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Stress Analysis & Pressure Vessels
Lent Term 2005
Dr. Clemens Kaminski
Telephone: +44 1223 763135
Email: clemens_kaminski@cheng.cam.ac.uk URL: http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/laser/
Synopsis 1 Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes
1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres Compressive failure. Euler buckling. Vacuum vessels Tensile failure. Stress Stress Concentration & Cracking
2
3D stress and strain
Elasticity and StrainsYoung's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio Bulk and Shear Moduli Hoop, Longitudinal and Volumetric Strains Strain Energy. Overfilling of Pressure Vessels Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Effect in cylindrical Pressure Vessels TwoMaterial Structures
3
Thermal Effects
3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3
4
Torsion.
Shear Stresses in Shafts  τ/r = T/J = Gθ/L Thin Walled Shafts Thin Walled Pressure Vessel subject to Torque
5
Two Dimensional Stress Analysis
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2
Nomenclature and Sign Convention for Stresses Mohr's Circle for Stresses Worked Examples Application of Mohr's Circle to Three Dimensional Systems Tresca's Criterion. The Stress Hexagon Von Mises' Failure Criterion. The Stress Ellipse
6
Bulk Failure Criteria
7
Two Dimensional Strain Analysis
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4
Direct and Shear Strains Mohr's Circle for Strains Measurement of Strain  Strain Gauges Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses
Supporting Materials
There is one Examples paper supporting these lectures. Two good textbooks for further explanation, worked examples and exercises are Mechanics of Materials (1997) Gere & Timoshenko, publ. ITP [ISBN 0534934293] Mechanics of Solids (1989) Fenner, publ. Blackwell [ISBN 0632020180] This material was taught in the CET I (Old Regulations) Structures lecture unit and was examined in CET I (OR) Paper IV Section 1. There are consequently a large number of old Tripos questions in existence, which are of the appropriate standard. From 1999 onwards the course was taught in CET1, paper 5. Chapters 7 and 8 in Gere and Timoshenko contain a large number of example problems and questions.
Nomenclature
The following symbols will be used as consistently as possible in the lectures. E G I J R t T
α ε γ η ν σ τ
Young’s modulus Shear modulus second moment of area polar moment of area radius thickness
τορθυε
thermal expansivity linear strain shear strain angle Poisson’s ratio Normal stress Shear stress
A pressure vessel near you!
Ongoing Example
We shall refer back to this example of a typical pressure vessel on several occasions. Distillation column
2m
P = 7 bara carbon steel t = 5 mm 18 m
1. Introduction to Pressure Vessels and Failure Modes
Pressure vessels are very often • spherical (e.g. LPG storage tanks) • cylindrical (e.g. liquid storage tanks) • cylindrical shells with hemispherical ends (e.g. distillation columns) Such vessels fail when the stress state somewhere in the wall material exceeds some failure criterion. It is thus important to be able to be able to understand and quantify (resolve) stresses in solids. This unit will concentrate on the application of stress analysis to bulk failure in thin walled vessels only, where (i) the vessel self weight can be neglected and (ii) the thickness of the material is much smaller than the dimensions of the vessel (D » t).
1.1. Stresses in Cylinders and Spheres
Consider a cylindrical pressure vessel
L
External diameter D
internal gauge pressure P
r L h
wall thickness, t
The hydrostatic pressure causes stresses in three dimensions. 1. Longitudinal stress (axial) σL 2. Radial stress σr 3. Hoop stress σh all are normal stresses. SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM 1
σ
r
σ
r L h L
σ
h
a, The longitudinal stress σL
P
σ
L
Force equilibrium
π D2 P = π D t σL 4
if P > 0, then σ L is tensile σL =
b, The hoop stress σh
P
PD 4t
σ
h
σ
P
h
P
Force balance, D L P = 2 σ h L t σh =
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM 2
PD 2t
c, Radial stress
σ σ
r
r
varies from P on inner surface to 0 on the outer face
σr ≈ o ( P ) σh , σL ≈ P ( ). 2t
thin walled, so D >> t so σ h , σ L >> σ r so neglect σ r
Compare terms
D
d, The spherical pressure vessel
P
σ
h
P
π D2 P = σh π D t 4 PD σh = 4t
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
3
1.2. Compressive Failure: – Bulk Yielding & Buckling – Vacuum Vessels
Consider an unpressurised cylindrical column subjected to a single load W. Bulk failure will occur when the normal compressive stress exceeds a yield criterion, e.g.
W
σ bulk =
W = σY πDt
Compressive stresses can cause failure due to buckling (bending instability). The critical load for the onset of buckling is given by Euler's analysis. A full explanation is given in the texts, and the basic results are summarised in the Structures Tables. A column or strut of length L supported at one end will buckle if
π 2 EI W= 2 L
Consider a cylindrical column. I = πR3t so the compressive stress required to cause buckling is
σ buckle
or
W π 2 EπD3t 1 π 2 ED 2 = = ⋅ = 2 πDt 8L πDt 8L2
σ buckle
π2 E = 2 8( L D)
4
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
where L/D is a slenderness ratio. The mode of failure thus depends on the geometry:
σ stress
Euler buckling locus σ
y
Bulk yield
Short L /D ratio
Long
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
5
Vacuum vessels. Cylindrical pressure vessels subject to external pressure are subject to compressive hoop stresses
∆PD 2t Consider a length L of vessel , the compressive hoop force is given by, σh =
∆P D L 2 If this force is large enough it will cause buckling. σh L t =
length
Treat the vessel as an encastered beam of length πD and breadth L
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
6
Buckling occurs when Force W given by.
4π 2 EI W= (π D) 2 b t3 L t3 = 12 12 ∆P D L 4π 2 EI = 2 (π D )2 ∆p buckle 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎝D⎠
3
I=
=
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
7
1.3. Tensile Failure: Stress Concentration & Cracking
Consider the rod in the Figure below subject to a tensile load. The stress distribution across the rod a long distance away from the change in cross section (XX) will be uniform, but near XX the stress distribution is complex.
D
X d W
X
There is a concentration of stress at the rod surface below XX and this value should thus be considered when we consider failure mechanisms. The ratio of the maximum local stress to the mean (or apparent) stress is described by a stress concentration factor K
K=
σ max σ mean
The values of K for many geometries are available in the literature, including that of cracks. The mechanism of fast fracture involves the concentration of tensile stresses at a crack root, and gives the failure criterion for a crack of length a
σ πa = Kc
where Kc is the material fracture toughness. Tensile stresses can thus cause failure due to bulk yielding or due to cracking.
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM 8
σ crack =
Kc 1 ⋅ √ π √a
stress
failure locus
length of crack. a
SAPV LT 2005 CFK, MRM
9
2.
3D stress and strain
2.1. Elasticity and Yield
Many materials obey Hooke's law
σ = Eε
σ
σ
E
ε
applied stress (Pa) Young's modulus (Pa) strain ()
failure
Yield Stress
ε
Elastic Limit
up to a limit, known as the yield stress (stress axis) or the elastic limit (strain axis). Below these limits, deformation is reversible and the material eventually returns to its original shape. Above these limits, the material behaviour depends on its nature. Consider a sample of material subjected to a tensile force F.
2 F F 1 3
An increase in length (axis 1) will be accompanied by a decrease in dimensions 2 and 3. Hooke's Law
ε1 = (σ1 ≡ F / A ) / E
10
The strain in the perpendicular directions 2,3 are given by
ε2 = −ν
σ1
E
;ε3 = − ν
σ1
E
where ν is the Poisson ratio for that material. These effects are additive, so for three mutually perpendicular stresses σ1, σ2, σ3;
σ2 σ1 σ3
Giving
ε1 =
σ1
E
− E
νσ 2
E + −
− E
νσ 3
E −
ε2 = − ε3 = −
νσ1 νσ1
E
σ2
νσ 3
E
νσ 2
E
+
σ3
E
Values of the material constants in the Data Book give orders of magnitudes of these parameters for different materials;
Material Steel Aluminum alloy Brass
E (x109 N/m2) 210 70 105
ν 0.30 0.33 0.35
11
2.2 Bulk and Shear Moduli
These material properties describe how a material responds to an applied stress (bulk modulus, K) or shear (shear modulus, G). The bulk modulus is defined as
Puniform = − Kε v
i.e. the volumetric strain resulting from the application of a uniform pressure. In the case of a pressure causing expansion
so
σ1 = σ 2 = σ 3 = −P
−P 1 [σ1 − νσ 2 − νσ 3 ] = E (1 − 2 ν ) E −3P ε v = ε1 + ε 2 + ε 3 = (1− 2 ν ) E E K= 3(1 − 2 ν )
ε1 = ε 2 = ε 3 =
For steel, E = 210 kN/mm2, ν = 0.3, giving K = 175 kN/mm2 For water, K = 2.2 kN/mm2 For a perfect gas, K = P (1 bara, 104 kN/mm2) Shear Modulus definition
τ = Gγ
γ  shear strain
12
2.3. Hoop, longitudinal and volumetric strains (micro or millistrain)
Fractional increase in dimension: ε L – length ε h – circumference ε rr – wall thickness (a) Cylindrical vessel:
Longitudinal strain
εL =
σL
E

υσ h
E

υσ r
E
=
PD δL (1  2υ ) = 4tE L
Hoop strain:
εh =
σn
E

υσ L
E
=
δR δD PD = (2  υ ) = R D 4tE
radial strain
εr =
δt 3PDυ 1 [σ r  υσ h  υσ L ] =  4ET = t E
[fractional increase in wall thickness is negative!]
13
[ONGOING EXAMPLE]:
εL =
= =
1 (σ L  υσ n ) E
1 60 x 10 6  (0.3)120 x 10 6 9 210 x 10
1.14 x 104 ≡ 0.114 millistrain
[
]
ε h = 0.486 millistrain ε r = 0.257 millistrain Thus: pressurise the vessel to 6 bar: L and D increase: t decreases Volume expansion
Cylindrical volume:
⎛ πD 2 ⎞ Vo = ⎜ o ⎟ Lo ⎝ 4 ⎠
V =
(original)
2
New volume
π
(Do 4
2
+ δD) (Lo + δL)
L π Do = o [1 + ε h ]2 [1 + ε L ] 4
δV Define volumetric strain ε v = V V  Vo 2 ∴ εv = = (1 + ε h ) ( + ε L )  1 1 Vo
2 = 1 + 2ε h + ε h (1 + ε L )  1
2 2 ε v = 2 ε h + ε L + ε h + 2ε h ε L + ε L ε n
(
)
Magnitude inspection:
14
ε max (steel) =
σy E
190 x 10 −3 = ∴ small 9 = 0.905 x 10 210 x 10
εv = 2ε h + ε L
6
Ignoring second order terms, (b)
Spherical volume:
εh =
so
1 [σ h  υσ L  υσ r ] = PD (1  υ ) 4Et E
3 π (Do + δD )3  Do εv = 6 πD 3 6 o
{
}
= (1 + εh)3 – 1 ≈ 3εh + 0(ε2) (c) General result
εv = ε1 + ε2 + ε3 εii are the strains in any three mutually perpendicular directions. {Continued example} – cylinder εL = 0.114 mstrain εn = 0.486 mstrain εrr = 0.257 mstrain εv = 2εn + ε L ∴ new volume = Vo (1 + εv) Increase in volume =
π D2 L
4
ε v = 56.55 x 1.086 x 103
= 61 Litres
Volume of steelo = πDLt = 0.377 m3 εv for steel = εL + εh + εrr = 0.343 mstrains increase in volume of steel
= 0.129 L Strain energy – measure of work done
Consider an elastic material for which F = k x
15
Work done in expanding δx dW = Fδx
F
work done
A=area
L 0 x
Work done in extending to x1
2 kx1 1 x1 x1 w = ∫o Fdx = ∫o k x dx = = Fx 2 2 1 1
Sample subject to stress σ increased from 0 to σ1: Extension Force:
x1 = Lo ε1 ⎫ AL oε 1σ1 ⎬ W = F1 = Aσ 1 ⎭ 2
(no direction here)
ALo ε1σ 1 2(ALo )
Strain energy, U = work done per unit volume of material, U =
⇒ U = Al o ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ε σ ⎜ 2 ⎝ Al o ⎠ 1 1
U =
ε1σ 1
2
=
σ 12
2E
1 [ε1σ1 + ε2σ2 + ε3σ3] 2 υσ 3 υσ 2 σ etc Now ε1 = 1 E E E
In a 3D system, U =
So U =
1 σ 12 + σ 2 2 + σ 32  2ν (σ 1σ 2 + σ 2σ 3 + σ 3σ 1) 2E
2
2
[
]
Consider a uniform pressure applied: σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = P
3P P ∴U = (1  2 υ) = 2E 2K
energy stored in system (per unit vol.
16
For a given P, U stored is proportional to 1/K → so pressure test using liquids rather than gases. {Ongoing Example} P – 6 barg
.
δV = 61 x 103 m3
increase in volume of pressure vessel
Increasing the pressure compresses the contents – normally test with water.
6 x 10 ∆P =  0.273 mstrains = − ∆V water? ε v (water ) = − K 2.2 x 109
∴ decrease in volume of water = Vo (0.273) = 15.4 x 10 –3 m3 Thus we can add more water: Extra space = 61 + 15.4 (L) = 76.4 L water
extra space
5
p=0
p=6
17
3. Thermal Effects 3.1. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Definition: coefficient of thermal expansion ε = αL∆T Linear Volume
Coefficient of thermal volume expansion εv = αT Steel: αL = 11 x 106 K1 reactor ∆T = 10oC ∆T = 500oC ∴ εL = 11 105
εL = 5.5 millistrains (!)
Consider a steel bar mounted between rigid supports which exert stress σ
Heat σ σ
ε = α∆T 
σ E
so σ = Eα∆T (i.e., non buckling)
If rigid: ε = 0 ⇒ steel:
σ = 210 x 109 x 11 x 106 ∆T = 2.3 x 106 ∆T σy = 190 MPa: failure if ∆T > 82.6 K
18
{Example}: steam main, installed at 10oC, to contain 6 bar steam (140oC) if ends are rigid, σ = 300 MPa→ failure. ∴ must install expansion bends.
3.2. Temperature effects in cylindrical pressure vessels
. steel construction L = 3 m . full of water t = 3 mm D=1m Initially un pressurised – full of water: increase temp. by ∆T: pressure rises to Vessel P.
The Vessel
Wall stresses (tensile)
σL =
PD = 83.3 P 4t
σn = 2σL = 166.7 P
19
Strain (volume)
εL =
σ L νσ h + α l ∆T E E
υ E α
=
0.3
= 210 x 10 ⎬ = 11 x 10 −6 ⎪ ⎭
9⎪
⎫
εL = 1.585 x 1010 P + 11 x 106 ∆ T
Similarly → εh = 6.75 x 1010 P + 11 10 –6 ∆T εv = εL + 2εn = 15.08 x 1010 P + 33 x 106 ∆T = vessel vol. Strain vessel expands due to temp and pressure change.
The Contents, (water)
Expands Contracts
due to T due to P
increase increase:
εv, H2O = αv∆T – P/K ∴
H2O = αv = 60 x 106 K1
εv = 60 x 106 ∆T – 4.55 x 1010 P
Since vessel remains full on increasing ∆T: εv (H20) = εv (vessel) Equating → P = 13750 ∆T per 10°C increase in temp. σn = 166.7 P = 2.29 x 106 ∆T ∆σn = 22.9 Mpa per 10°C rise in Temperature
20
pressure, rise of 1.37 bar Now
∴
Failure does not need a large temperature increase. Very large stress changes due to temperature fluctuations.
MORAL: Always leave a space in a liquid vessel.
(εv, gas = αv∆T – P/K)
21
3.3. Two material structures
Beware, different materials with different thermal expansivities can cause difficulties.
{Example} Where there is benefit. The Bimetallic strip controllers a= 4 mm (2 + 2 mm) b= 10 mm temperature
a
d
Cu Fe L = 100mm b
Heat by ∆T:
Cu expands more than Fe so the strip will bend: it will
bend in an arc as all sections are identical.
22
Cu Fe
The different thermal expansions, set up shearing forces in the strip, which create a bending moment. If we apply a sagging bending moment of equal [: opposite] magnitude, we will obtain a straight beam and
Cu Fe
F F
can then calculate the shearing forces [and hence the BM]. Shearing force F compressive in Cu Tensile in Fe
Equating strains:
α cu ∆T 
F F = α Fe ∆T + bdE cu bdE Fe
So
1 ⎫ F ⎧ 1 + ⎨ ⎬ = (α cu  α Fe ) ∆T bd ⎩ E cu E Fe ⎭
23
bd = 2 x 105 m2 Ecu = 109 GPa EFe = 210 GPa
αcu 17 x 106 k1 αFe = 11 x 106 K1 ∆T = 30°C
F = 387 N (significant force)
F acts through the centroid of each section so BM = F./(d/2) = 0.774 Nm
Use data book to work out deflection.
ML2 δ= 2 EI
This is the principle of the bimetallic strip.
24
Consider a steel rod mounted in a upper tube – spacer Analysis – relevant to Heat Exchangers
Cu
Fe
assembled at room temperature
.
increase ∆T : copper expands more than steel, so will generate a TENSILE stress in the steel and a compressive stress in the copper.
Data: αcu > αFe
Balance forces: Tensile force in steel Stress in steel “ “ copper
FFe = Fcu = F
= F/AFe = σFe = F/Acu = σcu
εFE = αFe ∆T + σFe/EFe
Steel strain:
(no transvere forces)
= αFe∆T + F/EFeAFe copper strain
εcu = αcu∆T – F/EcuAcu
25
Strains EQUAL:
⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⇒ F⎢ + = Acu Ecu ⎥ Fe Fe ⎣ A4E 4 444⎦ 1 42 3
sum of strengths
(α cu  α Fe ) ∆T
∆d
So you can work out stresses and strains in a system.
26
4. Torsion – Twisting – Shear stresses
4.1. Shear stresses in shafts –τ/r = T/J = G θ/L
Consider a rod subject to twisting: Definition : shear strain γ ≡ change in angle that was originally Π/2 Consider three points that define a right angle and more then: Shear strain
A
γ = γ1 + γ2
[RADIANS]
γ1
A
B
C
B
γ
2 C
Hooke’s Law
τ=Gγ
G – shear modulus =
E 2(1 + υ)
27
Now consider a rod subject to an applied torque, T.
T
2r
Hold one end and rotate other by angle θ
.
B
B
θ
B B
γ
L
Plane ABO was originally to the XX axis Plane ABO is now inclined at angle γ to the axis: tan γ ≈ γ = Shear stress involved τ = Gγ =
rθ L
Grθ L
28
Torque required to cause twisting:
τ
r dr
τ
.δT = τ 2Π r.δr r
T = ∫ τ 2Π r 2 dr
A
or
2
∫ τ r.dA
A
Grθ ⎫ ⎧ ⎨τ = ⎬ ⎩ L ⎭
T
= =
Gθ L
∫r
dA
so
Gθ {J} L
T Gθ τ = = J L r
cf
M E σ = = I R y
DEFN: J ≡ polar second moment of area
29
Consider a rod of circular section:
J = ∫ 2π .r r 2 dr =
o R
π
2
R4
y r x
J=
Now r2 = x2 + y2 It can be shown that J = Ixx + Iyy
πD 4
32
[perpendicular axis than]→ see Fenner
this gives an easy way to evaluate Ixx or Iyy in symmetrical geometrics:
Ixx = Iyy = πD4/64 (rod)
30
Rectangular rod:
d
b
I xx
I yy
bd 3 ⎫ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎬ 3⎪ db = ⎪ 12 ⎭
J=
bd 2 b +d2 12
[
]
31
Example: steel rod as a drive shaft
D = 25 mm L = 1.5 m Failure when τ = τy = 95 MPa G = 81 GPa
τ max
rmax
Now
J=
πD 4
32
T 95 x 10 6 ⎫ = = ⎪ J 0.0125 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ so T = 291 Nm = 383 x 10 −8 m 4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭
Gθ T 81 x 109 θ 9 = ⇒ 7.6 x 10 = ⇒ From L J 1.5
(
)
θ = 0.141 rad = 8.1°
Say shaft rotates at 1450 rpm: power
= = =
Tω
291 x
2π x 1450 60
45 kW
32
4.2. Thin walled shafts
(same Eqns apply) Consider a bracket joining two Ex. Shafts:
T = 291 Nm
D min
0.025m
What is the minimum value of D for connector? rmax = D/2 J = (π/32){D4 – 0.0254}
τy
rmax
6 32 ⎛ T ⎞ 95 x 10 x 2 291 =⎜ ⎟⇒ = 4 D π D  0.0254 ⎝J⎠
(
)
D4 – 0.0254 = 6.24 x 105 D
D ≥ 4.15 cm
33
4.3. Thin walled pressure vessel subject to torque
τ T = r J
now cylinder
J=
[(D + 2t ) 32
π π
3
4
 D4
]
+ ...
=
[8D t + 24 D t 32
π
4
D 3t
2 2
]
≈
so
τ2
D
=
4T πD 3 t
τ=
2T πD 2 t
34
CET 1, SAPV
5. Components of Stress/ Mohr’s Circle 5.1 Definitions Scalars
tensor of rank 0
Vectors
tensors of rank 1
r r F = ma hence : F1 = ma1 F2 = ma2 F3 = ma3 or : Fi = mai
Tensors of rank 2
pi = ∑ Tij q j
j =1 3
i, j = 1,2,3
or : p1 = T11q1 + T12 q2 + T13 q3 p2 = T21q1 + T22 q2 + T23 q3 p3 = T31q1 + T32 q2 + T33 q3
Axis transformations
The choice of axes in the description of an engineering problem is arbitrary (as long as you choose orthogonal sets of axes!). Obviously the physics of the problem must not depend on the choice of axis. For example, whether a pressure vessel will explode can not depend on how we set up our coordinate axes to describe the stresses acting on the
34
CET 1, SAPV vessel. However it is clear that the components of the stress tensor will be different going from one set of coordinates xi to another xi’. How do we transform one set of coordinate axes onto another, keeping the same origin?
x1 x1 ' a11 x2 ' a21 x3 ' a31
x2 a12 a22 a32
x3 a13 a23 a33
... where aij are the direction cosines Forward transformation:
xi ' = ∑ aij x j
j =1
3
“New in terms of Old”
Reverse transformation:
xi = ∑ a ji x j
j =1
3
“Old in terms of New”
We always have to do summations in coordinate transformation and it is conventional to drop the summation signs and therefore these equations are simply written as:
xi ' = aij x j xi = a ji x j
35
CET 1, SAPV
Tensor transformation
How will the components of a tensor change when we go from one coordinate system to another? I.e. if we have a situation where
pi = ∑ Tij q j = Tij q j (in short form)
j
where Tij is the tensor in the old coordinate frame xi, how do we find the corresponding tensor Tij’ in the new coordinate frame xi’, such that: pi ' = ∑ Tij ' q j ' = Tij ' q j ' (in short form)
j
We can find this from a series of sequential coordinate transformations:
p' ← p ← q ← q'
Hence: pi ' = aik pk
pk = Tkl ql
ql = a jl q j '
Thus we have:
36
CET 1, SAPV
pi ' = aik Tkl a jl q j '
= aik a jl Tkl q j '
= Tij ' q j '
For example:
Tij ' = ai1 a jl T1l + ai 2 a jl T2l + ai 3 a jl T3l = ai1 a j1 T11 + ai1 a j 2 T12 + ai1 a j 3 T13 + ai 2 a j1 T21 + ai 2 a j 2 T22 + ai 2 a j 3 T23 + ai 3 a j1 T31 + ai 3 a j 2 T32 + ai 3 a j 3 T33 Note that there is a difference between a transformation matrix and a 2nd rank tensor: They are both matrices containing 9 elements (constants) but:
Symmetrical Tensors:
Tij=Tji
37
CET 1, SAPV
38
CET 1, SAPV We can always transform a second rank tensor which is symmetrical:
Tij → Tij '
such that : ⎡T1 0 Tij ' = ⎢ 0 T2 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎣ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ T3 ⎥ ⎦
Consequence? Consider:
pi = Tij q j then p1 = T1 q1 , p2 = T2 q2 , p3 = T3 q3
The diagonal T1, T2, T3 is called the PRINCIPAL AXIS. If T1, T2, T3 are stresses, then these are called PRINCIPAL STRESSES.
39
CET 1, SAPV
Mohr’s circle
Consider an elementary cuboid with edges parallel to the coordinate directions x,y,z.
y Fxy y face Fx x z face z x face Fxz Fxx
The faces on this cuboid are named according to the directions of their normals. There are thus two xfaces, one facing greater values of x, as shown in Figure 1 and one facing lesser values of x (not shown in the Figure). On the xface there will be some force Fx. Since the cuboid is of infinitesimal size, the force on the opposite side will not differ significantly. The force Fx can be divided into its components parallel to the coordinate directions, Fxx, Fxy, Fxz. Dividing by the area of the xface gives the stresses on the xplane:
σ xx τ xy τ xz
It is traditional to write normal stresses as σ and shear stresses as τ.
Similarly, on the yface:
τ yx , σ yy , τ yz
40
CET 1, SAPV and on the zface we have:
τ zx , τ zy , σ zz
There are therefore 9 components of stress;
⎡σ xx τ xy ⎢ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy ⎢ τ zx τ zy ⎣
τ xz ⎤ ⎥ τ yz ⎥ σ zz ⎥ ⎦
Note that the first subscript refers to the face on which the stress acts and the second subscript refers to the direction in which the associated force acts.
σ yy
y x
τyx τ xy σ xx
σ xx τ xy τ yx σ yy
But for non accelerating bodies (or infinitesimally small cuboids):
and therefore:
⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎡σ xx τ xy τ xz ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ σ ij = ⎢τ yx σ yy τ yz ⎥ = ⎢τ xy σ yy τ yz ⎥ ⎢ τ zx τ zy σ zz ⎥ ⎢ τ xz τ yz σ zz ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Hence σij is symmetric! 41
CET 1, SAPV This means that there must be some magic coordinate frame in which all the stresses are normal stresses (principal stresses) and in which the off diagonal stresses (=shear stresses) are 0. So if, in a given situation we find this frame we can apply all our stress strain relations that we have set up in the previous lectures (which assumed there were only normal stresses acting). Consider a cylindrical vessel subject to shear, and normal stresses (σh, σl, σr). We are usually interested in shears and stresses which lie in the plane defined by the vessel walls.
Is there a transformation about zz which will result in a shear Would really like to transform into a coordinate frame such that all components in the xi’ :
σ ij
→
σ ij '
So stress tensor is symmetric 2nd rank tensor. Imagine we are in the coordinate frame xi where we only have principal stresses:
0⎤ ⎡σ 1 0 σ ij = ⎢ 0 σ 2 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 σ3⎥ ⎦ ⎣
Transform to a new coordinate frame xi’ by rotatoin about the x3 axis in the original coordinate frame (this would be, in our example, zaxis)
42
CET 1, SAPV The transformation matrix is then:
⎛ a11 ⎜ aij = ⎜ a21 ⎜a ⎝ 31 a12 a22 a32 a13 ⎞ ⎛ cos θ ⎟ ⎜ a23 ⎟ = ⎜ − sin θ a33 ⎟ ⎜ 0 ⎠ ⎝ sin θ cosθ 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 1⎟ ⎠
Then:
σ ij ' = aik a jl σ kl
⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝
sin θ cosθ 0
0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ 1 ⎟⎜ 0 ⎠⎝
− sin θ cosθ 0
0 ⎞ ⎡σ 1 0 0⎤ ⎟⎢ 0⎟ 0 σ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎟⎢ 0 1 ⎠⎣ 0 σ3⎥ ⎦
⎡ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣
σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ
0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ σ3⎥ ⎦
43
CET 1, SAPV
Hence:
σ 11 ' = σ 1 cos 2 θ + σ 2 sin 2 θ
1 1 = (σ 1 + σ 1 ) − (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2
σ 22 ' = σ 1 sin 2 θ + σ 2 cos 2 θ
= 1 1 (σ 1 + σ 1 ) + (σ 2 − σ 1 ) cos 2θ 2 2
σ 12 ' = −σ 1 cosθ sin θ + σ 2 cosθ sin θ
= 1 (σ 2 − σ 1 ) sin 2θ 2
44
Yield conditions. Tresca and Von Mises
Mohrs circle in three dimensions.
y
z
x
Shear stresses τ
y,z plane x, y plane
normal stresses
σ
x,z plane
1
We can draw Mohrs circles for each principal plane.
6. BULK FAILURE CRITERIA
Materials fail when the largest stress exceeds a critical value. Normally we test a material in simple tension:
P
P
σy =
Pyield A
τ
σ = σ
σ σ=σ
This material fails under the stress combination (σy, 0, 0) τmax = 0.5 σ y = 95 Mpa for steel We wish to establish if a material will fail if it is subject to a stress combination (σ1, σ2, σ3) or (σn, σL, τ)
2
Failure depends on the nature of the material: Two important criteria (i) (ii) Tresca’s failure criterion: brittle materials Cast iron: concrete: ceramics Von Mises’ criterion: ductile materials Mild steel + copper
6.1. Tresca’s Failure Criterion; The Stress Hexagon (Brittle)
A material fails when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value, the yield shear stress τy. Case (i) Material subject to simple compression:
σ1
σ1
Principal stresses (σ1, 0, 0) τ
σ
3
M.C: mc passes through (σ1,0), (σ1,0) , ( 0,0)
σ1
τ max
σ1
τmax = σ1/2 occurs along plane at 45° to σ1 Similarly for tensile test. Case (ii) σ2 < 0 < σ1 τ
σ
σ σ2 σ
1
σ1  σ2
M.C. Fails when
2
= τ max = τy =
σy
2
i.e., when
σ1  σ2 = σy material will not fail.
4
Lets do an easy example.
5
6.2 Von Mises’ Failure Criterion; The stress ellipse (ductile materials)
Tresca’s criterion does not work well for ductile materials. Early hypothesis – material fails when its strain energy exceeds a critical value (can’t be true as no failure occurs under uniform compression). Von Mises’: failure when strain energy due to distortion, UD, exceeds a critical value. UD = difference in strain energy (U) due of a compressive stress C equal to the mean of the principal stresses.
C =
1 [σ + σ2 + σ 3 ] 3 1
1 ⎧ 2 ⎨σ + 2E ⎩ 1 1 = (σ1 12G
UD =
{
1 ⎫ 2 σ 2 + σ 3 + 2υ (σ1σ 2 + σ 2 σ 3 + σ 3σ 1 ) 3C 2 + 6υC 2 ⎬ 2 ⎭ 2E
 σ 2 ) + (σ 2  σ 3 ) + (σ 3  σ1 )
2
2
2
}
[
]
M.C. τ
σ3
σ
σ σ
1
2
6
Tresca → failure when max (τI) ≥ τy) Von Mises → failure when root mean square of {τa, τb, τc} ≥ critical value
τ
σ σ
y
Compare with (σy, σ, σ) . simple tensile test – failure Failure if
1 (σ1  σ2 )2 + (σ2 + σ3 )2 + (σ3  σ1 )2 > 1 σ2 + 02 + σ2 y y 12G 12G
{
}
{
}
{(σ  σ )
1 2
2
+ (σ 2 + σ3 ) + (σ3  σ1 ) > 2σ 2 y
2 2
}
7
8
Lets do a simple example.
9
Example Tresca's Failure Criterion
The same pipe as in the first example (D = 0.2 m, t' = 0.005 m) is subject to an internal pressure of 50 barg. What torque can it support?
Calculate stresses
PD = 50 N / mm 2 4t' PD σh = = 100 N / mm 2 2t'
σL =
and σ3 = σr ≈0
Mohr's Circle
(100,τ) σ
τ 50 s (50,−τ)
100
Circle construction
s = 75 N/mm2 t = √(252+τ2)
The principal stresses
σ1,2 = s ± t
Thus σ2 may be positive (case A) or negative (case B). Case A occurs if τ is small.
10
Case A (100,τ)
τ σ2 50 s (50,−τ)
Case B
τ
σ3
100 σ1
(100,τ)
2β
σ2
σ3
50
s
100
σ1
σ
(50,−τ)
We do not know whether the Mohr's circle for this case follows Case A or B; determine which case applies by trial and error. Case A; 'minor' principal stress is positive (σ2 > 0) Thus failure when
τ max = 1 σ y = 105N / mm 2 2
11
For Case A;
τ max =
⇒ ⇒
Giving
σ1
2
=
1 2
[75 +
(252 + τ 2 )]
τ 2 = 135 − 252
τ = 132.7N / mm 2 σ1 = 210 N / mm2 ; σ 2 = −60 N / mm2
Case B; We now have τmax as the radius of the original Mohr's circle linking our stress data. Thus
τ max = 252 + τ 2 = 105 ⇒
Principal stresses
τ = 101.98N / mm2
σ1,2 = 75 ± 105
⇒ σ 1 = 180N / mm2 ; σ 2 = −30N / mm 2
Thus Case B applies and the yield stress is 101.98 N/mm2. The torque required to cause failure is
T = πD2 t' τ / 2 = 32kNm
Failure will occur along a plane at angle β anticlockwise from the y (hoop) direction;
tan(2 λ ) =
102 ⇒ 2 λ = 76.23° ; 75 2β = 90  2λ ⇒ β = 6.9°
12
Example
More of Von Mises Failure Criterion
From our second Tresca Example
σ h = 100N / mm 2 σ L = 50 N / mm 2 σ r ≈ 0 N / mm2
What torque will cause failure if the yield stress for steel is 210 N/mm2? Mohr's Circle
(100,τ) σ
τ 50 s (50,−τ)
100
Giving
σ1 = s + t = 75 + 252 + τ 2
σ 2 = s − t = 75 − 252 + τ 2 σ3 = 0
1 {(σ1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ1 ) 2 } 12G
At failure
UD =
13
Or
(σ1 − σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 2 − σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 3 − σ1 ) 2 = ( σ y )2 + (0)2 + (0 − σ y ) 2 4t 2 + (s − t)2 + (s + t) 2 = 2σ 2 y
2 2s2 + 6t 2 = 2 σ y
s 2 + 3t 2 = σ 2 y ⇒ 752 + 3(252 + τ 2 ) = 210 2
The tube can thus support a torque of
τ = 110 N / mm 2
πD2 t' τ T= = 35kNm 2
which is larger than the value of 32 kNm given by Tresca's criterion  in this case, Tresca is more conservative.
14
7. Strains 7.1. Direct and Shear Strains
Consider a vector of length lx lying along the xaxis as shown in Figure 1. Let it be subjected to a small strain, so that, if the left hand end is fixed the right hand end will undergo a small displacement δx. This need not be in the xdirection and so will have components δxx in the xdirection and δxy in the ydirection.
γ1 lx We can define strains εxx and εxy by,
δx δxx
δxy Figure 1
ε xx =
δ xx ; lx
ε xy =
δ xy lx
εxx is the direct strain, i.e. the fractional increase in length in the direction of the original vector. εxy represents rotation of the vector through the small angle γ1 where,
γ1 ≅ tan γ1 = δ xy l x + δ xx ≅ δ xy lx = ε xy
Thus in the limit as δx→ 0, γ1 → εxy. Similarly we can define strains εyy and εyx = γ2 by,
ε yy =
δ yy
ly
;
ε yx =
δ yx
ly
1
δ yx
Figure 2
δ
yy
δy ly
γ
2
as in Figure 2.
γ1
lx
Or, in general terms:
ε ij =
δ ij
li
;
where i, j = 1,2,3
The ENGINEERING SHEAR STRAIN is defined as the change in an angle relative to a set of axes originally at 90°. In particular γxy is the change in the angle between lines which were originally in the x and ydirections. Thus, in our example (Figure 2 above):
γ xy = ( γ 1 + γ 2 ) = ε xy + ε yx or γ xy = −(γ 1 + γ 2 )
depending on sign convention.
τ yx
A
τ
xy
A'
B
C
Figure 3a
B'
C'
Figure 3b
Positive values of the shear stresses τxy and τyx act on an element as shown in Figure 3a and these cause distortion as in Figure 3b. Thus it is sensible to take γxy as +ve when the angle ABC decreases. Thus
2
γ xy = +( γ 1 + γ 2 )
Or, in general terms:
γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji )
and since
τij = τji,
we have
γij = γji.
Note that the TENSOR SHEAR STRAINS are given by the averaged sum of shear strains:
1 1 1 1 γ ij = (ε ij + ε ji ) = (γ 1 + γ 2 ) = γ ji 2 2 2 2
7.2 Mohr’s Circle for Strains
The strain tensor can now be written as:
⎡ ⎢ ε 11 ⎢1 ε ij = ⎢ y 21 ⎢2 ⎢1 y ⎢ 2 31 ⎣
1 y12 2
ε 22
1 y32 2
1 ⎤ ⎡ y13 ε 11 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢1 1 y 23 ⎥ = ⎢ y12 2 ⎥ ⎢2 1 ε 33 ⎥ ⎢ y13 ⎥ ⎣2 ⎦ ⎢
1 y12 2
ε 22
1 y 23 2
1 ⎤ y13 2 ⎥ ⎥ 1 y 23 ⎥ 2 ⎥ ε 33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
where the diagonal elements are the stretches or tensile strains and the off diagonal elements are the tensor shear strains. Thus our strain tensor is symmetrical, and:
3
ε ij = ε ji
This means there must be a coordinate transformation, such that:
ε ij '
→
ε ij
such that : ⎡ε 1 0 ε ij = ⎢ 0 ε 2 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎣ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦
we only have principal (=longitudinal) strains! Exactly analogous to our discussion for the transformation of the stress tensor we find this from:
ε ij ' = aik a jl ε kl
⎛ cos θ ⎜ = ⎜ − sin θ ⎜ 0 ⎝
sin θ cosθ 0
0 ⎞⎛ cos θ ⎟⎜ 0 ⎟⎜ sin θ 1 ⎟⎜ 0 ⎠⎝
− sin θ cosθ 0
0 ⎞ ⎡ε1 0 ⎟ 0 ⎟⎢ 0 ε 2 ⎢ 1 ⎟⎢ 0 0 ⎠⎣
0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦
⎡ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ ⎢ = ⎢− ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ⎢ 0 ⎣
And hence:
ε 1 cosθ sin θ + ε 2 cosθ sin θ ε 1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ
0
0⎤ ⎥ 0⎥ ε3 ⎥ ⎦
4
ε11 ' = ε1 cos 2 θ + ε 2 sin 2 θ
1 1 = (ε1 + ε1 ) − (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2
ε 22 ' = ε1 sin 2 θ + ε 2 cos 2 θ
= 1 1 (ε1 + ε1 ) + (ε 2 − ε1 ) cos 2θ 2 2
ε12 ' = γ 12 ' = −ε1 cos θ sin θ + ε 2 cos θ sin θ
1 (ε 2 − ε1 ) sin 2θ 2
1 2
=
For which we can draw a Mohr’s circle in the usual manner:
5
Note, however, that on this occasion we plot half the shear strain against the direct strain. This stems from the fact that the engineering shear strains differs from the tensorial shear strains by a factor of 2 as as discussed.
7.3 Measurement of Stress and Strain  Strain Gauges
It is difficult to measure internal stresses. Strains, at least those on a surface, are easy to measure. • Glue a piece of wire on to a surface • Strain in wire = strain in material • As the length of the wire increases, its radius decreases so its electrical resistance increases and can be readily measured. In practice, multiple wire assemblies are used in strain gauges, to measure direct strains.
strain gauge _ _ _
45° 120°
Strain rosettes are employed to obtain three measurements: 7.3.1 45° Strain Rosette Three direct strains are measured
ε C
εB θ εA principal strain
ε1
Mohr’s circle for strains gives
6
γ/2 B 2θ εB εC
A
ε εA
C
radius t so we can write
circle, centre s,
ε A = s + t cos(2θ ) ε B = s + t cos(2θ + 90) = s − t sin( 2θ ) ε C = s − t cos(2θ )
3 equations in 3 unknowns Using strain gauges we can find the directions of Principal strains
γ/2
ε
7
7.4 Hooke’s Law for Shear Stresses
St. Venant’s Principle states that the principal axes of stress and strain are coincident. Consider a 2D element subject to pure shear (τxy = τyx = τo).
y
τo τo
The Mohr’s circle for stresses is
Y Q
τo
P
τo
x
X
where P and Q are principal stress axes and
σ pp = σ1 = τ o σ qq = σ 2 = − τ o τ pq = τ qp = 0
Since the principal stress and strain axes are coincident,
ε pp = ε1 =
=
σ1
E
−
νσ 2
E
τo
E
(1+ ν )
σ2
E
−
ε qq = ε 2 =
νσ1
E
=
−τ o (1+ ν ) E
and the Mohr’s circle for strain is thus
γ/2
Y Q P
the Mohr’s circle shows that
ε
εqq
εpp
X (0,−γ ) xy
ε xx = 0 − γ xy
2
=−
τo
E
(1 + ν )
8
So pure shear causes the shear strain γ τo
τo
γ/2
γ/2
γ=
2τ o (1+ ν ) E
But by definition τo = Gγ so
and
G=
τo E = γ 2(1+ ν )
Use St Venants principal to work out principal stress values from a knowledge of principal strains. Two Mohrs circles, strain and stress.
ε1 =
σ1
E
−
E
νσ 2
E
+
−
−
E
νσ 3
E
−
ε2 = −
ε3 = −
νσ1
νσ1
E
σ2
νσ 3
E
νσ 2
E
+
σ3
E
9
So using strain gauges you can work out magnitudes of principal strains. You can then work out magnitudes of principal stresses. Using Tresca or Von Mises you can then work out whether your vessel is safe to operate. ie below the yield criteria
10
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