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Plant organogenesis

Plant organogenesis

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Published by: Arjun Kumar on Mar 01, 2011
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06/07/2013

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Plant Organogenesis

By Sudheer Chaudhary M.Tech. Biotechnology 1st Sem

Plant Tissue Culture .

organs. or protoplasts on nutrient media under sterile conditions.Definition The culture of plant seeds. cells. tissues. explants. .

the ratio of these two hormones can determine plant development: o Auxin Cytokinin = Root Development o Cytokinin Auxin = Shoot Development Auxin = Cytokinin = Callus Development .Prerequisite for Plant Tissue Culture Two Hormones Affect Plant Differentiation: Auxin: Stimulates Root Development Cytokinin: Stimulates Shoot Development Generally.

Temperature. Growth factors. the younger. In many cases. different genotypes within a species will have variable . less differentiated the explant. Different species show differences in amenability to tissue culture 2. the better for tissue culture Genetics 1. Photoperiod  Explant Source Types Usually. Carbon source  Environmental Factors Light.Growth Media Minerals.

Choice of explant Desirable properties of an explant  Easily sterilisable  Juvenile  Responsive to culture  Shoot tips  Axillary buds  Seeds  Hypocotyl (from germinated seed)  Leaves .

e. Coconut water.auxins.g. cytokinins.Medium constituents Inorganic salt formulations(Contain a wide range of Macroelements (>mg/l) and microelements (<mg/l)) Source of carbohydrate Vitamins Water Plant hormones . GA·s Solidifying agents Undefined supplements(Sources of hormones.vitamins and polyamines. sweetcorn extracts ) .

followed by redifferentiation which is the ability to reorganize into new organs Competency the endogenous potential of a given cell or tissue to develop in a particular way .Fundamental abilities of plants Totipotency the potential or inherent capacity of a plant cell to develop into an entire plant if suitable stimulated. It implies that all the information necessary for growth and reproduction of the organism is contained in the cell Dedifferentiation The capacity of mature cells to return to meristematic condition and development of a new growing point.

Type of in vitro culture    Culture of intact plants (Seed orchid culture) Embryo culture (embryo rescue) Organ culture (Plant organogenesis) 1. anther culture    Callus culture Cell suspension and single cell culture Protoplast culture . shoot tip culture 2. Leaf culture 4. Root culture 3.

This. These organs may arise out of pre-existing meristems or out of differentiated cells. like embryogenesis.Organogenesis The process of initiation and development of a structure that shows natural organ form and/or function. the ability of non-meristematic plant tissues to form various organs de novo. shoots or leaves. may involve a callus intermediate but often occurs without callus. the production of roots. .

it may be necessary to induce an un-organised mass proliferation of cells (callus) prior to adventitious shoot formation.g. coffee). Adventitious shoot formation is the de-novo development of shoots from cell clusters in the absence of pre-existing meristems. Saintpaulia). . many shoots can be induced (3000 from one leaf).  In other species (e.g.  In some species (e.

Direct: It bypasses a callus stage.Plant Organogenesis Indirect: Explant Callus Primordium Meristemoid This pathway includes a callus stage. The cells in the explant act as direct precursors of a new primordium An organ or a part in its most rudimentary form or stage of development . Callus: Undifferentiated tissue that develops on or around an injured or cut plant surface or in tissue culture.

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1:10-1:100 induces shoots Intermediate ratios around 1:1 favor callus growth.Central Dogma of organogenesis The most important factor affecting organogenesis cytokinins tend to stimulate formation of shoots auxins tend to stimulate formation of roots The central dogma of organogenesis: a high cytokinin:auxin ratio promotes shoots and inhibits roots a high auxin:cytokinin ratio promotes roots and/or callus formation while inhibiting shoot formation Auxin/cytokinin 10:1-100:1 induces roots. .

Agricultural usefulness of regeneration by shoot organogenesis propagation ± many begonia and African violet cultivars can be propagated by inducing shoots on leaf pieces transformation ± useful in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. particularly dicots protoplasts ± useful for regeneration of somatic hybrids and cybrids .

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