Seminar Report

3D Searching

INTRODUCTION
From computer-aided design (CAD) drawings of complex engineering parts to digital representations of proteins and complex molecules, an increasing amount of 3D information is making its way onto the Web and into corporate databases. Because of this, users need ways to store, index, and search this information. Typical Web-searching approaches, such as Google’s, can’t do this. Even for 2D images, they generally search only the textual parts of a file, noted Greg Notess, editor of the online Search Engine Showdown newsletter. However, researchers at universities such as Purdue and Princeton have begun developing search engines that can mine catalogs of 3D objects, such as airplane parts, by looking for physical, not textual, attributes. Users formulate a query by using a drawing application to sketch what they are looking for or by selecting a similar object from a catalog of images. The search engine then finds the items they want. The company must make it again, wasting valuable time and money.

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Seminar Report

3D Searching

BASICS OF INTERNET SEARCHING
Internet searching typically involves placing a keyword in the search box and clicking search. The search engines crawls through the websites and rate a webpage according to the occurrence of the keyword in the page. Some of the internet searching techniques is

Search Engines
Here basically we give a keyword to search. The search engine looks in registered webpages for this particular keyword and returns result from most frequent webpages. Examples of such systems are Google, altavista etc. Google http://www.google.com/ --Crawler-based & comprehensive

(large) database. Ranking of results by popularity helps find good sites when searching broad topics. Offers a variety of advanced and other search options; for example, image search or U.S. government search Yahoo! Search http://search.yahoo.com/ -- Crawler-based, comprehensive (large) database with a variety of search options. (Yahoo purchased Alta Vista and All the Web in 2003 and in March 2004 these search engines were redesigned to return results similar to Yahoo Search)

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Ask Jeeves http://www. and when all else fails. Alta Vista. Teoma http://www. It uses "Subject-Specific Popularity" to rank a site based on the number of same-subject pages that reference it.crawler-based search results using Teoma search engine.com 3 . Imac directory etc.com/ -. Editors hand-pick sites for popular topics.Crawler-based.seminarsonly.Seminar Report 3D Searching MSN Search http://www.com/ -. MSN also searches human-selected results of LookSmart. uses Inktomi for web crawler results. www. not just general popularity.askjeeves. Examples of such systems include Yahoo directory service. but smaller can be better for popular topics. smaller index than Google. Teoma method for ranking is intended to incorporate page authority into popularity ranking. & AlltheWeb.combines human and crawler created search results.com/ -. Directories Directories present us with a set of interested webpages URL.teoma. Usually it forms a good search beginning.msn.

com/ -.based on the Open Directory project (which uses volunteer editors to collect sites into categories) Snap http://www. Lycos http://www. started by Web creator Tim Berners-Lee.yahoo.seminarsonly.com -.yahoo. the search on the Yahoo home page (www. does Alta Vista search of the Web. who compile pages of key links for particular areas in which they are expert" Yahoo directory http://dir.compiled by humans. "run by a loose confederation of volunteers. www. WWW Virtual Library http://vlib.Seminar Report 3D Searching General subject directories LookSmart http://www.com/ -.org/ -. However.The Yahoo directory has been the bestknown & largest human-compiled directory of the Web.lycos.snap. To get to the human-compile categories.com) no longer searches the Yahoo directory but instead is a Google search of the Web. go to the Yahoo Directory link.oldest directory of the web.com 4 .com -. If no match in directory.looksmart.compiled by humans.

Subject Directories that rate & review the sites Argus Clearinghouse http://www. By Encyclopedia Britannica.com/ -.bubl.com 5 . and reviews web sites. However.com/ -.yahoo.subject guides to web resources.Seminar Report 3D Searching Home http://dir.The Yahoo directory has been the bestknown & largest human-compiled directory of the Web. the search on the Yahoo home page (www.uk/link/ -. catalogued and described.yahoo. evaluated. with each site rated for quality Britannica http://britannica.clearinghouse. Links are checked and fixed each month.seminarsonly.classifies.net/ -. www.ac.Internet resources covering all academic subject areas are selected. BUBL http://www.com) no longer searches the Yahoo directory but instead is a Google search of the Web. rates. To get to the human-compile categories. go to the Yahoo Directory link.

cs.org/ -. Internet resources selected and evaluated by librarians for their usefulness to users of public libraries Scout Report http://scout.com/ -. Reducing the search universe makes the list of search results more manageable and on target.asiaco.Seminar Report 3D Searching Librarians' Index to the Internet http://lii.seminarsonly.ucr.wisc. Here are just a few examples.edu/archives/ Scout Report Academic/scholarly subject directories Infomine http://infomine.search the Internet for topics related to Asia. These search engines focus on a specific subject or type of information. -.scholarly web sites Niche search engines.edu/ -.search or browse the "archives" of selected and reviewed web sites chosen by the editorial board of www.com 6 .human-compiled. Asiaco http://search.

seminarsonly.Seminar Report 3D Searching CiteSeer http://citeseer. Although theoretically it sounds great. Vivisimo is an example for meta search SurfWax http://www. difficult-to-access.com/ www. OAIster http://oaister. Meta search engines Meta search engines present the search result from a group of search engine.com/ http://www.com/ engines. eBizSearch http://gunther.psu.surfwax.edu/o/oaister/ -. academically-oriented digital resources. Links to some of the meta search tools: Vivisimo EZ2WWW Kartoo http://vivisimo.edu/index.collection of freely available.com/cs -.nec.umdl.kartoo.umich.com/ http://www.com 7 . practical implementations shows poor result.nj.smeal.Search the Web as well as academic and commercial articles for various aspects of e-business.ez2www.html -.Search not only indexed scientific documents but also the citations they contain.

com 8 . have made 3Dsearch technology possible.Seminar Report 3D Searching 3D SEARCHING Advances in computing power combined with interactive modeling software. Methodology used involves the following steps Query formulation Search process Search result    www.seminarsonly. which lets users create images as queries for searches.

seminarsonly. www.com 9 . Princeton’s 3D search engine uses an application to let users draw a 2D or 3D representation of the object they want to find. or example.Seminar Report 3D Searching QUERY FORMULATION True 3D search systems offer two principal ways to formulate a query: Users can select objects from a catalog of images based on product groupings. such as gears or sofas. or they can utilize a drawing program to create a picture of the object they are looking for.

www.com 10 .seminarsonly.Seminar Report 3D Searching The above picture shows the query interface of a 3D search system.

looking for similarities in the described features.com 11 . Normalization is the process of transformation of a 3D model into a standardized or canonical form that retains all the relevant geometrical information of the original model. To do this.seminarsonly.Seminar Report 3D Searching SEARCH PROCESS The 3D-search system uses algorithms to convert the selected or drawn image-based query into a mathematical model that describes the features of the object being sought. which are single points in a 2D image. A voxel is a set of graphical data—such as position. The steps involved in transforming the query to search query are normalization and voxelization. The search system then compares the mathematical description of the drawn or selected object to those of 3D objects stored in a database. This converts drawings and objects into a form that computers can work with. 3D rendering software takes an object and slices it into 2D cross sections. The computer interpolates data to fill in interslice gaps and create a solid image. www. The cross sections consist of pixels (picture elements). using the applicable interpixel and interslice distances to position them properly. and density—that defines the smallest cubeshaped building block of a 3D image. color. Computers can display 3D images only in two dimensions. To render the 3D image on a 2D screen. The key to the way computer programs look for 3D objects is the voxel (volume pixel). the computer determines how to display the 2D cross sections stacked on top of each other.

www. If match is found then the object is returned. This skeleton represents the basic framework of the model. The procedure of voxelization is as follows: (1) bound the model with a bounding box.seminarsonly. The search system then converts this voxel model into a form consisting of the skeleton of object.Seminar Report 3D Searching Voxelization is the process of converting a representation of a 3D shape into a set of small volume elements (voxels) [1]. and zero otherwise.com 12 . The model is then searched with those in the repository. (2) divide the bounding box into N3 small boxes (voxels) with equal volume. and (3) assign one to a voxel if it contains a part of the CAD model.

or selecting a part from a catalog of choices. plotted on a graph. http:// tools. 3DESS gives users three options for searching industry databases: using a drawing application to sketch a part from scratch.The engine is designed primarily to find computer-designed industrial parts.seminarsonly. using an algorithm that analyzes and renders the skeleton in terms of three common topological constructs: loops. reduces the overall amount of data in the object representation and makes it easier to store and index descriptions in the database. which are connecting points between loops and/or edges.According to Ramani.ecn. 3DESS also describes objects in terms of feature vectors. 3DESS then develops a skeletal graph. www. edges. led by Professor Karthik Ramani.Seminar Report 3D Searching AN EXAMPLE SEARCH SYSTEM :3DESS Scientists at the Purdue Research and Education Center for Information Systems in Engineering.html).edu/~cise/dess. edges. and the number of loops. created a 3D shape search technology called 3DESS (3D Engineering Search System. Expressing an object in terms of these common constructs. such as its volume. and nodes. surface area.purdue.com 13 . and nodes. The system can analyze a query by comparing either its featurevector set compares queries’ shape representations with those stored in the database to find the ones that are most similar. a set of mathematical representations of various aspects of the item’s shape. penciling in modifications to an existing part to create a new search object.

users can input which models more closely resemble the object they’re seeking.seminarsonly.com 14 . 3DESS then uses neural-network technology to analyze users’ feedback.Seminar Report 3D Searching When the system retrieves models in response to a query. and fine-tune both the current search and future similar searches. www. learn more about what they want.

via their mouse.Seminar Report 3D Searching PRINCETON UNIVERSITY SEARCH SYSTEM Professor Thomas Funkhouser and his colleagues at the Princeton Shape Retrieval and Analysis Group (www. like its Purdue counterpart. yielding spherical-based mathematical functions.com 15 . The Princeton search engine. The engine works with a Java-based application that lets users produce. Thus. the system will match a query with the appropriate result even if the query drawing is positioned differently than the object in the database. The system then breaks the spherical functions into component parts that make up the ultimate shape descriptor.edges. uses mathematical representations to store the salient characteristics of 3D shapes in its data. 2D renderings of objects to search for in a database. a graphlike abstraction that represents the item’s overall shape. The system can analyze a query by comparing either its feature-vector set potential obstacles. An advantage of the spherical approach is that it lets the search engine work with shape descriptors regardless of the object’s position. www. The system compares queries’ shape representations with those stored in the database to find the ones that are most similar. Princeton’s 3D search engine first renders a 3D object or drawing as a voxel grid and then maps this to a sphere. Searchers can refine their queries by adding a text description.edu/ gfx/proj/shape) developed their Web-based 3D Model Search Engine.princeton.cs.seminarsonly. and nodes.

automated industries.com 16 . researchers must improve search speed. researchers are trying to improve accuracy so that search results more loosely match queries. ease of use will boil down to the manner in which people can enter queries. virtual game development etc.Drawing shapes is more difficult than entering text queries.seminarsonly. Application areas include medical fields. according to Search Engine Showdown’s Notess. www. by developing new search algorithms. For example. Ease of use is another important issue.Seminar Report 3D Searching CONCERNS AND APPLICATIONS 3D search technology faces several potential obstacles. For 3D search engines. In addition.

seminarsonly. within those markets.Seminar Report 3D Searching CONCLUSION Most of today’s individual and corporate computer users don’t conduct the type of searches that would justify paying for and learning to use sophisticated 3D search engines However. 3D search could prove useful and successful.com 17 . www.

com • www.seminarsonly.purdueuniversity.edu http://www.seminarsonly.com 18 .edu http://www.princetonuniversity.Seminar Report 3D Searching BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • IEEE Computer Society Journal ACM Transaction on Graphics http://www.

index. users need ways to Store. A prototype system is used to illustrate the search system. from simple text documents to complex applications. both the Internet and corporate data warehouses are full of all types of digital information.com 19 . The seminar deals with how searching of 3D objects can be efficiently done. an increasing amount of 3D information is making its way onto the Web and into corporate databases. www. Today.seminarsonly. From computer-aided design (CAD) drawings of complex engineering parts to digital representations of proteins and complex molecules.Seminar Report 3D Searching ABSTRACT 3D searching is a new method used to search 3D objects in a data house. Because of this. One type of information gaining in prominence is the threedimensional object. and search this information.

.......Seminar Report 3D Searching CONTENTS 1....................2 o Search Engines o Directories o Meta searching 3..........12 8.......................... Concerns and applications...................................Bibliography.............. Basics of Internet searching......... An example search system :3DESS......................16 11...................17 www.... Query formulation......seminarsonly.............8 5.................com 20 ......................................15 10.....10 7......... Princeton University Search System ....... Introduction ................9 6............................ Search process. 3D Searching................................................ Conclusion............................1 2............................14 9......

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