,

hlh Ilh Ilh

8. 9.
10. Drl11

, ,

Drl11 39 - na8a18 palm 011, velar, ~g, ~g~ lt, alveolar, en, en~

40 -

na8al length ln8trument,

to blow a m~slcal shor-n, hy~fi br1ght,

long, hyennI I hyfii hy~ti hye~ hyennI I hyfii hyennI I


8 8

1.
2.

ng§ I ng5 I en5 ng5 I en5 en5 ng5 I en5 ng5 I en5

v v
a

1.

2.

3.

3.

1 1
8

4.
5.
6.

v a
a

4.
5.
6. 8. 9.
10.

1
8

7.
8. 9.
10.

v
a hyennI I hyennI I

1 1
8

v
a

11

UNIT

TWI

Dr~ll 41 - tones to de daca te , low low, momd' t, forr~d, ha.gh rn.gh, moma 1. 2. 3. 4· ma-ma moma m~ma m~ml! moma m~ma m~ma mema m5ma moma 11 11
hh hh

Dr~ll 42 - tones

car, h~gh low, kaa , r~ng, low h~gh kaa 1. 2. 3. 4. kaa

,,

lh
hl

" kaa
ka~

lh
hl

" kaa

5.
6.

11
hh hh

5.
6.

" kaa
kaa
~

hI
lh lh
hl

7.
8. 9.
10.

7.
8. 9.
10. Dr~ll

kaa

,
~

11
hh

" kaa
kaa

lh hI

11

" kaa

Dr~ll 43 - nasal and oral vowels don't wave, nasal, fffiyt.m .., , don't gr-and, oral, nyam
I

44 -

tones

wave, h~gh, fiytm , __ t. don't wave, low hl.gh, ,nnYlfm 1. 2. 3. 4. fiyl.m


I

1. 2. 3.

fffiyl.m
I

n n
0

h lh h h lh lh h lh lh h

fffilyam

nyam fiiiylm tiyam tiyam fiiiyl.m fiyam nnY1'-m nyam


N ' _N

,
,

fffiyl.m
I

:ffytm
I

4.
5.
6.

n
0 0

:ffyl.m
__ I t.

5.
6.

nnYlfm fffiy4m fiytm


I

7.
8. 9.
10.

n
0

7.
8. 9.
10. 12

fffi~

t.

n
0

titiytm
I

tiy~

BASI C COURSE

UNIT 1

Drl11

45 -

tones

he has gone, 1h, you have gone, hh, wak~ 1. 2. wak~ wak~ wak~

, wak~ ,

Drl11

46 -

tones

, ,

he dldn't come, 11h, wamma " you dldn't come, h1h, wamma,

hh hh hh 1h 1h hh 1h hh hh hh

1.
2.

3.

" wamma,
wamma

wamma

11h h1h 11h 11h h1h


11h


5.
6.

wak~ wak~

,
, ,

3.

, , ,

4.
5.
6.

wamma

wak~ wak~ wak~


wake

, , ,
,

" wamma,
wamma

7.
8. 9.
10.

7.
8. 9.
10. Drl11

" wamma,
" wammaI-

h1h h1h 11h 11h

wamma

,
,

wak~

wamma

Drl11

47 -

tones

48 -

tones
t-

Accra, 1111, ~k~ran black ant, 1hhh, ~k~ran 1. 2. Nkeran I I nkeran I I Nkeran I I nker<::l.n I I nkeran I I Nkeran I I nker<::l.n I I
, ~N

here I am, hhh, mlnnl , I don't have, 11h, m!nnl 1. 2. mtnnl

1111 1hhh 1111 1hhh 1hhh 1111 1hhh 1hhh 1111 1hhh

11h 11h hhh


hhh

3.

3.


5.
6.

Jt'.N

4.
5.
6.

11h 11h hhh hhh 11h hhh

7.
8. 9.
10.

nkeran I I Nkeran I I nk~ran I I

7.
8.
9.
10.

13

UNIT 2

TWI

Un~t 2 Bas~c D~alogue

-Ato g~ve, present; cause let; for, on behalf of a becom~ng clear or v~s~ble,

a com~ng-forth 1 Good morn~ng.


dawn i.ng , I)

('/1/

b~d /you/

-Byaa onuaI (n~a) (pl. a-n5m) I I a response brother, Yes, brother. to greet~ngs

Yaa nua.
II I

s~ster

, wq, wq, w-,

wu, wu

-Ayour (sg.) the whole body;,exter~or; at, by, near

te I

to perce~ve, language

feel, hear;

l~ve, dwell; speak a

es~n

what, how How are you?

Wo h~ I

te s~n? I

-Bme, mi, m-, e ye

mt,

m!

my to be, become; amount do, make;

to; seem; be ~n

good condl.t~on

14

BA SIC COURSE

UNIT

Me

h~ yeo na nsoI

I'm flne. and, but

5
6

Na wo nsq, wo h~ te s~fi'? I
I I

also, too And you, how are you'?

-A-

Me

h~ yeo

Ofle te s ~n'? I
-Be

ofle (fie) (pl. e-)

I'm flne.

home, house How lS everythlng at home'?

dee I

to have, possess; be, be In a state of; contlnue, keep on; cause, make soft, tender, cheap Everythlng lS flne at home. ( 'Home lS /In a state of/soft. ,) Notes

Ofle dee bokoo. I

bokoo

1.

/MB: akyt/ a.susually //maakye/ / •

2. /fiua/ means elther brother or slster, but lt lS used In greetI lngs as a matter of pollteness. /Yaa fiua/ lS a customary way of
I I I

acknowledglng a greetlng; lt could be Just as well translated, 'thank you' or 'good mornlng'. ThlS response lS used by persons of about the same age and soclal status.

3. /yaa fiua/ lS yaa fiua/. See vowel harmony rules below.


I II I

followed by /a/ lS slmllar to the French I /fiua/. I

seml-vowel

/u/ fur, e.g.,

UNIT 2

TWI

4.

/ s ~fl/ as Aahan t i. Twl. /eden/ or /den/ lS Akuaplm TW1. In I I 1961 the Bureau of Ghana Languages lssued Language GUlde's for the varlOUS Twl dlalects wlth the recommended spelllngs. Since most Twl texts prlnted before thlS tlme are based on Akuaplm, necessary to know the forms for both dlalects. lt lS

5.
6.

/ye/

'to be In good condltl0n',

lS /y~/ In Akuaplm. have a

Many words that end In a slngle vowel In Akuaplm dlphthong In Ashantl:


Akuap im

house thlng fufu caretaker

Ofl

Ashantl ofle
ade e

ode I , fufu , ~hwefoI

fufuo , ~hwefo~ I

The noun preflXes /~, 0, e, e/ are usually omltted If they are not wlth the flrst word In the sentence, e.g., /Yaa nua/. I I Other noun preflxes aren't usually omltted.
f

7.

It lS necessary to use /h~/ when asklng concernlng one's health or physlcal condltl0n. If /h~/ lS not used, one'lS asklng for a descrlptlon, e.g., /W~ Yir~ t~ stfl/, 'What klnd of wlfe do you have?' 1.e., tall, fat, dark-halred, etc.

8.

9.

There are two serles of vowels ln Twl or Akan: outer serles, and a lax or lnner serles. Tense serles: Lax serles:
1

a tense or

e I

e e

a I
a

u
0
I

The relatlonshlp of the two serles lS perhaps more easl1y seen In a vowel trlangle dlagram.

16

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 2

tense'

lax

tense

a There are llmltatlons as to WhlCh vowels can precede or follow certaln other vowels. These llmltatlons are called vowel harmony. Vowel harmony rules. I. Lax vowels followed by /1/, /~/, or /u/ are replaced by the next hlghest (see vowel trlangle dlagram) vowel ln the tense serJ.es: lS replaced e a o
u II.

by

J. e

After

/a/, e o

lei,

or

/0/,

/e/ and by

/0/

are replaced

by the

next hJ.ghest vowel J.n the lax serJ.es: lS replaced

III.

Rule I takes precedence

over Rule II.

17

UNIT

TWI

IV All cont1guous vowels are 1n the same ser1es. If there 1S a tense vowel 1n a d1phthong, all the vowels of the d1phthong w1ll be of the tense ser1es. 10. The vowels of subJect and possess1ve pronouns by vowel harmony. Not1ce the under11ned vowels: meye are determ1ned

w£ye 2_ye Eye

, ..

I am you (sg.) are he, she, 1t 1S 1t 1S I see you (sg. ) see he, she, 1t sees s1ngular

yeye mcrye woye ~ye y~hu mffila wohu

we are you (pl. ) are they are they are we see you (pl. ) see they see '1t'

mihu wUha ohi!

The th1rd person when referr1ng

/0-

often translates "'"0-/

to an1mals.

The th1rd person lmpersonal pref1x /e-Ne-/ 1S always used for 1nan1mates (1nclud1ng ghosts), but 1t 1S occas10nally used when referr1ng to an1mals 1n a general way. me ba , wo ba -+

, ,

... ne

my ch1ld your (sg.) ch1ld h1s, her, 1tS ch1ld

y!;. ba

m~ ba

, ,

our ch11d your (pl.) ch1ld the1.r ch1ld our brother your (pl.) brother the1.r brother 1S never 1nd1cated 1n

ba

w~n ncr ba y~ nu~ l. ..... L mu nuaI , l. ... L won nu nua


, ... L

£ m1 n-Q:a my brother , LI wu fiua your (sg.) brother I ni flua h1S, her, 1tS brother
I

In the new orthography,

vowel harmony

the posseSS1ve pronouns, e.g., /mf n~~/1S J.ffie nua/. But some texts pr1nted before the latest spel11ng reV1S10n do have !m1 nua/.

18

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 2

/w~n n5/ has an alternate form /wo~/ and 1S ;.1won;'v/ye/ has an alternate form /ye~/. Compare Un1t 9 note 15. The f1nal consonant of /ye~/and /wo~/ 1S homorgan1c w1th the follow1ng consonant. See notes eleven and twelve of lesson three. Compare Un1t 3, notes 11 and 12.

11. The tone pattern of some nouns d1ffers when preceeded by a


possess1ve pronoun from the pattern of the non-possessed e.g., /nui/, 'brother', and /mt fi~~/, 'my brother'. If the tones of the possessed form are d1fferent, the possessed form lS glven ln parentheses when the word flrst appears ln the lessons, e.g., form,

/okUnu/, 'husband' (~u). When the possessed noun has a hlgh tone on the f1rst syllable, the posseSSlve pronoun 1S low; otherw1se, the possess1ve pronoun lS hlgh. See also notes 14 and 15.

12. There are a number of ways of marklng the plural of nouns. If the plural form 18 not the same as the slngular, the plural prefLX and/or suffLX 1S 11sted ln parentheses w1th the deslgnatlon 'pl. ' when the word f1rst occurs. /okUnunom/. It appears as /o~nu/ The plural of /o~nu/ lS (~nu) (pl. -ntm). If the

plural lS 1rregular, the ent1re form lS glven. If there 1S more than one plural, the most common plural lS glven. A hyphen /-/ after a form means the form 1S a prefLX; a hyphen before a form means 1t lS a suffLX.
suf'f'ax ,

Some plurals have both a pref~

and a

New words 1n the drllls. oba (pI. In-) oy~ry (pl. -n8m) papa (pl. -n8m) maam~ o~nu (pl. -n8m) (~nu) (pl. -n~m) Chlld, young one wlfe father mother husband

19

UNIT

TWI

13. 14.

Note that /mba/ lS /mma/. In part of the exerClses

Compare Un1t 3 note 12. ln thlS manual, the student lS asked

to replace or lnsert a word or phrase 1n a prev10us utterance. The tutor glves a sentence. The student repeats. The tutor g1ves the word or phrase, WhlCh lS underllned ln the next sentence. The student f1ts lt lnto the preV10US utterance. Example: Tutor: Student: Tutor: Student: Lex1ca1 Dr111 A
Wet h~ ty s til? Wet h~ ty stil?

Ne ho.
I. Ne ho ty s til?

I.

1. Wet h~ ty stil? 2.
j. Ne h~ ty stn?

How are you? How lS he? How are Zou (121• )? How are they?

Mo
WD£

h~ ty s~n? h~ ty 8tn.? ba h~ ty s til?

4.

~. W~
7.

h~ 6. W~ Z:tr:t ty s~n? , , W~ EaEa h~ ty s fil"


,.. 8. W~ maameI. hI. ty s t'" 0 n'l

.. ,..

How 18 zour ch i.Ld? How lS zour wlfe? How lS zour father? How 18 zour mother? How 18 zour brother? How 18 zour husband?

9. Wu il~~ h~ ty 8til?
10. kunu ho ty stn.? W:!t

I.

20

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT 2

LeXIcal
1. 2.

DrIll B
I am f'arie ,

Me h~ YEo

Ne

h~ YEo

He IS fIne. We are fIne. They are fIne. M;r ChIld IS fIne. My WIfe IS fIne. My father IS fIne. M;r mother My brother My husband IS fIne. IS fIne. IS fIne.

3.

YE h~ YEo h~ YEo

4. w;)~
5.
7.
8.
10.

' t. Me ba ho YEo

h~ 6. Me ;r!tr!t YEo

Mt
Mt

papa h~ YEo maam~ h~ YEo

9. Mf

trtq

h~ yEo h~ YEo

Mf ~nu

Lex i.ca L

DrIll C
t, _
l.

1.
2.

>.lyE maame. n~

'"

She IS hIS mother. He IS hIS father.


I am hIS father.
I

3.

nt papa. MeYE nt papa.


OyE MeyE nl nuCj..
AI

4.
5.

t,.A.

am hIS brother.

~"

6. WqYE n~ ba.

,,

t, .L na nutf.

You are her brother. You are her chIld. She IS hIS ChIld. She IS hIS WIfe. He IS her husband.
I

7. S2:i!.
8. 9.
10.

ne ba ,

, ,
I

OyE nt{ Y!tr!t. OyE nl kunu. MeYE nl kunu.


AI

(,

,I

am her husband.

21

UNIT

TWI

LeXlcal Drlll D
l. 2.

Y£y£ ne mma. Moy£ n~ mma. M5YE nf rraanOm. Woy£ nr t1u~nom.


, .L ... t. ' ,

We are hlS chlldren. You are hlS chlldren. You are hlS brothers and slsters. They are her brothers. They are hlS Wlves. We are hlS Wlves.

3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
9.
10.

Y£y£ won nu kununom.


I '"

t,

...

We are thelr husbands. You (pl.) are thelr husbands. You (pl.) are our fathers. They are our fathers

t.' , l, 8. Moy£ won nu kUnunom.

Moy£ y£ papanom. Woy£ y£ papanom.

t."

Lex aca L Drlll E 1. 2.


' ... A. Woy£ wu nucrnQm.

They are my slsters. They are your slsters. We are your brothers and slsters. We are thelr brothers. We are thelr chlldren. You are thelr chlldren. You are hlS chlldren. You are hlS Wlves. You are our Wlves. They are our Wlves.
, _L

3.

Y£y£ wu nu~nom. Y£y£ w~n n~ fi~anom. Y£y£ won no mma. won no mma.
, l, ,
, 4,

AI


5.
6.

7.
t. ' ... 8. Moy£' ne yyrynom. t. , 9. Moy£' y£ yxryn~m.

10.

22

SA SI C COURSE

UNIT 2

LeX1cal 1.
2.

Dr1ll F

Woye mS' mma , Woye y_e mma ,


mma •

They are my ch1ldren. They are our ch1ldren.

t. ' 3. Moy_e ye


5.
6.

t. Moye' won n5 mma , , , Yey_e won n5 mma ,

You are our ch1ldren. You are the1r ch1ldren. We are the1r ch1ldren. We are y_our (;el.) ch1ldren. They_ are your (pI. ) ch1ldren.

Yeye mO' mma . Woy_e mO' mma •


mma ,

7.

, ,

8. Woye w2
10.

,
,

They are y_our (sg. ) ch1ldren. We are your (sg. ) ch1ldren.

9. Yey_e wc( mma ,


Yeye ne mma ,

We are her ch1ldren.

14. 15.

Nouns w1th a low nasal preflX pronoun possessor,

1n the possessed

form have a

low-tone

e.g., /me

mma/,

'my Ch1ld'. /w~n n5/.

When followed

by a low tone, /w~n n~/ 1S somet1mes

23

UNIT 3

TWI

Una t 3

BaSlC Dlalogue

-Aeda (pl. n-)


#

day to cool, be cool nlght Good evenlng.

dwo I I

anadwoI I
I

~a

adw~. I I

-Bo~r~ (wur~) slr, mlster, owner

YaaI owura. I

, ..

Yes Slr.

-Ae TWll "

the Akan or TWl language or, a questlon marker

WoteI Twll anna'Z ,

,,,

"

t,

Do you speak TWl'Z

('You hear

Twl or-z ) t

-Be I.'...

~~n, aane, ee

I.'

t.

I.'

yes Yes, I speak TWl.


-A-

J:.~n,
II

m~teI Tw{i..

WoteI BorofoI anaa'Z I I

, ..

BorofoI I

Engllsh
~

Do you speak Engllsh'Z

24

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT 3

"dlflf~ b
6

i,

dab1 I
~

, ,

-Bno, never not No, I don't speak Engl1sh.

mentE( B<trof<t. D~lfbJ..,

, m-, n- , fi- Ijl..,

-A-

kl
wo

to speak, say, talk

W<tka TW11

,,

to be at; have, own


0

wo f~e anta"

Do

you speak TW1 at home" ( 'You speak Tw1 1S at home or"')

meka TW11 wo f~e. ~l(-fi, Notes

1"

.., I,

,,

-BYes, I speak Tw1 at home.

/o~ra/ 1S more pol1te than /ofiu~/ and 1S used for an older man or one 1n a h1gher soc1al status. The fem1n1ne form 1S
1.

/lfwuraa/, madam, lnd1cate mar1tal


2.

lady, landlady, state.

m1stress,

m1ss, and does not

/anta/

1S

I! anal! or I! anaa;f.
/kg/ means and speak1ng ab1l1ty to speak 1n a part1cular language at a

3. /tE(/ means to possess both understand1ng


ln a language. part1cular t1me.

/B<trof~/ means w1ll be understood /Farans~e

5.

'the language of the Europeans', but Engl1sh 1f another language 1S not spec1f1ed, e.g.,

B<trof~/, 'French'.

25

UNIT 3

TWI

6.

Pay speclal attentlon

to the short vowels between a consonant

and /r/, as In /Bqr0fq/. There are no clusters of a consonant plus /r/. It may be dlfflcult for the student to tell whlch vowel lS present. /e/ lS probably the most dlfflcult vowel to I hear between a consonant and /r/, e.g., /k~ra/, 'soul'. Many of these short vowels, especlally /~/, are not lndlcated In the orthography. Before /l/ and lui, /0/ lS /0/, e.g., /W0 f{e/ lS /wo f{e/ at conversatlon speed. In slow speech or If there lS a pause

7.

between /W0/ and /f{e/, /W0/ lS not replaced by /wo/. Vowel harmony across word boundarles lS not lndlcated In the orthography. Also note the examples of /W0/ In lexlcal drlll A. /W0/ lS a verb and means to be located at a glven place. TWl has many constructlons of the type: subJect plus verb plus obJect plus verb plus or mlnus obJect, e.g.,

8.

/W'qka

~~ , ~ TWll wo fle anaa? / •

9.

/lillro ls # kurow ff. /

10. /m~/ lS very often /m/, e.g., /lillro m~/ lS very often /lillrom/ and lS # kurow mu# or # kurow m ' /I. 11. A negatlve verb lS formed by preflxlng a low-toned nasal to the verb stem plus a hlgh tone on the last syllable. The nasal lS homorganlc wlth the followlng consonant of the verb stem, l.e., It lS made or artlculated consonant:
m

In the same posltlon m, p, b, f

as the followlng

before

n, w, t, d, s
ljl,

It
'" n

k, g, h

hy, hw (Some verbs wlth secondary tones have a hlgh-toned See Unlt 18, note 5.)

" fl., y, w, ky, tw, gy, dw,

negatlve preflx.

26

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

12. Comblnatlons of nasal plus homorganlc vOlced stop do not occur. Thls comblnatlon lS replaced by a long or gemlnate (double) nasal: mb nd figy lS replaced by
rom

nn fifi, l.e.,

/nny

rtg
See also note

rtrt,

l.

e.,

/rtg/

or fiJ/

17.
doesn't usually operate across a nasal plus /mehu/ lS replaced by /mihu/, but /m~nhff/ lS

13.

Vowel harmony

another consonant:

usually not replaced by /minhff/. Vowel harmony does operate across two nasal consonants nearly always. Substltutlon 1. 2. Drlll A
I speak Twl.

" MeteI TWll.

3.


5.
6.

" W0te TWll. ---+

---+

" YEt.e TWll. ote Twll.

,,

We speak TWl. He speaks Twl.

Mf kun~ te TWll.

,,

They speak Twl. My husband sEeaks Twl.

7.
8.

" te Me Y<tr<t I TWll. " Mg maam~ te TWll. " M~ papa te Twll. I

My wlfe speaks TWl. My mother speaks TWl. My father speaks TWl. My chlld sEeaks Twl. My brother speaks TWl.

" 9. Me ba te Twll. 10.

" Mf fi~a te Twll.

27

UNIT

TWI

Substltutlon 1. 2. M~nty

Drl11 B I don't speak TW1. We don't speak TW1. He doesn't speak TW1.

3.

,, Twll. , ,, Y8nt~ TWll. ," Ont~ Twll.


,

W::mt~ Twll.

,
I

,,

5. M!

kunu nt~ TWll.

,,

'l'hey don't speak TW1. My husband doesn't s]2eak Twl.

6. Me ;I~r~ nt!t Twll.


" 7. Mg maame nt~ TWll. , , " 8. M~ ]2a]2a nt~ TWll. ,, ,, 9.
M~ ba nt~ TWll. 10.
....t. " Mf nUlf nty' Twll.
_ t. ,

,,

My wlfe doesn't My mother

speak TW1. speak TW1. speak Twl. speak TW1. s]2eak TW1.

doesn't

My father doesn't My Chl1d doesn't My brother

doesn't

Questlon

and Answer

Drl1l A The student glves the afflrm-

The tutor glves the questlon. atlve response. 1.


2.
" " I. W)'ty TWll anaa?

Mtt~

TWll amta?

4ttfi, 4ttfi, t" \ 4ttfi,


t.
I., 4~fi,
-\

"

y8ty TWll. oty TWll. woty TWll. ty Tw{l.


"

,..

3.

" I. oty Twll anaa? " I. Woty TWll anaa?

,..

4.
5.
7. 9.
10.

" ..

W~ kunu ty TWll anaa?


, _ t. " t.

"

44fi, m! 4~fi, m~
4~fi,
,
~

~nu
,

6. W)' y~re ty Tw{l anta?


W)' maame
,

me yyry ty TWll. maam~

ty TWll anaa?
,, t.

, " t. 8. W)' papa, ty TWll anaa?

A. " I. W"lf ~u~ ty TWll anaa?

ba ty TWll anaa?

, ~~fi, m~

me papa ty TWll. ba ty Twll.

ty Tw{l.

"

"

28

BASI C COURSE

UNIT 3

Questlon

and Answer

Drl11 B answer.

Student glves negatlve

I. Wqty TWll anaa?


2. Mtt~ Twfi anla?

,..

, ..

l-

3.

4.
5.
6.

woty TWll anaa? Wu kunu t~ TWll anaa?


t ,..
, I ,..

,..

I-

, " .. D~~bl, wonty Twll.


I-

D~~b~, mf ~nu

nt~ Tw~i.

, 7. W9

maame
, ,

I-

~ Twll anaa?
, .. I-

I-

8. 9.
10.

papa t~ TW11 anaa? ba t~ TW11 anaa~


,.. £

D~~b1, me papa nty TW11.

, ..

LeXlcal 1. 2.

Drl11 A

Mewo flee Mewo fle

I am at home.

nt
,

mu.

I am In the house. I am at Accra. I own a house. I have a brother. I am at Kumasl. I have a chlld.
I have

3.

Mewo Nker11'il. Mewo fle b i., Mewo nuq.

4.
5.
7.

6. Mewo Kumasy•
Mewo ba.

-~, , ,

8. Mewo Et:ns~r!t. ~ ,.. 9. M'"ewosukuu n ~ mu.


10. M'ewo f i e wo Kumas!t.

, .. ,

a Eencll.

I am In the school.

I have a house In Kuma.'31 •

29

UNIT 3

TWI

a, an, any, some AV01d the use of /b{/, espec1ally 1n reference to persons, unless you 1ntend to mean 'some k1nd or other', 'any k1nd of', or 'Just any k1nd'. In lex1cal dr1ll A sentence four, /b{/lS requ1red to d1st1ngu1sh 'I own a house' from 'I am at home'. A noun w1thout the follow1ng demonstrat1ve or art1cle /n~/, 'the', 'that ! , 1S 1ndef1n1te, 1. e. , 1t translates 'a' or 'an'. Grammat1cal Dr1ll A form of the follow1ng verbs. Negat1ve (to feel) (to speak) (to have) (to eat) (to be) (to be good) (to sleep) (to glve) (to speak) (to learn) (to talk) (to La e down) (to be at) (to see) (to cut) nty nty
nm,

G1ve the negat1ve Aff1rmat1ve 1. ty ty W;) d1 ye ye da ma


..,

, ,

2. 3. 4· 5.
6.

,
,

nn i,

enys

--'
--'
,
,

eny e

7. 8.
9.

nna
romS:

ka

l(ka

l.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14· 15.

-' sut}
kasa da asy W;) hiI tWI}

-' nsul}
I

nkasa

enna aSf( nn i. nh~


I

... ' ntwl}

30

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

16. 17. 18. 19.


20.

to ko

(to buy)

nto

,
,

bera I hye bo

(to go) (to come) (to 1nsert) (to str1ke)

nko I

mma

fihye
mmo

, ,

16. 17.

/daab{/ 1S Akuap1m and also eastern Ashant1. /dab{/ 1S the II I form most used 1n Ashant1 and 1S /dab1/1n the new orthography.

The underlY1ng a1m of the new (1961) orthography 1S to prov1de a common wr1t1ng system for all Tw1 d1alects. Slnce 1t 1S necessary for the system to be read1ly 1ntell1g1ble to readers of all d1alects, a number of words have been spelled w1thout the ass1m1lat1ve changes that have taken place 1n Ashant1 d1alect. Noun plurals w1th gem1nate of stems beg1nn1ng nasals, w1th v01ced stops are not spelled 'days', 1S /nda/; but the same 'Don't lle', e.g., /nna/,

asslm1lat10n 1S wr1tten 'Don't sleep', lS jhn~

1n the verbs, e.g., /nna/,

18.

/iafi/
II

lS

jaane/

1n the new orthography.

31

UNIT

TWI

Urn, t

BaslC Dlalogue

-Ana
1

and, emphatlc partlcle How do you say 'thank you' In In TWl",


-B~

k~ S~nN na yt: a th a nk you wo ~ Twll mu",

,..

da aSEt; aSEtE
, I

to lle, sleep, rest the lower part; down, under; meanlng, sense

Meda aSEt.

Thanks.

('I

La e down. '), ('I

prostrate you/. ,)

/myself before

3 -A-

Do you understand",

4
r:' ;;

eblo Ka~ blO. , kasa


e

Yes, I understand agaln Say It agaln.

you.

to talk, speak slow, soft, mlld Talk slowly. Talk softly.

bEtrt:Eoo

6
7

Kasa bEtrEEoo.

-BThank you.

32

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

-A-

S En na yeka you ~

I..N

I-

welcome

How do you say 'you are welcome' In TWl"

WO TWll mu"

, ..

I-

-B9
0Mm~
E

, enna astt.

You are welcome. It.

Dontt mentlon

('Don't cause /yourself/

don't lle down. ,) Notes 1. The flrst person plural of the TWl verb often translates wlth 'we say',

an Engllsh paSSlve or lmpersonal you. /yek~/, Ilterally often corresponds to 'It lS sald' or 'you say'.
2.

/na/, 'and', 'but', jo i.ns sentences; /n~/, 'and', 'wlth', connects words. /na/ lS put after a word or at the beglnnlng of lnto

a sentence to add emphasls. It often lsn't translated Engllsh. Compare Unlt 10, note 10.

3.

/wq as~ e/ lS usually /wasf(e/ and lS I! wo asel! or I! wo ase edIf there lS an expressed obJect, l.e., If the sentence tells who 1S understood, the stUdent should use /asf(/ because /as~e/ doesn't occur often wlth an obJect. If there lS no expressed obJect, use /as~~/ because /as~/ may be mlsunderstood. /Wqt~ asy?/ may not only mean 'Do you understand? " but also 'Are you '1 slttlng down" " and 'Are you stlll Ilvlng" '. /W" ~ty aSye? / means only 'Do you understand" '. On the telephone only can you say /M~t~ asy/ or /M~t~ as~e/, w1th a hlgh tone on /t~/, meanlng 'I understand the meanlng or message'.

4.

33

UNIT

TWI

5.

/a/ followed /0/ followed

by /y/ lS hlgh and front llke a French by /l/ lS

'a'.

/0/,

e.g., /W0 Tw{l/ lS /wo Tw{l/. don't occur. Vowel harmony

At less than conversatlon tween words, across word boundarles

speed or If there lS a pause be-

these vowel replacements

lS never shown In the orthography. form /eblb{o/. /eb{o/ lS the more

6.

/eb{o/ has an alternate

common form.

7. 8.

/Kasa ber££oo/ means both I

'Talk slowly and softly. ' and lS marker. lS the same as the 'talk', /m6n-/,

jbr££

00/

or jbr££w//.

/00/

lS an emphasls

The lmperatlve

(command form) slngular The lmperatlve

habltual

stem, but wlth all low tones, e.g., /kasa/, one person. plural preflxes tones. 'talk', wlth all hlgh /£-/ occurs,

addresslng

e.g., /M5nkasa/, I

9.
I

Before

lnltlal /-nn/,

e.g., /nna ase/ lS /£nna I

ase/. When a word beglnnlng endlng usually In a vowel, replaced word,


I

wlth a vowel

lS preceeded

by a word word lS e.g., the

the flnal vowel of the preceedlng

by the same vowel as that whlch beglns l.e., a long or reartlculated

followlng

vowel occurs, £nnaase#.

/Mm§
10.

£nna ase/ lS Notlce Lexlcal l.

/Mmi

£nna ase/, but It lS #Mma


I

the two negatlves Drlll A


, I

In

/Mmt

, £nna ase./.
I

Wote ase£ an~az Wote mase an~az , , (3 Wote nase an§a? ,, L Wote W0n ase anaa?
I I I I

,,
I I

2.

,,

(3

3.

Do you under-s ta ndj


Do you understand


5.

me? hlm? them? US?

Do you understand Do you understand Do you understand

Wote y£rt ase anaa~


I I I

,,

34

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

LeXlcal
1. 2.

Drl11
,I

B
t,

otE( aSE(e anaa't otE( mas)' amta't otE( e>was),amfa:r


13 " t, OtE( mas)' anaa't

Does he understand't Does he understand Does he understand Does he understand Does he understand me't you't you (pl.)?

3.

them?

LeXlca1
1. 2.

Drl11 C

MetE( was)'.

,,

I unders tand. I understand I understand I understand I understand you. hlm. them. you (pl.).

3. MetE( na se ,


5.

MetE( wop as)'.

LeXlcal 1.
2.

Drl11
,I

D He unders tands. He unders tands me. He understands He understands He understands you. you (pI. )•

otE( aSE(e. OtE( mas)'. otE( was)'. ,, oty mas)'. otE( w0:t;l as)'. Drl11 E maame
N

3.


5.

them.

LeXlca1
1. 2.

t,

H1S mother H1S mother

doesn't knows

know Eng11sh.

~ " Ne maamet, t)' TWll.

TW1. know TW1.

3.

On~

ni maamt
~ ~ ,

ty Tw~~. kt Tw~~.
t, "

He and hlS mother He speaks


5.

On~ h~ maamt

Twl wlth hlS mother.

Me ne me papa ka TWll.

I speak Twl wlth my father.

35

UNIT

4
, 6. Me n~ m~ papa ~
Nkeran

TWI

My father and I know

Ga.

7.

Mf f'iuCf Nkeran. t~ I I
I I

.t

My slster knows

Ga.

10.

8. Mi ... .t t~ Nkeraii. nu~ , 9. M~ ba t~ Nkerafi. ,


I I

My slster Ilves at Accra. My chlld Ilves In Accra. My Chlld lS at Accra.

Me ba WD Nkerafi.

LeXlcal Drll1 F 1.
" WDkat. TWll wo sukuu. ... ' " YesuCf TWll wo sukuu.

,,

2.

,,

They speak TWl at school. They study TWl at school.

3.

4.
5.
7.

, 6. M~ EaEa WD Tamal~. , ,
M~ papa wo flee Ye 1~r~nom

" We Yesu¢ TWll WD :t;rkE(.rgfi. study TWl at Accra. ,, , You have a house at Accra. W9WO fle WD Nkeran. I I , ', You have a house at Tamale. Wqwo fle WD Tamal~.
Your father lS at Tamale. Your father lS at home. Our Wlves are at home. Our Wlves aren't at home. MZ husband lsn't at home.

8.
10.

,.,

wo flee
nn i,
,

9. Ye y~r~n5m

M! kunu nna flee Drlll


G

flee

LeX1Cal 1. 2.

Kasa b~reeoo. Kasa den. Eye

Talk slow. Talk loud. It lS hard. It lS soft. My hand lS tender.

3.

den.
,

4.
5.

" Eye b et ee,


Me' nsa 1e b e t e e ,

36

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

6.

Me nsa -ye tE~nten.

My arm lS long. My car lS long. My car lS no good.

7.
8. 9.
10.

" Me kaa n6' ye ttnten.


I. ... ' _ " Me kaa no ny e,
... Ne EensEtrE(n6' nye.
.."

,,

Ne pensere I n5 da ho , I

,,

H1S penc11 H1S penc11

lS bad. lS 1;Y1ng there.

New words 1n the dr111s. pensere (pens~re) I I I " kaa (kaa) LeX1ca1 Dr111 H 1. 2.

, ..

penc11 automob11e

" MeteI TW11.


MeteI Nkeran. MeteI Nkeran. Mete1-a se e, Mete1-ase. Mete don n8.
I

I speak TW1. I speak Ga. I 11ve at Accra. I understand. I'm sltt1ng down. I hear the bell.
1,"

3.

4.
5.
6.

MeteI me maame asem.


#lOtI

l,

I obe~m;y mother.

8. Mete akofifiu~s~.
I

I'm slttlng In a cha1r.


I am as ;you are.

9.
10.

MeteI see woo MeteI se~ abof~ra.

I am 11ke a Ch11d.

New words 1n dr111s. edon, od~n (pl. n-) I I akor1fiu~(pl. n-) I I I bell cha1r, stool word, saylng, story, talk te ••• asem I

to obey

37

UNIT

4
See

.
sEE
, I

TWI

as, llke, that (as In 'I sald that

.. .

ty

to be the same as, be In the same condltlon or posltlon as

eS<i,

s9

Chlld top, upper part; on, up, upon, over, above ase/l or ase/l or ase/l or ase/l or

11.

/masy/ /nasy/ /m~s~/ /w~s~/ Usually

lS lS lS lS

/lne lImo /lwo

/I me

/I m ' ase#. /I n ' ase#. /I m ' ase#. /I w' ase#.


In the orthography. lS a contractlon of /on~/

ellslon

lS not lndlcated 'wlth'.

12.

/n~/ means

'and' or

/on~ n~/.

/on~ n~ maamt/

lS a contractlon 'learn',

of /on~ n~ n~ maamt/. 'follow the

13.

/sui/ means

'to study',

'lmltate',

example of'.

14.

/Nkerafi/ or Ga lS also the name of the language I I or Ga people. "descended" l.e., they are related languages

of the TWl to each

~k1rafi/ other and

The Ga llve In the reglon of Accra. from the same earller

and Ga are both Kwa languages,

form of the language, "descended"

as French and Spanlsh are both Romance from La tn.n,

15.

/wo/ has a suppletlve

negatlve,

l.e., a dlfferent

word lS

used to form the negatlve. lS the riega ave of /dl/, t

/nnf/

lS the negatlve

of /wo/.

/nnf/
t•

'to use, eat, corrta , last, ex i s t a.n

38

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

16. /abqf~ra/ lS jlab~frahl. /abqf~ra/ lS used only of humans.


/~b&/ may be used for the young of an~als d1m1nut1ve. and also as a

17.

Phrases llke /Tw~i m~/, 'ln Twl' are possess1ve nom1nal

compounds. L1terally, th1S compound lS 'Tw1'S 1ns1des'. Th1S compound noun lS the obJect of the verb /w~/. Mod1f1ers of var10US k1nds may occur between the possess1ve and possessed nouns. See Un1t 6, note 22.

39

UNIT

TWI

Una t

BaSl.C Dxa Logue

aha , Ma- aha.

-Awearl.ness Good afternoon. -BYes Sl.r.


-A-

owura.

, ..

eho (pl. e-nom)


3

there; that; from


I-

Owura Owusu wo ho anaa?

..

,1

Is Mr. Owusu l.n?

-B0- ,

eha (pl. e-n5m)

on~

he, she, l.t here; thl.s Yes, he l.Shere.

1).lp1, owo ha.

£ ..

tuml.

~Ato be able, can, to be well-versed perml.ssl.on l.n, to have

'" hu, h'" Iunu

to see
ham, her, l.t
I-

on~, no

M!tuml. ~hu no anaa? -Bye

',~

I-

Can I see hl.m?

we to call

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

:5

" 1.,Yefyr ew SEn"

What's your name? ('We call you what? ,)


-A-

YEfyre me Kofl Asanbe ,


-8-

'...

My name lS Kofl Asante.


see
,I

kYyre

,
,

to speak, tell, say to show, teach, advlse

,, 'I , '" Meka kYyrE nO' see wCiwo ha. Notes

that I wlll tell hlm you are here.

1.

/owo h~/ usually means 'He, she, or lt lS there'; but If you come lnto or upto a bUlldlng and ask /owo h~?/, you are asklng, 'Is he In?', 'Is he ln the bUlldlng?', or 'Is he around here somewhere? '. The afflrmatlve response wlll probably be /owo hal, 'He lS here'. However, If the person answerlng doesn't know Just where the other person lS, he may answer you /owo h~/, 'He lS around here somewhere'. 2. /owo hal usually means 'He, she, or lt lS here'; but If you come lnto or upto a bUlldlng and ask /owo ha?/, you are asklng,

'Is t.ha h i s place?', 1. e., 'Does he Li.v here?', or 'Does he s e work here?'. The afflrmatlve answer lS /owo hal, 'ThlS lS hlS place'. You may then ask /owo h~?/.

3. After a noun /ha/ and /h~/ can be translated llke demonstratlves, e.g., /ofie hal, house' . 'thlS house', and /ofie h~/, 'that

4.

After /tumi/ the followlng verb lS ln the consecutlve

WhlCh has an /apreflx. The consecutlve form often corresponds to an Engllsh compllmentary lnflnltlve, e.g.,

-i-/

form,

41

UNIT

TWI

/Mrtum{ ~k;/, 'I am able to go'. The lmpllcatlon of thls form lS often 'I am equal to /the task/', or '/1 am sure/ I can do lt It may also be used to ask and /because I have done lt before/'. glve permlsslon, as In thllS dlalogue. The student should avold the use of /tum{/ In the future (See note 9), when addresslng someone because thlS form has a peJoratlve lmpllcatlon that you don't thlnk the other person can do somethlng or that you are darlng the other person to do somethlng, e.g., /W~betUml ye sifi~j.'/Just/ what could you /posslbly/ do~' lmplYlng that the person addressed lS not equal to the sltuatlon belng dlscussed. If followlng a verb not endlng In hlgh tone, the consecutlve preflX lS low. SubJect pronouns are not preflXed to the consecutlve after /tum{/ except In the flrst slngular, and thlS lS not common. See also Unlt 10, note B. The flrst person future of /tum{/ lmplleS that you thlnk you can do somethlng but you aren't certaln because you really don't know or you've never done the partlcular thlng before, e.g., /M~tUml ~k;/, 'I wlll be able to go', or '/1 thlnk maybe/ I can go'. The student ahould avold use of /tum{/ ln the future when talklng of hlmself because he wlll be thought to be boastlng.

5. 5.

/see/, 'that', lS requlred to lntroduce subordlnate clause after verbs of 'saYlng' or 'telllng'. See also Unlt lB, note

6.

Many speakers use /hu/ before an ObJect pronoun and /hun~/ Some use /hu/

elsewhere. Some use these forms lnterchangeably. before an ObJect and /hUn~/ wlthout an obJect.

/fere/ lS jfr£/. /Y£ferew/ lS a contractlon and alternate form of /Y£fere wo/ and lS jY£fr£ w'# or jY£fr£ woJ I I
I I

7. B.

The use of the flrst person plural, l.e., the we-form, often corresponds to Engllsh paSSlve. /Y£f1r£ n~ sen~/, 'What lS lt called~', but llterally 'We call lt what~'. The student wlll also hear /Wu df~ de dtn~/. /edfn/ means 'name', 'reputatlon', and 'fame'. ThlS lS an Akuaplm constructlon.
I

42

BA SIC COURSE

UNIT /be-/, e.g.,

9.
J

The posltlve

ruture

lS marked

by the pref~

/w~beko/, 'you wlll go.' In the flrst person slngular, a contracted form occurs, e.g., /meko/, 'I wlll go'. Verbs stems that are low hlgh or low low In the present are mld hlgh In the future~ Hlgh low stems are hlgh hlgh In the future. Other stems have the same tones In the future as In the present. 10. You can /kt/ a story or somethlng. or 'relate'. /kl kyere/ has the meanI

lng 'to convey lnformatlon'

11. Order of verb ObJects lS the same as Engllsh; the lndlrect obJect (1) preceeds the dlrect (2) e.g., /M~k~ kyerE nff (1) SEe w~wo ha (2)/, 'I wlll tell hun (1) you are here (2)'.
I -

Pattern Drlll A 1. 2.

" Yeferew I
I

3.


5.
6.

s tff.? Yefere m~ stfi'l I , Yefere won s tfi'l I ,, I t Yefere wo kUnu s fi'l I

, Yefere n5 , ,

s tff.?

What's

your name?

Yefere woI YE(rE(s tii'l I ,,n'l 7. Yefere, wo maame~ s tI , 8. Yefere woI papa s tfi'l I , e , 9. Yefere wo ba s tii'l I , e , s 10. Yefere wo ff.~a tfi'l I

What's ha.s names What are your names? What are the~r names? What's your husband's names What's your wlfe's name'l What's your mother's names What's your father's names What's your cha.Ld t s names What's your brother's name'l

LeXlcal Drlll A

1. Yefere me
I

,
,

2.

Ye f'ez-e I
I

Ko f'a ,

My name lS Kofl.

no Ko f' 1.

l. ' 3. Yefere yeT( Kofl ne Afua. Our names are Kofl and Afua. • •
I

l!!E.

name lS Kofl.

4.

'" '1 Yefere won Kofl ne Afua. Thelr names are Kofl and Afua. I

43

UNIT

TWI

5.
6.

, ... YEfyrE ,
A

YEfyrE ml. kunu Kofl. m~ y~r~ 1fu::l.


I. '
I ' , I

l-

MI husband's

name l.SKo f'a ,

MI wlfe's name lS Afua. MI mother's name lS ~ Afua.

7.
8. 9.
10.

YEfyrE me maame 4fu~.

.. , , YefE(rE me papa Kofl.


,
, YEfyrE me ba Ko f'a YEfyrE mt nua Ko f' i ,

My father's name 1S Ko r i My Chlld's name lS Ko f'a , My brother's

_A.

name lS Kofl.

Pattern Drlll B Answer 1. afflrmatlvely.

Owo ho?
I.,

4~fi, owo hOe 2. Owo ha?

,
,

Is he there? Yes, he lS there. Is he here? Yes, he lS here. Is he at home? Yes, he lS at home.

4t}fi,owo ha.

3.

Owo fle?

4~fi,

I.,

owo flee
~

4.
5.
6.

t. Owo f i' e no mu?

Owo fle ha?


1.'_

~n, 4'- , owo, fle

, t. no mu.
,

Is he ln the house? Yes, he lS ln the house. Is he ln thlS house? Yes, he lS ln thlS house. Is he ln that house? Yes, he lS l.n that house.

4~n, owo fle ha. Owo fle ho?


t.,

4~fi, owo fle hOe

44

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

Pattern Drlll C Answer 1. negatlvely.

Owo ho'? D~~bl,

2.

Owo ha?

onnl ho .

,,

Is he In'? No, he lS not around. Is thlS hlS place? No, bha s lsn't hi s place. Is he at home'? No, he lsn't at home. Is he In the house'? No, he lsn't In the house. Does he own thlS house'? No, he doesn't own thlS house. Does he own that house'? No, he doesn't own that house.

D~~bl,

,
,

3.

Owo fle? D~~bl,

onnl ha .

,,
,,

onnl flee


5.
6.

'e ~ Owo f'a n t mu'?


, , ,
Owo fle ha'?

D~~bl, onnl fle n5 ma.

'

' ho'? , Owo f'a,e


D~~bl,

Dft'tbl,onnl fle ha.

,,
,,

onnl fle hOe

Pattern Drlll D 1.
2.

MEko ho . W2bEko
I

,.

, 3. WObEko ,

hOe

,
,

I wlll go there. You wlll go there. You wlll go today. He wlll go t.o day,
,.J

nn e ,

4.
6.

ObEko nn e ,
'

5.
7.

OOEko okyena. YEbEko YEbEko

I,

He wlll go tomorrow. We wlll BO tomorrow. We wlll go agaln. You wlll go agaln.

okyena. blO.

I,,..J

, , 8. W2bEko blO.

45

UNIT

5
, 9. W«bEka Tamale.
10. 11. 12. WabEka Tamaly• WabEka Kumas~ . MEka Kuma se ,

TWI

You wlll go to Tamale. They wlll go to Tamale. They wlll go to Kumasl.


I

'

wlll go to Kumasl.

Pattern Drlll E 1. 2. MEba ha. MEba


,

I ~ mu,
IV

wlll be there.

,~ 3. Metuml ~hu no wa
I

dfn

I wlll come lnto the house.

din
"

mu.

can see hlm In the room prlvately.

4.
5.
6.

Metuml ~hu no wo sukuu.


~ Me ne no b€k~sa wo flee ,, , ... ' ... ' I MEka kr~rE no SEE wQWo
t,

can see hlm at school.

l, ~ " , y u. M;{ ne no bEkasa wo su ku' I Wl 11 talk to hlm at school.

I I

wlll talk to hlm at home. wlll tell hlm rou are at home.

7.

, , , 8. Meka kYyrE no SEE w~bEba


' I

flee

,
,

wlll tell hlm you wlll be here.

10.

, , , 9. Me r~r~ bEba ha. ,


, I

ha.

Mr

wlfe wlll come here.

Ke yyre bEf~rE w~.

My wlfe wlll call rou.

Pattern Drlll F 1.
2.

YEfyrE no SEn';
N teN

, YEfyrE no Ko f'a
N '

What lS hls name'; Hls name lS Kofl.


I I

3. MEka kr~rE Kofl. , ,

wlll tell Kofl. wlll tell them.


6.

MEka kYyrE wa£. Otuml f~rE wan. I Otuml f'eI r e me.

5.

He can phone them. He can call me.

46

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

7.
8.
9.
10.

New words ln the dr-a.Ll.s (pl. a-) 12. In addltlon to syllable lntonatlon, bUlldlng, house, room, apartment tone or statements and ques-

--

Obekd' !sYEtre me. , , Obekd' kyere woo I , Onte woo I Ont~ wase. I

He wlll tell me. He wlll tell you. He doesn't hear you. He doesn't understand you.

tone, Twl also has sentence

1.e., tone used to dlstlngulsh

tlons; compare Engllsh 'John lS here. " and 'John lS here~' In Twl the end of a sentence lS slgnalled by a depresslon of the entlre tone reglster on the last syllable, 1.e., no matter what the phonemlc status of the tone lS, lt wll1 be lower on the absolute scale than a non-flnal tone of the same phoneme. And also the VOlce tralls off to sllence~ In addltlon, a questlon slgnalled by

lntonatl0n (l.e., not by a questlon word), the reglster of the whole sentence lS elevated, and the last syllable falls down to the same level as the end of a statement. ThlS of course means that there lS a longer fallon the last syllable 0~ a questl0n than of a statement because the fall of the questl0n beglns hlgher. For thls reason, lt would probably be helpful to use an lnverted questlon mark /6/ at the beglnnlng of a questl0n marked by lntonatlon. Twl orthography llke Engllsh uses at the end of a sentence a perl0d /./ to mark statement lntonatl0n and a questlon mark /?/ to mark questlon lntonatlon. When there lS a questlon word, e.g., /stu/, statement lntonatlon stll1 wrltten. ThlS manual lS used; however, a questlon mark lS follows the orthography In thlS usage. 'to be at', aren't usually In-

13.

Statlve verbs such as /wo/,

flected for tense. /ba/, 'to come', lS used as a suppletlve future for /wo/. /meba h~/, 'I wl1l come here', also lS used llke Engllsh, 'I wlll be here
J.

Compare Una,t 10,

note 10.

47

UNIT

TWI

Unlt 6 BaSlC Dlalogue

-A1

AgooI I

Is anybody

there'l

-B2 Come In.

-Aep~ (pl. m-) eee 3 Wo mpo mu ee'l


I

JOlnt, bump, knob a questlon marker How are you'l (IYour JOlnts' In, what about? I)

t-

-B-

4
' ... ede~n ,I ye

I 'm f' i.ne ,

-Awhat, what thlng to make, do What are you maklng~

' ede~n na ewooye'l I II

n~a , fufuo
6
0...,...,'

-Bto bOll, cook by bOlllng fufu


I

Meenoa

fufuo. pe

1m maklng

fufu. try to get

to llke, be fond of, want, seek, provlde,

Do you llke fufu'l

48

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 6

pa

-A-

papaapa, papa papa

good, much very good, very much I llke fufu very much.

Mepe fufuo papaapa.

'

ampesle s~fi

-Bampesl to surpass, pass; more

Mepe ampeSle s ~fi fufuo.

than, than I llke ampesl better than fUfu. ('I llke ampesl exceed fufu. ,) Notes

1. /ag~~/ lS a verbal slgnal to let another person know you are approachlng. /amee/ lets you know that lt lS all rlght to enter. If the person lnslde does not wlsh you to enter, he wlll probably answer /d~~bl/, 'no'. /ag~~/ lS also used to ask for the attentlon of a group or crowd. The response /amee/ then means 'Speak, I'm
11S t eru.ng

,•

2.

/0/

followed by /u/ becomes mu#.

but lS

II mpo

/0/,

e.g., /mp~ m~/ lS /mpo mal,

3. Fufu lS bOlled and mashed yams or plantalns WhlCh lS served


wlth soup, /~kwtfi/. Ampesl lS bOlled and dlced yams or plantalns WhlCh lS served wlth a stew, /abom~u/. I

4.

One of the ways of formlng noun plurals


epo

lS changlng t.s

e- to ~

or n-.

,
,

jo i.n

mp0

,
,

jo i.n

eda

day

nna

days

49

UNIT

6
The progresslve ' meyE
-kl. me a

TWI

5.

tenses are formed by lengthenlng


13...

the vowel of

the pronoun.

I make I speak

meeyE'

I'm maklng I'm speaklng

13 ...

mee kl. a

In the regular orthography,

the long vowel 1n the progress1ve

lS not wr-a t.en a.ris d // -re-// lS wr i.t t.en as lS spoken a.n the t j t ea , Akuaplm d1alect, e.g., /meekt/ lS wrltten //mereka//. An Ashantl speaker may also say /mer~kt/ sometlmes. The /r~-/ form lS often used when there lS a noun subJect, but /EE-/ lS more common.

6.

/u/ followed by vowels other than /a/ lS short and sounds somewhat llke /w/, e.g., /m~ EE/.

7.

/EE/, wh i ch 1S // E/I,means

'what about',

'as to', 'conc er-nang'

ln sentences where there lS no verb. Wlth a verb, lt has an adverblal or subord1nat1ng funct~on. See Unlt 9, note 1. AdJectlves are redupl1cated for 1ntenslty, l.e., all or some part of the word lS repeated. For monosyllablc stems, the most common form 1S W1 th a long ma dd.l.» vowel', e.g., /papaapa/, 'very good' • The consecutlve form, /a ... plus slmple stem, lS not used after /vs/» 'I want h im to go. I lS /MepE sEE ~k5/, La t.e -a r Ll.y

8.

9.

i/

'I wan t tha t he go'.


10.

To show degree of comparlson

correspond1ng

to Engllsh

adJectlve plus '-er' or '-est', Twl employs the verb /s~fi/, 'to move along', 'to surpass'. If you ask a natlve speaker of TWl to translate /s~fi/, he wlll probably say lt means 'than'. There are two baslc constructlons uS1ng /s~fi/: (1) /sen/ plus or m1nus an obJect after a preceed1ng verb, and (2) /s~n/ w1th an obJect, as the verb of the sentence. Compare the examples below. /ky~f'i/, 'to surpass', to express comparlson. 'excel', lS also used ln the same way

50

BA SIC COURSE

UNIT 6

Oware. I OwareI s~fi. Ow~reI s~n nf n~a. I

He lS tall. He lS taller. He lS taller than h1S brother. He lS the tallest.

Eye duru. Eye duru Eye duru s tfibuuku no.


' Eye duru ~ ~- - ~ Sen n1 nYlnaa.

,
,

It lS heavy. It lS heav1er.
~,~

It lS heav1er

than the book. of all.

It lS the heav1est

He lS older than h1S brother. ('He surpasses h1S brother a.nage. f) osrn nf fiua n5 W0 adesua ~ mu ,
I I I

He lS better educated than h1S brother. ('He surpasses h1S brother 1n


Lear-na.ng , ,)

New words wareI fiyin~a duru


t"., 0p~nY1n (1 • m- ) P
#tiN

to be tall, long all heavy adult, old person, person of rank; old, aged learn1ng, study, educat10n

... adesua' I I

51

UNIT

TWI

11. /ad~e/, 'thlng', plus a verb stem lS a very productlve type of compound, l.e., It can be used to form many new words, e.g., /ad~e/ plus /su~/, I I 'to learn' glves /adesu~/, I I 'learnlng'.

12. /ye/ has an alternate form /y~/, whlch lS falrly common In Ashantl, but /y~/ wlll not be understood by some speakers outslde the Ashantl area. Lexlcal Drl.l1 A 1.
2.

E:de~n na 00ye~ I I £de~nI na W00Y€? I £de~nI na w~~ye? I £de~nI na m~oye? I £de~nI na wuudl.? I
~
I I

What

l.S she dOl.ng?

What are they dOlng'Z What are you dOl.ng? What are you (pl. ) dOlng? What are you eatl.ng'Z What are they selll.ng? What are you (pl. ) bUYl.ng'Z What lS he dr-a.nka.nge

3.

4.
5.
7.
8.

6. £de~n na

wo o t cnv

£de~nI na m6'ot0? I £de~nI na 00n6'm? I


I

, 9. ede~n na w00hwe'Z
10. £de~nI na woohwehw€? I

What are they lookl.ng aM What are you searchl.ng for?

Lex a ca L Dr-a LL

1.

Afel. na oodl.dl.. I Afel. na WOOdldl. I

2.

',

,
,

Now he lS eatl.ng. Now they are eatl.ng. Now I am eatlng. Now we are eatl.ng. Now I am eatl.ng an orange. Now they are selll.ng palm Wl.ne. tones

3. Afel. na

,
I

4.
5.

Afel. na yeedl.dl.. I ,, ", Afel. na m f l.dl. akutu. I

mf

f.,

da ,

f., 6. Afel. na w00t0n nsa


I

See Unl.t 18 notes as l.nLexlcal Drlll B.

and 6 for dlSCUSSl.on of secondary

52

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

7.
8.
9.
10.

We are no~ bUYlng cassava. Afel na YEEto bankyt. I , , ,.. 0 Afel na o onom s€(garee.t€(. He lS now smoklng a clgarette. , , 0 They are now looklng at the moon. oseram. Af~l na woohwE I

,
I

L Afel na meehwehwE I I

, ..

m~ pEn.

I 1m now looklng for my pen.

New words

dl

to employ, use, eat, spend, consume to eat to buy to sell

ton to

,..

nom

hwehwe I

to drlnk, smoke tobacco

afel, afel I I akutu


I

, ..

to look for, search now orange palm wlne, alcohollC beverage , .. segarete. I I clgarette moon, month
pen

nsi
o ,.. segareete, I I

00ser~ I

(pl. a-)

pen (pen)
Lex i.ca L Drl11 C
_.l. _l.

1. 2.

l. OwareI s~n nl nuaI no.

Ne

h5 ye den sen nl
_.l. t.
I

He lS taller than hlS brother. He 1S stronger than h1S brother. She lS Erettler than her slster.

l.

, 3. Ne h5 yc fe s~n nl "
nuaI n~.
_.l.

nua no.

53

UNIT

TWI


5.

-' Dnoa fufuo s~n nl fl:~1f


no.
I-

She cooks fufu better her slster.

than

DE€: amEesle s~n nl fiulf

.l.

He llkes amEesle hlS brother.

better than

/. 6. DE€: a da da.a da' da, SBn nl


I I

nt.
... .l.

He llkes to eat better hlS brother.

than

nUIf no.

...

7. B.
9.

" DZ e:~ dwurna sEn nl rlU~


\

}..

He works better than hlS brother.

no.

I-

lDwo slka s~n nl

In:u~no.

He has more money brother.

than hlS

Dwo nni e:mas ~n nf n~~

He has more thlngs than hlS brother. He lS blgger than hlS brother.

nt.
10.

Dso s ~n nf

n.a~ no.
I-

New words f€:

slka so

pretty,

nlce, beautlful

gold, money to be blg, large, much; reach, arrlve at use, enJoyment, enJoyment beneflt to

of eatlng a food

thlng, part

54

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

LeX1cal

Dr1ll D My car lS b1gger


I , ,
I

than yours.

2.

Me homa ye foforo wo dee no. I I


, I

s~n

My book lS newer

than yours.

l,

3.

Me homa ye foforo ne dee no.


l,
I

s~~

My book lS newer

than h1S.

l,

4. w~ akormu~
l,
I I

ne dee no. I

l,

ye den s~n -

Your cha1r lS stronger h1S. Your cha1r lS stronger m1ne. H1S house

than

w~ akonnu~

mt
I

dee nee
I .., I

ye den s~fi

than

6.
st.nme deE no. I
",..,

lS more expens1ve

l,

Ng dan
-

s ~ii. y E
8.
s ~ii. mg

ne

than m1ne. H1S house lS more expens1ve

de
I I

b~~ yE de~
I

n5.
0 f'o I

than ours. H1S car costs less than m1ne.

l, N..,k" no b' e aa q~ yE

de e ne.

'" " t.,' Ne kaa no bO~yE I

s~n 10.
'" "

me dec
I

fo I

H1S car costs less than yours.

n~.
l,

Me p~ns~r~
l,

no
l,

yc s~fi

My penc1l

1S better than yours.

mo dec no. I

55

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

New words nh5ma I foforoI I I odin (d&fl) (pl. n- ... ) at:b~o (pl. m-) I
, I

(h5m§:) (pl. 0ng~ma) I

sk1n, h1de; vellum; book, letter; leather new, another house, room, bU1ld1ng pr1ce; stone, P1t, seed

cheap, plenty, plent1ful Lex1cal Dr1ll E 1. 2.


1,... ' t, Odan y1 mu sua s~n I baak~ n5.

Th1S room 1S smaller than that one. Th1S 11ght 1S br1ghter the other one. than

Kan~a y1 hy~r~n baak5 nt.

#,

'#l1li

srn

3.

Okw~n y{ yt: s~n baak~ nt.

Th1S road 1S better than that one.


I

4.
:;J.

Akonnu~'y1 yt: fo s~n


I I

baak~ n5.
C

Th1s cha1r 1S cheaper than that one. Th1S book lS heav1er that one. than

Nht. oma
I

' I, y1 mu yt: duru s~n baak5 n5.

New words 1n dr1lls em-Q: (pl. a-) sua


I

whole,

ent1rety

to be small, few th1S, these one

56

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

hyer~ii I okwiii (pl. n- ) I Lex1.cal Dr1.ll F 1. 2. Nea I Nea I Nea I Nea I EWO h~ na EyE fo'2 I EWO htf na !::3..!:.'l EWO ht na ebcky ez EWO ht na EyE den'l

to penetrate, sh1.ne road, path,

get through, way

Wh1.ch one 1.S cheaper? Wh1.ch one 1.S better? Wh1.ch one w1.ll last longer? Wh1.ch one 1.S harder? Wh1.ch one 1.S stronger?

3.


5.

Nea EWO ht na EWO I ah~od~n?

New words
kye

, ahooden I I
nea I

to last, endure; d1.v1.de separate, share .strength, hard' ) he who, where (l1.terally 'body

that wh1.ch, he whose, how many, how long

how much, Pattern 1. 2. Dr1.ll A Edetn na wqpe I

, ..

Ede~n na wqpt; SBE wohwE? I Ede~n na I Edet..nna I Edetn I


~

, ..

SEE wud1.'l
, I

What What

would would

you l1.ke to eat? you l1.ke to see'l you l1.ke to buy'l you l1.ke to read? you l1.ke to dr1.nk'2

3.

4.
5.

, .. wqpt; SEE , .. wop!::SEE


, , I

woto'2

What would What What would would

w~kef'ikafi?

na wqpe: SEe: won5m? I

, ..

57

UNIT

TWI

Fa ttern Drlll B l. MepE SEE midl akwadu. I


' I

2.

MepE SEE mehwE ,, ~ Unlverslt:;tno.


,I

,• Ghana.

I'd llke to eat a banana. I'd llke to see the Unlverslt;y: of Ghana. some shoe s. I'd llke to bu;y: I'd llke to read a book. I'd llke to drlnk Ealm Wlne.

3.

MepE SEE met8 mpaboa. MepE MepE


5.

-k.GSEE ml an nhoma.
' I

'

1-

'I SEE menom nsa.

1-

New words to count, read kenkan


I I I

_,.."

L.."

to read, (pl. n-)


I

count

akwad~

banana shoe, palr of shoes

13.

/Ed~tfi/ lS a contractlon /bifl/1S

and alternate 'WhlCh',

form of /Ed~E btn/,

'what thlng'.

'what',

'what klnd of'. by the name of some wlth'.

14.

In statements

lf /dl/

lS not followed

food, lt lS necessary because /midl/

to say /dld{/ 'I eat' or

for clarlty and proprlety 'I have sexual relatlons

can mean

15.

/~f~l/ may also occur at the end of an utterance, to a questlon of the response lf /af~l/
I

but ln

response

llke /Edetn na ~8YE?/ you must use /af~l I I lS used. Other

na/ at the beglnnlng

16. 17. 18.

Statlve verbs llke /pE/ and /W8/ have low tone. verbs have hlgh tone ln the present

monosyllablc

tenses.

/segarEete/ I I /8sera~/ I

lS /clgarette//.

lS /8sram/. of /ampes{e/ and /fuf~o/, see Unlt 9.

For explanatlon

58

BASIC COURSE 19.


20.

UNIT 6

IfC(1 a s II fOw//. ladeel

does not ~efe~ to persons. To compare persons, you must use two nouns, e.g., 'My Chlld lS taller than yours', lS ~, ~I / Me ba warft s ~fi w'l ba • 21. Ibaak~ n~1means 'the second one', 'the other one', as opposed to the one prevlously mentloned. 22. Phrases, llke those wlth Im~/, such as lod§fl yf m~/, 'the whole of thlS room', 'thlS room's entlrety', are nomlnal phrases and functlon In a sentence 1n the same manner as any slngle-stem or compound noun. In thlS type of constructl0n, the second noun (WhlCh lndlcates place or locatl0n) lS always hlgh-toned and never loses ltS vowel. For example, Im~/ lS always Im~1 after a phrasal compound, but lt may be after a slngle-stem or compound noun. See also Unlt 4, note 17. PosseSSlon J.n nouns lS markAQ by word order. The flrst noun lS the possessor, the second, the possessed. If the flrst noun has modlflers other than posseSSlve pronouns, they wlll occur between the two nouns, e.g., Int dtn n~ bqo/, 'hlS house's prlce', 'the prlce of hlS house', llterally 'hlS structure that one seed'.

/-mJ

23. /~~ma.1 as II nhoma;/. /rtg~ma/,ISh!JmlI/, Irthema/. va~lants.

1r;h~ma.1has

a number of plurals: These are dlalectal or reglonal

It 18 YmRY IMPORTANT to eat only wlth the RIGHT hand. The left hand lS for tOllet functlons only. Do not hand another person anythlng wlth the left hand. Do not wave at anyone wlth the left hand.

24.

25. Verbs have secondary tones after Ina/.

See Unlt 18, note 5. ConJuntl0ns WhlCh are followed by secondary tones are also followed by 1,1. The 1,1 lS not wrltten In thlS manual, as ln the orthography, Slnce lt lS predlctable.

59

UNIT

TWI

Unlt 7 BaslC Dlalogue

ko, ko
I!>,

-Ato go, go away store


L L~ ,

s'ttoo sqtoo mu okyena.

Meko
,.

0"

I wlll go to the store tomorrow.

-B2

Wookoto II

dE(cn'l

&oN

What are you gOlng to buy?

-AEtduEtn~(pl. n-) food I'm gOlng to buy food.

3 -B-

4
-A-

What klnd of food are you gOlng to buy?

nsuo, nSll enam

,
,

water meat, flesh

nsuornnam

-' Meekoto

, nsuomnam
-B-

I'm gOlng to buy flSh.

eh& (pl. e-nom)

where half, plece; other slde, other part to sell

ort (rt) (pl. ~fu~r:)


,, ton •
60

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

" £htfA: na yt:ton nsuomnam


papa'l -AKlnswel , , e t. ... v, " Klnswel na t:ton nam pa.
e t.... v'

Where

do they sell good flSh'l

Klngsway Klngsway

super market

7 8

sells good flSh.

-B" .d Na nsuomnam boo ye deLl I

Is flsh expenslve?

anaa?

t.

-Ammyry 9 Notes cheap No, flSh lS cheap.

1.

Twl (llke Engllsh) uses /ko/ 'go' as an auxlllary verb (1) for an lmmedlate future and (2) to express purpose. For example /Milkodldi/ can mean elther (1) 'I am gOlng relatlvely soon to eat' or (2) 'I am gOlng for the purpose of eatlng'. The flrst syllable of the verb followlng /ko/ has hlgh tone; the other syllables have the same tone as the present stem. The future /m~d{dl/, 'I wlll eat', lS a proxlmate future. The lmpllcatlon of the proxlmate future lS that the tlme referred to lS more lndeflnlte and/or further In the future than that referred to by an lmmedlate
2.

future. lS

Auxlllary

/ko/ lS always In the progresslve. lS also

/sqtoo/

II

store#,

/lfgulfdidkn/, 'tradlng house',

common. /lfgui/ls 'market', trade', 'deal In'.

'market place', /dl Ifgui/ lS 'to

3.

One of the characterlstlcs of Ashantl TWl lS an /y/ at the end of many words WhlCh end In a nasal In other dlalects, e.g., In pr-arrbe texts both d

/!fdulfn~/. Consequently,

II aduanll and

61

UNIT

7
occur.

TWI

II aduanell w1ll

4.
5.
6.

A schwa (a sound llke the second vowel 1n Engl1sh

'sofa')

usually occurs between an /m/ and an /n/, as 1n /nsuomn~m/. /Eht/ and /Ehtf§/ /Kfnswe1/ lS can be used 1nterchangeably.

II Ka.ngsway#.

Locat1ve nom1nals llke /Eht/ and /Eh~/ have a d1str1but1ve plural. /Ehtnom/ means 'whereabouts', /Eh~nom/, 'hereabouts', 'In th1s general vlc1n1ty'.

7.

8. /0f~/ has an alternate form /Ef&/.


Pattern Dr1ll A 1.

, " ~ ~ MEk0 Sqt00 mu 0kyena.


Med1 fufuo 0kyena.
, 0
, , ~ N

wlll go to the store tomorrow.

2.

I
N

wlll eat fufu tomorrow. wlll bUl bread tomorrow.

3. MEt0

bQrQdQ 0kyena.
, ~ N


5.
6. 7.

ObEba ha 0kyena. " , ObEba ha f1r1 Kumasy


~ '" okyena.

He wlll come here tomorrow. He wlll come here from Kumase tomorrow. They wlll go to Accra tomorrow. They wlll leave from Accra

0kyena.
I8. YEbEt0n ye~ kaa no
, IV '"

~ ..-

tomorrow. We wlll sell our car tomorrow.

~ '" 0kyena.

62

BASI C COURSE

UNIT 7

9.

Yebedl nsuomnam ~kyena.


l,
,J

We wlll eat flSh tomorrow.

10.

€hefa na mehu wq ~kyena~

l,J.,

'-

l,..J

Where wlll you be tomorrow~ ('Where I wlll see you


t omor-r-owr ,)

Pattern Drlll B 1. Meenk~ I


.6' ,

sot~~ mu ~kyena. I

'l,

.oJ

I wlll not go to the store tomorrow.

2.

Meennl Meent~

.t'

fufuo ~kyena. bqrqdq


l,

l,

,J

I wlll not eat fufu tomorrow. I wlll not buy bread tomorrow. He wlll not come here tomorrow. He wlll not come here from Kumase tomorrow.

3.

"


5.
6.

O~mrna ha ~kyena.

"

" O~mrna ha mflrl Kumas~


~kyena. W~~£.!:~ .JkEfran ~kyena.
,.." IV,..

,, ,,
l, ,,.,

~kyena.
,..,

l,

,.J

l,

They wlll not go to Accra tomorrow.

7.
~kyena.
l,
N

They wlll not leave from Accra tomorrow. We won't come to your house

8.
9.

'" 'k - r« YEEmrna wo fle ~ yena.

tomorrow. Moomrna sukuu ~kyena.


l," ,, l,
tJ

You

(pl.) won't be at school

tomorrow. 10. Meentuml


" ,

£k~
,

~kyena.

l,

;v

I won't be able to go tomorrow.

63

UNIT

7
Pattern Drlll C
l.

TWI

Where are they gOlng~ W~:>okosQtoo mu,


, , , I-

, , " 3. Wookoto ~kUtu wo s~too


mu.
I-

2.

They are gOlng to the store. They are gOlng to buy oranges at the store. They are gOlng to buy oranges at Klngsway
IS.

4.
5.
,, " YEto£ nsuomnam papa.
wo Klnswel.
I-A.

They sell good flsh at Klngway


I

v,

s.

,.. " 6. YEto~ nsuomnam papa wo


IikEfrafi.

They sell good flsh at Accra.

7.

Mfflrl 1jkEfr4'fi.

8. Miflrl Kumasy• , ,.. , 9. Metu ~flrl Kumasy• ," , 10.


Metu 1}flrl ha. Pattern Drlll D 1.
... Meekoto' fle wo ,, Koforldu1}.

I am from Accra. I am from Kumasl. I wlll move from Kumasl. I wlll move from here.

I'm gOlng to buy a house at Koforldua • 1'm gOlng to sell a house at

2.

Meekoto£

..,

,..,

Koforldutt·
.w ' .. ,

,,

fle wo

3. Meekoto~ nsuomnam s»-

Ko f'o r-a dua ,

4.
5.

... Meekofa ' nsuomnam t,

Yl.

1'm gOlng to sell these flsh. 1'm gOlng to take these f'a sh , 1'm gOlng to take the mone~ to hlm.

, " l... Meekofa' nl slka am~ no.

64

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

6. Milkogyi slka n8 am~.

-s.

1'm gOlng to leave the money for hlm. l'm go i.ng to leave her at

e_ , , I. 8. Meekos):ra no wo flee , ' I. 9. Meekosttra me EaEa.

home. l'm to V1Slt hlm at home. l'm gOlng to V1Slt my father. 1'm gOlng to see my father.

10.

Milkohu me papa.

I.

New words fa to take, take away, sleze, obtaln, get; up to, as far as; by means of; about, concernlng to leave, qUlt, forsake; away; accompany to V1Slt; Drlll A What lS he readlng? Ookan nhoma aa efa
" I. Ghana hOe I. I. " ,

gytf
e

send

syra

smear, grease

Questlon
1.

and Answer

He lS readlng a book about Ghana.

2.

~detn fUfuo na WOPe~


I

WOpe bQrodye fufuo.

,
"

What klnd of fufu do they llke? They llke plalntaln Where


fufu.

3.

Ehefa na yeto~ mpabqa?

I.

do they sell shoes?

" " Yeto~ mpabqa, wo sqtoo


mu.

,.

They sell shoes at the store.

65

UNIT

TWI

How long wlll he be here? ('He wlll consume days how many? ,) Obedl 0seram W0 ha.
I' I' I'

He wlll spend a month here. Wlll you tell hlm I am here"

5.

WobEka I

I'

...

akyerE nO' SEE I


I'

,,

I'

"1

meW0 ha"

,, }:' _ mEka akyerE,. nO' an, I -+-T, ,I SEE WOW0 ha" I


I' _ I' I'

Yes, I wlll tell hlm you are here.

New Words
o deI e
I'

yam
I'

bor0deE I I
!!!I,. ..

plalntaln,

'European yam'

aa

WhlCh, that, what, where

Questlon and Answer Drlll B 1.


t. ", Edeen aduane'I na WO.pE dl" I I I

MepE akotudle. 2.

What do you llke to eat"


I llke to eat oranges.

('I llke orange-eatlng. ,)

.. " MepE Slnllk0.


Edecn na wop£ nsanom" I I MepE nsina-m.
tr,..
t. ~

What do you llke to do?


I llke to go to the mOVles.

3.

What do you llke to drlnk" I llke to drlnk palm Wlne.

66

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

4.

£de~n na w~pe yE~


I

What

do you llke to do~ to tell falry tales.

M&pE ananSySEmk~.

I llke

('I llke splder story


t e'l La.ng , ,)

5.

8d~En na wqpe kqra~ MepE


.w

,...

What

do you llke to save~ to save money.

slkakQra.

'

..

I llke

Pattern Drlll E

1.

Ka kyyrE no SEE EWO ha.

t.

'

Tell hlm that lt lS here.

2.

'1' Blsa no SEe EWO ha.


Blsa no seE oko anaa. Hwe SEE oko anaa.
, '1 , e HWE SEE owo ha anaa. "1 ,

Ask hlm If lt lS here. Ask hlm If he lS gone. See If he lS gone. See If he lS here. Do you know If he lS here~ Do you know where lt lS~

3.

t.


5.
6.

t.

Wunlm

~'I

seE owo ha anaa~

t.

7. 8.
9.
10.

Wunlm nya owo~ Onni'm nya OWO. Onntm nya ewo. Blsa no nya EWO.

)..

He doesn't know where he lS. He doesn't know where Ask hlm where lt lS. lt lS.

New words

see
nim 9.

'1

anaa

t.

If, whether to know, know how Another common word for bread lS

/b<j>r<j>d<j>/ brodo#. lS II
I

,. '/ Ipaano •
10.
/Miflrl Kum~sy/ lS 'I am from Kumasl', na meeb~/ lS 'I l.e., 'Kumasl 18 my
'.

home town'.

/Miflrf Kum~8y

am conu.ng from Kuma s i,

67

UNIT

TWI

11. If a sUbJect has two verbs, both verbs have the negatlve '~ , , , preflX If the sentence lS negatlve, e.g., /W omma mflrl Kumasy/" 'They won't leave from Kumasl'. 12. The negatlve of the present progresslve lS also the negatlve of the future, e.g., /M~epka/ corresponds to both 'I am not gOlng' and 'I wlll not go'. IM~~nka/ lS ;/Merenko#. I

13.

/ syra/ lS ;/ sra#,

14.

Flrst person plural lmpersonal often corresponds to Engllsh thlrd person plural lmpersonal, e.g., /Yeta~/, 'they sell'.

Compare Pattern Drlll C, sentences

and 6.

/ma/, 'to glve', 'cause', when the second verb wlth a sUbJect often corresponds to an Engllsh lndlrect obJect or benefactlve pr-epo t i.ona phrase, l.e., It translates 'to', 'for', 'on the sa L
, behalf of', 'for the bene f'a of'. For example, 1M-eekofa'.t. na sa.ka t amt n~/, 'I'm gOlng to take hlm the money', 'I'm gOlng to take

15.

the money to glve /It/ to hlm'.

16. You can only /syra/, 'to VlSlt', a person.


look at', 'observe' a bUlldlng or place. 'VlSlt', a person, bUlldlng, or place.

You /hwe/,

'to

You can /hu/,

'to see',

17.

Verbs wlthout obJects are often redupllcated

for clarlty or

speclflcatlon, e.g., /k~fi/ lS 'to read', 'count'; /k~fi ~~ma/ lS 'to read a book'; /kefikifi/wlthout an obJect usually means 'to read'. See Questlon and Answer Drlll A, sentence one.

18. An Engllsh noun followed by a preposltlonal


In Twl to a noun plus a subordlnate Ghana h~/, Ilterally 'a book about Ghana',

phrase corresponds t. -" , clause, e.g., Inhoma aa efa

'a book whlch lS about Ghana',

'book whlch takes hold of Ghana's self'.

68

BASIC COURSE

UNIT 7

19. Habltual deslres or preferences are expressed by the slmple stem followlng /pc/, fto 11kef• Stems endlng In /-1/ have an alternate form endlng In /-le/, e.g., /dl dle/.
N

20.

In Ghanlan folklore

the splder lS a wl1y, crafty fellow who

nevertheless 21.

often gets the worse of a bargaln or sltuatlon. In some compounds,

Compound nouns are formed ln several ways.

the flrst noun has the same tone(s) as ln lso1atlon and the second noun has the same tone(s) as when followlng a possesslve pronoun. Compare Unlt 6 note 22. In other compounds, the flrst noun has all low tones and the second the same tone(s) as ln lso1atl0ns e.g., /ns~o~ n~m/ lS /nsuomn~m/.
22. /

~a/ a s //a/.

69

UNIT

TWI

Unlt

BaSlC Dlalogue

yary sa

,.

-Ato be lll, slck to cure physlclan no wo ho anaa?


~

Oyarysafqo

".

,.

Is the doctor

In?

-B2

4~fi,

~,

oyarysafqo

,.

no wo ho.

,.

Yes, the doctor lS In.

Wamannyc?

,.

-cmessage, What's come? mlSSlon Why have you the matter?

('Your mlsslon? ,)

Mente", a.po ,
I

-AI don't feel well.

,. cya e ,. ya?

-cpaln, ache; grlef, Where do you hurt? dlstress ( 'Your where

W~ h~ft na cye wq

half then lS your paln? ,)

etl, etlrl 6

,.

,.

-A( pl. ~-) head My head hurts. the lnsldes of the body My stomach hurts too.

Mi t{ Mi

ye me ya.
,. "

y~~ ~sq ye me ya.


70

y~m

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

-0-

gyy

to take, rece1ve, take 1nternally med1c1ne


,

accept,

Gy1 Etduru Y1. Notes

'

Take th1S med1c1ne.

/-f~;)/, Wh1Ch lS II -fo;/, corresponds to Eng.l i sh (1) '-er' Wh1Ch forms agent nouns from verbs, e.g., /;)yarysafq;)/,
1.

'd1seasecurer r, 'phys1c1an', and (2) '-er' or '-an' mean irig 'the people of', 'the a.nha i t.an s of', e.g., /!jk~raiifq;)/,'the people b t of Accra'. /-fq;)/ occurs (a) w1th both the slngular and plural of some stems, (b) w1th only the plural of some stems, hav1ng /-nf/ w1th the slngular, and (c) w1th both the slngular and plural, hav1ng /-nf/ as an alternate form w1th the slngular. Th1S type of noun has an /;)- 0-/ pref1x 1n the slngular and an /aEt-/
N N

pref~ 1n the plural. Somet1mes /n-/ also occurs w1th the plural. /;)yarysaf~;)/, 'doctor', has an alternate form /;)yaryS~n1/. /ayarysaf~;)/, 'doctors', has an alternate form /iiyarysafq;)/. /;)safq;)/,'dancer' and /os~n1/, /asafq;)/• 2. /€ya/ lS lI€yaw;.1. Ashant1 d1alect usually has a f1nal vowel 'warr10r', both have the plural

where Akuap1m

d1alect has a vowel plus

I-wi,

as 1n /€yaw/.

/GY1 Etduru yf/ lS II Gye aduru Y1/1. Vowel harmony agreement w1ll not be footnoted after th1s un1t. Rev1ew vowel harmony rules 1n Un1t 2.

3.

71

UNIT

8 LeXlcal Drlll A
1. 2.

TWI

Mi t i. yE me ya. ", , Mi ~ yE me ya. Me nsa yE me ya. Me nan yE me ya.


0
I. , -' ,

,,

'"

My head hurts. My stomach hurts. My hand hurts. My foot hurts. My back hurts. My shoulder hurts.

3.


5•

~N'

M~kYl"",' me ya. yE

me ya. Pattern Drlll A


1. 2.

WamanneE.
I

What's your problem~ What's hlS problem~ What's your (pl.) problem~
t

NamannEfE.
-

3.

t." • MoamanneE.
I ,

4· 5.

amannEfe.
, t

What's What's

thelr problem? our problem?

Yamarine I e ,

New Words nsa

hand, arm foot, leg the back, rear; back, behlnd

~"" E:nan

Pattern Drlll B 1.
2.

Mehu. Mehu no.


~

r see It.

3. MeehwxhwE: no.

4. 5.

Meehw~hwE
~

'"

'" o;zarxsaf2° n~.


, I

r see hlm.
r'm lookln~ for hlm. r'm looklng for the doctor. Go see the doctor.

~ Kohu oyar~saf<f0 no.

12

BASIC COURSE

UNIT

6.

Kohu no SEE °EE blrlbl


a da ,

l.

'

Go see If he wants thlns to eat. Ask ham If he wants thlng to eat.

some-

7.
8. 9.
10.

'I Elsa no sEE OpE blrlbl

~dl. Elsa no SEE ne h~fk na EZE ne za. HWE sEE ne h~fk na EyE ne ya. HWE SEE °EE £h6'ma ato.
' I

,,

some-

Ask hlm where he hurts.

,
I

See where he hurts.

',

See If he wants book.

to buy a

New word somethlng, anythlng, nothlng (In negatlve sentences) Questlon 1. and Answer
, I

Drl11 A
'

Oyarysaf~o

no wo ha?

l.

Is the doctor

In? lsn't In.

nnl ha. Where woo;> Oyarysaf~o


, I , I

,,

No, the doctor

lS the doctor?

no wo hOe
, ,
,

l.

The doctor hosEl tal.

18

at the

ayarysabya

3.

Oyaresaf~o ania?

no wo ob~af~o

l.

Does the doctor have an asslstant? Yes, he has an aSslstant.

73

UNIT

TWI

, '" £de~n ntl na wuukohu I ,, It. d~kEtta no"


Milkohu
AI

Why are you gOlng to see the doc tor" I'm gOlng to see the doctor because I am slck. Do you want me to glve you a shot? ('You llke that I

It.',

, It. d~kEtta eSl~p~

5.

SEE me;y:ar~. , , , , IN' WC(PE SEE meb~ wc( paanEtE"

strlke you needle" ,)

paanEtE.

Yes, I want you to glve ~e a shot. Are the chlldren playlng In

6.
" It. It. ' sukuudan no mu"

D~~bl, w~~g~rC( w~
" It. It. ' sUkuudan no ~k;Y:l.

the school bUlldlng? No, they are plaYlng behlnd the school bUlldlng. Are the chlldren plaYlng at

7.
ag~rC(bE(ah~"
, I ,

the playground" Yes, the;y: are pla;Y:lngat

ag~rC(bEtah~"

the playground.
It.

8.

OyarEtsafC(~no rlkohu abC(fara no anaa" 4~n, obehu no.


1,'_ '
N

It.

Is the doctor gOlng to see the


ch i.Ldz

It.

It.

Yes, he wlll see hlm. How are you today"

9.
Me ho ;Y:E nnE SEn nnEra.
10.
t" ,_

I feel better toda;y: than I dld ;y:esterda;y:.

Wubedl

Medl ~sxram.

nna ahe w~ ha"

It.

'

How long wlll you be here? I wlll be here a month.

74

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT 8

New words bya (b~a) (pl. m-) ayarysabya


, I

place; manner
)

(pl. ~-

hospltal, offlce to help

cllnlc, doctor's

dvkyta

,,

helper, doctor because,

asslstant

on account

of

bv

to strlke, hlt, come In contact wlth; break, destroy; shoot (pI. m-)

paanye

bo , • •paany e gvrC(, goru

needle to glve a shot of medlclne to play place to play, playground therefore, why because

ntl
I

ede~n nt{ LeXlcal


1.

Drl11 B

'I Mepe See wC( na wC(ka

..,

I want YOU to drlve the car.

" kaa n ~ •
2.

Mepe

'I See vn~ na vkl

I want HIM to drlve the car.

" kaa n ~ •
t, 3. WVpe See vno na vka
' I

t,

The;y want HIM to drlve the car.

" kaa n ~ •


5.

' WVpe &!:!omak;Y!l:rew.


Yepe phomakyyrew.
..,

.....

They 11ke to wrlte letters. We 11ke to wrlte letters.

75

UNIT

TWI

6.

" t. YEp E kaaka.

We 11ke to drlve a car. He 11kes to drlve a car.

7.
8. 9.
10.

kaaka.

,..

t.

Op E kaa aka. ', , ~ MepE kaa aka.

', ,

He wants a car to drlve. I want a car to drlve. I want some fufu to eat.

MepE fufuo !tdl.

, , ..

LeXlcal Drl11 C
l. 2.

Ml turn ka 10ry• Mentuml

~..
,,

t.

..

I am able to drlve a car.

3.

Mentuml , £k0 nn e , W0ntuml l(k0 nn e , , ,, " , W0ntuml nt!l: mfl ha. w2 °lar!l:f2°n5 nt~ wc( mfl ha.

'"

Ifk&

', 10ry•

I can't drlve a car. I can't go todal. Thel can't go today. They can't hear The patlent from here. The patlent read. wants somethlng to
lOU


5.
6.

from here.

can't hear you

7.
8•
0 ' It.' Obar!l:mano pE blrlbl

The man wants somethlng read.

to

Ifkenklfn.

l,

~N

9.

Obar~m~ n5 b~hu 0baa n~ ;)kl~na.


, , I t.

The man wl11 see the woman tomorrow. The nurse wl11 see the woman tomorrow.

10.

Alar!l:f20hWEf20 no

t... ' t. t. benu 0baa no 0kyena.

New words ayar~fC(0 (pl. a-) hwefC(0 (pl. a-) patlent, caretaker, slck person, supervlsor lnvalld

16

BASIC

COURSE

UNIT

ayarefoa
I I

hW8foa
I

(pl. fi-)

nurse man, male

cbaa

(pl. m-)

woman,

female

Pattern Drlll C 1. Ta

2.

Ta no. T~ en5. To b i

Buy 1t. Buy h1m. Buy that one. Buy some. Buy 1t for me.

3.


5.

T~ ma me.

Pattern Dr1ll D 1. 2. Mipe b1. I want some. G1ve me some G1ve 1t to me. G1ve me that one. Buy that one for me.

Ma me b1. Fa rna me. Fa en~ ma me. Ta eno rna me.

3.

4.
5.

...

l.

4.
' /-m,
5.

ObJect pronouns

have low tone unless

emphat1c.

Slngular verb suff1xes

obJect pronouns the1r consonant,

at conversat1on l.e.,

, -w, -n'I •

Ime,

w~,

nol

speed somet1mes

occur w1th only

may be low-toned

e.g.,

Ib~~/,
,

'place', corresponds 'place where

to Eng La ah '-ry', place where, curu.ng 1S done',


, I

layar~s~b~a/,

'hosp1tal', 'fate', 'dest1ny',

'cl1n1c '.

Ib~a/,

also means manner,

as 1n /nk~rab~a/,

77

UNIT

TWI

'manner of death', from /kera/,


I

'to take leave of',

'bld farewell

to' •

6.

/gnr~/

lS usually

II goru#.

In Akuap im lt lS /goru/. an emphatlc The

7.

To make the pronoun subJect preflx, are:

subJect of a verb emphatlc, the verb. e.g., /nn~ na nk~/,

pronoun plus /na/ comes before pronoun emphatlc pronouns

The verb stlll has lts

'HE drlves'.

me
wq

,
1,'

yer;.

m~

nno

wnr;. en~ It lS followed slngular by /na/ and corre-

eno If a noun subJect the verb has a pronoun spondlng lS emphatlc, noun.

I,

subJect preflx,

or plural

to the emphatlc hwefqn/ lS

8.
9.

/ayar~fqn /nbar~m~/

also occurs as /ayaryhwefqn/. lS often /nba~m~/. /nbar~m~/, nouns, e.g., 'male

II nbarlmall and

'the male of the specles', ch i.Ld " 10. note ,son' . lS /nb~a/

lS used to form compound

/ofiu~barym~/, 'male slbllng',

'brother', and /nbabarym~/,

/nbaa/

In Akuaplm

dlalect.

/nbaa/

lS also used In Compare

compound nouns and means

'the female of the spe cae s',

9.

78

BA SIC COURSE Unlt 9 BaslC Dlalogue

UNIT

-A1

o"
I

Wakodldl

anaa"

Have you gone to eat yet"

-B2

I haven't

eaten yet.

-A3 -BLe~'s go to my house. Where shall we go to eat"' (Where should we go to eat~)

4 5

M(a) yEnko mi flee I

£detfi na wctP sEE WUdl nnE" C; I

,,

-A-

What would you llke to eat today",

nnEra 6

-B-

Midll ampeSle nnEra.

yesterday
I

Entl mea) yEnnl fufuo nn e .

entl

ate ampesl yesterday. therefore

So let's eat fufu today.

M(a) yenko afel. I I

,,,

-ALet's go now.

-ByooI I 9

Yoo, mea) yEnko. I II 79

yes, O.K. O.K. , let's go.

UNIT

TWI

Notes 1. The trans1t1ve pos1t1ve past tense 1S marked by the doub11ng (or lengthen1ng) of the last vowel, sem1-vowel, or nasal, e.g., /huu/, 'saw' (from /hli/) /ta~~/, 'chased' (from /ta~/), /bu~~/, , 'opened', 'und1d' (from /bu~/), /t~~/, 'sold' (from /to~/), /kyer£~/, 'wrote' (from /kyer£11/). The tone of the pos1t1ve past tense end1ng 1S low, and the
I I

tone of f1nal stem vowel 1S hlgh except as g1ven below. (1) Monosyllab1c stems have a low stem 1f followed by an obJect. (2) Verbs of mot1on and /hli/, 'to see', have a low stem vowel w1th and w1thout a follow1ng ObJect. An 1ntrans1t1ve suff1x /-y/ 1S added 1f there 1S no verb obJect, and a temporal adverb1al suff1x /-e/ also occurs after /-y/. But some verbs never occur w1thout an expressed obJe~t. /-ye/ 1S a freely alternat1ng form of /-y/ for some (espec1ally younger) speakers, but many speakers use /-ye/ only 1n temporal clauses, e.g., /mebaay/, 'I came', and /mebaaye/, 'when I came', are kept d1st1nct by many persons, but other use both forms 1n e1ther sense. /-y/ 1S /-e/ after lax vowels and /-1/ after tense vowels, e.g., jmebae#, 'I come', and #mebaee/, 'when I came'. (3) See Un1t 18, note 5 for past tense secondary tones. W1th verbs stems end1ng 1n nasals and sem1vowels, some (espec1ally younger) speakers have a long nasal or semlvowel 1n the 1ntrans1t1ve Just as 1n the trans1t1ve, but many speakers have /-ey/ and /-eye/ w1th th1s type of stem, e.g., /met;n~y/, 'I I I I bought 1t (or some), /met~n~ye/, 'when I bought 1t (or some) '. These erida.nga are //-ee/ and /-eee/. It 1S often necessary to supply 1mpersonal pronoun ObJects ariEng La ah when t.r-aris r.ng T'W'1 La t r.nt.r-ansrve verbs, such as, 'at at 'one', 'some', 'any', or 'none', e.g., /met~0Y/, 'I bought at ! , or 'I bought some'. 2. perfect tense 1S marked by a low-tone /aa-I pref1X to the f1rst verb of a subJect plus h1gh tone on the I Succeed1ng syllables of the verb flrst syllable of the verb. The aff1rmat1ve
t,

80

BASIC COURSE are all hlgh except the last WhlCh lS low.

UNI T But In the second

,.. , .. person, a contracted form usually occurs, e.g., / wuakodldl '/ lS I ,.., /; replaced by / wakodldl/ and lS j)Woakodldl!. Contracted forms occur I In other persons, but there lS no tone change In the flrst and thlrd persons. In the orthography, the uncontracted form lS used
except In the flrst person slngular. , , yako /lyeako// we have gone mako foako// I have gone , .. ' you have gone mako.. !moako! you have gone wako //woako! , , wako jlwoako/ they have gone wako jwako// he, she, It "{Compare note 15) has gone
a ko

jakoj

It has gone

ak~ /foko//

they have gone plus a low-tone

3.

The past negatlve

lS the perfect afflrmatlve

nasal before the stem, e.g., /minnld{iye/, whlch lS /mlnnldlleA1. means 'I haven't eaten' and NOT 'I dldn't eat.' The perfect negatlve lS the past afflrmatlve plus a low-tone nasal before the stem, e.g., /ma~k~/ means I dldn't go', and NOT 'I haven't gone'. The perfect negatlve has all the transltlve and lntransltlve See note 1. forms parallel to those of the past afflrmatlve.

4.

The subJunctlve afflrmatlve lS marked by a low-tone homorganlc nasal pref~ plus a hlgh tone on the flrst syllable of the Succeedlng syllables have thelr slmple-stem tones, e.g., 'we should go eat'. Let's go. Let's eat. Let's go home. Let 's go now. Let's stop. Let's Slt down. Let hlm go. Let them go. Let the man go. Have hlm go. Have them go.

verb.

/ye~~did{/,

Pattern Drlll A , 1. M(a-) yenko. , 2. M(a-) yennldl.


I

3.


5.
6.
1. 2.

M(a-) le~o , flee , M(a) lellko t:}fe a,

,,

..

le iffi' llna. 0 ' M(a:) yentera- a see


M(a)
I I

Pattern Drlll B

Ma nO' nko. I

" Ma won nko. Ma obar~ma n~ nk~.

81

UNIT

TWI

4· Ma 5. Ma 6. Ma
0c-

abaa nO' :t;J.ka. ab9fara akwadaa


,

Let the woman

go.

no :t;J.ka. n8 :t;J.k~.

t.

'

Let the Chlld go. Let the lnfant go.

Pattern Drlll C 1.
2.
t. c.rnma " , yel]lka. t. ', ,

Let's not go. Let's not eat. Let's not go home. Let's not go now. Let's not stop. Let's not Sl t down.
,

emma YEIlIUdl. emma YEl(ko flee ~ "", emma yeI).kactfel.


t. ",

3.


5.
6.

~ ,~,., , emma yermYlna.

~ " Emma YEntyra ~ asy•

Pattern 1.
2.

Drlll D Don't let hlm go.

t. t. ' Emma no :Q.ka.

Don't let them go. Emma abaryma


t. ,
It.'

3.

no l(ka.

Don't

let the man go. go.

4.
5.
6.

t. ' t. ' Emma abaa no nka.

Don't let the woman


'

Emma ab9fara

t.

no :t;J.ka.

t.

Don't Don't

let the Chlld go. let the lnfant go.

t. ' Emmat. akwadaa ' no nka.

New words to stop, stand, rest, come to a standlng or uprlght posltlon to Slt, Ilve, stay

82

BASI C COURSE

UNIT

Pattern Drlll E
1. 2.

Meko

Nkerafi rmEra. I I

..

Obaa ha nnEra •

..

..

I went to Accra yesterday. He came here yesterday.

3. Mrhuu no rmEra •

..

4.
5.
6.

Ye t o o

mEab~a rmEra.

..

..

I saw hlm yesterday. We bought some shoes yesterday. You (pl.) looked for hlm· yesterday.

Th' , Mo W~hWEE.. nO' nnEra.


WQto£g £kQko rmEra.
.. .. .. I ..

You sold some chlckens yesterday. They gave me the money

8.

Med~ blrlbl b~rEE w~ rmEra.

..

.. ..

yesterday . I brought you somethlng yesterday. I brought hlm yesterday. I sent hlm away yesterday.

..

9.
10.

Med~ no baa nnEra.


N

..

Mede nO' koo rmEra.

..

Pattern Drlll F
1. 2.

nnEra . Ma!(ko likE(r4'fi Wamma ha nnEra .

..

..

.. ..
..

3. Ma~11

.. .. nO' nnEra.
..

I dldn't go to Accra yesterday. He dldn't come here yesterday.


5.
6.

<::')

Yanto mEab~a nnEra.


#, .. ..

..

I dldn't see hlm yesterday. We dldn't buy any shoes yesterday.

<::')

Manhwehw6

nO' nnEra.

You (pl.) dldn't look for hlM yesterday.

<::')

Wanto~

......

"

9kQko rmEra.

..

You dldn't sell any chlckens yesterday.

83

UNIT

TWI

7.

~amlnli mt slk~ n6' nn€ra.

They dldn't glve me the money yesterday. I dldn't brlng you anythlng yesterday.
I dldn't brlng hlm yesterday. I dldn't send hlm away

" Mamfa blrlbl arom~r€ w2


nn€ra.

, ,

10.

', 9. Mamfa nO' aroma nn€ra. , , ',

Mamfa nO' a£!E~ nn€ra.

yesterday. New words


a ko ko
, I

(pI.

11-)

chlcken to have, own; cause, make, force to brlng somethlng person to a

dy

dy ••• ba dye ••
ko

to brlng a person to send away, cause to go

Pattern Drlll G 1. Mak~ s9t~~ mu ded~w.

I have already gone to the store.

2.

M~kohu

tv

d~k~ta ded~w.

..

I've already gone to see the doctor.

3.

I've already eaten breakfast. He has already eaten lunch. Wadl anwummereaduane
~ 'V " ",


5.

They have already eaten dlnner .

84