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Cigre WG 34

Cigre WG 34

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Published by Mario Granado
Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations

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Sections

  • 4.7 Appendices
  • Appendix 1: ZerQ-sequence coupling impedance calculation
  • Appendix 2: TYl2ical zero-sequence coupling impedance charts
  • 5 Protection of Multiterminal and Tapped Lines
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 Application range
  • 5.1.2 Most frequent network configurations
  • 5.2 Protection problems encountered
  • 5.2.1 Multi-terminal lines
  • 5.2.2 Tapped lines
  • 5.2.2.3 Taps with (small) backfeed (TLS)
  • 5.3 Protection schemes
  • 5.3.1.1 Distance protection without telecommunication
  • 5.3.1 .2 Distance protection with telecommunication
  • 5.3.1 .3 Directional comparison protection
  • 5.3.2 Power line protection based on unit principles
  • 5.3.2.1 Phase comparison protection
  • 5.3.2.2 Longitudinal differential protection
  • 5.3.3 Back-up protection
  • 5.4 Automatic reclosing considerations
  • Recent practices and trends
  • 5.5.2 Multi-terminal lines
  • 5.5.3 -Tapped lines
  • 5.6 Application examples
  • 5.7 Appendices
  • 5.7.1 Multi-terminal lines
  • 5.7.1 .2 Outfeed conditions
  • 6 Protection of composite lines
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Protection problems encountered
  • 6.3 Protection of a composite OHL-cable feeder
  • 6.4 Protection of transformer feeders
  • 6.4.1 Transformer protection
  • 6.4.2 Protection of the line section
  • 6.4.3 Overall differential protection of a transformer feeder
  • 6.4.4 Distance protection of the transformer feeder

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Study Committee 34 (Protection)

November 1991

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APPLICATION GUIDE ON PROTECTION OF COMPLEX TRANSMISSION NETWORK CONFIGURATIONS

Working Group 04

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Study Committee 34 (Protection)
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November 1991
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Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations

Acknowledgement

This guide was prepared on request of the CIGRE Study Committee The working group was composed of the following individuals: Convener: Members:

34.

G. Ziegler (Germany)
E. Bondia (Spain)

J.L. Carel (France)
P.O. Gjerde (Norway) L. Lohage (Sweden) J. Maas (Netherlands)

G. Pratesi (Italy) J.Zakonjsek (Yugoslavia)
Corresponding Members: R.G. Coney (South Africa) G.G. Correa (Brasil) D.C. Dawson (USA) M. V. Gonzalez Sabato (Argentine) A. Palamarczuk (Australia)

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.'-1: Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I .'I I ~z~~ .I '. • ~ {. .2- .:\~. . ')~f': !~?':~ ! .

1.8 3 Terminology 9 4 4.3.2.1 4.2 4.3.2 4.3."1.5 4.3 4.2.4 4.3.3.1.2.1.6 4.2.3.2 4.2. 45 .1 4.1 Protection Introduction of multi-circuit transmission lines 14 14 4.6.2 4.1 4.1.3 Protection schemes Non-unit protection Distance protection without telecommunication Directional and non-directional earth-fault relaying Distance protection with telecommunication Directional comparison earth-fault protection Travelling wave directional comparison protection Unit protection schemes Phase comparison protection (PCP) Longitudinal differential protection Back-up Automatic protection reclosing considerations I I 4.2.1.3.1 4.I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I I I I I I I Contents 1 Scope and Object 7 2 introduction .3.1.2.2.1.2 4.1 4.3 4.3.3 4. 1 4.2 4.2.1 33 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 4.4 4.and intercircuit-faults on multi-circuit Dissymmetries on double-circuit lines lines 14 16 19 19 19 19 23 28 29 31 4.3 Application range Mutual coupling effect Protection problems encountered Mutual coupling of parallel circuits Class 1 networks: Parallel circuit with common positiv and zero sequence source Impact on distance protection Setting of distance zones for parallel lines Compensation of mutual coupling Class 2 networks: Parallel circuit with common positive but isolated zero-sequence source's Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with positive and zero-sequence sources isolated Current reversal effect Double.1.2 42 43 44 44 I I I 45 45 43 Recent practices Protection Statistical data and trends state-of-the-art philosophy.1.1.2.2.1.2.2 4.5 4.4 4.6.1.1.2 4. 1 4.3- .1.

3.1 5.1.1.1 5.1.7.7.7 Appendices A1 : Zero-sequence A2: A3: coupling impedance calculation charts protection 50 50 Typical zero-sequence Measurement coupling impedance 51 54 of line impedances for the setting of distance and fault locators A4: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement without mutual compensation 59 62 64 AS: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement with mutual compensation A6: Fault location on parallel lines 5 5.1 5.7.2.2 5.1 5.2 Recent practices and trends General remarks Multi-terminal.3.3 5.1 5.2.2 5.2 5.4 5.2.2.5.3 Protection of multi-terminal and tapped lines Introduction Application range Most frequent network configurations 66 66 66 67 70 70 71 71 Protection problems encountered Multi-terminal lines Tapped lines Taps with breaker (TL 1.2.3 5._.1.3.2 5.7. 5.2 5.1.1 5.2 5.1.1 5. lines Tapped lines Application Appendices Multi-terminal lines lnleed conditions Outfeed conditions Tapped lines. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations 4.1 5.3.3.2.2 5.2 5.1.3 5. distance zone reach problems examples 89 87 94 95 -4- .2.3.6 5.TL 2) Taps without breaker (TL 3.3 5.1 .3.5 5.2.5.2.5.TL 4) Taps with (small) backfeed (TLB) Protection schemes Protection based on non-unit 72 73 73 74 74 75 principles Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecommunication Directional comparison protection Power line protection based on unit principles Phase comparison protection Longitudinal differential protection Back-up protection Automatic reclosing considerations 77 78 78 79 80 80 81 81 83 83 84 89 5.1 5.2 5.7 5.2.3.

4.2 6.2.2. positive fault current Negative relay impedance.4.5 7.1.2 7.1 6.3 7.4.2 Protection Introduction Protection Protection of composite lines encountered OHL-cable feeders 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 100 102 102 103 problems of composite 6.1.1 7.4.' and disadvantages of series-compensation degree Locations Compensation Protection problems encountered Apparent impedances Voltage inversion (Negative voltage) Current inversion Subsynchronous Protection General Protection Protection (Negative current) oscillations and transients of the series capacitor of a conventional airgap-protected capacitor of a resistor-airgap-protected capacitor based on non-unit principles Power line protection Distance protection Underreaching and overreaching schemes Negative relay impedance.4 7.4 7.1.5.1 6.1.2.4.2 7.5.2 7.3 7.1.5.1 7.3 7.2 7.4.3.3 7.2 Protection Introduction Advantages of series compensated lines 104 104 104 104 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 110 111 113 113 113 114 116 117 118 118 120 121 . negative fault current power lines Double circuit series-compensated Directional comparison protection Directional comparison travelling wave protection Directional residual overcurrent protection Negative sequence overcurrent protection Power line protection based on unit principles Phase comparison protection Longitudinal differential protection 122 122 122 -5- .2 7.2.3 7.1 7.4.3 6.4 7.1 7.2 Protection of transformer feeders Transformer protection Protection of the line section Overall differential protection of a transformer Distance protection of a transformer feeder Application examples Transformer-OHL feeder protection Transformer-cable feeder protection feeder 7 7.3 6.4.1 7.1 7.1.4.2 7.3.4 6.4.2.3 7.1 7.4 6.4.4.4.4.2 7.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations 6 6.1 7.5 6.5.2.4.1 6.1.3.2.4.

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the basics of fault analysis and protective component analysis is used to study unsymmetrical The bibliography provided at the end of this documentation contains in the first general part relevant literature. however protected (e. as known. using telecommunication the relevant ClGRE Publications [13. The To use this symmetrical guide. Manufacturers' relay application descriptions can be taken as a further source for information. schemes in combination with telecommunication must therefore be used to As a rule. three-terminalor parallel extensive computer studies are only needed I based on a short-circuit study that considers the named the network can be reduced to the line configurations to be line) with representative infeeds at each terminal. in the exceptional case. the protection setting has to be influencing factors.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II u Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Oonflquratlons Chapter 2 2 Introduction of complex transmission networks requires. problems to achieve selective zone setting for (series compensated This results in a varying zone reach and causes consequently a dependable and secure fault clearance. relaying are assumed fault types. Thus. schemes. as a rule. can normally not be assumed Conventional off-the-shelf supplementary equipment protection or may even need specially modified The simple linear connection due to o • • intermediate between fault impedance and distance-to-fault (multi-terminal lines) in. A standard situation does normally not exist.or outfeeds zero-sequence discontinuities mutual coupling (parallel lines) lines). need characteristics.14) -8- . For the special subject of protection provide an excellent introduction. Partly sophisticated protection solve these problems. Directional relays may be adversely affected by possible voltage or current inversions (series compensated lines) or may sense a false fault direction due to induced voltages (parallel lines) and outfeed conditions (multi-terminal lines).g. an individual consideration of each The protection application case. In most cases. like distance relays must at least be specially set.

. current neg.I overcurrent zero seq. seq current travelling wave note: sometimes permissive overreach distance protection is called directional comparison Zero sequence current protection is also called residual current protection ")The terms "Unit" and "Non-Unit" are explained on page 13. chapter 448: Power I ! I I This document The protection terminology System Protection (8). Vocabulary. . for complex transmission systems.1: The most common protections using telecommunication -9- . i I i 3 Terminology uses lEG recommended graphical and letter symbols [6.1 shows the currently I I Distance Protection using telecommunication I Non-unit"! I Unit*] J 1 comparison I Phase comparison I I 1 "! I I Directional I Longitudinal differential permissive underreach permissive overreach accelerated underreach blocking overreach deblocking overreach -intertripping underreach . Fig.7).I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 :·1 . 3. Figure 3. Telecommunication is adapted to the International Electrotechnical is a widely used means to upgrade the protection applied schemes.

se blocking overreach distance protection deblocking overreach distance protection composite-current phase-comparison protection phase-segregated phase-comparison protection pilot wire differentia! protection fiber-optic differential protection micro-wave differential protection travelling wave protection with microwave channel travelling wave protection with carrier channel directional comparison earth fault protection. '" '" ::: :.299 kV) lntertripping Multi-circuit transmission line Metal-oxide varistor Multi-terminal line Microwave Overhead line Over-current Pulse-code modulation Phase comparison protection Power line carrier Sender/Receiver Subsynchronous Tapped line resonance are used in this documentation: The following AR CB GT EHV FO FSK GP HV IT MCTL MOV MTL MW OHL O/C PCM pcp PLC SIR SSR TL TLB VT '" '" '" ::-. . :.= abbreviations distance distance are introduced for the frequently occurring protection schemes: :i I . based on the negative-sequence directional earth-fault protection.10 - .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 Readers not familiar with these terms and their meaning Protection Systems Using Telecommunication C1GAE WG34/35-05 October 1987 are referred to the CIGRE Publication: :1 I The following DPO DPZS IUDP PUDP POOP AUDP BODP :. based on the zero-sequence components components directional comparison earth fault protection. second zone tripping for near-line-end with autoreclosure-controUed zone switching faults accepted during the AR dead-time) I 1 (normally the overreaching zone is switched back to underreaching intertripping underreach distance protection permissive underreach distance protection permissive overreach distance protection accelerated underreach distance protection DBODP. MWDP TWMP TWCP DEPZ DEPN DEP NDEP '" :. time delayed without telecommunication non-directional earth-fault protection. := :.999 kV) Fibre optic Frequency shift keying Gas pressure relay High voltage (100 .: CPGP :: SPCP PWDP . == :.: protection protection only.: FODP :. time delayed without telecommunication further abbreviations Autoreclosure Circuit breaker Current transformer Extra high voltage (300 . Tapped line with backfeed Voltage transformer .

Line-end sarles-capacltor line where the circuits belong to different power systems Series capacitor placed at the end of a power line. Double fault fault clearing e. of two different circuits of a multi-circuit line.g. Evolving fault a phase-to-earth fault A fault developing to involve different phases/earth during the fault clearing time. Composite connection fine line consisting of electrically and OHL-sections. Cross-country fault higher than the capacitor is Simultaneous flash-over Current reversal to earth of two different phases in different line sections. Flash-over Flash-over Intercircuit fault between phase-conductors fauft line with or without involving earth (same VOltage level). . a series Conventional An airgap which will flash when the voltage over the capacitor becomes designed to stand.11 - . on each circuit at the same tower of a double-circuit line. Reversal of the fault-current on a healthy line due to non-simultaneous breakers switch-off a fault on a parallel line at sequential instants. when the circuit Simultaneous faults on two circuits of a multi-circuit line at the same location.g.Ie> .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 Related to the protection of complex transmission networks the following additional terms are often used: Compensation k = Xc / XL. Fault between the circuits of a multi-circuit Intersystem fauft Fault between circuits of a multi-circuit (voltage levels). Composite current protection of the degree (of a series-compensated line) Percentage of the equivalent series-capacitor reactance on a line in relation to the line reactance: A single-system protection operating on basis of a mixed-current measuring quantity composed weighted current sum of a three-phase system (1M = k"!a + k2'!b + k3 . Power transmission of cableairgap e. E. different series connected components.g.

Negative reactance When the reactance from the relay location to the series-capacitor is less than the equivalent negative reactance of the capacitor. the fault current will have a leading phase angle against the EMF-voltage. Phase segregated A protection protection line where the shortcircuit power flows out of the line with an that operates with separate measuring systems per phase. Mutual Coupling Inductive or capacitive interaction of parallel power systems. " Chapter 3 Une tap A connection to a line with equipment that does not feed energy into a fault on the line in sufficient magnitude to require consideration Line terminal A connection to a line with equipment that can feed energy into a fault on the line in sufficient magnitude to require consideration in the relay plan and which has means for automatic disconnection.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations . Multi-circuit line tn the protection sense of this paper the term defines a configuration of power lines running so closely parallel that they can influence each other and adversely affect the protection performance. i. the situation is called negative reactance. H Outfeed Condition at a line terminal of a multi-terminal internal fault. Mid-line series-capacitor in the relay plan. Multi-terminal line Line configuration with three or more line terminals with substantial generation behind each.e. . systems of Negative fault voltage If the short-circuit impedance becomes negative (see "negative reactance"). then the short-circuit voltage will be inverted compared to the normal inductive case and will then be called negative fault voltage" . Series capacitor not placed at the end of a power line. ln the protection sense this term defines normally the inductive coupling of the zero-sequence parallel lines.12 - . This inverted current is then called "negative fault current H • '. then the total fault loop impedance becomes negative and the fault current will be inverted compared to the normal inductive case. (See also: voltage inversion and negative fault voltage) Negative fault current When the negative reactance of the series-capacitor (Xc::: -l/Ole) is larger than the sum of the sourceand line fault-reactance.

13 - . line line that has series-connected capacitors for reactive power compensation.assume a lagging phase-angle against the short-circuit current. In this case the short-circuit voltage will .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Resistor airgap In this paper this term is an abbreviation for a non-linear series-capacitor. . i. the remote line end circuit breaker must be tripped in case of a transformer Unit protection A protection whose operation and section selectivity are dependent on the comparison of electrical quantities at each end of the protected Non-unit protection of electrical section. Transformer feeder fault. The taps have not sufficient Teed-line Three terminal line. Series-capacitor bank together in series and parallel to form a large bank with high capacitance Capacitor elements connected and high rated current. fault as a back-up to (consequential) Fault caused directly or indirectly by another fau!t. and even current A power transmission lumped negative short-circuit inversions and can adversely Tapped line I ! current feed-back to operate relays.e. it will be inverted compared to the normal case of an inductive short-circuit Weak-infeed Condition at a line terminal where the infeed current is not strong enough to operate (start) the protection at this terminal for an internal fault.e. A line having one or more terminals with substantial generation behind them and taps ·feeding only loads. Voltage inversion tines. the reactance from the relay-location to the fault point may become On series-compensated negative (see "negative reactance"). the metal-oxide Secondary Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 resistor made of metal-oxide protecting the Normally a conventional airgap is additionally installed and considered resistor. i. I \ ! A line connected to a power transformer without intermediate circuit breaker. reactance. A protection whose operation and section selectivity are solely dependent on the measurement quantities at one end of the protected section. can cause voltage The reactance of the series-capacitor affect protection systems. Series-capacitor segment A series-capacitor Series-compensated can be divided into two or more segments.

if necessary.1 Protection of multi-circuit transmission lines Introduction transmission line (MCTL) is used when two or more three-phase transmission circuits on adjacent towers. The lay-out of the protection to enable selective fault clearance with these multiple faults is always a chaUenging task for the protection engineer. The circuits may be of The term multi-circuit are arranged on the same tower or follow the same right-of-way the same or of different voltage level(s). Due to magnetic fault calculation induction the circuits are mutually coupled. Values of 10 to 20% seem to be normal. The proximity of the parallel line terminals apply compensation methods against mutual coupling. In the classical case a double circuit or parallel line exists where two equal circuits are mounted on the same towers and connect the same substations.1: From the protection Parallel line.14 - . same bus at both ends point of view the simplest case is given when both systems are connected to the same makes it possible to infeed sources (busbars) in each station.1. I . Especially for the relatively often occurring multiple earth faults on parallel lines. Faults between circuits of different voltage level are seldom (about one case in 10 years per utility according to the replies to the 1989 ClGRE-questionnaire) • but cause dangerous voltage and current strain in the lower voltage system [4. however. Especially in heavily populated areas multi-circuit lines are therefore widely used with up to six systems on one tower. phase selective tripping and single-pole autoreclosure at each circuit should be ensured to avoid the outage of both lines at the same time. especially on common towers. This locally close arrangement of power lines.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4 4. 4. always bears the risk that simultaneous or consequential faults can occur on parallel systems due to back-flashover. The statistics of faults involving more than one parallel circuit vary considerable between utilities and local conditions.1 Application range Environmental and cost considerations force the utilities to use the granted right-at-ways as effectively as possible. B ZOM Fig.24]. 4. falling-down of broken conductors or conductor gallopping. This phenomenon has to be considered for the and the protection design.

.ondition is given when lines run parallel but end at different substations at both line ends. r. 4. r Complex fault conditions may occur when the parallel lines belong to different power systems possibly also of different voltage levels. 4.j i Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Orten the case occurs where the lines are conducted only partly parallel and end at separate substations at the remote end. n I. No compensation Fig. bus only The most unfavorable c.. • . 'I I. -[ 1 [ n. r: l.2: This allows the application of compensation I I L __ ~ _l I I Parallel line with one common only in one substation.3: Parallel line.I I I I I I .and current distributions result from the mutual coupling and double faults involving both circuits. Fig.n.15 wltn-a-typical ZM' I I earth resiStivity of p :: 1DOOm and a system frequency of 50Hz we get = 0. 'r. Complicated short circuit voltage. km For an assumed conductor distance of 20 meters the coupling impedance can be calculated as: .05 + j 0." .1445 log 930 Dab[m] 0. n I 't . separate buses at both ends of the mutual coupling effects is possible in this case. ..

i. at the tower.5: Mutual coupling of two three-phase lines {4.e. is defined and can be measured Eoa Fig.Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Chapter 4 Configurations r • r' Mutual induction on three-phase transmission lines of a multi-circuit line. some unsymmetry is unavoidable even when the Practically.' :' r> Where zM is the mutual impedance The mutual zero-sequence impedance can be as high as about 70% of the zero-sequence on the same tower.3} Z OM = VOb :. self-impedance . of the multi-circuit r number and location of the earth wires which reduce the mutual coupling effect I: r- ( 11). a strong impact on earth fault relaying. r • • • .:3 . fI has therefore An accurate calculation of ZOMhas to consider the real spacings between the conductors line and the characteristics. as follows: . the characteristic line impedances.4J. Today computer programs are applied to determine as outlined in appendix 3. . Additionally.4. The mutual impedance is in this case usually below 5 percent of the related self-impedance for untransposed fines and lower than 3 percent for transposed lines [4. 4. In this case coupling exists between all conductors Under load condition and faults without earth the current-sum of one line is zero.4J. If the distances of the conductors between the two three-phase circuits are assumed as equal then the induction of the different conductors cancel each other and the mutual coupling is theoretically zero.' • r r r (1 • The zero sequence currents are equal and in phase in all three conductors of the three-phase line. In this case the three phase-conductors can be replaced by a representative single conductor for each parallel tine and the mutual coupling between lines and their earth wires is then reduced to a single-phase The zero-sequence mutual impedance problem [11 J.17 - . when the paraltel lines are mounted The mutual coupling effect I. • values can be measured • the I. the mutual coupling in the positive and negative sequence' system is relatively weak and can be neglected for normal protection considerations. With the real arrangement of the conductors lines are transposed [ll. Z M lOa between two conductors with earth return as defined above.. the effects of the conductors add to a maximum.

19 - .1 Class 1 networks: Parallel circuits with common positive and zero-sequence sources This is the normal parallel line case especially when both lines terminate at the same busbar in each substation.4) Z= " I ph + k 0 .1. The network can in principle always be reduced to the following configuration: "" Fig.4.2.2 4. 4.1.2.2.4.15.1. This phenomenon has been studied in a lar?e number of pubticatlons [4.1.4.4.28].E units measure: Vph .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '1 I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. ZOM 13 into the fault-loop. (lEp '" 3·!op) induces a In principle this error appears due to the fact that the parallel line earth-current voltage IEp .16.6. a measuring error occurs.2. IE phase to earth short-circuit voltage at the relay location in the faulted phase short circuit current in the faulted phase earth-current Ie XO " ZOL- ZL 3 . however.7.E IPh (4.4. ~or protection ~f .4. phase-to-earth faults.1 Protection problems encountered Mutual coupling of parallel circuits it is useful to introduce the following classes of To study the impact of this phenomenon on protection networks in accordance with reference [4].1 Impact on distance protection Distance relaying of ph-ph and three-phase faults is not influenced by the parallel line. ZL " ZE f ZL = earth compensation factor set at the relay . 4. Class 1 networks: Class 2 networks: Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with common Parallel circuits with common positive and zero sequence sources positive but isolated zero-sequence sources Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated.7: Class 1 parallel circuit 4.4.3. The distance relay phase-to-earth Vph .

The error increases with the parallel line earth current IEp in relation to the relay current Iph + ko·/e The relay underreaches when IEp is in phase with Iph and Ie The relay overreaches when lEp and iphllE have opposite signs.9) Z =ZL' (. using the line data of appendix 4: ko ::::·0. In appendix 4 the change in reach is shown for different fault locations on a parallel line with single infeed.I =.7) Z :::: L .66 •.8) ZE ko= - ZL then the relay measures (4. 4. For a fault at the remote line terminal the underreach amounts to about 25%. IEp lph+ ko ·/E factor ko is adjusted to the single-line If the relay earth compensation (4. This case demonstrates the worst condition as the ratio of lep to Ie is highest. three examples The errors in percentage are presented to illustrate the effect of mutul coupling on distance relaying.4 are calculated line Fault at the end of a parallel - IEp Fig.1 + ko ·1 .8 From (4.6) into (4. II ZOM .E Z l' (I ph + By introducing (4.10) b. kOM ::: 0. In the following.5) Vph .Zl .9) it can be deduced: I I I I I I I The error is proportional to the mutual coupling factor kOM = laM / 3'll .4) we get: IPh (4.6) V ph .E = = I ph • Z l + 3 (4.Z:::: ~ .I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I The short-circuit voltage can be calculated as lOM (4.9) and Iph ::: Ie ::: lep we get the error: (4. II ZL . Z + ZOl- 3 . IE + 3 . + kOM • IEp ) Jph+ ko -te I I I earth current of the faulty line earth current of the parallel line Error From formula • • • • (4.20 - .24% of lL .

11) n Z "" .. one breaker open lEp-IE Fig. 4.10 .9) and Iph "" IE ::: .9 From (4.. lL _ 40% of lL n Z::: 3' kOM ..parallel line is-'switched off and earthed at both terminals: the case is important where the Fig. ZL . . Iph .12) Fig. IEp ::: 3 (4.11 I I - . lOM 1 + 3 ko ZO For the setting and behaviour of the distance protection with earth-faults. 4.24% of ZL I I Fault at the end of a parallel line Positive and zero-sequence sources at opposite line ends I I I I I I I From (4.9) and IE . I I I I I I I I I t Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i i: I.21 - __ ------- . I !.IEp : (4. 4. t Fault at the end of a parallel line.-- kOM 1 + ko ·lL == .

4.'·1 :~:..14) Z'ol '" lL· [ph +( ZOL.IE as I I I I I I I I I I I and lEp= By insertion of this IEp value into equation (4.Jo-t.I --- The measured difference against the single line is then (4.O"".. Z = - lL .13) lop= laM . kOM' laM lOL 1 + ko -- 10% of Z L (with ko = 0.12 The parallel line zero-sequence (4.7) ZOM2 we get the measured relay impedance: (4.ZOL -/0 current can be calculated lOM ZOL ..22 - . IE -'3:.ZL _ __:.I I I I I I ~t..66 and kOM = 0..::Z"-'I Iph+kO'/E ) .__· =l. -=Z..15) !:J.o' Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 The distance protection overreaches considerabely as the earth-impedance connection of the zero-sequence systems of both lines: is reduced due to the parallel O~-------------4 c::J -lop lOL ) laM -/0 lOL 0 c:::J 0 o~--~----------------------~--- Fig.4) I I I .3_·.

=--...--'_"Z'_"L~ 1 + ko z.3:::.I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. x . ph-E \: (4.18) Z ::. Z = x ..23 - .2. is measured which corresponds to the shortest reach.:::Z:..Zl ' . 4. 4.15 In case 1 the lowest Impedance the zero-sequence systems IS measured. of both Jines... 4.17) .1.ZL _ k OM ....:3"... i.16) Z '" x .= .14 Case 3 Both lines in service ph-E 1 (4.._·.------------ + ( Z OL . Z L ( __ + ZOLZL +_x_ .x'--__ 1 + ko Fig.. Fig.e.1..2 Setting of distance zones for parallel lines The distance protection zone reaches vary with the switching state of the parallel line configuration... ZOM ) 3 ' Zl ZOl 1 +ko Fig. the configurations and the corresponding formulae for the reach calculation are given for the most important Case 1 Parallel line switched-off and earthed at both line ends. Below.:.... the highest reach occurs due to the parallel connection of In case 3 the highest impedance .. kOM ) . ph-E cases: I I I I I I I I I I I I I I (4.13 Case 2 Parallel line switched-off and not earthed or earthed only at one line end...>l_--==2c_-_.Z l' __ ZOl+ --:.

ko is the set earth factor from case': ko '" 0. it should cover as much of the line as possible..22) 90%ZlooX'Zl x +lOL. Given values: ZL zOl zOM setting '" example 0.21) 90%lL= x : Zl--~___.24 - . the procedure by using the characteristic data of the 380kV line of Underreaching.523 3 . ZI .zone. I I I I the reach Irom the formula k OM ) (4. it shoutd avoid overreach beyond the remote line terminal in case 1..20) factor ko has to be set to ko '" - kOM .523 Ohm/km :::: 0. + ko where x is the unknown reach and Case 3: In a similar way we can calculate (.19) = 0.g. i . We get: x '" 71 %. The following example shall demonstrate page 18. i."J. 0.575 The distance Case 1: zone reach is set to 90% of Zl To achieve 90% zone reach also for earth faults.29.lL 3 . lOM .·- + lOL. 90% of the line length for case 1 and check afterwards if sufficient reach exists in the cases 2 and 3.0. A possible setting strategy is to set the zone to e. at least 50% plus a safety margin in the most unfavorable case 3.88 I I I I I I I (4.Zl +--' 3'ZI 1 + ko 2-x As solution of this quadratic equation in x we get: x '" 62%.e.29 lOL Case 2: The reach in this ·case can now be calculated by the formula (4.I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Setting of the underreaching zone The set zone reach should fulfill two criteria: • o it should ensure selectivity.O~303 .303 Ohm/km Ohm/km 0. the relay earth fault compensation (4.

are: I I I I I I I I I I j! Other practised • setting strategies Ii I Ii ! Avoid earthing at both ends of the switched-off line (earthing only at one side). The underreaching zone could then be adjusted to let say 85% of the single line (case 2) and a reach of 72% in case 3 could then be achieved. The probability of a definite outage of a line due to zone overreach is further reduced when autoreclosure is practised. The case of the switched-off and double-earthed parallel line is assumed to occur seldom.23) :: + kop factor set for the parallel line condition Where kop is the relay earth-compensation (4. kOM' 1 lOM· (1 +-_ ) l~DI~ I I I (4. For cases 1 and 2 the overreach would then be higher. This must be guaranteed unfavorable condition of case 3. Therefore. the second zone could then overlap with the second zone of a following line and endanger the zone grading selectivity. ZL kos = Earth compensation factor for the single line lOM I I Mutual coupling factor . the measured impedances of the above defined into the following' The reach extension can be estimated by subtracting cases 3 and 1 (equations (4. A further possibility to solve the selectivity problems is to apply an overreaching scheme using telecommunication.16) and (4.25 - . in normal practice this reach extension provides no problem as the overreach lines is anyway reduced by the intermediate infeeds at the remote substation.18).24) kop = kOs + kOM ZOL. The reach (62%) under the normal paralleillne service provides only a small (24%) overlapping with the remote end protection. I I " Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 t I I Summarizing comment on the underreaching zone setting: • • A setting adapted to the worst case that the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both ends guarantees absolute selectivity for all switching states. with the parallel line switched-off and earthed at both ends. is normally heavily reduced due to infeeds at the remote substation. An overreach in this case is accepted bearing in mind that the overreach into the following lines. an adaption of the setting to the single line (case 2) could be justified. It has to be considered that. i • • The choice of the strategy must finally be based on the local conditions and the service experience of the utility. considered as distance (km) . This could be accepted as the coupling is smaller with infeeds from both ends and the remote end distance zone tends to overreach in the same case (see annex 4). However.ZL 3. also with this strategy.. distance protection !! l! I' • j. Setting of the overreaching zone schemes must at least for the most The overreaching zones for back-up or permissive overreaching distance protection safely cover 100% of the tine with a safety margin of about 20%.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4

Calculation

example: ZL zOL
ZOM
=:

Given values:

0.303 Ohm/km

= 0.88
0.523

Ohm/km Ohm/km

---..;;...:_

Z=

- Ztnt

=0.39

This result means that in this case a second zone set to let say 150% of ZL would then have a reach of 209% of ZL. This is further illustrated by the following zone grading example.

A series connection

of a double-

and a single line is assumed.

A

ZL
Line 1a

B

I---x-f
ZL Line 2

C

line lb
Fig. 4.16: External fault on a following line

The relay R measures (series connection

the following

impedance

for a fault on line 2 in the distance

x% of ZL from station B

of the defined

cases 3 and 2).
kOM

(4.25)

1 + ZOL- ZL + ZL' __ -=3_·....,Z.........
1 +k~

+ 2 .lL' __

+ =.Z_,,_,OL=-+;...._;;;;Z.h_ ",,3_·-=Z . x ..... I_ l+k~ above.

Where kop is the set compensation kOp = 0.63 + 0.52 = 1.15 For the assumed equation (4.25). We get x
=:

factor

adapted

to the parallel line as defined

second zone setting

of Z2 = 150% ZL we can calculate

the reach x on line 2 from the

33% as reach on the following

line during the normal parallel line service. on line 2

When tine 1b is switched-off and earthed at both fine ends the retay R wilt measure an earth-fault according to the following formula (series connection of the defined cases 1 and 2):
1+ ZOL-

(4.26)

Zl'

__

---"<!...-.!:..1..

3

. ZI

ZL

-

kOM

ZOM
Z<....l..lJOI'-

1 + kop zone setting of Z2
=: =:

ZOL+ ZL + -=~--= + ZL . __ ....:o!.3_·_,Z:Jx• 1'1 + kop

For the unchanged on the following

150% of ZL and

ko adapted

to the parallel line the station

line of x

117%, i.e , the zone would reach beyond

kop we get now a reach after the next.

I

,

- 26 -

I I I I I I I I I I I

..

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4

,j
I
.I .1

Summarizing •

comment

on Overreaching-zone

setting:

The reach setting must be adapted to guarantee back-up for at least 100% line length plus a safety margin of about 15 to 20%. For remote back-up purposes longer reaches graded to the protection of the following lines are desirable. . The earth-fault compensation factor must be adjusted to the parallel line service where the highest earth-fault impedances occurs. This requirement can be fulfilled by ko-setting when separate ko-factors can be set for the under- and overreaching zones. If the relay has a common ko-factor for all zones, the ko-factor set for the underreaching zone has to be taken over, and the overreach-zone setting (Z2) has to be adapted (enlarged) if the safety margin of
!;,
: n\.

about 15 to 20 % overreach over the next station is not achieved. In the above formulae 4.23 to 4.26. the ko-factor chosen for the first zone has to be applied instead of kop· • For the service case of one line being switched-off and earthed at both ends the appearing reach extension into the following lines has to be checked. Unselectivity in the zone grading is normally not to be expected when 'infeeds exist at the remote substation because they reduce the overreach considerably. • The series-connection of parallel lines and the impact of infeeds provide problems for the setting of remote back-up zones [4.31). Local back-up protection concepts should be preferred for these complex transmission networks.

:!
. I.

i

I

I
I I

I
I I I I

- 27 -

~'_I~t~-I')'

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

:?'F.~:

.~..~ "
.j'.

.
I

"

~~tL'
-:~.

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4

".

,..

4.2.1.1.3

Compensation
distance

of Mutual Coupling
faults according to the formula (4.7).

The conventional

relays measure phase-to-earth

The measuring current is
/ = /ph + ko·/E

where ko is the earth-compensation

factor. of the parallel line

The induced voltage from the earth-current
VOM

=

IE?

' ZOM/3

=

IOP·ZOM to the

can be compensated by adding a relevant further term to the relay measuring current proportional earth-current of the parallel line (kOM'/Ep)' Formula (4.7) then changes
/ph

as follows:
ZL

+ ZOL-

(4.27)

Z = ZL'

3· ZI Jph + ko '/E

lOM IE + -'/Ep 3'ZI + kOM '/Ep the correct impedance
ZOM

It is obvious that the relay measures (4,28) kO ::: ZOL- ZL 3' ZL and

ZL when:

kOM =

3' Zl

With this mutual compensation, the relays at the faulted line measure correctly. However, the relays on the healthy parallel line measure incorrectly and tend to overreach, This is demonstrated in detail in annex 5. It is therefore necessary to block the distance relays or to switch-off healthy parallel line relays, One solution is to compare compensation the earth-currents the mutual compensation on the

of both lines (earth-current

scales)

and to release the

only on the line with the higher earth-current method requires a cross-connection

which is always the faulted line. wires of parallel feeder bays in

This compensation

of the earth-current

the substation and the additional current-comparison equipment. This may be one reason why the mutual compensation is not very often applied for distance relaying. The other reason is that the problem can be normally overcome by proper zone setting or by application of command protection systems. The compensation determination. is however in any case necessary for fault locators to enable a correct distance-to-fault

i

- 28 -

2 Class 2 networks: Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero-sequence sources The following network is a typical representative of class 2 networks.17: Class 2 network In these network types the mutual coupling will not only influence the distance measurement but will also cause problems with directional earth fault relays in the isolated zero-sequence system of the parallel line.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4.2. single-line diagram A 10s- I I I I I b) External earth-fault. zero-sequence system Flg.18 .4.18. zero-sequence detected. Fig. The behaviour of the earth-fault relay can be analyzed in the zero-sequence when an external fault is correctly system replica. A B a) External earth-fault. 4. the phase-relations of In the case without mutual coupling. voltage Vo and current fo at each line end are as outlined in the following figure 4.1.29 - .

or voltage.19.30- .5J. • Fig. ------ I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 .19: Earth-fault on a parallel circuit with isolated" sources In the zero-sequence system I I I I I I I I I I I I The mutually induced current circulates in the isolated zero-sequence ends voltages comparable to an internal earth-fault. 4. phase-comparison normally not be applied in circuits with isolated zero-sequence or negative-sequence polarized relays can be recommended . Summarizing • CI comment on relaying of class 2 networks the comments on class 1 networks apply also here.polarized relays can systems. (4. For distance protection. that sensitive system and generates at both tine From these considerations can be concluded normally not be' applied in class 2 networks. Sensitive directional earth-fault Instead. " For an earth-fault on a mutually coupled parallel circuit without common zero-sequence" sources the replica circuit is shown in the next figure 4.--_ ----_ . protection with zero-sequence current. directional zero-sequence relaying can Similar as with distance relaylnq on paralle! lines a supplementary earth-current comparison scheme could be applied to block the earth-fault relays on the line with the lower earth-current when both ends of the parallel line are accessible in the same substation..

The difference against class 2 networks is that compensation methods can not be applied. I i.1. For the application of distance protection. a parallel connected zero-sequence system exists that reduces the measured fault impedance on the faulted line tends to overreach.20: Parallel circuits with isolated sources This situation does normally not occur with parallel lines of the same voltage level because transmission networks are operated as meshed systems. Naturally..31 - . all the problems previously discussed for class 1 and 2 networks apply also here. as shown in figure 4.3 Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated class 3 network is shown in the following figure A representative Fig.e . 4.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i. Class 3 networks exist mainly where lines of different voltage levels are mounted at the same towers. it has to be considered that. 4.21: Zero-sequence replica circuit of two mutually with isolated zero-sequence sources ~ Z~1P coupled lines . the protection c::J o~------------~ -lop -[0 Zo 0 ZoP c::J ~ ZDS~P o~--~---------------------+--Fig.21.2. Earth-current comparison at lines with different voltage levels is usually not practised. In most cases it will even technically not be possible when the lines end at different substations. I 4.

protection can be recommended as these protection versions are safe against mutual coupling.ZL _ 3 . I I I . Negative sequence polarization can alternatively be considered.32 - .21: '/0 (4.7) we get a similar formula as {4. ZL (ZOSlp + Zap + ZOS2p) (1 + ko) This influence has to be checked for each individual case. ZL + Zap + ZOS2p) + ko ·/E The measured (4. Z OM 2 3 . Differential or phase comparison. ZL{ZOSlp Iph ) • IE (4. Summarizing • • • • comment on relaying of class 3 networks voltage levels. Vo. The impact on the zone reach of distance relays has to be estimated in each individual case.and 10. Class 3 mutually coupled lines belong normally to power systems of different Compensation methods' can usually not be applied.Zl 3.Z:::: .30) = ZL • I ph + ( Z OL . difference against a fine without parallel circuit is then ZOM2 .14}.polarized directional earth-fault relaying cannot be applied. !:J.I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The parallel line zero-sequence current can be determined from figure 4.29) lop:::: - ZOM ZOS1p + ZOP + ZOS2p .31) impedance . The zone setting must be adapted like with class' parallel lines. .. lf we insert lop into equation (4.

relay 0 will issue a false trip. The relay in 0 initially sees the fault in reverse direction and. -: Situation flows from C to 0 on the healthy line. l I:: ' . ·i. This phenomenon can cause a racing between protection directional and carrier signals and can result in a false operation in the worst case. I . ~j " .--Line 1 Ie 10 Line 2 after opening of the C8 in B . To avoid false operation under these conditions.4).forward direction remote end.2. therefore. A A Ie a} 'Initial situation after fault inception Fig. 4.4. before the current reversal can occur.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '. ij Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 :1: !I .. The following figure demonstrates the problem.2 Current reversal effect ..33 - . j. " Ii \. I.1. If now the release signal from relay C still hangs-on. :I Non-simultaneous fault clearance on parallel transmission circuits can cause fault current reversal on healthy lines. does not trip though it receives a When the current reverses. This can cause racing problems in directional comparison protection schemes. 4.. When the current reverses.22 In the initial situation after fault inception the fault-current b} . In this case the fault current on line 2 reverses. Current Reversal Guard) is necessary. The situation is further aggravated when the parallel line is series compensated (see 7.e. a so called TRANSIENT BLOCKING function (also called This feature allows fast tripping for a short time interval (about 40ms) after fault inception but slows down or blocks the protection before breaker B opens. a false trip will occur. ltcan now occur that breaker B opens before breaker A because the protection in B operates faster due to the higher short-circuit current or because the fault is out of the underreaching zone of the protection in A. If now the directional relay has not changed to reverse direction before the signal is received. release signal from the remote end relay. the directional decision of relay 0 changes from reverse to forward.! " .i'. the relay in 0 will send an enable signal to C. A permissive scheme will behave as follows: but does not trip as no signal is received from the The relay in C initially sees the fault in. Short parallel lines provide the worst condition because the relative overreach of the tripping zone is highest in this case.

to prevent an adverse effect on the phase . and increases as the footing of double faults depends widely on the tower construction resistance increases. values up to 50% have also been reported (4. 20%) for phase selection.. 4. these extreme fault situations are seldom and only one or two cases in 10 years per utility have been reported.23. In this case the protection behaviour is practically unforseeable and can normally only afterwards be analysed by computer studies (4. . flying debris or bush fire under the line. The probability Thus.I I I I I I I '1{. these double faults can be considered as simultaneous. The time between separate faults is only a few milliseconds.g.24). Fortunately. with footing points at different -!-ph a-E -!Fig. 4. one measuring unit per phase must be available.8)._ ~~~'.34 - . Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4.23: ph b-E Double-fault on a parallel line A phase-selective tripping and automatic reclosure is desirable in this case to keep one complete three-phase transmission system in service to maintain system stability.g. The phase selection for tripping should therefore not be controlled by the protection starting elements because they have a high reach and will normally see both faults at the same time and consequently initiate a three-phase tripping of both lines. The standard situation is shown in the following figure 4. This can cause quite unusual fault current distributions which have a partly uncalculable impact on protection systems I- [9. It is better to use distance zones with a short overreach (e. e. Naturally. that is when a short-circuit occurs between two transmission systems of different voltage levels. Available statistics and replies to a C1GRE-questionnaire of 1989 show that about 10 to 20% of all line-la-earth faults involve two circuits of a parallel line. For the protection engineer the most frequently appearing double earth-fault circuits is more interesting. by the earth-current selection.!. I I I I I I I I I I I The worst condition is given with so called intersystem faults. At full scheme distance protection schemes the phase-to-phase units must be inhibited in this case. In this case flash-over faults can occur that short-circuit the conductors of two parallel circuits with or without earth-connection.211.. detector. Further reasons for multiple faults are conductor galloping or broken wires. creating single or multiple line-to-earth faults.2.and intercircuit-faults on multi-circuit lines where the multiple-circuits Double faults that involve the two circuits of a parallel line occur predominantly are mounted on the same tower. that is at least a three-system distance relay must be used. However. When lightning hits such a transmission system. severe voltages appear on all insulator strings and one or more can flash over.3 Double.

is rather complex. 4. To get phase selectivity for a hundred percent of the line length for this kind of double-fault.2. The unbalanced insertion of series-capacitor banks can aggravate this unbalance even more. Sensitive earth-fault relays have to be set above these unbalance currents to avoid false pick-up.8.Sensitive earth-fault protection may be adversely affected when the HV system is highly resistive or resonantly earthed. a phase-segregated suitable. protection scheme must be applied. This dissymmetry effect is amplified by the series compensation of lines. Negative and zero-sequence currents in the order of 5% line-Ioadcurrent can appear. The treatment of this subject is beyond the scope of this application guide which is aimed at the application engineer.24J . They are normally not considered for the practical design and selection of the protection system. however. Either non-unit or unit protection schemes are The analysis of further simultaneous faults on multi-circuit lines.35 - .20]. EHV lines may also induce circulating zero sequence currents in parallel Load currents on untransposed HV-systems if they are mounted on the same tower . Computer programs. . Special solutions may be necessary under these circumstances [4. 4.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 If the two earth-faults are located at a tower close to the remote nne terminals they can both be detected also by the overreaching distance zones and phase selective tripping will then not occur. are available to study the protection behaviour under such conditions. due to the positive or zero sequence infeeds at the remote substation this is very unlikely in meshed transmission networks.3].4 Dissymmetries on double-circuit lines The dissymmetries of non-transposed transmission lines cause circulating currents in a multi-circuit-line configuration. 4. The theorically interested reader is referred to the available publications [9. Negative to positive sequence current ratios of more than 25% have been reported [4. However. especially when different fault types are combined.

at the expense of a short line outage.1 Non-unit protection and all directional and non-directional earth-fault This kind of tine protection comprises all distance protection relays with or without telecommunication. 4. The zone setting is shown in the following fjgure 4.g. To achieve fast fault clearing the distance protection is in some countries operated with zone-extension controlled by the autoreclosing scheme (AR). The 1 st zone is extended to overreach the remote line terminal when the autoreclosure is ready.~ -e- Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 .3.I I I I I I I I I I I . the 1st zone can be considerably reduced.24: Distance protection with AR-controllcd zone 5witchlng . 400ms}. 4. (single-. Thus. It has. 3-pole).1 Distance protection without telecommunication _ i- I I I I I I I I Signalling links can be saved when no severe stability problems exist and end-line faults can be cleared in second zone time {e. experience with practised cost.1 "_'.36 - . protection It is therefore natural that a wide variety of solutions exist for the problems discussed in the previous chapter. however.s . available Signal transmission autoreclosure practice channels..1. . philosophies.3. During the AR-dead-time the zone is then switched-back to underreach. to be considered that. due to the mutual coupling effect.':- 4..24. A Zwof Line 1a Line 2 Line 3 Line 1b Line 4 line 2 Fig.3 Protection schemes scheme for multi-circuit lines is controlled_ by a larger number of' The selection of a suitable protection decision factors like • • • • • necessary operating fault clearing time. In the following it will be decided between non-unit and unit-protection schemes as defined in chapter 3. 4.. all transient faults can be cleared instantaneously.

the distance relay OA extends and may trip desirably also. extremely low as the overreach of ZlO is heavily reduced by the usually existing infeeds in station B.e. 4. however. however. The coupling eHect is then small and a good overlapping of the underreaching zones of relays DA and DB is given. the mutual coupling phenomenon also justifies the decision normally not to compensate A Line 1 lop 0 IEA-- ZOM 2 = B ZOM 2 -lEB Fig.26: The zero-sequence Mutual coupling. 4. from the neighbouring bay of the parallel line as mentioned in 4.3. This however would require crossconnecting the earth-current The following effect. l. A longer reach of Zw could be achieved by using a mutual compensation supplement for the distance protection. In this case.2.1.2.26 occurs.1.2.1. the earth current on line 1 is relatively small when the zero-sequence source impedances in A and B are of the same order of magnitude. overreach condition current now ftows in opposite directions in both lines. The probability for this unnecessary AR is. Such devices are offered by some manufacturers.37 - .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 It has to be considered that the distance protections in station A can also perform an autoreclosure for an external fault on line 2 just behind the remote station 8 in location Fl. . A B i Ii !I II ! lOM Fig. the protection nearer to the fault will trip and open the circuit breaker. Thereafter the situation of the figure 4. That means that the mutual coupllng impact is only effective for faults near the line terminals. The zone setting for phase-to-earth faults has to be carefully chosen as outlined in section 4. equal sources mutual coupling If the fault occurs near the middle of line 2.1.25: Mid-line fault.

4 '10 ZQL . Probably the most frequent practice is to set the underreaching zone to about 75 to SO%of the single-line impedance and to rely on the zone reduction due to remote infeed when the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both line terminals or. IF~ SK" . This is in many cases acceptable.ZQM 2 2Qn 0.laM 400 - 400 Zose 1500 Fig.1 'Io Z 12 40n ZOSA 0.27: Parallel line. Protection DA at the other line-end will initially see the fault and trip or trip in cascade. Cases where the parallel lines do not end at the same busbar at both line ends need special consideration because the distance protection can overreach under certain conditions.27.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configu~ations Chapter 4 In this case the fault is cleared in a cascaded tripping with an additional delay in the order of about lOOms (protection. 10GVA A ph-E 8 SK" := 1GVA 380kV lolll =1 1:= 100km lOL'" 120n ZOM :::: son 10 3S0kV lOll 1 :::: 1 =f 0. that is about 60 10 70% ZLl a dependable fault clearing is ensured.ZQM 2 Z 20n 12 0.28. ln cases where the zero-sequence source impedances are of a different order of magnitude. 4. This is demonstrated in figure 4. 10 150 - ZOL .38 - . Mid-line ph-E-fault with unequal zero-sequence sources At the weak zero-sequence terminal the line currents flow in opposite directions. as an alternative way.plus CB-time). This is illustrated in the following figure 4. ..g. Relay DB at this line-end wilt therefore overreach and trip safely. to avoid this double earthing. As a summary of the above discussion it can be developed that even with a short setting of the underreaching zone (e. adapted to the condition of the parallel line being switched off and earthed at both ends. the mutual coupling is also effective for mid-line faults as zero-sequence current flows from the weak to the strong source line side on the parallel line.1 . at least in a cascaded tripping.6 '10 - - ZQL .

are to be preferred.39 - . The latter could be set relatively short.I I I I. study could be feasible. For the underreaching telecommunication. the higher the overreach.1. then depends completely on the signal transmission channel. Less sensitive setting or the use of negative 4. The situation can be even worse when the mutually coupled lines have different In these cases a reduction of the underreaching zone according to a short-circuit tends to sources at both ends.2. sequence directional sensing may be a solution [4. that is when the parallel line is not commonly bussed at both ends or even worse. This has then to be investigated according to the rules outlined in section 4. overreaching schemes . 4. The relay DA 1 therefore overreach. the operation Zone packaged distance protection schemes are desirable in this case with an additional independent underreaching zone.4. 4. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig.2 Directional and non-directional earth-fault relaying This kind of protection is used in many cases as back-up protection with definite or inverse time delay.3 Distance protection with telecommunication protection schemes can be applied when the Alf'types'of"underand overreaching command (transfertrip) parallel line is commonly bussed at both ends.3. when lines of different power systems run parallel. In cases where the mutual coupling effect cannot be clearly estimated. The weaker the infeed in A is compared to D. e. However. A better solution is to use a permissive overreaching or blocking distance protection scheme.1.3. The application on parallel lines with common bus at both ends provides normally no problems.2. to about 70% line length in order to avoid overreach in any case.28: Distance protection of mutually coupled at the same bus at both terminals lines not ending The earth-currents in line A-8 and A-D flow in opposite directions.51.1. When the lines terminate at separate buses the directional sensing may be adversely affected.g. Overreaching protection schemes similar mutual coupling considerations apply as for distance relays without methods are in principle the better solutions against mutual coupling problems. 4. Compensation of the mutual coupling may also be tried where the lines have a common bus at least at one end.

This is on one hand expensive and on the other hand the band width is normally not available with power line carrier transmission systems. I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 As discussed earlier (see section 4. seldom applied as three signal channels have to be provided in each direction per line. 4.~- .5]. more frequent segregated schemes could become more popular._ j 2 .4 Directional comparison earth-fault protection This protection type combines the directional decision of earth fault relays at both line terminals through a signal transmission channel in a permissive or blocking mode. parallel line have the same the healthy Une relays will direction.40 . As the polarizing zero-sequence falsely sense an internal fault.--.29 shows the effect of the capacitive line on directional-earth relay operation. Phase segregated non-unit distance protection schemes would be the best solution.J_ ~.2. .J. --- I.3). Xoc f0 Wit . Both types are in principle suitable also for parallel lines. Consequently a zone acceleration scheme is preferable to an underreaching scheme that uses the starting zone as the permissive function. for parallel lines with a common bus at polarizing quantity can be I I I I I I I I I I I or current or both (dual polarized polarization The zero-sequence both ends.3. They are. . Impact of charging current rap _.~. the phase-selection for tripping should not be controlled by starting elements or zones (when single-pole autoreclosure is practised on parallel lines) .1 weo the zero-sequence on the faulty and on the non-faulty voltage is the same for both circuits. Ua t Zso I Fig. IOF on zero-sequence current of an unfaulted parallel ' 10 10 Zso Uo t I rap .. Negativevoltage or zero-sequence directional relays are in use. can be applied without restrictions Parallel circuits with isolated zero-sequence sources can create problems with zero-sequence polarization as explained in section 4. :.J-.2. application of optical fibres._--_ .29: The zero-sequence on directional earth-fault relaying current j~'/a lop is approximately XOM Xoc' 4 currents • lop ~ Consequently .h XOC = . The pick-up level of the earth-fault detectors should not be set too sensitive to avoid spurious operation circulating unbalance-currents or charging current.3.1. Negative-sequence directional relays should then be chosen [4.. however. phase I' I 4.1. .J_ -1.. Instead distance zones with short overreach should be used for this purpose. The zero-sequence relays). The following figure 4. In the case of radio-links or with the future.

and to supplement a separate zero. I I I seals-in for a certain time. An independent main or back-up faUlt-types.41 - .1): Directional criterion: . FD -..4. logic is shown in figure 4.1. As the travelling wave protection senses the first sudden changes of the short-circuit protection quantities and then i" :I .U: prefault voltage minus fault voltage t::. 4.5 Directional comparison travelling wave protection These relays use the sudden changes in voltage and current at fault inception to determine the fault directon (see also section 7..6. It has however to be considered that power system faults will also induce travelling waves on parallel lines due to the mutual coupling effect. Another philosophy is to apply the travelling wave protection only for phase-to-phase faults.. to the minimum fault I I I I I current.I I For long transmission Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 lines this capacitive current can be relatively high compared solution. or sequential faults that involve both must there tore be provided for these .2). In principle this protection type can also be used with multi-circuit lines. Directional comparison schemes must be equipped with a transient blocking function to avoid false operation in case of current The usual function reversals (see section 4.. The pick-up sensivity of the directional detectors must theretore not be set too sensltive.6. it can by principle not detect simultaneous circuits of a parallel line.30. U x .----1 SR --+-_--G block tripping 40ms 18 RD --------------~ = forward direction RD = SR = tB = reverse direction release signal received transient blocking time from the remote end I I I I I I I I Fig.30: Transient-blocking logic circuit 4.1 minus fault current .6.2. thus avoiding mutual coupling problems. A less sensitive setting is then not the appropriate In case of very long lines (300 to 400km) a supplementary device can help that compares the earth-currents in both circuits of the parallel line and blocks the relay with the lower earth-current which is always the healthy line.I : prefault current The directional decisions are then used to set-up a directional comparison scheme via a signalling link in the conventional way.or negative-sequence directional earth-fault protection. These relays measure very fast (below a quarter-cycle) and the total scheme operating time can be well below one cycle if fast signal transmission channels are available.2..3.

It can be an overcurrent. I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4... Phase-segregated lines. undervottage or impedance measuring system. It must however be mentioned that unit protection schemes also have disadvantages against distance protection schemes. unit protection does not provide back-up for faults out of the protection range defined by the CTs at both line ends. _-----. The composite-type uses a measuring quantity which is a weighted mixture of the phase currents (1M::: Kt·1a + k2-/b + K3'[c) or the symmetrical components (1M:: kl'/1+K2 -[2+kO·/0).. Some sort of distance or overcurrent relay is therefore additionally necessary in any case... --_ .- .----- ------------ ---- -----------... however.. then the relay operation depends on the condition whether the internal fault is on a higher or lower weighted phase and of the total fault-current distribution..2 Unit protection schemes This kind of protection compares directly the in._-------. as previously discussed with distance relays.42 - - . can guarantee a secure phase-selection in the case of simultaneous faults that involve both circuits of a double-circuit line.. Hundred percent phase selective for all kinds of single and multiple faults.. They need a more expensive wide-band signalling channel and their reliability depends completely on it. Safe against mutual coupling effects.... The case -may occur that the protection on one line can not operate before the protection on the parallel line has operated and one fault point is cleared. This different weighting of currents implies that a fixed phase preference exists._. I I I ------ .... When a phase segregated protection is used as main protection.___... The composite type relays further need an additional phase-selector when single-pole autoreclosure is practised.3. Further. Non of these selectors. If a double fault occurs on a parallel line.and out-flowing currents of a line either as phase-comparison or as differential protection. . that involves different phases on both circuits.. Both types are available as composite current or as phase segregated version. the second or back-up protection should also be set-up phase selective or should be time-delayed for earth-faults to avoid a probable cancelling of the correct phase selection. types do not have such restrictions and are therefore ideally suitable for multi-circuit Advantages of phase segragated • • • unit protection schemes for the application with parallel lines: Instantaneous clearance also of double faults involving both circuits.

voice-plus 'i In some cases. i: :j . i' 'j 1" . 011 . The better solution is to transmit the command and measuring signals combined in one VOice-pius channel and to cross the signals for a parallel line as follows. III Ii I I I I I II: \I!: II!' I! 'I II . it is accepted that the signals of the two circuits of a parallel line are transmitted through one common channel. i. standard 4kHz voice-frequency The single-signal transmission channel.2. 1: . . 'I . the three tones of a phase segregated PCP can easily be transmitted in a . : : . r: \ I I i i . ti i. ----------------- .1. the channel requirement is moderate. current zero-crossings must be transmitted. One rectangular-wave comparison signal needs only about 1kHz bandwidth. .43 - I f. In the latter case the reach is reduced as 3 tones have to be transmitted and this requires a nine-fold carrier sending power for the same signal to noise ratio.1 Phase comparison protection (PCP) Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I Chapter 4 ~I J ~i t . Hi II ·1 Ii' ". 4.I 4. the so called. phase-segregated should be preferred. Due to the fact that only phase positions.e..3. I " I~! additional command signals in the same 4kHz. 1\. t. Protection signalling for a parallel line signal1lng channels or optical fibre cables can be applied protection I a high bandwldth for numerous I I I I I Thus.e . I I I I I This type of protection can be used together with power line carrier channels up to about 300km as composite current version and up to about 2QOkm as phase-segregated version. for a composite-type PCP needs only about 1kHz.) DP = distance protectIon Fig. where a second main protection is provided.l I: ". This allows transmitting channel.31: Where radio-links is available.

a 64kbitls channel is required to transmit the sampled current values as digital encoded numbers in a serial protocol. It has. Back-up protection there is no difference for back-up relaying of multi-circuit lines compared to single-circuit I I I I I I It has. . It is therefore often difficult to find a selective zone grading with sufficient line coverage as demonstrated in paragraph 4. Thus.32]. The combined impact of remote infeeds and mutual coupling normally prevent a reasonable grading of back-up Zones. This is discussed in paragraph 4. So lines have been reported called Multi-Dole autorec1osure is performed on EHV lines with phase segregated unit protection: Only the faulted conductors of the parallel line are tripped and reclosed as long as at least two out of six conductors remain healthy. affecting both line circuits. metering and telephone {151.1 . (4. two special forms of autoreclosure on multi-circuuit synchrocheck relay is preferrable. This can however only be considered as an exception.5 Automatic reclosing considerations lines..2. Links of more than 100km without intermediate repeater are in service. These devices have an extremely high band-width of some MBd which is normally shared between protection and other services like remote control. This opens the possibility to apply phase segregated differential protection on these lines and to use their above named advantages [5. the tripping and reclosing of the line with a single phase-to-earth fault is delayed until the other line has been reclosed.4 ln principle. Seauential reclosing is practised an resistance grounded HV-double lines: In case of multiple faults. therefore.2. lines. 4. the simultaneous outage of both line circuits shall be avoided. A supplementary From Japan. Pulse-code modulated standard devices (PCM 30) are available for micro-wave or optical fibre transmission. not been frequently used. I I .------------ ---------------- I I' I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. Digital relays now operate with serial interconnections between the two line terminals. Typically.44 - .2.9].3.3. to be considered that the mutual coupling effect reduces the reach of the back-up zones in case of earth-faults when the parallel line is in service while they are prolonged when the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both terminals. Local back-up philosophies are therefore recommended.1 . Some companies block the three-pole AR when the parallel line is out of service to avoid rectostno at a large voltaqe difference angle. Optical fibre transrntsston is now also interesting for longer lines.2. 4. The phase segregated version needs three pilot-pairs (or at least two pairs with a phantom-Circuit). the proper The standard equipment can also be used for multi-circuit phase-selection-in case of double faults has to be guaranteed.2 Longitudinal differential protection This type of unit protection could formerly only be used with pilot wires and the length of the protectable line-section was therefore limited to about 20km. If single pole AR is practised. however.

to protect multi-circuit lines. multiple faults) or because time delayed fault clearance or non selective tripping can be accepted to a certain extent (calculable risk).2 Statistical Data lines of the same voltage is not uniform and varies between 0 and 100%. On the other hand. In most -cases. the known weak points are more or less accepted because of their low probability of occurrence (e. 4. CH) with up to 50% share in the number of multi-circuit lines. used to provide protective II I! il • • No mention is made that digital methods or equipment would be specifically solutions for the problems of complex transmission networks. Parallel lines with circuits of different voltage level (e.0 for 300kV and above. 3300 lines 150 to 250kV and about 7500 lines 100 to 150kV. though it is a bit surprising that these figures vary considerably from country to country (1 -Ph-E faults from 0. The percentage of multi-circuit The mean value is close to 50%. microwave or optical fibre links are the exception. .- I 'I 4. the protection philosophy introduced for normal single-lines supplements if necessary. Only 37% require selective tripping and autoreclosure parallel lines.6 Recent practices and trends a summary ! -'! " Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 ~: . e.45 - .: Current differential protection is used to some extent with pilot wires. of the replies to a CIGRE-questionnaire is given. About 45% of the replies state that mutual coupling is considered and that remedies are applied (lower zone setting to about 75 to 80% line-length or use of protection with telecommunication). with some I: Ii I' ~ Ii !I • • Distance relays most frequently with telecommunication in various forms of command protection (blocking or permissive schemes) are still in predominant use (87% on 400kV.05 to 8. It was circulated in 19S9 and answers were -received from 49 utilities.g.------------------_. OK. is also kept. The other half of the II ii 'I ! I I I I I I in case of double faults affecting different phases of With reference to fault statistics. These utilities represent 1900 lines> 250kV.I I I 4. It is.35 to 10. 400 and 220kV) occur in some countries (DE. Here. replies stated that it is not considered. 0.6. the replies to the questionnaire show that the utilies can provide information on fault rates as mean values. however. state-of-the-art can be drawn from the answers: II The following general conclusions • It seems that the utilities adhere to the classical protection concepts that have on one hand proved successful in practice since years. number of single-phase-to-earth faults per 100km and Year. difficult to get comparable figures specificaUy for complex networks. where the main application areas are Europe and Japan.4 on the 200kV level). I I I I I I .g.I 'I! 1· !I 'r I I In the following. however. 85% on 200kV and 92% on 100kV) .g. most applications seem to be trial installations except in Japan where the latter type of wide band communication has been widely applied for some years.6.1 Protection philosophy.

77 mIn. 1. B.150 kV 2. ~.0 0.4 100 . max. Faults between circuits of different voltage levels seem to be extremely rare (1 to 3 cases within 10 years per utility as an average..0 0. 0.250 kV 2.005 faults per 1 QOkm and ".12 0. average fault rate for intersystem faults is extremely low: 0. max. 0. 9. the information on double faults on multi-circuit lines is mainly based on the information of only 12 replies. practi- > 300 kV Total number of lines (49 utilities) Parallel lines same voltage level Parallel lines different voltage level 1684 47% 8% 200 . 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 .O 200 . 0.B 2-Ph-E-Faults 0.05 300 kV 2. 10. 0.150 kV 9277 35% 5% ·i Table 4. . max. : ~ The following tables 4.0 2. l-Ph-E-Faults min.0 max.g. The corresponding year.004 min..05 Double faults (Simultaneous faults on the two circuits of a parallel line) Intercircuit faults (Faults between systems of different voltage level) ·. 0.2: Existing parallel lines ·i > . 0. 0.06 min.~ Table 4. . however.0 0. 0. be mentioned that two countries (Belgium and France) delivered detailed statistics.39 min. 0.0 max. ca.004 min.2 to 4. 2.56 min.3: Fault rates (Faults per 100km and year) . 2.46 - .0 0.11 min. 0. 0.7 max.35 0.0 ca. but this seems to be abnormal).13 max. max.250 kV 3438 43% 13% laO .16 min.0 0. .0 max. A maximum value of 10 was stated by one company.7 show the summary of the CIRGE-SC 34 survey on current protection ces of 1989. This again indicates that the local conditions (e. They show that the fault rate of double faults on multi-circuit lines is about lata 20% of the comparable single-fault values stated above.01 max.2 max. lower footing resistance) and line construction may cause a wide variance as stated also above for the single-fault statistic.65 min.05 ca. 0. The reply from one US-utility and further available publications name higher values up io 50%. 0.005 min.0 -'. It should. 0.4 0.64 min. max.0 2.~ Therefore. 2.

negative sequence Parallel lines.150 kV 74% AUDP.22% DEPN:14% 200 .I 11 I' 'I I I [i I! % of utilities use on parallel lines I I I I I I il 100 . BODP:17% CPCP.47 - . 80% 39% 24% 28% 9% 3% 14% 19% 57% EP 72% OEP2:28% DEPN. time delayed Directional comparison. SPCP.33". .4: Zone acceleration Permissive underreaching Permissive overreaching Blocking overreaching Composite current type Phase segregated type Pilot wire Fibre optic Microwave Earth-faUlt protection.I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I i' . applied protection schemes .60% PWOP. pOOP:33'Y.21% poOP: 16% BOOP:18% CPCP:40% SPCP.250 kV 26% AUDP:45% PUDP. PUDP:170/.IOO% SPCP: PWDP:66% FOO?:17% MWDP:17% I I > Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecornrnunlcatton Phase comparison protection Differential protection Travelling wave protection Sensitive earthfault protection 50% 97% 300 kV 15% AuDP:43% PUDP.15% POOP: 0% 2 BODP: 0% 2 CPCP:30"1. zero-sequence Directional comparison.70% PWDP:50% FODP:33% MWOP:17"1. 67% EP 70% DEP2:30% DEPN: - I I I I I I I I Legend: AUDP PUDP POOP BODP CPCP SPCP PWOP: FODP: MWDP: EP DEPZ DEPN Table 4.60% FODP:10% MWDP:30% 7% EP : 64% DEP2.

48 - --------- - .No statement I I I 10% 70% Table 4.Distance protection with AR-controlled zone reach .Phase segregated unit protection . _-- ..Phase segregated non-unit protection . what are the applied measures? 6% 4% 10% . simultaneous faults I I I I I .Use a teleprotection scheme and accept 3-phase tripping of both lines for near-line-end faults .I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 • Is phase selective tripping and single pole AR required in the following case? j j- cllA-E <ll8-E 37% 46% 27% Yes No No statement: • If "Yes".5: Parallel line protection.

di8tanCQ zone grading I .Use a teleprotection scheme and accept 3-phasetripping of both lines for near-line-end faults No statement 10% 70% Table 4.I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 -r: • Is mutual coupling considered ? Yes I No No statement 45%} 49% 6% of utilities • Are measures - applied to avoid the adverse effects of mutual coupling ? 12% 33% I I I I I I I I I I I I I Parallel tine compensation of the distance protection of the fault locator only Application of a phase-segregated teleprotection scheme 4% 10% Using directional earth fault-relaying (negative .sequence) .by reduced zone setting .by mutual compensation ( only possible with line side CTs. Table 4.by nQ1 earthing at QQ1h line ends .7: Parallel line protection.49 - .no answer • The reduced zone setting is: 50% min. 70% average 80% max.) 4% .or zero .by a teleprotection scheme 30% 28% 4% 34% .6: Protection of parallel lines. mutua! coupling effect • How is overreach prevented in the case of a switched-off and earthed parallel line? l .

Dec' I I I For lines with earth wires a simple formula does not exist but a specialized program must be used to compute the zero sequence mutual impedance.41 !l/km Xo zero sequence d distance line impedance: 1.XOM = j 2 f: XOM: XL: Network frequency Mutual coupling reactance 'IT X fx 4. Example: Approximate values of kOM = 3~O~L are given in the following table Xl line positive sequence line impedance: 0.: Geometric mean distance between one conductor and conductors of the other line I .8 Approximate values of KOM (50Hz) . Line positive sequence Line zero sequence reactance reactance of the same line D: Geometric mean distance between conductors D=~ dl • d2 • d3 .6.29 0.1 Table 4.-------------------------------------------Daa '> Dab'> Dac '> Dba'» Obb'· Dbc".50 - . '" 9 .Dca!· Deb".18 0. estimated by the following formula: (Xo .06 0.64 0.6.71 0.54 0.61 0.XLl .Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I Chapter 4 4.6 xl0-4 x log (0) D. or the real values have to be measured.23 il/km I I I I I between the parallel lines in meter d kOM 5 7.5 10 15 20 0.45 50 0.51 30 0.7 Appendices coupling impedance calculation the zero sequence mutual coupling reactance XOM can be Appendix 1: ZerQ-sequence For overhead lines without earth conductors.4 100 200 400 600 0.

II II I I ..·1 :! I I I I I I I I I I I I I Appendix 2: TYl2ical zero-sequence coupling impedance i charts 14 6.20 -I (JJ 10.I I " J 01 ! Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 . 4.20 10._ o II) I i .20 ..20 ~r- 6...32: Typical tower configurations .51 - ..._ <D C) I a) 400kV b) 110kV 1 I I I I I I Fig.

-..-~~ o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 d [rn] Fig.3 0.8- 0. o x. p '" 100 Om (50H~ values) ._ 'x-_ X. <. .-.4 0.. I I I I I I XOM [O/kmj 0...5 0. without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems X 'X.___ <.6 \ \ 0..5 0. . -. ""'""-_ -X-----i( _~--.. -"x... I I I \..-- - -'! . 4....6 0..34: Typical mutual reactances for 400 kV lines.1 without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems I I I I I..52 - ..-..7 0.--~---600 700 800 900 1000 d [rn] 500 Fig. 4.3 0.. p ::: 300 Om (50Hz values) " <.7 0.2 0.=~-j~~-.4 0..8 0. 'x.I I I I :f ji Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 XOM [O/kmj 0.33: Typical mutual reactances for 400 kV lines. ~ '-._ O~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~-~· 100 200 300 --_ ~---400 -..2 O':1-~~~==:=:=~=:~~~-~~-==..

. x.~-~-~-~. p :: 100 ilm (50Hz values) --x.3 0.._ without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems x. X 0.==:=:==:=~=:~==.35: XOM !ntkm] 1 0. "X-_ O.9 0..2 O1 \.6 0.~~~-~~.-..5 'X 0.2 .. 4.1· • :'Ii · I I I ~ ~ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 \ ·.~l_~~~--.8 0. Fig.. ~! 'I I .5 0.8 without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems 0. p :: 300 .-...om (50Hz values) .==:=:==:~::~~~-~-~~~~--~--~---~~--~~ o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 dIm] -Typlcal mutual reactances for 110 kV lines..4 'x "x.-. o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 -_ ~----.. "- 'x.-~-----x800 ----) 900 1000 d Irn] Fig.6 0.4 0.__ "'%.7 0. ----- --------~ 'ol--.-.9 0.. i l XOM Inlkm] 0. ..._. .53 - .::-~-. -*------ -. 4._ --'7?-.--.7 0. __ --x.3 0.36: Typical mutual reacctances for 110 kV lines.I I I I I I I I I I '1 I I I I I I I I .

220V/380V three-phase with earthed neutral. Note: It is necessary to make a preliminary calculation of the order of magnitude of the line impedances to be measured in order to match the supply (8) voltage to the ratings of the measuring equipment.-.Q-..5%. I I it generally satisfies the 1.37 1. where X L·w and w ~ 2·1T·f. J 8 = voltage _j source M = measuring equipment Z '" line impedance to be measured Fig. as the supply is obtained conditions for low harmonic contents.. this supply is equipment ratings. Generally.. = = . They are then suitable for medium or long lines. from the HV network... Impedance measurement Z R + j·X. f is the network frequency (50 or 60Hz). This accuracy must have been checked recently in a laboratory where reference equipment is available. In this case... SA. a) The supply (8) can be an isolated (transformer) and..54 - . Measurement of line imoedances for the setting of distance protection and fault locators 1) 1. 4...1 A I 1--. 10A. regulated (stabilized) and adjustable.. it will be necessary to ensure that the supply has a harmonic content of less than 2% for the harmonics H3 and HS and of less than 1% for higher harmonics.. b) Another voltage source is the substation auxiliary supply.2) (S): LV supply at 50 or 60Hz system frequency Normally a source voltage of 220V is used to comply with the measuring Note: There are two possible cases. In this case..-c -I ::r I I I t-u---t-----------. Measuring • equipment voltmeter and wattmeter is generally 250V I The "vottaqe ~ rating of the most appropriate or 500V.-.I I I I I I I I Il I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 3. • • The accuracy class of the measuring equipment must be 0.... 5A. if necessary.3) eM). -4-0- Z = R + jX . The" current" 300V I I I I I rating of the ammeter and wattmeter should generally be matched to 2.1.1} Set-up of the measuring diagram circult : Schematic r-------------l I 1-<::>-.(S) l ~2.

2) will modify These measurements are performed to determine the average values of Zph-ph and Zph-E. The values are then used to deduce the positive.2) The phase-to-earth comparing I Zph-E = (2Z1 +Zo)/3. If the line structure is dissymmetric and not transposed.2. 2.1 . Calculation of Z.g. it is also advisable. The difference . lbe. • For a flag conductor line. X and :f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2) Modulus of Z: IZI = VII :f := arc cos P/(V' I) X Z· sin :f R = Z· cos :f = VII x P/(Vxl) := PII2 Verification: Z2 = R2 + X2 = Line Impedance The complete Three ph-ph measurements of a three-phase lab. there will be differences between the three measurements for the same group. in addition to measuring IR' to check the current values for the three phases a. b. laE.I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Reading of the measuring values: I in Amps V in Volts P in Watts.55 - . line comprises seven distinct lea measurements: 2.1 1 2. with or without guard wires. by the average measured value Zph-E := (ZaE + ZbE + ZeE) 13 and the theoretical value should not exceed 2%.2. dissymmetry will be obtained both for lph-ph or steel guard-wires and lph-E the measured The presence of one or two steel-aluminium impedances and also the dissymmetry. II . we will obtain: lab and lab ZaE f'>j lbE = leE > lb = Zbe < Zea (the difference can reach 8 to 10%) we obtain For a line in which the conductor = lbc = lca and Za = Zc layout is similar to an equilateral· triangle. For a horizontal bundle line.1) Positive sequence The zero sequence Zo = Vollo Note: . leE lo.: • • measurements: measurement: lbE.1 separately by a single measurement: Z1 = (Zab + Zbc + Zca)/2x3 impedance Zo is determined u I I = 3VollR: lR:= residual current !I I For a dissymmetric non-transposed line. and c and to evaluate any dispersion with respect to lR/3.1) measurement measurements: Three phase-earth One zero sequence Note: E.and zero-sequence line impedances: impedance per phase: '1 I 2. R. impedance measurement lph-E will be used for a verification check.

Argument:to = 80 to 850 75° XO/km XO/X1 = 4 earth wires. but a value of Zo = 0.3) Calculation of the dissymmetry With respect to the average values calculated above.I = 70 to 75° Xo/X.4 Ohm/phase R. The values found above can be compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation on basis of the line geometry. This demonstrates that the effect of the earth wires decreases the zero sequence impedance by almost half.2.32 Ohm/phase 1.4) Kilometric line impedances If the impedances calculated above are divided by the exact length of the line in km.. The validity of the measured values can further typical orders of magnitude: be estimated by comparing them with the known For a HV fine with a small cross-section single conductor per phase and without guard conductor. the kilometric line parameters are obtained: Z1/km ZO/km . the differences Zab/2 - Z1' .0 to 1.8 Ohm/phase.I Argument :t. R1 + j. we find approximately the same value for Z1 For the same line. it will also be necessary impedance (see section 4.Zbc/2 - Z1.XOM Argument :tOM in degrees.2. 2.7 to 0.56 - .4 Ohm/phase R. Zca/2 . the For an EHV Hne with four large cross-section results will be approximately (at 50Hz): XlIkm 0.X1 Argument Argument Argument :tl in degrees '" Ro + j·Xo :fo in degrees :t ph-E in degrees to calculate the mutual kilometric Zph-E/km = Rph-E + j·Xph-E For a double line or a parallel line.2).9 to 1.:. with two aluminium-steel and :t1. deviations and in particular the fault can be determined to estimate the protection measurement locator measurement deviations for different fault-types.""'.1..45 Ohm/phase Argument :t.5 .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 2. resulting in: Xo/X1 =2 to 2. = 50 to 75° Argument :fo 0. and without earth wires. :. 3 conductors per phase.27 to 0.Z. ZOM/km '" ROM + j. the results will be approximately (at 50Hz): XlIkm XO/km 0.4 to 0.

the short-circuit at B cannot be made through the line earthing-switch.57 - .___-'b~ O-I a Fig.. 4.1} Connection Measurement diagrams of Zab (Zbc.3) whether the supply S is isolated or not. the three conductors a. The supplementary However. 4. makes no difference. 3. . 8 .4) General Remark AI! the line links must be made with low resistance conductors.__ ----'0.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 3) 3. b. At A.. or not.40 At 8.Qu1 earth must be used at B. 3. the supplementary short-circuit to earth at 8 can only be used if supply S is isolated from earth. At A. it will also be necessary to use a link to a substation high voltage earth conductor cases. Zea) A 8 O~--=~"--------O-I a Fig. any supplementary short-circuits of phases band c will have no effect on the measurement.38 • Important Note: short-circuit of phase c with phases a and b. 4. This means that in this case. With an earthed supply S a phase-to-phase short-circuit Yill.2) Measurement of Zo A c b 8 a Fig.b. of ZaE (ZbEr ZeE) in all Measurement A o---_--"'c:. them to the line and large cross-section Earthing rods with jaws connecting flexible cables can be used. c must be short-circuited and connected to the substation high voltage earth: the short-circuit can be made by the earthing-switch. 3. the same remark applies as above.39 • • At 8.-.

The measurement or short-circuit connections are to be prepared with closed earth isolating switches. It is also possible to check that there is no noise current at the short-circuited line. Measurement of the mutual zero sequence impedance ZOM c' b' a' 8 ~ ) ZOM c b a Fig. high voltage! • • • induced . When inductive voltage reducers are used. It has to be verified that the open line (without infeed) is free of interference voltages. 4. These measurement operations are forbidden if there is any risk of a storm arising on the line path. the measurement ZOM'" and the three phases are earthed. the parallel Hne is short-circuited At A. After opening the earth isolating switches and providing power from supply (S).XOM of line characteristic data measured with a low voltage source 5) Remarks on the validity To ensure that the measurements are valid. sequence impedance measurement at the other line would otherwise be incorrect.2).safety conditions With the line isolated. The measurements shall only be performed by authorized qualified personnel completely familiar with substation installations and the safety regulations Attention: There is danger of life by possibly for working at HV-lines.connectlon is used for one line as for the measurement of Zo (see 3. together and earth. readings are to be made on the equipment without touching the conductors.1) 4. of V' 0 is made between the three phases connected V'ollo = 3V'oIIR = ROM + j. 6) Measuring in substations • • . At B.2) It is absolutely necessary that the parallel line is completely isolated at both ends. the secondary fuses are to be disconnected to avoid any risks of voltage return by substation circuitry. the busbar isolating switches are to be locked in the open position so that an accidental operation of the circuit breaker is ineffective.41 The same . it will be necessary to check that there is no interference from an energized or on-load adjacent line.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network' Configurations Chapter 4 4) Double circuit line the zero 4. or any other source.58 - . such as of a nearby electrified railway line.

1 I I ( ! ! I I . 4. == 12 = 10 I.59 - i .42 B For a single phase to earth fault: 1. lA' == (2-X)ZSB' + (l-X}(ZSAl + ZLl) 2(ZSA1 + ZSB'} + Zu IA2 lAO (1 ) = IA1 :I .--111"" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 4: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement without !!ll!!J.I I = (2-X)ZSBO + (l-x)(ZSAO + ZLO + ZOM) 2 (ZSAO + ZS80) + lLO + lOM 10 (2) !I i ! I I .!sl! compensation A x a} A ZSA' ZSA2 Ie lL B fA ) 10M " Single line diagram I' B ZSB' ZSB2 le1 /C2 [A' Z I I -IA2 b) Positive and negative sequence network diagram A IcO c) Zero sequence network diagram Fig.

. single infeed = ZS82 = ZSBO = co A Ie B x - Fig.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 ! .--I kOM 1 + ko Measuring error I .43 Phase currents: Residual currents: ZI k _ OM- I(1) and (2) ko= ZIO - 1. IA '" (I-x) ZL (1 .:1 Calculation ZS81 example: Parallel line..A. 4..leo impedance is Zs The measured Ze =:!.60- . 3 ZLl • For relay PA the measured impedance is ZA kOM I x 2-x 1 + ko I Measuring error For r~lay V PB: lao = .

Protection PCB) overreaches Measured fault impedance with a constant amount of 25%.44: Distance protection without compensation Notes: A commonly practised underreach schemes). but it is necessary to provide this compensation ..66 and i ..I I IA :: 2lAl + lAO data ko. 0.__ -~ 50 60 ---.... ./ ~ . overreaching setting for the 1st zone is 80% (without signalling scheme or in permissive Due to the fact that one protection is underreaching and the other one is that allows a fast trip at least at one end..--l. .... .__ -..¥'"": 1 6. The figure 4.- L I~ Zsl -r- --t_ p( 50 ---....___ /"--J ~ P(AI 7___ ~ . in a distance relay....J.44 below shows the protection reach for a parallel line with the characteristic kOM :::: 0.. ZLO lAO point: + ZOM leo . the protection anyway blocks as the fault is seen in reverse direction. In a permissive overreach scheme or in a blocking scheme the Z 1 coverage must always overreach the line impedance and must take into account the reach reduction.::::r.I I: 11. the P(A) zone 1 has to be set to about 150% of the single-line impedance in order to keep a safety margin of 20%.L...> "\ --.. ~..4...! : --~- ~ ~ 90 o o 10 20 30 40 70 80 Fault location - 100% 1 I I i Fig. 1 f i It can be seen that protection P(A) experiences an underreach that increases with the fault distance and amounts to a maximum of 25% for a fault at the line end in B. In this case.7 .61 - .---mutual .--" .. l. 4. :. - ~ ." c:. .e...A V . -- " I. ll: q OJ i 100 -----_ ~... it is normally not necessary to compensate for the etrect of the zero sequence in a fault mutual impedance locator. .....I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Voltage and current VA:: 2(1Al'ZU) at the measuring .:.... Consequently.. _. there is always an overlapping The overreach of PCB) is not a problem because when it occurs for external faults the fault must lie near B on the paratlelline and the fault current must flow in reverse direction in B. .

(1 + ko) + kOM x .45 Impedance ZPA1 = measured V by relay PA 1: + kOM • iRe (1) lB./RC VA phase currents residual currents phase-to-earth voltage Is + ko .x.. A X --lc ZL B ) ZOM Is Fig.-__._:::.. IRS measured Impedance ZPA2 = lc by relay PA2: = = .46 B with A .2c. IRS Without source in B ~~ iells :~:~ } = x/(2-x) ~ A . V (2) + ko .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations ~:.__ (1 + kO) x 2 _ x + kOM . 4. IRe + kOM . Ie lRB.. IRe + kOM • lRC tc + ko . IRS (1) and (2) Mutual compensation being exact: A leo Fig.62 - . 4.:. Chapter 4 Appendix 5: Earth-faults Distance on parallel lines with mutua! compensation on the measurement Although the distance protection with mutual compensation measures the correct distance-ta-fault faulted line it may not operate correctly on the healthy parallel line. iRe + kOM . Is + ko .:.:.

Zl is the 1st zone setting of PAl and PA2. A < n delivers the following equation: This condition Ii i' I I I x2(1 + ko . F i x" ::: 1. kOMl +2. 11 If n . [(1 + ko)(2 .>-> :i! I:' -.«: / V .:: a (6) 1 ko ::: 0.. i.8 i I! 80% of ZL. that means x . ZL . 1st zone setting kOM = 0.34 (not relevant) I.312 x + 0. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i 111 . ZL or x .4 n = 0.34 To avoid false tripping of the healthy line. Distance Measured fault impedance (in %) Protection with mutual compensation . The most common one is to compare the magnitude of the zero sequence currents of both lines and to perform the.63 - !I L II . countermeasures must be taken.47: Distance protection with mutual compensation.n.26 x2 - 2.495 The non-selectivity of PA2 exists for fault locations in the range of a < x < 0.x . non selectivity of PA2 will be experienced condition: ZpA2 under the II .KOM) Example: .66. A <_n . it • 1. 1\ <n • ZL. measured fault Impedances i \1 .------ ---- ---- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I.compensation only in that line where the zero sequence current is higher by a certain amount compared with that of the parallel line.:. kOM .·100 (calculation example) 80 60 40 20 // )~ ~~ / / ""'!I ~ ~ k-+-" PA2 (healthy line) I I ! ~ I I I .64 > 0 (7) II :1 :1· 1 1 Solutions are: x· = 0.4.e.n) +n.> .' PA1 (faulty line) / ~ V 10 a o 1 20 30: 34% 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (in %) Fault location Fig.

--_ .48 2.---. The fault locators at substation A are provided with mutual compensation.. 2. . substations: 2} Partly parallel lines ending in different B A tRAG c Fig. Lc is the correct fault location. no generation in S: We call: Lc the display of the fault locator with compensation L the display of the fault locator without compensation. -------_.. Their measured distance-ta-fault is accurate for faults up to point N.1) Lines with power generation at each substation The lines run parallel from substation A to point N.64 - ----. Fault locators must be installed at each terminal. For a fault on line AS. 4. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 6. one with mutual compensation. If Lc is less than the distance AN (dAN). D = L + dAN' (1-ULc) If Lc is greater than dAN the distance to fault is given by the formula: . On the other hand if the FL A 1 display is less than the distance AN. the distance displayed at A 1 is correct and the display of FL 8 should not be read..._--_ . only the display of fault locator FL B is accurate. Fault location on parallel lines 1) Parallel lines ending at the same substation As mentioned above it is necessary to compensate the zero sequence mutual coupling impedance to obtain accurate measurement of the distance from the substation to the fault. without mutual compensation. if the distance display of the fault locator (FL) A 1 is greater than the distance AN.2) Lines without power generation at the remote terminal in 8 or C and the other one Two FLs must be installed in A at each feeder._---_. For example.

. IRAd If we write A . dAWA + dND Lc = dAN + dNO/A = A. (ILA + ko \ z: dAN: dND: VA: ILA: IRA: IRAC: line positive sequence impedance (ntkm) distance from terminal A to point N distance from point N to the fault (D).. Ph-E-voltage in A Line current in A Residual current in line A-8 at A Residual current in line A-C dAN z(lLA Lc = V ------=-----.= z(ILA + ko IRA + kOM IRAC> + ko IRA + kOM IRAC> + dNP z(lLA + kg IRA) z • (lLA + ko IRA + kOM . iLA + kg IRA + kQM ISAC ILA + ko IRA we get: L. ULc Then: L Lc I' I ..65- . z(ILA With as follows: = dAN z(" A + kO IAA + kOM IRAe) Z• + V kO IRA) + dND Z(lLA + kg IAA) IRA) .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 This can be developed L ..

in t 10/150kV-networks. for the protection scheme with respect to fault For example.1 Multi-terminal Protection of Multiterminal and Tapped Lines Introduction lines are lines having three or more terminals with substantial generation behind each. However. In this case the terminal has to be treated like a tap. e. The taps do not have sufficient current feed-back to operate relays. especially when distance protection is used: high apparent impedances may be measured due to intermediate infeed.g.1 Application range directly to the high voltage line. A terminal may part-time be without or only with weak back-feed when generation is switched-off. Therefore. in the neighbourhood of power stations fault clearing times longer than e. On the other hand protection problems may be introduced. A relaying scheme without telecommunication is therefore not an appropriate sequential tripping may lead to unacceptable long fault clearing times. selectivity . by a weak-infeed supplement to the line protection. a close cooperation between system designers and protection en"gineers in an early stage is System design may also lead to special requirements clearing times.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . advised. The feed-back at a tap will only appear in the zero-sequence system when an earthed transformer is connected to a line without generation behind it.!:: ~ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5 5.1. 0. or. etc.g. solution in this case: The recent practice shows that there is no general tendency to apply these network-configurations more often on all voltage levels.2s may be intolerable because of the risk of instability. By connecting a branch or transformer breakers are required. 5. The tap may in this case be treated like an infeed-terminal for the layout of the earth-fault protection. tapped lines are becoming more and more wide-spread. no additional substation and circuit The main reasons for applying these network configurations are cost saving or environmental protection. . in the case of tapped lines.66 - . Tapped lines are lines having one or more terminals with substantial generation behind them and taps feeding only load. discrimination between line and transformer faults may be difficult.

__ .2 Most frequent network configurations are (S: Strong source: W: Weak source) The typical multiterminal line (MTL-)configurations MTL 1 S/W Zc Z8 S/W S/W Fig._--- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Applicatloni Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.67 - I I .2: One short leg MTL 3 S/W 8 ZB ZA~C 8 S/W S/W Fig. 5.4: Mutually coupled MTL . 5.--_.1: Equal legs MTL 2 S/W 8 ZA ZB 8 S/W ~c S/W Fig. 5.3: Two short legs MTL 4 mutual coupling Fig. 5.1.

5. t Tap without circuit breaker and non-earthed trl'ln.former . 5. 5.5: X: Circuit-Breaker Tap with earthed transformer TL 2 1 Fig.8: .6: Tap with non-earthed Less frequent are: Neutral not earthed transformer (Zo-tap infinite) TL 3 ± Fig.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r~:.68 - .7: Tap without circuit breaker and earthed transformer TL 4 -!Fig. Application GUide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 The most typical tapped line {TL-)configurations are: TL 1 ± Fig. 5. (Zo-tap infinite) .. " 'J' .

Fig. 5.69 - i: I l: : .10: Tap with weak back-feed Also here the number of taps may vary between 1 and more than 10. . I I . 5. !~ I ! .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I :! u Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 II. I I I I I t I i . Tapped lines with backfeed (TlS) may be considered as special cases of multi-terminal lines especially when the back-feed fault current is too smart to activate normal line protection TLB s s Fig.9: Tap with long line The number of taps per line vary between 1 and more than 10. Taps with backfeed are in general industrial or hydro plants directly connected to a HV-line.1 I~ • '1 TL 5 long line '. !I .

intermediate to feeder lengths. the distance relay at terminal A "sees" an apparent impedance ZmA which is larger.7 and ref.1. the setting of zone 1 of the distance relay at A may then be chosen 0. 5. 5.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ]!'{I. the protection infeed and different Another protection problems with multi-terminal lines are related to reach problems.8· (ZAC + ZeD) and the setting of zone 2 at least 1. The tripping time of zone 2 should be chosen longer than in the rest of the network (e.70- . If there are no telecommunication facilities available.T 11. due to the intermediate infeed from terminal D.11 .7.2· (ZAC + 2ZBc) to guarantee also clearing of faults close to the remote terminal.and time-setting is required to maintain selectivity: For the example of fig.1 Multi-terminal lines line: B fA IA +10 10 ZCF D Take for example the following three-terminal A '. guarantee a secure selectivity of the time grading. special distance zone.g.2 Protection problems encountered The main difficulties with distance relays are the different line lengths to the tap point and the different source impedances behind the terminals'. {5. lA + ZCF(IA +10) '" UAllA '" ZAC + ZCF + lollA . Section 5.1 provides a detailed guide for the zone setting and the necessary calculation procedures. Different infeed conditions at the terminals and different feeder lengths make the protection problem even more complex to solve with distance protection. 5. In general. See also section 5. Analogous settings should be chosen for terminal Band D.).6-0.: Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 " 5. ZCF The true impedance between terminal A and the fault is ZAC + ZeF. 0. The infeed problem makes it almost impossible to cover the major part of the line by zone 1 without being unselective with respect to adjacent lines.11: Multi-terminal line In the case of a three-phase shortcircuit at F a distance relay at A will measure an impedance ZmA dependent of the current ratio 10/1A: UA ZmA '" ZAC .2.7sec. problem with respect to rnutti-terrrunat lines is the so called "outfeed" condition: .5) for the more detailed theoretical background.' C leo ZAC F f la ZaF Zac> Zco Fig. " J:" ··1 I' :~. But. This setting is called the "FACTOR TWO FORMULA" method. The fault seems to be farther away than it rea1!y is.

Under these circumstances directional or phase comparison relays at terminal 0 may fail to operate because the fault is seen in the reverse direction.12: Outfeed condition This situation may occur in the case of a weak terminal D..___.13: Protection of a tapped o line. .71 - ..1 Taps with circuit-breaker (TL 1. 5.. 5. zero sequence infeed from an earthed tap-transformer. 5. so that short-circuit current can flow out of terminal 0 and contribute to the short-circuit current of terminal B. But there are some exceptions for which solutions have to be found.2._. See also section 5. 5. TL 2) I -~--------I I C A B ·1 ! --e.7 and ref. Statistics show that they exist in practice lines. Current Transformers I I I Fig.2.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 A IA ZAC 8 C lA-to ZCF f F IB +10 ...2. current transformers (CTs) are installed at both sides of the tap-transformers dedicated transformer differential protection.-: ZSF ZCO 10 . [5.I The main protection discrimination between line faults and transformer Control of the tap-autoreclosure..2 • • • Tapped lines problems with distance relays are in this case related to: faults.5J for the more theoretIcal background. interconnected externally to terminal B. with circuit breaker at the tap .._ D L I I I io - I I Fig. breaker at the HV-side of the in almost all cases of tapped Generally. it is assumed that that make it possible to use a For the solution of these protection problems a current transformer and circuit transformer is a decisive advantage.

. : . after automatic opening of the tap-isolator fault occurs. If single-phase autoreclosure is applied at terminal A and S. measured by distance relays at terminals A and B. Le. • Due to earth current infeed from the tap (in the case of an earthed HV-neutral) the problem of high apparent impedances. the breaker at C must also be tripped to make deionization of the arc possible. Independent of the applied reciosure scheme it is always better to decisively trip the breaker at C to prevent reclosing on transformer faults.14: Protection of a tapped line without circuit breaker at the tap Although seldom applied on transmission disadvantage is that line and transformer • line level. undervoltage relays.g. or a combination of both (permissive intertripping). Solutions are: .blocking of autoreclosure via blockinq links to the line terminals. 5. there is a risk that both line and transformer will be switched off. may cause problems for phase-to-earth faults on line A . The main cannot be separately tripped and consequently. .72 - ..7).I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I E~ ~. This can cause fault detection problems for earth-fault relays. This tripping of taps may be performed by intertripping or by local criteria.~ (I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Possible protection • • When transformer problems: faults occur.This problem does not occur if 3-phase autoreclosure is applied because the infeed from terminal A and B to terminal C across the healthy phases is then interrupted. this configuration should also be treated. single-phase autoreclosure will not be possible: the arc of the line-to-earth fault is sustained from terminal C by infeed via the healthy phases through the transformer windings. Therefore. • A solidly earthed tap-transformer presents a zero-sequence current source.- '1~. 5. This risk • (motor-operated . an earth-current flows from the tap to the fault point that is not seen (measured) at the opposite line terminal. e. and in case of three-phase AR it is always possible that reclosure on a transformer has to be weighed against the cost saving of a circuit breaker.B (see section 5.2.J o Fig.2.2 Taps without circuit-breaker (TL 3. then a current contribution from terminal C to the earth-fault in the line will be maintained by the healthy phases through the tap-transformer during the autoreclosure dead time. TL 4) c ____ __. or applying delayed autoreclosure disconnector) ..

15: Tapped line protection.73 - . tap with small backfeed Normally there is a breaker at the tap point. Further problems as mentioned under paragraph 5.3 Taps with (small) backfeed (TLS) .and time-setting. 150ms) is required. This requirement can generally only be fulfilled by applying communication channels.g. The following difficulties • • • Infeed problems Fault detection and selectivity problems with weak backfeed can make it difficult to trip the tap in case of line faults (intertripping..2. 5.1 5. Alternatively unit protection schemes like phase-comparison or differential protection can be planned provided that sufficient bandwidth is available.g.: I -1'"---------I I C ___ I o Fig. I' I' I. • Instantaneous fault clearing (e.2.. may be suitable. Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. In this case distance and directional or non-directional over-current protection provided that selectivity can be achieved by proper zone. (taps with breaker). II . tripping by local criteria. < 100.2.3 Protection schemes scheme depends mainly on the critical fault clearing time: The selection of the suitable protection • Delayed fault clearing (e.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application. These channels are used to set up command protection schemes with distance or directional earth fault relays. may be encountered here: or a combination of both).2. < 1s) and sequential tripping is acceptable.

however.1). A to prevent overfunction load. levels. If a fault occurs near the farthest terminat.. ~f 1.3.'.2. ln practice the terminals with reverse current will then only be tripped after at least one of the other terminals has opened (sequential tripping).·[ines The instantaneous zones are set to underreach the distance from any terminal to the closest remote terminal (as mentioned in 5. 5. 'ie.: :i'. tripping with delayed fault clearing and consequential consumer supply [f this can be accepted. However. Tapped lines The problem of distinguishing between line and transformer faults is difficult without telecommunication. . and there is a risk that the relays will not operate at all due to the high transformer impedance.. transformer faults should be covered by zone 2 or 3 of the relays at the main terminals. however. lines. This may result in sequential interruption.1 \':.3.2. 5.: . mainly on distribution problem and relaying solution can be found in references 5.1. non-permissive or blocking type command protection schemes. <U '. Local undervoltageor power directional criteria are sometimes additionally necessary to increase selectivity or to ensure complete isolation of the faulty network section.:1 . .l. relays (delayed to allow the In the case of taps without breakers.I. The outfeed problem is difficult to handle only with distance protection (without communication links). it may not be seen from the other terminals. thisdeflciency can in many cases be accepted as the probability of transformer faults compared to line faults is'·low. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 t. ·r 5. infeed at the tap (earthed transformer) a distance With substantial zero-sequence protection against earth faults.1 Distance protection without telecommunication Multi-termina\. " Protection based on non-unit principles This kind of protection comprises distance~ and directional Ole-relays and the various forms of permissive. Its application in the neighbourhood of power stations may.74 - . not be admissible because of the danger of instability due to prolonged fault clearing times.3J. certainly not if the source impedances at these terminals are high and the distances to the tap point are very short. ~~ . The tripping of the tap circuit breakers can be realized by local under-voltage main line protection to operate first). Fault clearing times may then be long. These application description on external faults and to allow a sufficient cases prevail on lower voltage voltage drop when the taps {S. and/or Taps with backfeed can be separated from the line during line faults by means of local under-voltage directional relays.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l~". selective protection without telecommunication is applicable.. Proper coordination necessary feed motor detailed relay can be used as of the pick-upfdrop-out values and provision of an adequate time delay is.

For example in fig.1. 5. with intertrip signals to improve the security . In case of a transformer fault a blocking signal from the transformer protection to the relays at terminals A and B (fig.6 to 0.2. for example the setting of zone 1 of the relay at terminal The setting of zone 2 may be 1.75 - . relay at 0. It is also possible to reclose the breaker again. As compared to two-terminal lines a higher setting may be necessary due to the infeed-effect through the third terminal (calculation procedure similar to 5. But in general. coordination of the fault detection shaped impedance sensivity and the maximum load transmission capacity characteristics may be required.11: if terminal 0 is open.12: if 10 is high enough to start the .8· (ZAC + lco). the start criterium and the trip enable signals from the terminals A and B can be combined to get tripping at terminal D. like under-voltage. See fig. 5. Otherwise undervoltage criteria or direct intertripping would have to be applied.13) prevents these relays from tripping the be delayed for some line.7.2 times the maximum apparent impedance to the farthest terminal or the setting mentioned in 5. may be used in combination (especially in cases of weak infeed). Permissive local criteria for tripping the tap breaker.3.1: Z2 = 1. the local criteria and the received signals from the other terminals can be combined to enable high speed tripping for aU terminals (permissive underreach/overreach. If one terminal is open (circuit-breaker switched off) for some time.11 may be 0. schemes are not All schemes using directional overreaching or blocking zones as well as zone acceleration suitable at terminals with possible outfeed conditions. This requires however that the zone 1 time of the main line relays must milliseconds to allow the secure arrival of the blocking signal. the reach of zone 1 of the relays at A and B could be 0. then it can be intertripped for faults on the main line. Especially in the case of high source impedances at the terminals. for example during maintenance.2) . it is better to decisively trip the tap breaker.2 (ZAC + 2· lac) with a time delay of 0. If there is a breaker at terminal C. The relays are normally set to underreach the distance If this is critical. the relays of the other terminals may be set to underreach the distance to the remaining remote terminal each.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. 5. Tapped lines With telecommunication it is possible to be more selective in distinguishing between line and transformer faults. overcurrent or undervoltage. blocking overreach and accelerated underreach protection). if no special measures are taken to distinguish between line and transformer faults. 5.8· (ZAC +Zsd· In blocking overreaching schemes the reach of the reverse looking blocking zone must be set large enough to detect all reverse external faults that can be seen by the overreaching trippir:9 zones of the remote line ends. Then. Outfeed situations are better dealt with by an underreaching scheme with a non-directional permissive criterium like underimpedance. Time-coordination with the zone 2 times in the rest of the network is important to ensure selectivity. is necessary. to the closest remote terminal: A in fig. provided there is a breaker at the tap.2 Multi- Distance protection with telecommunication lines terminal The periormance of distance relays can be considerably improved if telecommunication channels are available.7s.1 . Zones 2 or 3 provide back-up protection in the case of a telecommunication failure and for faults on the adjacent network sections.

A permissive or accelerated scheme is recommended to cope with these problems. 5. zones the ~FACTOR TWO FORMULA" method is recommended (see Shaped distance zone characteristics may be necessary to limit the reach in resistive direction and to avoid liability to load encroachment and power swing. 5. Time-setting and voltage setting of under-voltage relays have to be carefully chosen to be selective with external faults (5. This depends largely on the individual utility's practical experience.2).14) transformer faults should be cleared by sending intertripping and autoreclosure blocking signals from the transformer protection to the breakers at terminals A and B. For the setting of the overreaching 5. In the case of taps without breakers (fig. If high resistance earth-faults (directional over-current relay zones in directional are likely to occur. High-speed tripping of the taps during line faults is also important for succesful fast autoreclosure: (5. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 The settings of the distance zones at terminals A and B correspond to the normal two-terminal rest of the network. 5. tn general.2.1. Application of permissive intertripping is advised to improve security. links. Tapped line protection especially • • • • Intertripping applied on the EHV-Ievel can require quite a high number of communication is applied (5. it must be ensured that the fault arc extinguishes and the arc path is deionized The infeed problems of taps with backfeed (fig. in case of a transformer fault. Signal link to block the main line protection Breaker-failure intertrip links. relays is recommended - . by applying permissive. to prevent infeed from the tap. application of separate earth-fault schemes. They can be used alternatively or in parallel with overreaching distance comparison For tapped lines with backfeed (fig.2J.15) it is advisable to intertrip the transformer breaker from the protection at both line ends during line faults. unless special measures are taken to block reclosure by means of signals from the transformer protection or from a directional blocking device at the tap.1 5) may be solved in a similar way like with multi-terminal lines. when single phase autoreclosure links per phase from each line terminal to the tap if single phase AR is practised. Under-voltage and/or directional power relays at the taps themselves can also be applied as back-up against communication failures. This risk of damaging a transformer must be weighted against the cost saving of protection and telecommunication equipment.1) . blocking or accelerated schemes for terminals A and B with intertrip signals to terminal C. relays).I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ".76 - . Possibly reclosing . autorectosore may be a risk with this line configuration because of the chance to reclose onto a transformer fault. tines in the Distance reach problems may arise for single-phase-to-earth faults due to the earth current source of the tap transformer. 5.25J: links.

and three-phase infeed from the tap.. in which terminals A. an internal fault is detected. The direction signs are transmitted to the other terminals. If the Hv-rieutrat tap. The relays at A should be set to overreach terminal terminal A.5. blocking can also be realized by deriving a blocking signal when these protections operate. In case of low infeed from the tap an under-voltage faults. directional comparison protection is successfully applicable unless outfeed conditions can occur. 5. it is an external fault. Tapped lines For tapped lines. B and the relays at B should be set to overreach A and B. a directional comparison scheme is also entirely suitable.3.13.14) can be selectively protected by applying directional relays at terminals A and B. The protection scheme is very similar to the permissive overreach distance protection scheme. must be added. overreaching the transformer. At taps without a breaker. this protection scheme would consequently faiL The star:ting relays should be set to overreach the remotest terminal under the worst circumstances with respect to short-circuit power and infeed. The low set element should have picked-up before tripping is released at any line end. 8 and C are included. It may therefore be sufficient to provide the tap transformer with over-current earth-fault relays at the HV-side. If one or more currents or powers flow out of the protected area. because there is earthed. The relays are generally started or released by over-current or underimpedance criteria. criterion. This scheme covers also two. 5.1. -77- . they should not start at the highest possible load current. as with passive taps. an autoreclosure scheme may be admitted by adding a blocking device at the !. If at any terminal equality of all signs is established. infeed from the tap can only take place when earth-faults occur on the HV-Ievel. This device consists of a directional over-current or a power relay that blocks autoreclosure if the fault is located in the transformer. If aU measured directions point into the protected area. such schemes have low set current starters for the release of the directional measurement and the initiation of the signal transmission. In the case of fig. tripping of this terminal will follow. A blocking element at the (ow voltage side would have to be added. For directional earth-fault relays sensitive settings are possible as the load current does not need to be taken into account.- -----. If currents or powers flow out of the protected area at one or more terminals in case of an internal fault. Taps with small backfeed exists adequate (fig. The relay at C should be set to overreach the farthest of the terminals The transformer is protected locally by its own protection that trips the allocated Taps wlthout a breaker (fig. with earthed HV-neutral. tripping should always be three-phase because these taps would feed current into earth-faults and would prevent arc extinction as just mentioned above. Normally.15) may also be equipped with a directional comparison scheme. 5. circuit breaker.3 Directional comparison protection With this type of protection the direction of current or the direction of the short-circuit power of all terminals is compared.--------------------- ------------ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -j Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 ::1 . It has to be considered that a larger setting difference margin is necessary for 3-ended lines compared to two-ended lines. If a separate transformer differential relay or gas pressure protection is available. A high set current element is provided to enable tripping. Multi-terminal lines For multi-termina! lines.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
;

Chapter

5

5.3.2
Protection

Power line protection

based on unit principles
In the normal case.the

principles that compare analogue measuring values from all terminals of the line configuration

enable absolutely selective protection schemes less sensitive to infeed conditions. measuring quantities are transmitted from each terminal to all other terminals.

Pilot wire differential protection has been limited to distances in the order of 20km. By applying wide band telecommunication. like microwave or optical fibre links. it is now also possible to protect long HV-lines up to the order of 100km with unit type protection [4.22).

5.3.2.1

Phase comparison protection

This protection ... principle is based on the measurement of the phase angle difference between the line currents of the ~ifferent terminals. If the phase angle difference exceeds a certain stabilizing angle. tripping of the line will occur. Two kinds of protection are available: segregated and non-segregated autoreclosure is being applied. recommended as it provides phase-selectors. then a segregated system. absolute phaseand zone phase comparison. each phase independent If single pole separately. is of additional

protecting selectivity

The phase comparison protection has moderate requirements as only current phase-positions sufficient for a non-segregated Multi-terminal lines

on the band with of the transmission-channel

(square waves) have to be transmitted. A one kHz slot of a voice channel is protection. Segregated protection needs about 4kHz.

Phase comparison protection is by principte suitable for multi-terminal

lines. It needs, however. infeed from

all terminals (In the case of a weak-infeed terminal. the "Infeed" condition must-be simulated by generating a release signal if the PCP-starting elements do not operate). Basically this protection is designed for comparing two quantities. So there is normally a problem of mixing the phase-information of three or more quantities. Moreover. one must be sure that no outfeed condition can occur at any terminal that would block the relay. The reason is that the phase-angle of the current would change in this case by 180 when outfeed occurs, no matter how small the current is, thus simulating an
0

external

fault. For these reasons phase comparison

protection

is seldom used on multt-terrninal

lines.

Tapped lines In the case of fig. 5.13 (tap with breaker). the terminals A. Band C can be equipped with phase comparison relays. Together with the transformer protection a selective unit protection scheme for the tapped line configuration can then be achieved. A segregated protection system should again be preferred if single pole autoreclosure is practised.

Tapped lines without a breaker (fig. 5.14) may be equipped with phase comparison relays only at terminals A and B. It has, however. to be guaranteed that under load and through-fault conditions the load current at the tap will not cause a phase shift between IA and 16 that exceeds the set blocking angle of the PCP. For faults in the tap-transformer or at the low voltage side, the PCP may however operate. protecti<2n can prevent unwanted

Blocking signals from a blocking device at the tap or from the transformer tripping and reclosing in this case.

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I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission
Network Configurations
Chapter 5

Autoreclosure must be three-phase, maintained during earth faults. Phase comparison

because

otherwise

the voltage

on the faulted

phase would be

protection would also be applicable for taps with small backfeed

(fig. 5.15). The relays be of the phase

should be located at terminals A, 8 and C. The protection segregated type if single pole autoreclosure is applied.

r-

system should preferably

For the same reason as for multi-terminal lines (ouUeed condition) the PCP is practically not often used on lines with high load taps.

5.3.2.2

Longitudinal

differential

protection

This protection principle is based on the vectorial summation of the currents of all terminals. To achieve this, momentary or phasor quantities of the currents are measured and' transmitted. For load or through-fault conditions the sum of the currents is nearly zero. The relay operates when the sum exceeds the set threshold level. Segregated and non-segregated systems are also available. Single pole autoreclosure is possible if each phase is separately protected by its own differential protection system. In case of a composite type relay additional phase selectors would be necessary. The phase segregated zone-selectivity. Multi-terminal lines type should be preferred for single pole AR as it provides equally phaseand

From the protection point of view (selectivity, speed), probably the best protection system for multi-terminal lines is longitudinal differential protection. It even widely covers outfeed conditions, as not only the phase-angle information, but also the current magnitude is used. See section 5.7 for more background information. Tapped lines Longitudinal differential summation. protection may also be applied on tapped lines, if the tap current is included in the

This means for the configuration in fig. 5.13 (tap with breaker) that relays should be installed at the terminals A, 8 and C. In' this way line and transformer can be protected separately. For applying single pole autoreclosure a segregated advantage of strict selectivity and voltage transformers system should be preferred. This type has the for phase selection are not required at the tap (s) ,

Tapped lines without breaker (fig. 5.14) should also be protected at terminals A, Band C, if a separate transformer protection is installed with intertripping links to the breakers at A and B. Single pole autoreclosure is not possible in this case as the fault would be fed by the healthy phases through the tap transformer. Another way to protect this configuration is by installing differential relays at terminals A, 8 and D.

Autoreclosure should be blocked then if there is a fault in the transformer. This may be realized by a blocking device at terminal C ( reverse current or power). The protection scheme would then, however, have to be stabilized against the inrush current Longitudinal differential should be located protection of the tap transformer. (fig. 5.15). The relays be of the

is also suitable for taps with small backfeeds is to be applied.

at terminals

A, 8 and C. The protection

system should again preferably

segregated type if single pole autoreclosure

II - 79 -

\: ;1

~i

I I I I I

~~1]:
))i'!;
c:,l
t,l· "

Iti' :

-.1

I:
.:.~ I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5

L'

5.3.3

Back-up protection
protection especially as

Multi-terminal and tapped lines require careful consideration of the back-up concerns fault detection sensivity and provision of intenripping links.

Remote back-up may create problems due to the more critical infeed problem. As a consequence of the three-terminal configuration two intermediate infeeds exist for external faults. In addition to the remote-terminal infeed an "in-line" infeed has to be taken into account (see fig. 5.16)

I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I

A

c

----tine with remote back-up

t
Fig. 5.16: Three terminal

Therefore. the zone reach is two-fold reduced and may not be sufficient to provide reasonable line coverage. In the worst case the back-up zone may not even reach the remote terminals. In this case local back-up protection is indispensable. Intertripping links have additionally to be provided to both remote terminals,

5.4

Automatic reclosing considerations
and tapped lines

In general it can be stated that automatic reclosing can be applied both on multiterminal

without problems. There is only one limitation: If the breaker at the tap cannot be tripped by the protection or if there is no breaker at the tap, then single pole autoreclosure cannot be applied because of the coupling of voltage from tfie' healthy phases to the faulted phase through the tap transformer. Lines in the neighbourhood of power stations may be excluded from three phase reclosing at the generator side of these lines to prevent very high generator shaft torques at reclosing on close-in two- and three-phase faults.

This is, however, generally valid and must not be considered as a special case of multiterminal or tapped lines. It is only mentioned here because power plants are often branched-in through line taps.

- 80 -

6) brought forward in this case the following (see tables 5.5 5. is the future trend also for protection > Total number of lines (49 utilities) MTL TL Number of taps tendency to apply more often MTL? 300 xv 200 . In general there is no tendency to apply multi-terminal and tapped lines more often with exception of '10/150kV-networks. where tapped lines seem to be wide-spread.3): • • • The use of multitermlnal and tapped lines is common in most countries. like microwave and optical fibre.51% kV 1684 40 2.5.05% 1 or 2 1 to 4 1 to 8 ·1 ill ·1 .250 kV 3438 185 5.81 - 1_ .__________ - --------------------- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.1 to 5.1: Existing multi-terminal lines (MTL) and tapped lines (TL) i . at all voltage levels.38% 100 -150 9277 233 2.-1 Yes No Yes No 8 23 3 23 Yes No Yes 10 21 Yes No Yes 8 19 TL? No 7 21 No 16 11 Table 5.1 Recent practices General remarks and trends The replies to a CIGRE questionnaire circulated in 1989 (see also section 4.43% 96 2.37% 41 2.79% 1025 11. Wide band communication purposes.

150 kV MTL 40% TL 54% 62% 50% 71% 65% 40% 38% 7% 5% 14% 4% - 8% 23% 25% 5% 20% 25% 38% 48% 40% 38% Table 5.2: Multi-terminal and tapped lines. applied protection schemes • Selectivity problems with MTl ? Yes No No statement 31% } 27% 42% of utilities • If "Yes H.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 0/e of utilities use on multiterminal lines (MTL) and tapped lines (TL) > 300 kV MTL Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecommunication Phase comparison protection Diff erent iaI protection Sensitive earth fault relays 8% TL 25% 200 .82 - . what kind? Different feeder lengths Distance-zone reach problems Weak infeed conditions Outfeed conditions Failure of telecommunication Reason not named Number of answer 8 7 10 3 4 2 • Intention to use more often Wideband channels: Yes No No answer 48% 19% 33% { Microwave Optical fibre Both :14% :17% :17% Table 5.3: Multi-terminal lines {MTL}. protection aspects .250 kV MTL '14% TL 26% 100 .

The same is valid for complex multi-terminal lines. different feeder lengths and weak infeeds. Practically all companies use distance protectlon with telecommunicatton. 33% of the companies use shaped relay characteristics to cover increased apparent fault impedances and to avoid problems with load encroachment and power swing. Almost all companies The most frequently have taps with circuit-breakers applied configurations at the HV-side of the tap-transformer. The taps are in most cases tripped by directional On higher voltage levels reclosing of taps is often performed by dedicated autorectosino devices at the tap. Most frequently applied is distance protection with telecommunication. On lower voltage levels manual local or remote reclosure prevails. realized by under-voltage relays with or without permissive have taps with backfeed. The lower the voltage level. 62% of the companies over-currentor power relays.83 - .5. on lower voltage levels three phase autoreclosing is the rule.2). The number of taps per line varies from 1 to 11.1.------------------- ----------------- ----- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex TransmissIon Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.2).5. The major reported problems are reach problems. Tripping of taps is most frequently intertripping from the main terminals. the higher the number of utilities that do not trip the taps. 80% of the companies apply autoreclosing on tapped lines.2 • Multi-terminal lines considered The protection schemes used do in general not depend on the network configurations (chapter 5.1.. are TL 1 and TL 2 (chapter 5.3 • • • • • • • • • -Tapped lines . • The number of companies having selectivity problems with their protection schemes is about equal to the number of companies having not. 5. On higher voltage levels single phase autoreclosinq is frequently applied. .

17 MVA 3phase MVA lphase I I I I I I I 7500 I Brief description of the applied protection systems: Primary (Main 1-) Protection: Today: distance protection Near future: Current differential Secondary (Main 2 or back-up) Distance protection Under voltage supplement as permissiive criterium for weak-infeed conditions protection Protection: .06-12·1 impedance: n short' ) circuit power: .8-321 short' ) circuit power: impedance: 1 0.1-301 km 10.84 - . links: PLC 10. example' Erotection of multi-terminal System voltage: 225 I kV length: [2-140[ km length: I 2-80 I km 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Confi~urations Chapter 5 5.6 Application examples lines.) short circuit power of the infeed I 7500 I I Fig.8-561 n lrnpedancerj n MVA 3phase MVA 1phase short' ) circuit power: MVA 3phase MVA 1phase length: type of ' comm. 5.

5. including that of switching out and earthing both ends of the parallel line. while zone 2 is set to 200% Zl to protect the lines under all conditions that may exist.05I .85 - . zone 1 is set to 50% ZL. there is very strong mutual coupling between the lines.) short circuit power of the infeed @] Fig. As there are two parallel lines on the same tower. .18 Brief description Primary of the applied protection systems. example 2 System voltage: 500 I kV length: Gkm length: ~km short") circuit power: impedance: n impedance·1D. Same settings apply as for Main 1 Protection. As a result.~ n short") circuit power: CD ~ MVA 3phase MVA lphase MVA 3phase MVA 1phase I 9190 I I 4890 I length: ~km ~ type of comm.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 protection of multi-terminal lines. (Main 1-) Protection: Distance protection operating in an overreaching blocking mode in conjunction with power line carrier communication links. Secondary(Maln 2 or back-up) Protection: I I I Distance protection operating in an overreaching permissive intertrip mode in conjunction with a power line carrier communication link. links: impedance: n PLC short" ) circuit power: ~ MVA 3phase MVA 1phase .

7s) Zl ::: 22.20(5.3 .56 + 2x23.7s) (0.56)Ohm (0. " lines. Z2 ( 1.20(23.). links: PLC length: 156.20(22. dead tlme « single-pole autoreclosing 220 1s System voltage: I kV length: 153.38 Z2::: 1. Z2 ( 1.170hm Zl ::: 22. Z2 ( 1.:~.821 km impedance: I j 2. 5.56)Ohm + 2x23.3 .33 n short circuit power '): MVA MVA 3phase ~ 1phase I I I I '}: MV A 3phase MVA 1 phase 1 4600 I type of cornrn.38)Ohm (Setting calculations with the FACTOR TWO FORMULA.961 km length: ~ km 2 impedance: ~ short circuit power 6500 5400 n impedance:1 j 5.56 In I I I I I I I I I I 3 .86 - ..1 s) Z3 ::: 1..170hm l3 ::: 1.I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of multi-terminal . example 3 only. 1s) Z3 ::: 1.19 Brief description of the applied protection systems: Primary Protection: POOP using telecommunication Distance protection Secondary Terminal 1: Terminal 2: Terminal Protection: DPZS Z2 ::: 1.400hm + 2x22.3 .3.33 Z2 ::: 1.) short circuit power of the infeed short circuit power'): ~ ~ MVA 3phase MVA 1phase Fig.7s) (0. with prolonged 1st zone equal to Z2. see page 91) . 1 s) 3: Z1 ::: 23.

impedance: B n impedance:[3 n short circuit power: I I I ~ 1250001 MVA 3phase MVA 1phase rated power MVA 3phase MV A 1 phase j 250001 j 250001 ~ type of comm.: EJ kV MVA % FO. example 1 System voltage: 400 I kV length: 140-1501 km short circuit power.I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of tapped lines. links: us.20 Brlef description of the applied protection systems: Primary Protection: Differential Secondary protection Protection: without telecommunication Distance protection Tap Protection: Under-voltage protection (PIT) i ! I ii .87 - I. 5.c. . MW I I I I I I I I I I 90/63 Fig.

5. example 2 System voltage: ~ kV length: 241km length: short circuit impedance: I 10 power: In impedance:0 n short circuit power: [ 7500 [ 7600 I MVA 3phase MVA 3phase ~ rated power ~ MVA IMVA .c. time delayed without telecommunication Directional .21 Brief description Primary of the applied protection systems: Protection underreach distance protection with intertripping signal to the tap Accelerated Secondary Protection: earth fault protection.: [] % MW 25 kV Fig.88 - . links: us.. 1phase MVA 1phase I 7000 I I I I I I I I I I I I type of comm.I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of ccmptex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of tapped lines.

Ii " ~.ZAfA '" E . ted.22 The sources are assumed to have the same voltage E and the same phase-angle. .1 5._---- I" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I ~ . These calculations are made by hand. .7. expressions are derived for the fault-impedances A fA ZAC Zco fo 0 8 C fA. Herewith the following equations are valid: UA :: fAZAC + (fA Ua ::::laZSF Uo '" foZco From expr.1 3-phase Multi-terminal lines Infeed conditions seen from the line-terminals in case of a fault. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. 5.1. ~.: 5) into 4) we get: 5) ZAC + (1 I ZA + ZAC Zo + Zco )ZCF 6) In the same way expressions can be found for Ualls and Uollo.f. Prefault load is neglec- + fo)ZCF :: E . to get a feeling for the problems. s - ----_ -----------------------------------_. . Further.7. +1. formulas for the current distribution are developed.Za1a = E . In the following. In practice there are various computer programs available for this purpose.) fa ZCF F f ZSF Zco < ZAC < ZSC E Fig.. 5. ) 2) + (fA + fO)ZCF 3) 4) 1) the following measured impedance Subtracting 3) from 1) delivers: IA(ZA + ZAd = io(Zo + Zco) [olIA :: (ZA + ZAc)/(ZO + Zco) By introducing UAIIA.89 - .7 Appendices In these appendices some examples are given for the calculation of relay settings and really measured impedances. .Zoio for the relay at A can be derived: . \'.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5

These measured apparent impedances must be compared reach problems can occur due to the infeed effect: Setting of zone 1:

with the setting of the relays to determine

if

Measured impedances

Settings

(first zone)

O.85(ZAC O.85(Zec ZmO

+ +

Zco) Zco)

7) 8) 9}

=

Uo/fO

=

Zco

+ (1 + Zo + Zeo )ZCF ZA + ZAC

0.85(ZAC

+ Zco)

The above settings are chosen for the case that Zco Substituting fA 5) in 1) results in a formula for fA: E

<

ZAC

<

Zec.

= -----......:::..------

ZA + lAC + (1 + ZA + ZAC )ZCF Zo + Zco In the same way Ie and 10 can be derived: E fe = 'Ze + lSF

10)

11 )

10 =

E -------='--------Zo + Zco + (1 + Zo + lcp )lCF lA + ZAC

12)

It can be seen from the expressions 7. 9, 10 and 12 that the worst case with respect to reach problems will occur if: • • • The leg BCi~ very long compared to the legs AC and CD. The source impedances ZA and Zp are very high. A fault occurs in the neighbourhood of substation B.

If we assume for example that ZA + ZAC Zo + Zco and that ZCF 3ZAC 3lco, then the relays at A and 0 will see an apparent impedance of 3.5{lAC + Zco). This corresponds to about four times the setting of the 1st zone. The currents at terminal A and 0 are EI (lO + 7Zco). These minimum fault currents must be compared with the highest possible load currents when the setting of ole fault detectors is considered.

=

=

=

"

"

.1.

;.

- 90 -

I I I I I I I I I I

t,
i

t

• I
:.

Application Guide on Protection
of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5

;,

,

Setting

of the overreaching

zones (FACTOR TWO FORMULA) of the multi-terminal line.

The overreaching

zones should at least see a fault near the farthest line-end Fault

lAC

c

A

o

IA + 10

8 lac> lAC and Zac > Zco

Fig. 5.23
For example, a fault at B should at least be seen by Relay RA or Ro.!f one relay trips, the other relay will also see the fault and trip because the intermediate infeed at point C is removed. The relays RA and Ro measure the fallowing impedances:
I-;

'I
I I I I I I I I

ZmA == ZAC +~

I. + lr, fA

. Zac = ZAC + lac + ~

. Zac
I

Error A lmO == lco /~ fo . lac

= lco

+ lac + ...l..A
fo

. Zac

[L----'Ir----'

Error O· The errors A and 0 can not be larger than Zac at the same time, because either 101lA or IAllo is smaller than 1. The worst case is given when fA and 10 are equal. In this case the error is lac for both relays. In order to enable at least one relay to see the fault near B, the following minimal setting can be deduced (20% safety margin):

ZRA

=

(ZAC + 2 . Zac) (Zco + 2· Zac)

1.2 1.2
zones:

lRD ==

In general we get the following formula for the setting of the overreaching ZOR == (Zx Where

+

2 . Zy)

. 1.2 from the relay to the junction from the junction point (C) farthest other terminal. point (C) to the impedance-wise

Zx == impedance Zy == impedance

This setting approach

is called the "FACTOR TWO FORMULA ~ method.

- 91 -

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Application Guide on Protection

of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5

Setting

for single-phase-to-earth

faults:

In the same way calculations may be carried out for single-phase-to-earth faults. In this case the zero sequence impedances and the zero sequence infeeds have a strong influence. Additional reach problems may arise due to mutual coupling with parallel circuits. For sing!e-phase-to-earth faults the apparent impedance is not only determined by the relative length of infeeds and the Zo/Zl ratio of sources and legs.

the legs, but also by the zero-sequence

Moreover. the ko-factors are very sensitive to the state of the parallel circuits (in service or out of service and earthed). This effect is treated in section 4.2.1.1 .2). Example: (see fig.5.24) Suppose that there is a single-phase-to-earth fault in location F. The impedances measured by the relays sequence-networks as demonstrated in the at A. 0 and B can then be derived from the series-connected following figure"5.24.

- 92 -

>oO!.:.Z. the phase-current UA IA IAE = = U AO + UA 1 + U A2 lAO + I A 1 =' 3/AO + I A2 The measured impedance is: ko = Z. UA2 r i " I' A lAO ZACO C F 0 10 B UAO Fig. 5.93 - . 12 B I.24a A B F I. We have to calculate in this network the voltage UA..f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r l Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 A c o JI 1-Ph-E-Fault B Fig.- _ (ZO and Z.. 5.24b IA and the earth-current rAE: Consider for example the relay at A. IAl c E 10 A = 11 = 12 = Isc/3 IA2 ZAC2. l > . are data of line A-B) ..L"l -3 .-----=. Z.

: I I..2 Outfeed conditions so that the fault current is This situation occurs if one terminal is much weaker than the other terminals. the relay at 8 measures the correct distance.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.94 - .Io)lcF = = lmA 1mB - Io)lcF . 8 and D will give a positive result.. UoJlo The underreach for the relay at A chanches into overreach because of the' . sequential tripping will occur again.7. follows: . A differential scheme will probably be the best solution to protect three-terminal lines with possible outfeed situations... the relay at D assumes a fault in reverse direction.sign' in equation 16). If no telecommunication is provided the relays at A and B will trip first...: J IA + (fB + 10) + (-10) I = I IA + Is I 19) protection is more highly It should. If we use a permissive underreaching scheme..ult and will fast trip after having received signals from A and 8. (unless there are two independent telecommunication channels). after that the current at D will reverse and the relay at D will trip (sequential tripping)..loll A} lCF 16) 17) 18} UA"A UsIUB +10) lSF = -lco + (lAllo .. then it depends on the value of the current at D if this relay will detect the fa. A directional or phase comparison scheme will not operate correctly under outfeed conditions. flowing out of this terminal during an internal line fault: A B c lCF lco 10 f lBF .1)lcF lmo =.: . .Iolco . The summation of the currents at the terminals A.I 1 .: lAC + {1 ..25 IAlAC + U». . however.1.lA/A E . 5.. III I IA I + I IB + 10 I+ ( -10 I = IA + Is + 210 (compared to fA + Is) channel Distance relays as back-up protection remain necessary for the case that a telecommunication fails.: E . -'"1 I _j 't 10 1lOB f lo Fig.. be considered that under outfeed conditions the differential stabilized than under normal infeed conditions: IS " I.lslB Us + foloB 13) 14} 15) From these equations . .. .-0 ... If not. independent of the fault location on the three terminal line:" I D. (IB + Io)lBF (fA .

26 los b) Tapped line.E) I I I I I I I I I I I I a) Tapped line.I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. Take the next configuration: A fA B C IA+fc Ic ZOCF ZICF ZOA llA ZOAC ZIAC 4ZOT f F IS ZOBF l18F F(Ph . 5. diagram of symmetrical UAO VAl UA2 :: = :: UFO + ZOCF(JAO + lOT) + lOAC lAO VF1 + llAF fAl fA2 UF2 + ZlAF with UFO + UFl VA fA = = + UF2 = 0 and lOAC + ZOCF = lOAF we get: lOT lOAF 'AO lAO + fAl + lOCF + fA2 + llAF(JA1 + IA2) 20) 21) .2 Tapped lines..95 - .l. fo:: 11 :: 12 Isc/3 = A A lAO ZOAC C lOT fAO+loT B VAO t lOT t components Fig. single fine diagram A IAI " 'i E. distance zone reach problems faults if One of the main difficulties with the protection of tapped lines is dealing with single-phase-to-earth the HV-neutral of the tapped transformer is earthed.7.

.3Wkm.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Confiquratlcns Chapter 5 For the component-currents ZOT lOT we get: ZOB + ZOBF ----------~~~~~------------ + ZOA +ZOAC l08 +..( Z"-.3)n :: 2. lOT::: Zn :::l2T • A single phase fault occurs at line A-B..3kV/(1. 7SflIkm .2kA} ::: B11 Positive sequence Error = 2fl: fault impedance ZlAF ::: 611.---.4kA + 2·0. = 3 n C IA+/c Zo ::: 7.7 km farther away than the real fault location.5 ..SOO and 1OOOMV A ::: Z2A ::: 2Sn ::: Z2B ::: iz. = 3 n 8 .A:>. 5.5 10 O.BkA 22) 23) 20) 21 ) ::: 0. Z.O"-. IAE ::: 3 .1kA 10 + I. in this example is about 33%. kO ::: 0. = "7.. 1.7kA = :: + 0.0SkA O.5 Ie Z.27 lOF ZlF ::: 10n =·. = Z2 ::: O..:. Transformer. Take for example a tapped line configuration as follows: sequence • • • 110kV-line.65kA O.BkA 19..so Zo ::: 0. Sources ZOA ::: Z'A ZOB = Z18 of'.2kA 0.-T. we can find an optimal setting for the relays at A and B for single-phase-to-earth . ::: 12 at the fault location must be calculated by solving the series-connected network..96 - .7 kA 19..3kY 1. line length 30km. 20km from A and 10 km from B: A fA ZOA::: ZlA ::: 250.3 kA 1. Z 08 F + Z OCF + _Z=.5 Z. + 2 • 10.O..5.4kA.6SkA.O".4kA + 7..sn·0. + /2 0.C. IA2 6.S[} Fig.):__ lOT + ZOA +ZOAC 23) 10 22) The current 10 ::: I. By repeating the calculation with different fault locations and varying source strengths.:.A. Zo ::: 7. ::: 20n.n n Isc f F Zo'''' 18 z.f2F ee ::: :: = :: ::: :: 10.33 10 + 611·' AkA ::: UA IA ::: 15D·0..S n 3 n ZOB = Z16 =12.+_Z=.. 60MVA. The underreach faults. UK '" 10%. lAO ::: lAO IAl = lOT ::: 1. tapped 10km from A. the apparent fault location is 6.3D 12 ::: 110kV/y3(10 10 Isc IAO+/oT I.

requires always the tripping of the complete composite line.97 11 .2 Protection problems encountered is this lack of circuit breakers between the protected at the needed locations: elements and the The normal origin of difficulties current or voltage transformers • • Autoreclosure transformers The absence transformation is wanted for OH-lines but must be prevented under aU conditions for faults on cables or of CTs or VTs may necessitate grading distance zones across transformers. 6. Selective transient Only in connection normally provide no problems for the selection and layout of the (AR) special provisions are necessary. and therefore i. as they are strictly selective and. The of fault impedances from the fault. either when an overhead line is conducted into when certain obstacles in the landscape (river. Such composite OHL-cable combinations protection.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 6 6.I In a larger number of cases power system elements like transformers.1 Application Guide on Protection . _ _] Fig. Fault clearance.1).to the relay-side in magnitude and phase-angle has then to be considered. AR is normally only allowed with OHL faults.3 Protection of a composite OHL-cable feeder a substation or This arrangement appears relatively often. channel etc.1: Protection of a composite OHL-cable feeder . This is achieved by providing a separate selective cable protection that sends brocking signals to the ARschemes at both line ends when the fault occurs at the cable section. • • Remote breakers have to be intertripped with minimal expenditure for signalling-links.e.) have to be passed. do not require VTs (fig. In many cases CTs or even VTs are provided at the junction points to enable the setup of independent protection schemes for the different sections. Transformer inrush currents may adversely affect the line protection of transformer feeders. of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 Protection of composite lines Introduction j. 6.i . 6. with autoreclosing AR has to be ensured. additionally. 6. overhead lines or cables are connected together without intermediate circuit-breakers.I : tL . however. Current differential protection or PCP are suitable for this purpose. Cable faults are not require definite tripping and blocking of the AR.

• a.for differential protection for command protection systems with distance protection .1 Transformer protection The transformer bank is normally equipped with sensitive differential protection and gas pressure relays. Intertripping: Frequency shift or coded voice frequency channels. links is limited to short distances of up to about 5 km. insensitive to a. They trip the local bus breaker directly and the remote line breaker via an intertripping link. A special switch is used to put a fault on the line side of the transformer bank.4 Protection of transformer feeders bank without a breaker inbetween. The remote end short circuit protection will then see the fault and trip its line circuit breaker.g. . • fault throwing: In some cases fault-throwing switches are used on lower voltage levels to save transmission channels. intertripping exist: via pilot wires: [5J.4.98 - . directly on pilot wires. 6.c. it is normally preferred to set up independent protection schemes that can selectively indicate the fault location in the transformer or on the line section. e.-disturbances application of these d. • unbalancing Some the line differential protection protection: schemes provide an integrated intertripping function by a forced voice frequency circuit that normally serves line differential unbalancing of the measuring system or the supplementary for pilat supervision. initiated by the local protection.c.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configuration Chapter 6 6.c. both have to be protected [n cases where a line includes a transformer as a unit.for intertripping bank While it is always necessary to trip the transformer-line system as a whale for faults on either or both components. The Special surge-proof relays are used at the receiving end. at the remote line end The following possibilities • d.c. distance relay. The selection of the protective wing conditions: • • • Length of the feeder (OHL or cable) equipment for such composite arrangements depends mainly on the follo- Availability of CTs and VTs on the line side of the transformer Availability of pilot links: . or carrier frequency systems are used for this purpose. The latter is necessary because light internal transformer faults will probably not produce enough current increase or voltage drop to operate the short circuit protection.

6. The differential protection must be inrush-stabilized in this case. A transformer differential relay can be applied as outlined in fig.99 - .4. I__ ~----- ' J][ ~ __ 0 !~ ~ __ l J[ ~ ¥._ feeder _l 6.. i----r-----i ~_U£. 6.!£.-. an overall differential protection can be used as a In the case of very short line sections cost saving solution when no CTs are provided between transformer and line.3: Transformer feeder. to 100mA) to lower the CT rl BaCk-: r--I I r--L.4.2 Protection of the line section by an independent line differential protection when CTs are provided feeders (fig.-t. as the transformer bank lies within the protection range.g.J I I BaCk-I- I :l L Fig. 6. overall differential protection .J I I .ire_!____j : < tkrn l Fig.-~--!! ! ._.2)..3. auxiliary CTs (e.J I Ba~k-h I -------0. The line section can be protected between transformer and line.3 Overall differential protection of a transformer feeder {below about 1km). . This is normal. The current in the pilot wires can be reduced via intermediate burdens. 6. especially in the case of transformer-cable r--L.2: Selective .__ differential protection __ of a transformer .~£.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 6..

4). 6. Normal zone grading is possible for the distance relay at the transformer bank when it can be connected to CTs and VTs at the line side (fig. the impact of the tapchanger has to be considered.. where the distance relay has to be connected to the bus-side measurement includes the impedance of the transformer bank. the distance In the case.4: Transformer feeder. protection of the line section CTs and VTs.dep changer zone must be adjusted to about 90% of the minimum secondary ohms while (fig.-- .4 Distance protection of the transformer feeder At the transformer remote line end the instaneous zone of the distance relay can be set to reach about 50% into the transformer. Further. The reach of the underreaching the overreachinq-zones on range of the. 6. This latter protection can be spared if there is no infeed from terminal A.l .J L~E. I I I I I I I must at least cover 100% of the maximum secondary ohms according to the variati- .4.XTR) [12].100 - . 1----A B I l___ r--I Back-l I _1 __ 1 . thus covering 100% of the line section.5).-- (PUDP) (PUDP) r--I Back-: I I I I L~£'. A correct distance measurement through the transformer bank is possible with three-phase faults.J Fig.I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configuration Chapter 6 6. the setting of a selective underreaching zone can only be achieved when the line reactance is considerable higher than the transformer reactance (XL> 2. 6.-- . But.

6.5: Transformer feeder.Y-D. . J I .--_..I I.51. ~ FSK ~ . .-.I I! '. i.J. _ .. or feeder has tobe guaranteed.l----~ Microwave Zlst zone SIR (POOP) < ZTr + 0. The usual permissive under- with transient magnetizing currents.9 ZTr + ( ~ ( ~2 )2mln ' ZL .. I. The setting of the distance relay should take care of the fact. I. -voltages.. ZL Z2nd zone> U )2max Fig. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1\\ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 I .l . Normally. _ . The fault-currents..I ! ii .~ . impact of the tap changer on the zone setting Further problems are presented by unsymmetrical faults and earth faults on the line section. and -impedances on the bus-side of the transformer bank are influenced by the winding connections (Y-Y..__.) and the earthing conditions of the transformer starpoint(s) [6. _.'_ -. of the transformer feeder will cause the typical inrush effect of faults on the line section._-_ . this would lead to an underreach of the zones and delayed clearance When fast tripping for all kind of faults on the transformer tion must be supplemented blocking modes The energizing by a teleprotection scheme...·I·~------LJ-· . 1 L_ (POOP) ! . ~ ~·---f . . etc. I.101 - . the distance protecor overreaching. can be applied. the starting elements should not be set more sensitive than necessary.e.

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