Taking Sensor Networks from the Lab to the Jungle

ECE-695 Mobile Wireless Networks

Vamshi Nadipelli Preethi Tiwari

What is a Sensor Network?

‡ A sensor network is a collection of sensor nodes equipped with sensing, communication (short range radio) and processing capabilities.



Introduction  The System  Areas of Application  Challenges  


Technical System Conclusion



Introduction   Chain Home .Britain¶s Radar Network WWII Cold War:   SOSUS ± The Pacific Ocean NORAD ± Cheyenne Mountain   National Power Grid Involves   Devices with multiple sensors Network via wireless/physical links 02/6/07 4 .

Involved Technologies Network Technology Computational Power Sensor Network Sensor Technology 02/6/07 5 .

The Systems involved   Sensor Node Internals Operating System 02/6/07 6 .

Berkeley 3. Sensoria WINS 2. Smart Dust ± Dust Inc.Sensor Node Internals CPU POWER SUPPLY SENSOR COMMUNICATION ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INTERFACE NODE Some Current Node Platforms: 1. UC Berkeley mote ± Crossbow (www.com) 02/6/07 7 .xbow.

Operating System .TinyOS    Custom built at UC. Berkeley for wireless sensor nodes Component-based architecture: ensures minimum code size Component library includes:     Network protocols Sensor drivers Data acquisition tools Distributed services 02/6/07 8 .

0 Berkley Motes 02/6/07 9 .Physical Size WINS LWIM III AWACS AWAIRS I NG 2.

Applications        Border Monitoring Battlefield Observation Forest Fire Detection Environment and Habitat Monitoring Infrastructure security Industrial sensing Medical Applications 02/6/07 10 .

Border Monitoring  Most widely cited application   US-Mexico Border (3100 km) Requires Full length Surveillance  Detection can be based on sound or vibration  With in a range of 10m  Estimated need of 440.000 sensors  Air dropped biannually (battery life 6months)   Not cost effective Should distinguish humans from wild animals 02/6/07 11 .

02/6/07 12 .

02/6/07 13 .Battlefield surveillance  Observing enemy activities in a battle field. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) Coverage problem (limited radio range) 10.000 nodes were required to monitor just 1 square kilometer For large areas:   cost Many nodes implies large number of UAV¶s operating simultaneously.

02/6/07 14 .

  Important aspect is lifetime Must operate for a very long period of time to discover a comparatively rare event 02/6/07 15 .Forest Fire Detection  A sensor network is more feasible as an early warning system for forests.   Carefully placing nodes (close to vulnerable areas such as hilltops) Reduce the number of sensors required to cover a large geographic area.

Nodes are subjected to random failures ‡ Due to battery exhaustion ‡ Disorientation of antennas (falling branches. Networks relay messages hop by hop failure of several closely spaced nodes could partition the network into non communicating subnetworks 02/6/07 16 . wind etc) So.

‡They study vegetation responses related to climatic trends and diseases Whereas the imaging sensors can identify. track and measure the population of birds and other species.Environment and Habitat Monitoring ‡Environmental monitoring involves collecting readings over time across a volume of large space enough to exhibit significant internal variation. 02/6/07 17 . ‡Environmental sensors are used to monitor relative humidity. barometric pressure and temperature.

 Monitoring nesting Large number of burrows. Long time observation   02/6/07 18 .

Long term observation 02/6/07 19 .  Over 100 sensor nodes.

   Migration pattern of zebras They generally move in wide area Long term observation 02/6/07 20 .

     Sensors were integrated on to the zebra¶s neck. Long range (base station) Short range (neighbors) These were used to monitor the heart beat. body temperature and frequency of feeding 02/6/07 21 . Consisted of 2 radios.

‡ Protection of power plants and communication centers. detection. and reduced false alarm rate. ‡ When compared to Fixed sensors.Infrastructure Security Early detection of chemical. ‡ MULTIPLE SENSORS provide Improved coverage. Ad hoc networks can provide more flexibility and additional coverage. biological and nuclear threats. ‡ Networks of video. 02/6/07 22 . acoustic and other sensors are deployed around these facilities.

02/6/07 23 .

Industrial Sensing Goals of commercial industry ‡Lower cost ‡Improved performance ‡Maintainability ‡It involves continuous monitoring of vibrations. lubrication levels and inserting sensors into regions inaccessible by humans. 02/6/07 24 . ‡Spectral and Optical sensors are generally used in industrial applications because inputs from hundreds or thousands of sensors can be fed into the databases that can be accessed in any number of ways to show the real time information (called MULTIPOINT OR MATRIX SENSING).

Medical applications    Heart rate Oxygen saturation Enhances emergency medical care. 02/6/07 25 .

Challenges     Power Communication Hostile Environments Cost 02/6/07 26 .

02/6/07 27 . Advanced communication protocols  To support high level services and real-time operation (to adapt rapidly to changes in network conditions). power and network traffic loads  Ensuring network reliability and adequate sensor resolution for data accuracy. Resource optimization:  To minimize cost.Technical challenges Changing network topology:  Node failures  Introduction of additional nodes variations in sensor location  Changes to cluster allocations in response to network demands requires the adaptability of underlying network structures and operations.

28 02/6/07 . particularly in harsh and unpredictable environments. These physical constraints may be minimized through further technological breakthroughs in materials and sensor hardware designs. processing power. Memory. life-time.  Network congestion resulting from dense network deployment:  The quantity of data gathered may exceed the requirements of the network and so evaluation of the data and transmission of only relevant and adequate information needs to be performed.Limitations:  Power. Addressing sensor reliability can reduce the level of redundancy required for a network to operate with the same level of reliability. Failure prone:  Individual sensors are unreliable.

Self-operating and self-maintaining  This functionality is desired in order to minimize further human interaction beyond network deployment. Security  It is a critical factor in sensor networks.Self-organization  Ability to adapt to dynamic environments as well as ad hoc distribution and connectivity scenarios. between the low bandwidth requirements of sensor network applications and security demands. An effective compromise must be obtained. 29  02/6/07 .

environment. data rate.Conclusion  Sensor networks are application specific Key application characteristics Lifetime. cost. user interaction Must address the system aspects of wireless sensor network design   02/6/07 30 . network topology.

QUESTIONS ? 02/6/07 31 .

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