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Session 2008-09 Motion Basic Concepts:Physical quantities: Any thing that can be measured is called a physical quantity. Length, mass (quantity of matter), time, temperature, area, volume, density etc are examples of physical quantities. Unit: Units are used to express measurements of physical quantities. For example unit for measuring distance (length) can be meter, unit for measuring mass can be kilogram etc. S.I. Units: For comfortable and uniform scientific affairs all over the world, there is a standard international system of units (S.I.) Following are some physical quantities and their corresponding S.I. units. Physical quantity length (distance) mass Time Temperature S.I. unit metre (m) kilogram (kg) second (s) kelvin (K)
Multiples and submultiples of units: To express measurements using comfortable figures, multiples and submultiples of units are also used. For example very small distance between two points on our note book can be better expressed as 5 c.m. rather than expressing as 0.05 m. Similarly, the distance between two cities can be better expressed as 2500 km. rather than expressing as 2500000 m. So here “kilo” and “centi” are multiple and submultiple of metre. Magnitude of a Physical quantity:Magnitude in very simple words means size or amount expressed after measurement of a physical quantity. For example 3Kg is more magnitude of mass than 2Kg. 3 Km is more magnitude of distance than 3 c.m. Mathematically, magnitude of a quantity is the product of numerical figure and the unit. Different instruments/ devices are used to measure different quantities: Different instruments/ devices are used to measure different quantities. For example, length can be measured using a suitable scale/ ruler, temperature can be measured using a thermometer, volume of liquids can be measured using a measuring cylinder etc. All these instruments are calibrated/ graduated which means there are scientifically made markings/ divisions/scales on them. We read the values (note the readings) from these divisions only.
Least Count: The value of the smallest division of a scale is called its least count. Or in other words we can say the least count of an instrument is the smallest measurement which that instrument can make. For example the least count of meter scale in your geometry box is 1mm (millimetre). Types of Physical quantities – Scalars and Vectors:Scalars: The quantities which are measured and expressed only by their magnitude and not by direction are called scalars. They depend only upon magnitude not upon direction. They change only if there is a change in magnitude. If direction changes they do not change. Few examples of scalars are- mass (quantity of matter), distance, time, temperature, area, volume, density, pressure, speed etc. Vectors: The quantities which are measured and expressed by their magnitude as well as by direction are called vectors. They depend upon magnitude as well as upon direction. They change only if there is a change in magnitude or if there is a change in direction or if change in both. Few examples of vectors are- displacement, velocity, weight (force), acceleration, momentum etc. Introduction to motion:Motion is relative. A body “A” is said to be in motion with respect to (w.r.t) another body “B” if position of “A” changes w.r.t. “B” along with passage of time. It is fairly possible that same body “A” may be at rest w.r.t. some another third body. Distance and Displacement:Distance (s):- It is the actual length of the path covered by a body in motion. Its measurement is expressed only by its magnitude. It does not depend upon direction. It changes only if magnitude changes. It is a scalar. Its S.I. unit is “m”. Displacement (s):- It is the shortest distance between initial and final position of a body for its journey along with the expression of direction. Its measurement is expressed by its magnitude as well as by direction both. It depends upon direction. It changes if magnitude changes or if direction changes or if both change. It is a vector. Its S.I. unit is “m”. Speed and Velocity:Speed (v):- Speed rather constant speed is defined as distance covered by a body per unit time without expressing any directional sense. Mathematically Dis tan ce Speed = . It changes only if magnitude changes but is independent Time (does not depend) of direction. It is a scalar. Its S.I. unit is m/s.
Velocity (v):- Velocity is defined as speed of a body in a specific direction. Displacement Mathematically Velocity = . It changes if magnitude of speed Time changes or if direction changes or if both change. It is a vector. Its S.I. unit is “m/s”. Average speed (Av Sp):During some journey if a body travels different stretches of distances with different speed (with same constant speed for the particular single stretch) taking different time then total dis tan ce travelled S1 + S 2 + S 3 = where S1 distance has been total time taken t1 + t 2 + t 3 covered in time t1 with constant speed v1 , S2 distance has been covered in time t2 with constant speed v2, S3 distance has been covered in time t3 with constant speed v3 etc. Av Sp = Uniform motion:- A body is said to be in uniform motion if it covers equal distances in equal intervals of time. This happens when body has constant speed. A car moving at constant speed say of 60 Km/h will cover 60 Km in every 1 hr so it is said to be in uniform motion. Non Uniform motion:- A body is said to be in non uniform motion if it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time. This happens when body has variable (changing) speed during its journey. During a journey if a car moves at 20Km /hr for 1 minutes and then moves at 60 Km /h for next 1 minute then during this journey of 2 minutes it is said to be in non uniform motion. Average Velocity:In case the velocity of the object is changing at a uniform rate, then average velocity is given by the arithmetic mean of initial velocity and final velocity for a given period of time. That is, Vav = u+v 2
Graphical analysis of distance – time (s – t) graph:- (with "t" on "x" and "s" on "y" axis usually) (a) If s-t graph is a straight line sloping up or sloping down then it represents uniform motion OR uniform (or constant) speed OR uniform or constant velocity (in case of straight line motion) (b) If s-t graph is a not a straight line and so is a curve then it represents non -uniform motion OR non -uniform (or variable) speed OR non uniform or variable velocity (in case of straight line motion) (c) If s-t graph is a straight line parallel to time axis (no slope or zero slope) then it represents body at rest which means no motion or zero speed.
Acceleration (a) – change in velocity:Introduction to acceleration:Whenever velocity of an object changes (either due to change in speed or due to change in direction) a new physical quantity exists called as acceleration. During straight line motion velocity changes due to change in magnitude of speed only. Definition of acceleration:Acceleration is defined as rate of change of velocity w.r.t. time. OR change in velocity per unit time. Mathematically a= change in velocity v − u = time t
S.I. unit of acceleration:From definition the S.I. unit of "a" should be m m −2 s which means 2 or ms s s The acceleration is taken to be positive if it is in the direction of velocity and negative when it is opposite to the direction of velocity. Uniform acceleration:If an object travels in a straight line and its velocity increases or decreases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time, then the acceleration of the object is said to be uniform. The motion of a freely falling body is an example of uniformly accelerated motion. Non Uniform acceleration:An object can travel with non-uniform acceleration if its velocity changes at a non-uniform rate which means its velocity changes by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time.. For example, if a car travelling along a straight road increases its speed by unequal amounts in equal intervals of time, then the car is said to be moving with non-uniform acceleration. Graphical analysis of velocity or speed – time (v – t) graph:- (with "t" on "x" and "v" on "y" axis usually) (a) If v-t graph is a straight line sloping up or sloping down then it represents uniform acceleration OR uniform (or constant) acceleration. (b) If v-t graph is a not a straight line and so is a curve then it represents non -uniform acceleration. Or variable (changing) acceleration. (c) If v-t graph is a straight line parallel to time axis (no slope or zero slope) then it represents body moving at constant speed (velocity). Three equations of motion for uniform acceleration:-
When an object moves along a straight line with uniform acceleration, it is possible to relate its velocity, acceleration during motion and the distance covered by it in a certain time interval by a set of equations known as the equations of motion. If "u" represents initial velocity of body , "v" represents final velocity of body and this change of velocity takes place in time "t". During this time "t" the body covers distance (or displacement) "s" then v = u + at 1 s = ut + at 2 2 2 2 v = u + 2as Uniform circular motion:When an object moves in a circular path with uniform speed, its motion is called uniform circular motion. We know that the circumference of a circle of radius 'r ' is given by '2πr' . If the athlete takes 't' seconds to go once around the circular path of radius 'r', the velocity 'v' is given by v= 2πr t
Direction of motion changes at every point during circular motion:If we tie a stone to a thread and make it to go around us I circular path and then suddenly release it at one point we can carefully note that, on being released the stone moves along a straight line tangential to the circular path. This is because once the stone is released, it continues to move along the direction it has been moving at that instant. This shows that the direction of motion changed at every point when the stone was moving along the circular path There are many more familiar examples of objects moving under uniform circular motion, such as the motion of the moon and the earth, a satellite in a circular orbit around the earth, a cyclist on a circular track at constant speed and so on. Uniform circular motion is an example of accelerated motion:In uniform circular motion direction of motion changes at every point and so velocity of body changes at every point (although speed may be constant) bringing acceleration into account. Thus any uniform circular motion is a clear example of accelerated motion.
By: Sudhakar Kaushik 5
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