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  • What is RAID?
  • What is striping?
  • What is mirroring?
  • What is ATA?
  • What is ATAPI?
  • What is eSATA?
  • What is SCSI?
  • What is iSCSI?
  • What is an external hard drive?
  • What is LBA?
  • What is the MBR?
  • What is a NAND Drive?
  • What is Compact Flash?
  • What is a SD Card?
  • What is a MultiMediaCard (MMC)?
  • What is HD-DVD?
  • What is Blu-Ray?
  • What is HVD?
  • How do I Install a Hard Drive?
  • What is a hard disk partition?
  • What is free partition software?
  • What is a bad sector?
  • How do I repair a bad sector?
  • Where is Scan Disk in Win XP?
  • How does hard drive recovery work?
  • What is free data recovery software?
  • How do I recover hard drive data?
  • What is a full backup?
  • What is a differential backup?
  • What is network backup?
  • What are common computer backup methods?
  • What is DLT?
  • What is LTO tape?
  • What is AIT?
  • What is Online Data Storage?
  • What is Fibre Channel?
  • What is Network Attached Storage?
  • What is a HBA?
  • What is LUN masking?
  • What is SAN zoning?
  • What are hard and soft zoning?
  • What is port zoning?
  • What is the OSI model?
  • What is plenum cable?
  • How do I change a MAC address?
  • What is VoIP?
  • What is
  • What is a firewall?
  • What are the types of wireless networks?

What is RAID?

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a set of technology standards for teaming disk drives to improve fault tolerance and performance.

RAID Levels
Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Striping Mirroring Parallel Access with Specialized Disks Synchronous Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Distributed Parity Independent Access with Double Parity Name

Choosing a RAID Level
Each RAID level represents a set of trade-offs between performance, redundancy, and cost. RAID 0 -- Optimized for Performance RAID 0 uses striping to write data across multiple drives simultaneously. This means that when you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple drives can have a significant positive impact on performance. The trade-off with RAID 0 is that if one of those drives fail, all of your data is lost and you must retore from backup. RAID 0 is an excellent choice for cache servers, where the actual data being stored is of little value, but performance is very important.

What is striping?
Striping is the automated process of writing data across multiple drives simulteneously. Striping is used to increase the performance of disk reads. When using striping, if you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple disks can have a significant positive impact on performance, because the physical disk drive is most often the performance bottleneck. Striping is used in RAID Level 0.


If one drive in a striped set fails, all of the data in the stripe set is lost. The data must be restored from backup. Because of this, striping is often combined with the use of parity (RAID 5) or mirroring (RAID 0+1).

Performance Problems Cause by Striping
Striping, when combined with parity, can have a negative performance impact on write operations. This is because some of the data used to calculate parity may be stored on the disk already. This means that the process to write to the array is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the existing data Calculate the parity Write the new parity Write the new data

RAID 1 -- Optimized for Redundancy RAID 1 uses mirroring to write data to multiple drives. This means that when you write a file, the file is actually written to two disks. If one of the disks fails, you simply replace it and rebuild the mirror. The tradeoff with RAID 1 is cost. With RAID 1, you must purchase double the amount of storage space that your data requires.

What is mirroring?
Mirroring is the automated process of writing data to two drives simulteneously. Mirroring is used to provide redundancy. If one drive fails, the redundant drive will continue to store the data and provide access to it. The failed drive can then be replaced and the drive set can be re-mirrored. Mirroring is used in RAID Level 1.

Software Mirroring vs. Hardware Mirroring
Disk mirroring can be implemented entirely in software. Software mirroring can be less expensive, but it is also slower. Software mirroring requires the host computer to write the mirrored data twice. Disk mirroring can be implemented in hardware on the host I/O controller. The burden of writing each bit of data twice is placed upon the I/O controller, which is specifically designed for it. Disk mirroring can also be implemented in hardware on an external storage device, such as a RAID array. In this case, mirroring is completely removed from the hosts responsibility.


Hot Swappable Hardware
If the hardware is hot swappable, it is possible to replace a failed disk without powering off the computer. You take out the old drive and put in the new drive with no service outage. If the hardware does not support hot-swap, you must schedule a service outage, shut down and power-off the system, and then replace the drive.

Mirroring vs. Duplexing
Mirroring is the technique of using redundant disks. Duplexing is mirroring, with the addition of redundant host I/O controllers. If you are using mirroring and your host I/O controller fails, you will not be able to access your data until you replace the host I/O controller. With duplexing, your data will still be available through the redundant controller. RAID 5 -- A Good Compromise RAID 5 stripes data across multiple disks. RAID 5, however, adds a parity check bit to the data. This slightly reduces available disk capacity, but it also means that the RAID array continues to function if a single disk fails. In the event of a disk failure, you simply replace the failed disk and keep going. The tradeoffs with RAID 5 are a small performance penalty in write operations and a slight decrease in usabable storage space. RAID 0+1 -- Optimize for Performance and Redundancy RAID 0+1 combines the performance of RAID 0 with the redundancy of RAID 1. To build a RAID 0+1 array, you first build a set of RAID 1 mirrored disks and you then combine these disk sets in a RAID 0 striped array. A RAID 0+1 array can survive the loss of one disk from each mirrored pair. RAID 0+1 cannot survive the loss of two disks in the same mirrored pair.

What is ATA?
ATA (AT Attachment) is the primary standard for connecting storage to PC's. ATA replaced earlier technologies such as MFM, RLL, and ESDI. ATA currently competes with SCSI. ATA is a specification for attaching hard drives to the AT bus. The AT specification has been extended to include other storage, such as CD/DVD drives, tape drives, and Zip drives with the Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) additions to the specification. ATA is also known as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).


Parallel ATA Cables
Parallel ATA cables originally had 40 wires. With the introduction of ATA-5, parallel ATA cables with 80 wires became standard. Only 40 wires are used to carry signals. The additional 40 wires exist to provide a ground wire for each signal wire. These grounding wires enable the ATA subsystem to operate at higher speeds with greater reliability.

ATA Masters and Slaves
Each ATA bus supports two storage devices. The first storage device is called the Master and the second storage device is termed the Slave. There are two methods for configuring which device is the master and which is the slave: drive jumpers and cable select. Drive Jumpers The original method for configuring Master and Slave relationships on ATA drives was to place or remove jumpers on each storage device. The jumper definitions differ among drive manufacturers and models. The jumper setting are often printed on the drive. If not, read the drive manual or visit the drive manufacturers web page. In a single drive configuration, some drives should be set to "Single Drive", while other drives should be set to "Master". In a dual drive configuration, one drive should be set to Master and the other drive should be set to Slave. Cable Select


A newer standard for configuring Master/Slave relationships on ATA drives is to allow the position of the drives on the drive cable to determine the ordering. For Cable Select to work, both of the drives and the ATA cable must support cable select. To use Cable Select, the jumpers on both drives should be set to Cable Select.

Parallel ATA vs. Serial ATA
All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. The most obvious change with Serial ATA is the difference in drive cables. Other differences include:
• • • •

Higher throughput Revised power connector Longer data cables Support for external drives (eSata)

What is ATAPI?
ATAPI stands for AT Attachment Packet Interface. ATAPI is a set of extensions to the ATA standards to allow ATA CD/DVD drives and tape drives.


ATAPI Drivers Microsoft Windows and most PC-based Unixes provide a generic driver for all ATAPI based CD-ROM devices. Serial ATA Type Bandwith Bus Speed Signal Rate SATA-150 SATA-300 SATA-600 150MBps 300MBps 600MBps 1500MHz 3000MHz 6000MHz 1.5Gbps 3. Serial ATA standards are constantly evolving to meet higher bandwidth requirements. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. Maintenance of the ATAPI standard was later transferred to the T13 Technical Committee.0Gbps 6. Early ATAPI CD-ROM drives required specialized drivers for use under DOS. the group that defines the ATA standard. Because of this. What is Serial ATA? Serial ATA is an enhancement to the ATA standard for for connecting storage to PC's. Systems which are El Torito compatible are able to boot from ATAPI CDROM drives. visit the web page of the company which manufactured your CD-ROM drive to try to find an ATAPI driver.0Gbps Serial ATA Data Cables 6 . The ATAPI standard ceased to exist as a separate document when it became part of the core ATA standard with the publication of ATA-4 in 1998. you do not need to download and install an ATAPI driver if you are using one of those operating systems.The ATAPI standard was originally defined by the Small Form Factor committee. Booting from an ATAPI Device Phoenix Technologies and IBM developed the El Torito Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification. If you are running DOS. All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. Serial ATA Standards The original Serial ATA standard offered miniminal improvement over the existing 133MBps bandwidth of the existing Parallel ATA standard.

or 12 volts to ATA devices. 7 . Serial ATA reversed this trend by allowing data cables up to 1 meter in length. 5. or 12 volts to ATA devices.Higher bandwidth requirements were pushing requirements for shorter Parallel ATA data cables.3. Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. 5.3. eSATA (External SATA) allows the use of shielded cables up to 2 meters in length for external drives.

meaning that you can attach or remove an eSATA hard drive from a system without powering down the system or the drive. eSATA drives are hot-pluggable.What is eSATA? eSATA is an extension to Serial ATA standards to enable SATA drives to be attached externally. What is SCSI? 8 . eSATA 3G doubles that to 300MBps. Before eSATA. external hard drives were connected via USB or FireWire.5 offers data rates up to 150MBps. eSATA can provide data transfer rates significantly faster than USB or FireWire. eSATA 1. eSATA cables can be up to 2 meters (approximately 6 feet) in length.

including FireWire and Fibre Channel. The vast majority of SCSI devices are data storage devices.5 1. iSCSI is the transmission of SCSI commands and data over IP networks.5 12 12 12 Cable Length 5 5-10 10-20 20 20 20 40 40 80 160 Speed (MBps) 8 8 or 16 8 16 16 8 16 8 16 16 Devices Supported Narrow and Wide SCSI Many SCSI standards have options for Narrow or Wide operation. Standard SCSI is a parallel technology.SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a set of ANSI standards for connecting devices to computer systems. SCSI Standards SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-2 Ultra SCSI-3. A single IDE controller can control two drives. In addition. A single SCI controller can control 8 or 16 drives.8-bit Ultra SCSI-3. but many serial SCSI variants exist. SCSI usually offers greater cable length and higher length than IDE.16-bit Ultra-2 SCSI Wide Ultra-2 SCSI Ultra-3 (Ultra160/m) SCSI 6 6 3 3 3 1. SCSI is generally considered a higher-end alternative to IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). What is iSCSI? iSCSI stands for internet SCSI. Narrow SCSI is parallel SCSI which transmits 8 bits of data at a time. How iSCSI Works 9 . or internet Small Computer Systems Interface. Wide SCSI is parallel SCI which transmits 16 bits of data at a time.

is a popular interface for Macintosh external hard drives. iSCSI and FCIP represent almost opposite approaches to the situation. eSATA eSATA is the newest standard for external hard drives. Alternatives to iSCSI The main competitor to iSCSI is FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP). eSATA is an extension of the Serial ATA standard which allows the use of external hard drives. One external hard drive may support two or more of these interfaces. and became somewhat popular on PC's before USB 2. External Hard Drive Interfaces External hard drives can be connected using several popular interfaces.x was not fast enough to satisfy most users of external hard drives. 10 . External hard drives are extremely useful for backing up computers and for moving data between computers.When an application attempts to read from an iSCSI device. PDA's.0 was standardized. When the IP packet reaches its destination. What is an external hard drive? An external hard drive is any hard drive which attaches to a port on the outside of a computer case. USB 1. An external hard drive using an eSATA connection will not suffer a performance penalty imposed by encapsulating the ATA data inside the USB or FireWire protocols. the SCSI read command is encapsulated inside an IP packet. and Sony PlayStations. including external hard drives. almost known as IEEE 1394. because the eSATA external hard drive uses the same communications protocol as the internal hard drives.0 provides slightly better performance than FireWire in most applications. USB USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standard for connecting a wide range of devices. The IP packet is then routed just like any other IP packet on the network. whereas iSCSI is an implementation of SCSI on IP hardware. SCSI write commands are handled in the same manner. USB 2. the encapsulation is stripped off and the SCSI read command is interpreted by the iSCSI drive. FireWire FireWire. FCIP is an implementation of IP on Fibre Channel hardware.

is a small program which runs whenever a computer boots up. What is the MBR? The MBR The MBR The MBR The boot drive. a floppy drive. the first sector on the disk is sector zero and all sectors on the disk are simply incremented from there. is stored in the first sector of the boot disk. These drives include intelligent electronics to enable them to act like file servers. Early PC hard drives were supported by the PC BIOS using Cylinder/Head/Sector addressing. disk may be a hard drive.Ethernet A few external hard drives offer Ethernet connections. you specified the sector in terms of its cylinder number. If you believe this has happened to one or more of your disk. is the Master Boot Record. In LBA addressing. What is LBA? LBA is Logical Block Addressing. copy the boot sector from the active partition into memory. These external hard drives are actually low-end network attached storage devices. its head number. 11 . LBA adressing uses just one number. To read or write from a specific sector on the disk. or even a CD or DVD The Task of the MBR The normal job of the MBR program is to search the partition table for the active partition. and transfer control over to that program. If the MBR cannot accomplish this task successfully. run an antivirus tool to clean your disks. and its sector number. it will print one of these error messages: • • • • Invalid partition table Error loading operating system Missing operating system The MBR and Boot Sector Viruses Some boot sector viruses overwrite the MBR.

Thanks to new advances in technology. The term "NAND" refers to the architecture of the chip which differs it from NOR (NOT OR) flash memory. 12 . solid-state flash memory drives. Finally. Solid-state refers to the fact that NAND drives do not have any moving parts that can break down. NAND drives are superior to NOR flash memory. unlike the typical flash memory that must wipe out memory blocks before writing to them. NAND drives have several noteworthy advantages. FDISK was not terribly intelligent about the repair and this option would often cause more damage than it fixed. NOR flash memory is most widely used in devices in which small programs are executed in place rather than written to Random Access Memory (RAM). NAND drives do not make any noise while functioning. NAND drives function much faster than traditional hard drives. Before attempting to repair your MBR. The chip is designed to allow more memory to be included into the same size space. Secondly. Similar to USB flash drives. NAND drives also have several noted advantages when compared with more traditional hard drives. The solid-state nature of the drive is one of the core advantages. PDAs. What is a NAND Drive? NAND drives are high-capacity. These features make NAND drives an ideal choice for high capacity storage and manipulation of changing data. it was possible to use the `FDISK /MBR` command to repair the MBR. FIXMBR Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003 provide the `FIXMBR` command in the Recovery Console. be certain to completely back up all of your data. cell phones.FDISK /MBR Under DOS and early versions of Microsoft Windows. Unfortunately. these drives have been chosen to become the latest drive preference for laptop computers (hopefully in the near future). This allows NAND drives to write data into the disk at a greater speed. NOR flash memory is considered to be ideal for applications that require less memory and perform most of the work on unchanging code (for example. high-speed. but also very efficient. for changing data. thus creating a product that is not only useful. However. NAND drives also boast a longer lifespan of more erase cycles. The `FIXMBR` command replicates the functionality of the `FDISK /MBR` command. which is essential for laptop users. NAND drives consume less power. boot directions or operating systems). FDISK has been removed Windows XP. and similar devices function with the help of NOR flash memory. along with it's associated problems. When comparing the NAND to other types of flash memory.

5mm wide. 802. The Compact Flash standard was introduced by SanDisk Corporation in 1994.6mm thick. and 2. Memory Sticks are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Memory Stick slots. 36mm wide. Bluetooth cards. Current Memory Stick capacities range up to 512MB. 21. Ethernet cards. modems. and more. Current Compact Flash capacities range up to 4GB. Compact Flash Plus (CF+) Compact Flash Plus (CF+) extends Compact Flash to provide functionality such as micro hard drives. 36mm wide.3mm thick.11 Wi-Fi cards. This makes Compact Flash the most versatile of the flash media formats. and 5mm thick. Compact Flash cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Compact Flash slots. and 1. Compact Flash Type II cards are 43mm long. What is Compact Flash? A Compact Flash card is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. The theoretical transfer speed of Compact Flash 2. 13 . and 3. The theoretical transfer speed of Memory Stick is 160Mbps. 20mm wide. is 32mm long. An even more compact format. A Memory Stick is 50mm long. Memory Stick Duo. Compact Flash Type I cards are 43mm long.8mm thick.What is a Memory Stick? A Memory Stick is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.0 is 16MB/sec. serial cards. The Memory Stick standard was introduced by Sony in October of 1998.

21. fingerprint scanners and more. The theoretical transfer speed of a SD 1. Matsushita Electric. scanners.1mm thick. SD 1. GPS receivers.11b WiFi cards. modems. 24mm wide. cameras. An even more compact format. and SanDisk in 1999. A SD Card is 32mm long. 14 . digital recorders. the miniSD Card. The SD Card standard was introduced by Toshiba. Current SD Card capacities range up to 1GB. is 20mm long. SD Cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with SD Card slots.1 is expected to raise this to 50MB/s. and 1.0 Card is 12. SDIO SDIO extends the SD Card standard to include 802. TV tuners.5MB/s. Bluetooth cards.5mm wide.What is a SD Card? A SD Card (Secure Digital Card) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.4mm thick. and 2.

24mm wide. which is the same thickness used in DVD's. HD-DVD supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. The theoretical transfer speed of a MultiMediaCard is 2. volume identifiers and Advanced Access Content System (AACS). MultiMediaCard (MMC)s are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with MultiMediaCard (MMC) slots. HD-DVD uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0. What is Blu-Ray? 15 . Current MultiMediaCard (MMC) capacities range up to 2GB. What is HD-DVD? HD-DVD is an optical sotrage format developed by Toshiba and Hitachi. MultiMediaCards can be used in SD Card readers and writers.5MB/s. A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is 32mm long. which dual-layer HD-DVD disks are able to store 30GB of data. Single-layer HD-DVD disks currently store 15GB of data. The MultiMediaCard (MMC) standard was introduced in November of 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens AG/Infeneon Technologies AG.6mm protective surface layer.4mm thick. HD-DVD's are coated with a 0.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. For security.65nm pickup aperture. H.What is a MultiMediaCard (MMC)? A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. and 1. The HD-DVD standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2. Microsoft Video Codec 1.

both Blu-ray and HD. Sony has included DRM or digital rights management that will make it more difficult for people to place shift and time shift their content. a new coating has been developed that makes Blu-ray discs extremely difficult to scratch. However. The more data you have. the more data can be read to give a clearer picture with more color and vividness. most people are sitting on the sidelines to see who the winner is. As of yet. a blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than the normal red lasers used today. You can also purchase dual layer DVD's that holds about 9. Bluray gets its name from the type of laser it uses to read and write data from and to the disc. holds about 25 gigabytes of data and there are reports that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data.Blu-Ray is an optical storage format developed by Sony and Phillips. Another disadvantage is that since there are two standards. which is a new DVD technology that also uses blue lasers. How does Blu-ray stack up against other types of discs? Well a normal CD holds about 700 to 800 megabytes of data.7 gigabytes. Blu-Ray Technology 16 . the color of the laser is a hue of blue-violet. Blu-ray is looking to make inroads into the consumer electronics market with the Blu-ray DVD player with its Sony PlayStation. Because Blu-ray has been developed in part with Sony. Blu-Ray was created to store large amounts of high definition video and sound. players are selling at about the $1. therefore allowing high definition audio and video.4 total gigabytes of data. The disadvantages to Blu-ray discs are that they are quite expensive. One of the benefits of Blu-ray technology is that because data is so close together. Obviously the major benefit of Blu-ray DVD's is that it is able to hold more data on one disc. A standard DVD holds about 4. neither media type has made enough inroads to garner a champion. There is currently a market war taking place against both HD DVD's and Blu-ray DVD's. The Blu-ray DVD can usually hold about 50 gigabytes of data and there are also claims that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data. For instance. The Sony PlayStation will include a basic Blu-ray DVD player which might spur sales of media and make it the de facto standard. early types of Blu-ray discs would be contaminated by slight scratches. Due to the extreme density of these optical discs the data needs to be smaller to fit onto the disc.000 mark and DVD discs will be more expensive than their standard DVD counterparts. These two types of DVD's are fighting to see who will be the new form of media for the years to come. A HD DVD.

which dual-layer Blu-Ray disks are able to store 46.9 terabytes (39. 17 . By doing so. HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems offer a storage capacity of 75 and 90 GB respectively.like in normal CDs . The servo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (this is similar to the track. without a doubt.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer on the top. become a giant step in revolutionizing the disk storage industry.6GB of data. Some industry experts call HVDs a next-next generation technology.000 GB) and a data transfer rate of 1 GB/s.Blu-Ray uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0. are collimated into a single beam. ROMMark watermarking.1mm protective surface layer. one blue-green and one red. Blu-Ray supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. a problem that had affected the efficiency of many holographic storage media in the past. The Blu-Ray standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2. H. it actually eliminates the possible chances of the interference that can happen due to the refraction of blue-green laser off the servo data pits. when produced in full scale. This would.3GB of data. For security.near the bottom of the disk.85nm pickup aperture.' in which two laser rays. Microsoft Video Codec 1. but neither comes anywhere near the massive storage capacity of HVD. According to published statistics. while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer . HVDs will have a storage capacity of 3. head and sector information on a normal hard disk drive). and the Advanced Access Content System (AACS). Single-layer Blu-Ray disks currently store 23. This inference is a direct reference to the enormous storage capacity HVDs offer compared to HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. which is at least six times more than the speed of DVD players. What is HVD? HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) is the next generation in optical disk technology. HVD Technology HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography. BD+ dynamic cryptology. Blu-Ray disks are coated with a 0. HVD is still in a research phase that would phenomenally increase the disk storage capacities over the currently existing HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. How do the laser beams selectively pass through the layers? A layer of dichroic mirrors that exists between the holographic and servo data layer reflects back the blue-green laser beam. both of which are yet to replace DVDs for mass optical storage. letting only the red laser pass through it to reach the servo information.

other proprietary standards are making advances optical disk technology. The Library of Congress is the largest in the world and contains over 130 million items. which is enough for non-stop playing for a year. How do I Install a Hard Drive? 18 .000 bits per pulse in the same place. assuming that every book has been scanned in the text format. • The pictures of every landmass on Earth .000 to $15.having a storage capacity of 1.a holographic format patented by InPhase Technologies . HVD Capacity The entire US Library of Congress can be stored on six HVDs.Optical Storage Most optical storage devices.like the ones shown in Google Earth . It is anticipated that a single HVD. such as those made by Hitachi Maxell Ltd and InPhase Technologies. Tapestry Media . may cost anywhere between $100-120 (by 2006 year's end). • With MPEG4 ASP encoding. the price will soon fall as R&DD costs are recouped and competitions lowers profit margins. when commercially available. However. save one bit per pulse. a 3. • HVD Adoption The biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market. Competing Technologies In addition to HDV. in a truncated cone shape. Other players exist.9 TB mark by inserting a larger number of cones on each track.600-11. given its higher cost margins. The HVD Alliance is trying to improve the storage capacity further to touch its dream 3.can be stored on two HVDs. which as of now seems to be a distant dream. while similar a 300 GB disks with a data transfer rate of 20 Mbit/s is in the pipeline for Hitachi Maxell Ltd. that has a diameter of 500 micrometers at the top and 200 micrometers at the bottom.6TB and a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s is one such device. such as a standard CD (Compact Disc).000. like anything else associated with technology.9 TB HVD can hold anywhere between 4.900 hours of video. and the reader will be priced anywhere in the range of $10. HVDs manage to store 60.

• Reattach the data cable and power cable which were attached to the originalhard drive. • Remove the computers cover and place it gently to the side. • Power on the computer. and screw the new hard drive into place. set your jumpers by determining which drive is the "master" and "slave" for an older drive. the computer should auto-recognize the new hard drive. • Locate the computer's old hard drive in the drive bay. • Remove the screws holding the computer's cover in place. Steps To install A Hard Drive • • Shut down the computer. be sure to document where they attach in order to reattach them. When a problem occurs with 19 . remove it from the frame. What is a hard disk partition? A hard disk partition is a defined storage space on a hard drive. and "ground" yourself to prevent electrical shock. wait fifteen seconds. While removing them. Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. • Plug all cables back into the computer. this is a simple process that can be done at home. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions. On Microsoft Windows machines. The main cables will be a data cable and a power cable. • After the old hard drive has been unscrewed. and remove any cables or wires attached to it. • If another hard drive is present. Most new hard drives will come with installation instructions to make the task easier for you. and unplug all accessories attached to it.If you would like to replace your old hard drive with an upgraded drive. Continue by unplugging the computer completely from its power source. The setting can remain as "single" or "master" when one drive is installed. • Replace the computers cover. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. • If it is installed correctly. in effect maaking one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. • Locate the screws used to anchor the hard drive to the frame of the computer case.

An extended partition stores information about other partitions. A user may have to split a large hard disk into multiple partitions if the hard disk is larger than the partition size supported by the operating system. Hard Disk Partitions and File Systems You don't actually store data in hard disk partitions.Microsoft Windows. Some operating systems blur the lines between partitions and filesystems. In a smaller partition. a reserved area at the beginning of a hard disk. Many ooperating systems also have graphical tools which accomplish the same task. At one time this meant that a hard disk could have a maximum of four partitions. Extended Partitions A standard partition table is only able to store information about four partitions. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. The Partition Table Partition information is stored in the partition table. Creating Hard Disk Partitions Most operating system use the `fdisk` command to create hard disk partitions. Partitions configured into an extended partition are often referred to as logical partitions. that file might only require 4KB to store. This mens that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. 20 . extended partitions were created. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. To work around this limitation. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. you can create many more than four partitions on your hard disk. By using an extended partition. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. You store file systems in hard disk partitions and then you store data in these file systems. The four standard partitions are often called the primary partitions.

The table below lists some of the partition types in use. Mach.Partition Types When a partition is created. Because one hard disk may be shared by multiple operating systems. a special byte of data is written to record what type of partition it is. Partition Number 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0e 0f 35 39 40 51 52 63 64 65 75 80 81 82 83 85 93 Empty DOS 12-bit FAT XENIX root XENIX usr DOS 16-bit FAT <=32M DOS Extended Partition DOS 16-bit FAT >=32 OS/2 HPFS. operating systems tend to agree on the meaning of these values.4a MINUX. Linux swap Linux native Linux extended Amoeba Partition Type 21 . Linux Solaris X86. WinNT NTFS AIX AIX bootable OS/2 Boot Manager Win95 FAT32 Win95 FAT32 (LBA) Win95 FAT16 (LBA) Win95 Extended (LBA) OS/2 JFS Plan 9 Venix 80286 Novell Microport Unix System V. GNU HURD Novell Netware 286 Novell Netware 386 PIC/IX MINIX until 1.

FAT32. BSD/386. Partition Saving is intelligent enough to copy only occupied sectors to the file. Be very careful when using any software application which writes to the partition table. Partition Saving is also able to compress data in the partition and split it into several files. the MBR (Master Boot Record). FAT16. Always backup your hard drive completely before using any free partition software. If you lose data. NTFS or ext2. or the boot sector.94 a5 a6 a7 b7 b8 be bf c7 db e1 e3 eb fb fc f2 ff Amoeba BBT FreeBSD. Partition Saving can copy a partition to a file. you have no one to blame but yourself. NetBSD. This is especially useful when saving hard drive partitions to CD's or DVD's. 386BSD OpenBSD NEXTSTEP BSDI BSD/386 filesystem BSDI BSD/386 swap Solaris 8 bootable Solaris x86 Syrinx CP/M DOS access DOS R/O BeOS BFS VMWare filesystem VMWare swap DOS secondary Xenix Bad Block Table What is free partition software? A wide range of free partition software is available. Free Partition Software Partition Saving Partition Saving is an MS-DOS based partition backup and recovery program. Partition Image 22 . if the partition is FAT12.

so you can fully use the four available primary partitions per hard disk. . Partition Manager can create. SystemRescueCd contains a lot of system utilities (parted. Samba and NFS. free blocks are not written to the image file. and split into multiple files to be copied on removable media. TestDisk 23 . For speed and efficiency. It aims to be very easy to use: just boot from the CD-ROM. SystemRescueCd also aims to provide an easy way to carry out administrative tasks on your computer. VFAT. is a free DOS FDISK replacement that offers more comfort and comes with a boot manager that allows you to have more than one operating system installed on your hard disk. and FreeDOS on a single disk.Partition Image is a Linux/Unix utility which saves partitions to an image file. HPFS. ISO9660. XFDisk and the boot manager support more than one hard disk and even booting from logical drives. The boot manager will not occupy a partition. ReiserFS. and you can do everything.. eXtended FDisk eXtended FDisk. fstools. and resize primary and extended partitions. ReiserFS. SystemRescueCd SystemRescueCd is a Linux system on a bootable CD-ROM for repairing your system and your data after a crash. XFDisk transparently manages the extended partition for you. If you choose to have an extended partition with logical drives on your hard disk. such as creating and editing the partitions of the hard disk. Partition Image will only copy data from the used portions of the partition. Partition Image supports ext2fs/ext3fs. NTFS. It includes a command line interface and a simulation mode that works with large files so that you can safely experiment before working on the real hard drive partition tables. With XFDisk you can partition your hard disk or install and configure the boot manager. It gives users high level of control for running multiple operating systems. which will be located in the first 17 sectors of your first hard disk. JFS. Ranish Partition Manager Ranish Partition Manager is a powerful hard disk partitioning tool. partimage.. network tools).) and basic ones (editors. or short XFDisk. Windows 98/XP. FAT16/32. JFS and XFS. The image file can be compressed to save disk space. midnight commander. The kernel of the system supports ext2/ext3. copy. such as FreeBSD. Linux. XFS.

Windows NT 4/2000/XP/2003. • Is designed for both occasional use as well as large scale automated operating system roll-outs and cloning projects. Free FDISK Free FDISK is the replacement FDISK which is available in FreeDOS... • Comes with BootEasy. All operations are not supported across all file systems.6 UFS (Sun/BSD/. and Sun Solaris. Linux .) XFS. GNU Parted GNU Parted is a program for creating. and the file systems on them. reorganizing disk usage. UFS. Linux Swap. • Can be customized with an easy to use configuration file. FAT32. FAT16. NetBSD. NTFS. destroying. checking and copying partitions. • • • 24 .TestDisk is a tool to check and undelete partitions. TestDisk works with the following partition types: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BeFS ( BeOS ) BSD disklabel ( FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD ) CramFS (Compressed File System) DOS/Windows FAT12. Linux Logical Volume Manager Netware NSS NTFS ( Windows NT/2K/XP/2003 ) ReiserFS 3. Has the "standard" fdisk user interface. Hierarchical File System JFS. JFS. resizing. Command-line support is compatible with Microsoft's undocumented FDISK commands. a compact multi-boot loader. • Has extended command-line support to give you complete control over hard disk configuration from batch files. FreeBSD. Free FDISK features include: Supports hard disks up to 128GB in size. GNU Parted supports operations on ext2. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems. ReiserFS. IBM's Journaled File System Linux Ext2 and Ext3 Linux Raid Linux Swap (versions 1 and 2) LVM and LVM2. quickly and fuss-free. ext3.5 and 3. OpenBSD. The Partition Resizer Partition Resizer is a small DOS executable which can re-arrange your partitions safely. FAT16 and FAT32 HFS. and XFS.. HFS and HFS+. SGI's Journaled File System TestDisk runs under DOS/Win9x. copying data between hard drives and drive imaging.

Once marked as unusable. What is a Bad Sector? Hard drives are contain millions of sectors. Hard drives usually have several platters. How do I repair a bad sector? Occasionally one or more sectors on an otherwise good hard drive will go bad. the data in those sectors may be lost. When this happens. MBRWork MBRWork is a utility to perform some common and uncommon tasks to the MBR/EMBR/Sectors of a hard drive. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. but they can be marked as unusable. It is very normal for some of these sectors to be bad sectors. but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. even when the drive is first manufactured. back the hard drive up immediately. Free FDISK is Open Source and licensed under the GNU GPL. the problem can quickly spread to other sectors on the disk. A sector is the smallest storage area on a disk. Once marked as unusable. Floppy disk drives contain only one platter. a small number of sectors will normally go bad during the lifespan of a drive. but it can be marked as unusable. the Operating System will know not to attempt to 25 . In addition. When this happens.44MB floppy disk has 160 tracks.• • Allows the use of boot loaders from other operating systems. Hard drives have thousands of tracks. What is a bad sector? What is a Sector? A sector is a small area on the surface of a hard drive or a floppy disk. MBRWork is a tool for power users who understand how computers work. the data in those sectors may be lost. The storage capacity of the disk will be decreased by the amount of storage space in the bad sector. If your hard drive develops a bad sector. A bad sector cannot be repaired. but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. Platters are divided into a set of concentric rings called tracks. A 1. Those bad sectors can not be repaired. the Operating System will know not to attempt to store data in that bad sector. Each of these tracks is divided into smaller storage areas called sectors. The platters are the discs which are covered with magnetic material which is used to hold data.

the problem can spread to many other sectors across the disk. Press the <Start> button.. If your hard drive is experiencing a bad sector. like all mechanical devices.. Common hard drive problems include: • • • • User errors Software errors Hard drive electronics failures Hard drive arm failures 26 . Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. continue to back up your hard drive on a regular basis. this functionality was built into the `scandisk` and `chkdsk` utilities.> button. eventually break down.store data in those bad sectors. scan. The functionality previously found in Scan Disk has been built into Explorer.. Click the <Check Now. The total disk capacity will be decreased by the amount of storage space in those bad sectors. How to Scan Disk in Win XP • • • • • • scan. Select <My Computer>. back it up immediately. In earlier version of Microsoft Windows and DOS. Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. Once the bad sector or sectors have been "repaired". Where is Scan Disk in Win XP? Scan Disk has been removed from Windows 2000 and Win XP. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. How to "Repair" a Bad Sector in Windows XP • • • • • • Press the <Start> button.> button How does hard drive recovery work? Hard drives.. Select <My Computer>. Hard drives are mechanical devices and all mechanical devices will eventually fail. Click the <Check Now.

or may not. sometimes the mechanical parts of the hard drive remain undamaged. Hard Drive Arm Failures Hard drive arm failures are very common. to prevent dust from damaging the hard drive. 27 . There will always be some bad spots on the platter surface. a data recovery specialist may still be able to recover data from a hard drive with a damaged hard drive arm. The hard drive will mark that spot bad and attempt to move the data to a good spot on the hard drive. This can happen. When the hard drive arm fails. there is a very good chance that it will damage the hard drive platters. If the hard drive platters have not been damaged. User errors can sometimes be resolved through the use of off-the-shelf data recovery software. if the hard drive is subject to a power surge or a discharge of static electricity. Hard Drive Electronics Failures When a hard drive physically fails. When you hear the clicking noises from your hard drive which signal a hard drive arm failure. Sometimes bad spots will develop during the life of the hard drive.• Hard drive platter failures User Errors User errors include accidentally deleting or overwriting files and accidentally formatting a or deleting a partition. Errors cause by software are generally much more difficult for off-the-shelf data recovery software to correct. In these cases. Hard Drive Platter Failures No drive platter is manufactured perfectly. for example. This should be done in a clean-room environment. Modern hard drives automatically mark those bad spots as unusable and do not store data there. result in the loss of some data. This task may require the services of a data recovery specialist. it is usually possible to take the mechanical parts out of the hard drive assembly and place them into another identical hard drive unit. Software Errors Software errors usually result from software writing data to the wrong part of the disk. back up all necessary data immediately and power the system down as soon as possible. This may.

If you have unintentionally deleted or formatted pictures. such as an external hard disk or flash drive. These failures are very expensive or impossible to recover. 28 . What is free data recovery software? Never install free data recovery software on the drive that you are attempting to recover data from. • PC Inspector Smart Recovery PC Inspector Smart Recovery is a data recovery program for Flash Card. In these cases. Always install and run free data recovery software from a separate drive. ME. even when the file header is no longer available. Your data is being scratched right off the surface of the platters! You can often hear this damage occuring. XP and Windows 2000 systems. Smart Media. NT 4. PC Inspector Smart Recovery runs on Windows 95/98. Multimedia Card. no matter .PC Inspector Smart Recovery can easily. the hard drive platters are being scratched. Sony Memory Stick. The Solution to Hard Drive Recovery: Backup The best method of hard drive recovery is to throw away the failed hard drive and restore your data from backup to a brand new drive. Free Data Recovery Software PC Inspector File Recovery PC Inspector File Recovery is a data recovery program that supports the FAT 12/16/32 and NTFS file systems. videos or sound files on your data carrier or have pulled it out during a write operation. quickly and absolutely reliably reconstruct the lost data. Backing up your data is a critically important preventative maintenance task. Secure Digital Card or any other data carrier for digital cameras. IBM Micro Drive. even if the boot sector or FAT has been erased or damaged • Recovers files with the original time and date stamp • Supports the saving of recovered files on network drives • Recovers file contents.Serious hard drive platter failures can occur as a result of hard drive arm failures. Don't put yourself at risk by not properly backing up your data.0. Finds partitions automatically.

How do I recover hard drive data? Hard drive data recovery is the process of recovering lost data from a hard drive when the data cannot be readily accessed through normal retrieval methods. This software will attempt to recover every readable piece of a file and put the pieces together. direct or hidden. files. The program allows you to copy files from disks with problems such as bad sectors. It is our pleasure to emphasize that FreeUndelete is free. In case of accidental deletion of files on a NTFS file system (used by default in Windows XP. Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery is a freeware data recovery tool. Luckily. View and search raw directories. 2000 and NT) FreeUndelete is the utility to help. to download and use a fully functional copy of the program. Memory Stick. specifically designed to work with digital images.FreeUndelete FreeUndelete is a freeware data recovery program for deleted files. Undelete previously deleted files. scratches or that just give errors when reading data. Unstoppable Copier Unstoppable Copier recovers files from disks with physical damage. You need the use your camera or the appropriate card reader you normally use to transfer images from camera to PC. There is no charge. Verify the effectiveness of file and disk wiping programs. so it is virtually impossible to test the program with each and every hardware combination. It allows you to recover digital photos accidentally deleted from digital camera memory. Using this method most types of files can be made useable even if some parts were not recoverable in the end. and system sectors. unless the area has already been overwritten. Compact Flash. Display the true drive contents by bypassing the operating system and directly reading the raw drive sectors. Disk Investigator Disk Investigator helps you to discover all that is hidden on your computer hard disk.g. Due to this fact it is possible to undelete files. The program does not install any spyware or adware along with it. Generally. it still holds the contents of the deleted file. There exists a vast variety of digital camera and associated media types on the market. A deleted file is essentially an area on disk designated as free and ready to accept data (such as contents of some other file). program should work with any media type (e. Whether your hard drive has locked up or has completely crashed 29 . SmartMedia and so on) accessible by means of operating system. clusters. It can also help you to recover lost data. It does not populate user's desktop with pop-up ads or forcefully subscribe user to mailing lists.

Physical Damage Most physical damage to a hard drive. Most hard drive data recovery firms utilize the latest tools like magnetometers to retrieve the lost bits from the magnetic media. then there is a chance your hard drive will crash rendering data seemingly inaccessible from all hard drive areas. adware. These types of hard drive crashes can generally be recovered by reinstalling the operating system. the physical damage can also result in the damage of the logical structures of the file system which prevents file system structures from being completely written to the hard drive. cannot be repaired by typical computer users. If the arm fails to function or the motor overheats or stops spinning. If the hard drive has any physical damage. The recovered raw bits from the damaged hard drive are used to construct a new disk image. and in most cases the cause is either virus related or due to a corrupted system file. Spyware.there is a good chance the data can be recovered by using a variety of hard drive data recovering techniques. In this scenario a qualified computer technician may be needed to fix problematic hard drive issues. However. 30 . it indicates that there is no hard drive activity and is generally attributed to a mechanical problem. Check whether the flashing light in front of your computer case is blinking or not. If the light is flashing but the computer is not booting up. you need to seek a technical expert to assist in recovery or choose a data recovery company to recover as much data as possible. Physical damage of a hard drive often results in some data loss and in most cases you may not be able to recover all the lost data. then the problem may be software related. Determining the Actual Cause of a Hard Drive Crash To determine whether your hard drive has crashed due to mechanical failure or a software related problem is relatively simple. One of the main causes for a full blown hard drive crash is generally attributed to a hardware issues. If the flashing light in the front of the computer case is not blinking. and Trojan horses can also cause system file corruption resulting in a hard drive crash. Viruses. Reasons for Hard Drive Crashes Hard drive crashes occur for a variety of reasons. The hard drive is a magnetic disc which spins and has an extended arm that collected data from any area of the hard drive. Hard drive crashes can also be caused by corrupted registry files or system files. and the logical damage can be repaired. such as failed motors or head crashes.

A full backup should be performed weekly or monthly on production systems. What is a full backup? A full backup is a backup of every file on a file system. but it also provides the quickest restore times. 5. user friendly. software malfunction or even a virus attack. 6. 8. A full backup takes longer to accomplish and requires the most storage space on the backup media. it may be a good idea to give it a test drive before you make a purchase. drive 7. Whether you accidentally delete the files or your computer crashes. The main contexts where hard drive data recovery software is found useful include: 1. Most software companies understand the consumer's need to be assured of value and ease of use. 3. Missing file or directory Formatted hard drive Deleted file or directory Unbootable hard drive Inaccessible hard drive Recovery of deleted files and folders on FAT and NTFS hard or partitions Data recovery on damaged FAT and NTFS partitions Damaged or corrupted partition table The majority of hard drive data recovery software programs currently available is easy to install. 2. it's a good idea to purchase these programs from a trusted software supplier. 31 . data recovery software can locate the lost files and recover them from your hard drive. A good hard drive data recovery program can recover all the important files or folders which vanish after partition loss. You will find several companies that offer these types of programs. A full backup should also be performed before any major planned changes to a system. 4. However.The Role of Hard Drive Data Recovery Software Programs Hard drive data recovery software programs play a major role in recovering hard drive data. file or directory deletion. The alternatives to a full backup are incremental backup and differential backup. whether that file has changed or not. and is virtually self maintaining. so if the data recovery software you selected has a trail offer. accidental format. Most will automatically create backup copies of all your files and folders reducing the worry of potential data loss. along with daily differential backups.

if you perform a full backup on Sunday and incremental backups every night. Tuesday. If you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night. but less than a full backup. Incremental backups should be used only in environments where backup time or backup storage media are extremely constrained. The alternatives to an incremental backup are differential backup and full backup. and Wednesday. you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. a weekly full backup and a daily differential backip represent a better plan. A differential backup requires more time to restore than a full backup. An incremental backup is the fastest backup and requires the least storage space on the backup media. Tuesday. The alternatives to a differential backup are incremental backup and full backup.What is an incremental backup? A incremental backup is a backup of every file on a filesystem which has changed since the last backup. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday. A differential backup requires more storage space than an incremental backup. and the system crashes on Thursday. In contrast. What is a differential backup? A differential backup is a backup of every file on a file system which has changed since the last full backup. when the system crashes on Thursday. 32 . For most environments. incremental backups also require the longest time and the most tapes to restore. A differential backup is not as fast as an incremental backup. If you perform a full backup on Sunday along with incremental backups every night and the system crashes on Thursday. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday. but it is faster than a full backup. A differential backup should be performed daily on production systems. However. but not as much time to restore as an incremental backup. In contrast. when the system crashes on Thursday you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. A differential backup can be an optimal middle-ground between a full backup and an incremental backup. and Wednesday. if you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night.

the amount of data to be backed up. What are common computer backup methods? It is a well-known fact that most computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. Another advantage of flash memory is that data stored on flash drives is not susceptible to damage caused by magnets. The backup server resides on a centralized server and the backup clients reside on every system to be backed up. Veritas NetBackup. Flash Memory Flash memory. Flash memory drives are easy to plug into any PC with a USB port. Commercial network backup software includes HP OpenView Storage Data Protector. Backing up information is a practical and necessary precaution to protect one's data from being lost forever. flash drives. and EMC Legato Networker. Advanced network backup systems can manage backup media which are also connected to the backup server via a network.What is network backup? Network backup is any backup system where the data to be backed up traverses the network to reach the backup media. Network backup typically requires a client-server software architecture. or thumb drives. they normally utilize tape autochangers to give them greater storage capacity. also known as memory sticks. Network Backup Software Free network backup software includes Amanda. 33 . and the funds available for backup. These drives offer unlimited rewrite capabilities and are available in capacities ranging anywhere from 64 MB to 4 GB. and BackupPC. Network backup systems are much more scalable and manageable than local backup systems where tape drives are attached to each comouter ystem. Bacula. Here are some of the most commonly used data backup solutions. are a suitable solution for data backup when the backup amount is somewhat small. including: the importance of the data. Because network backup systems can backup so many computers. Flash memory data durability is estimated to be roughly 10 years. The best backup method for your data depends opon many factors. There are several realistic methods for backing up data.

individuals and businesses are turning to hard drives as a backup option. Tape Backup Combined with their decreased accessibility and the advances made in the availability of such storage devices as the CD-R. 8mm helical scan technology for mid-range systems. Tape backups are available in numerous capacities such as 4mm helical for low-end systems. and the DVDR. Copying and retrieving data from separate hard drives is very easy. DVD-R. DVD+RW.7 GB of data and dual-layer DVDs can hold up to 8. DVD+R. tape backup is still the primary backup method used in business environments. Another advantage of storing files online is that users can access these files from any location as long as they have a computer with Internet access. as well as dual layer DVD technologies. and AIT. however. Online Storage Online storage is one of the newest methods of storing your files. Single-layer DVDs can hold up to 4. Compared to several other media solutions. The primary disadvantages are cost and the worry that a malware attack which affects the primary hard drives could also effect the backup hard drives. What is DLT? 34 . the CD-RW. DLT and LTO for high-end systems.5 GB. DVD technology is a suitable option for storing backup data medium amounts of backup data. tape drives typically provide the highest storage capacities at the lowest cost. which is comparatively low. tape backups have become less popular and practically obsolete for home computer users. However. DVD-RAM. is the write speed of these drives. Hard Drives As the prices of hard drives are dropping each year.DVD Backup DVD backup is a practical alternative for home users and small businesses. of course backup data also. DVD technologies include DVD-RW. Onlien storage solutions enable people to upload their data to a reliable server located in a secure environment. One drawback to keep in mind.

LTO tape stores data in 384 data tracks which are divided into four data bands of 96 tracks each. What is LTO tape? LTO (Linear Tape-Open) is a tape standard developed by HP. in a linear fashion. DLT tapes are 1/2 inch wide and are packaged in study plastic containers. DLT tapes store between 10GB and 40GB of uncompressed data.DLT (Digital Linear Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by DEC (now Hewlett-Packard). LTO Tape Generation Uncompressed Capacity Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 100GB 200GB 400GB 35 . A SuperDLT II tape can store up to 300GB of uncompressed data and can transfer as much as 36MB per second. LTO tapes contain 4KB of non-volatile memory which can be read through a non-contacting passive RF interface. IBM. This storage space contains data about the tape and can be read without the time required to read the magnetic tape itself. LTO Tape Generations The LTO tape standard is designed to last for four generations of magnetic tape technology. DLT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to DLT include LTO and AIT. Data bands are filled one-at-a-time. and Seagate as a competitor to DLT. The four data bands are bordered by bands of servo information which are written during tape manufacture.

Find a Great Deal on LTO Equipment on eBay What is AIT? AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by Sony. cobalt is vaporized and deposited directly on the base film.000 hours. LTO Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to LTO include DLT and AIT. without having to read data from the slower magnetic media. To create AME tape. This storage space contains data about the tape which can be read quickly by a tape drive. AIT tapes contain non-volatile memory called Memory-in-Cassette (MIC).Generation 4 800GB LTO Tape Physical Specifications An LTO tape is approximately 4.0" x 0.000 media uses with an MTBF of 400.1" x 4. An AIT tape should support 30.8". AME technology gives AIT tape both high-capacity and exceptional durability. AIT Tape Capacities AIT Tape Specification Storage Capacity SDX125C SDX135C TAITE-20N TAIT1-40N/40C 25GB 35GB 20GB 40GB 36 . AIT Magnetic Media AIT uses Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME) tape.

you can simply purchase additional space for storage.such as hard drives. Another advantage of online data storage is that it is easy to expand. There is no need for you to purchase and install additional storage hardware.5" drive bays. This compact format is very convenient for use in 3. is a technology which allows people to store their data in the Internet. also known as Internet data storage. Businesses that use online data storage can password protect access to business files. Whenever you reach the maximum capacity limit.5mm x 15. the user can access data from any location with a computer and Internet connection. What is Online Data Storage? Online data storage. and tape backups . With online data storage. Online data storage not only provides an additional flexible source for storing data but also acts as a backup mechanism and provides an effective method of sharing data with others. while home computer users can 37 . This s convenient for businesses and home computer users alike.SDX236C SDX2-50C SDX2-50W SDX3-100C SDX3-100W SDX4-200C SDX4-200W 36GB 50GB 50GB 100GB 100GB 200GB 200GB AIT Physical Specifications AIT tapes are 95mm x 62. more people are interested in purchasing online data storage. CD-R.are coming down by the day. AIT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to AIT include DLT and LTO.0mm. With broadband speeds becoming faster and bandwidth pricing dropping every year. This is the reason why Internet data storage is increasingly popular even as the costs of physical local storage devices .

Nowadays there are several vendors offering online data storage facilities. the other for receiving. online vendors typically use strong encryption technologies to keep user's data safe and secure during transmission over the Internet. Fibre Channel devices using fiber optic cabling use two unidirectional fiber optic cables for each connection. for sensitive data. What is Fibre Channel? Fibre Channel is a set of standards for connecting storage devices in a fabric network.such as data encryption or two-factor authentication. music. Generally online data storage vendors feature a fully managed and secure solution with 24x7 technical support and monitoring. which automatically generates passwords using two factor authentication. it should be kept in mind that backup data must be stored in some other place other than the same computer or the same physical location. Another noted advantage of online data storage is data backup. there is no better an option than online data storage. additional security may be required . There are several types of online data storage. then the basic online storage is an ideal one. Hence taking data backups frequently would be a safe way to protect your data from getting lost forever. To do so. Fibre channel over fiber optic cable supports cable distances of up to 10Km. In such cases. or videos with their family members. Computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. Users typically pay fees based upon the amount of space they need. If the user is looking for storage space for some non-sensitive data. 38 .use it for something as simple as sharing photos. Some vendors provide an additional measure of security by providing users with a password token. On the other hand. Fibre Channel supports the connection of 126 devices on a single network. One fiber optic cable is used for transmitting. Further almost all Internet data storage services are secure and password protected. Fibre Channel supports data transmission rates of 100MBps. However. Fibre Channel Topologies Fibre Channel supports three fabric topologies: • • • Fabric Loop Point-to-Point Fiber Channel Physical Connectivity Fiber Channel supports connectivity over fiber optic cabling or copper wiring.

Fibre Channel Devices Fibre Channel Devices include: • • • Host Bust Adapters (HBA's) Fibre Channel Hubs Fibre Channel Switches Fibre Channel Ports Fibre Channel uses a shorthand terminology to describe different types of connections to the fibre channel network. A SAN is a separate network to which storage devices are attached. 39 . This differentiates Network Attached Storage devices from SAN's (Storage Area Networks). Fibre Channel uses the term "ports" and defines seven different types of ports: Short Name N-port F-port L-port NL-port FL-port E-port G-port Descriptive Name Network Port Fabric Port Loop Port Device Type Nodes Switches Nodes Port Function Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel switch Switch port used to connect the Fibre Channel fabric to a node Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel loop Node port which connects to both loops and switches Switch port which connects to both loops and switches Used to cascade fibre channel switches together General purpose port which can be configured to emulate other port types Network + Loop Nodes Port Fabric + Loop Port Extender Port General Port Switches Switches Switches What is Network Attached Storage? Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a term used to describe a complete storage system which is designed to be attached to a traditional data network.Fibre Channel devices which communicate over copper cabling are limited to distances of 30m.

A HBA could be more accurately referred to as a "Host I/O controller". However. Wireless 802. However. What is LUN masking? 40 .In most cases. They may also support other storage protocols. Network Attached Storage is less expensive to purchase and less complex to operate than a Storage Area Network. NAS devices are also available which connect to Fibre Channel networks. a SAN can provide better performance and a larger range of configuration options. or Host Bus Adapter. NAS devices can also support magnetic tape and optical media such as CD and DVD. Network Attached Storage Drives NAS devices have traditionally utilized SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) internally. but NAS devices can be built using any disk technology. Network Attached Storage Protocols NAS servers commonly support NFS (Network File System) and CIFS (Common Internet File System). What is a HBA? A HBA.11 Network Attached Storage devices are now appearing on the market. is the interface card which connects a host to a SAN (Storage Area Network). such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or SCP (Secure CoPy). In addition to disk storage. NAS devices based on ATA disks are now available. Network Atttached Storage Connections NAS server are typically attached to the network via Ethernet.

This can render the LUN's unusable by other operating systems and can result in data loss. Some storage controllers also support LUN Masking. Soft zoning is zoning which is implemented in software. LUN Masking implemented at this level is vulnerable to any attack that compromises the HBA. SAN zoning may be utilized to implement compartmentalization of data for security purposes. but could also be implemented using soft zoning. port zoning does not allow zones to overlap. What is SAN zoning? SAN zoning is a method of arranging Fibre Channel devices into logical groups over the physical configuration of the fabric. Port zoning is normally implemented using hard zoning. A users access to data is determined by what physical port he or she is connected to. LUN Masking is implemented primarily at the HBA (Host Bus Adapater) level. Each device in a SAN may be placed into multiple zones. LUN Masking is important because Windows based servers attempt to write volume labels to all available LUN's. Soft zoning uses filtering implemented in fibre channel switches to prevent ports from being seen from outside of their assigned zones. With port zoning. The security vulnerability in soft zoning is that the ports are still accessible if the user in another zone correctly guesses the fibre channel address.LUN (Logical Unit Number) Masking is an authorization process that makes a LUN available to some hosts and unavailable to other hosts. What is port zoning? Port zoning utilizes physical ports to define security zones. What are hard and soft zoning? Hard zoning is zoning which is implemented in hardware. In addition. zone information must be updated every time a user changes switch ports. Hard zoning physically blocks access to a zone from any device outside of the zone. What is the OSI model? 41 .

such as file transfers. The Seven Layers of the OSI Model The seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical The easiest way to remember the layers of the OSI model is to use the handy mnemonic "All People Seem To Need Data Processing": Layer Mnemonic 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All Seem To Need Data Processing Presentation People Name The functions of the seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer Seven of the OSI Model The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services.The OSI model is a reference model which most IT professionals use to describe networks and network applications. but the cost and complexity of the government processes involved in defining the OSI network made the project unviable. TCP/IP conquered the world. This is the layer with which the user interacts. and network management. Layer Six of the OSI Model 42 . electronic messaging. e-mail. virtual terminal access. The OSI model was originally intended to describe a complete set of production network protocols. In the time that the OSI designers spent arguing over who would be responsible for what.

Layer Two of the OSI Model The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes.The Presentation Layer of the OSI model is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. The OSI model is a very poor standard. Layer Five of the OSI Model The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between networked hosts. The Transport Layer should be responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. Layer Four of the OSI Model The Transport Layer of the OSI model is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts. These existing protocols. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions. and pin-outs. 43 . Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer. voltages. Layer One of the OSI Model The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. The Real World The most major difficulty with the OSI model is that is does not map well to the real world! The OSI was created after many of todays protocols were already in production use. were designed and built around the needs of real users with real problems to solve. such as TCP/IP. but it's the only well-recognized standard we have which describes networked applications. cable types. The OSI model was created by academicians for academic purposes. Layer Three of the OSI Model The Network Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. The OSI Model vs. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types. Routers operate at the Network Layer.

You could argue forever about what OSI model layer SSH maps to. fewer people will know what you are talking about! For a better description of why the OSI model should go the way of the dodo. disco. Plenum cable must meet two requirements to meet most fire codes: Plenum cable must not burn easily Plenum cable must not emit toxic fumes when exposed to extreme heat • • 44 . SNMP Name The difficulty with this approach is that there is no general agreement as to which layer of the OSI model to map any specific protocol. UDP IP Ethernet Cat-5 Presentation HTTP. Layer Common Protocols 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical SSH. Buildings without plenum spaces will have cabling and HVAC ducts within plain view. FTP RPC. NETBIOS TCP. read Kill the Beast: Why the Seven-Layer Model Must Die. telnet. and DivX. Ventilation.The easiest way to deal with the OSI model is to map the real-world protocols to the model. and Air Conditioning) and to run cables. Named Pipes. A much more accurate model of real-world networking is the TCP/IP model: TCP/IP Model Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer The most significant downside with the TCP/IP model is that if you reference it. as well as they can be mapped. Plenum space is normally above a suspended ceiling or under a raised floor. Plenum cable is cable which is rated to be run through plenum spaces. SMTP. What is plenum cable? The plenum is hidden space within a building which is used for HVAC (Heating.

you may want to change this MAC address to one of your own choosing. 45 . A much easier and more reliable method to change a MAC address under Windows is to use a software utility program designed to do this for you. Most plenum cable is covered with Teflon or PVC.Because of these requirements. How to change a MAC address under Solaris In Solaris. How to change a MAC address under MacOS Instructions for changing the MAC address on a Macintosh can be found at MAC Spoofing on the Macintosh. find that key with `regedit` and change it. or you can use the GNU MAC Changer. plenum cable is usually more expensive than non-plenum cable. How to change a MAC address under FreeBSD In FreeBSD. Of course. Microsoft keeps moving the location of the key around! Windows XP adds an option to change the MAC address on some network cards under the Advanced tab in the network adapter's Properties menu. How do I change a MAC address? Every Ethernet card has a MAC address burned-in at the factory. Macshift is a free utility that you can use to spoof your MAC address under Microsoft Windows. you can change the MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> <ether> <address>` command. the MAC address is stored in a registry key. you can change your MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> link <address>` command. Plenum cable is also more stiff and difficult to work with than regular network cable. To change a MAC address. you can change your MAC address with `ifconfig <interface> hw <class> <address>`. At times. How to change a MAC address under Linux Under Linux. How to change a MAC address under Microsoft Windows Under Windows. The procedures to change a MAC address are specific to each operating system.

It is possible to change the MAC address under OpenBSD with sea.How to change a MAC address under OpenBSD OpenBSD does not. How to change a MAC address under HP-UX Under HP-UX. VoIP plans do not charge a per-minute fee for long distance. Most Internet connections are charged using a flat monthly fee structure. allow you to change the MAC address. by default. For International calling. The Economics of VoIP VoIP has become popular largely because of the cost advantages to consumers over traditional telepone networks. Modify. In addition. Most Americans pay a flat monthly fee for local telephone calls and a per-minute charge for longdistance calls. Advanced Options. The success of IP in becoming a world standard for data networking has led to its adaption to voice networking. you can change the MAC address in SAM by selecting Networking and Communications. VoIP Telephones There are three methods of connecting to a VoIP network: • • • Using a VoIP telephone Using a "normal" telephone with a VoIP adapter Using a computer with speakers and a microphone 46 . then selecting the interface. Using the Internet connection for both data traffic and voice calls can allow consumers to get rid of one monthly payment. The Internet Protocol (IP) was originally designed for data networking. HP-UX refers to the MAC address as the "station address". then Action. What is VoIP? VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. the monetary savings to the consumer from switching to VoIP technology can be enormous. VoIP calls can be placed across the Internet.c.

1 is localhost. 47 .0. you are connected to your own machine.0.0. The most common commercial firewall today is CheckPoint FireWall-1. ftp.1 is the standard IP address used for a loopback network connection.0.0. 127. you are immediately looped back to your own machine.0..*.0.1 is you. Although 127. Connected to joker Escape character is '^]'.1 Trying 127. For example.* range should also function in the same manner. Convincing newbie's to connect to 127. if your system was named "joker". etc.0.0. and you attempted to telnet to 127. Calls from a VoIP device to another VoIP device are commonly called "PCto-PC" calls. If you telnet. In other words.0.1 is the most commonly utilized address for localhost.0.1.0. What is 127.0.Types of VoIP Calls VoIP telephone calls can be placed either to other VoIP devices.1..*. including systems designed specifically for use as firewalls.0.0. even though neither device may be a PC Changing a MAC Address in Hardware Speed Demon Adapters sells network cards which give you the ability to change the MAC address stored in their EERPROM. or to normal telephones on the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).0. This can give you the ability to change your MAC address under any operating system that supports either the PCI bus or PCMCIA Type II cards. you would see: # telnet 127.0.. Firewalls are most commonly specially configured Unix systems. This means that if you try to connect to 127. but competitors such as Cisco's PIX are quickly catching up on CheckPoint. to 127..0.1.0. Calls from a VoIP device to a PSTN device are commonly called "PC-toPhone" calls. but firewalls have also been built out of many other systems. Another name for 127.0.1? 127.0. even though the VoIP device may not be a PC. any IP address in the 127.1.0. What is a firewall? A firewall is a system that is set up to control traffic flow between two networks.1 is a frequent joke on the Internet.

or dropped. The sender must wait for the communications to time out. Dropping packets instead of rejecting them greatly increases the time required to scan your network. With this enhancement. Routers are a very common form of packet filtering firewall. etc. the firewall "remembers" conversations between systems. Packet filtering firewalls operate on Layer 3 of the OSI model. the Application Layer.Many people disagree on the definition of a firewall. every packet is stopped at the firewall.. it sends a message back to the sender letting him know that the packet was rejected. the firewall examines five characteristics of a packet: • • • • • Source IP address Source port Destination IP address Destination port IP protocol (TCP or UDP) Based upon rules configured into the firewall. If the firewall rejects the packet. If the packet passes the examinations. and in this discussion I will use the term loosely. The packet is then examined and compared to the rules configured into the firewall. The Packet Filtering Firewall One type of firewall is the packet filtering firewall. an FTP proxy for file transfers. In a proxying firewall. If the packet was dropped. You need an HTTP proxy for web traffic. The Application-Proxy Firewall Another type of firewall is the application-proxy firewall.. the firewall simply does not respond to the packet. it is re-created and sent out. the Network Layer. In a packet filtering firewall. The drawback is that a separate application-proxy must be written for each application type being proxied. Because each packet is destroyed and re-created. It is then necessary to fully examine only the first packet of a conversation. the packet will either be allowed through. An improved form of the packet filtering firewall is a packet filtering firewall with a stateful inspection engine. a Gopher proxy for Gopher traffic. The Application-Gateway Firewall 48 . Application-proxy firewalls operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. there is a potential that an application-proxy firewall can prevent unknown attacks based upon weaknesses in the TCP/IP protocol suite that would not be prevented by a packet filtering firewall. rejected.

A typical application-gateway firewall is a system where you must telnet to one system in order telnet again to a system outside of the network. Some wireless data networks run over wireless voice networks. multiple layers of security and encryption may be desirable. meaning that the antenna can move constantly. Common Wireless Network Types 49 . PDC-P. What are the types of wireless networks? Wireless data networks exist in such number and variety as to be difficult to categorize and compare. Application-gateway firewalls exist for only a few network applications. such as mobile telephone networks. and MMDS are examples. instead of an inherent limitation of the wireless network specification. A few wireless networks are intended only to connect small devices over short distances. meaning that antennas do not move frequently. and GPRS are examples. This is sometimes a feature of the specific implementation and antenna design. Other wireless networks run on their own physical layer networks.Application-gateway firewalls also operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. CPDP. Where normal application-proxy firewalls do not require modifications to network clients. This means you have to modify every system on your internal network which needs to communicate with the external network. Wireless networks which run over other wireless networks often utilize the lower layer networks to provide security and encryption. HSCSD. utilizing anything from antennas built into handlheld devices to large antennas mounted on towers. Stand-alone wireless networks either provide their own security and encryption features or rely upon VPN's (Virtual Private Networks) to provide those features. Bluetooth is an example. SOCKS firewalls requires specially modified network clients. The SOCKS Firewall Another type of application-proxy firewall are SOCKS firewalls. LMDS.11. 802. Other wireless networks are mobile. Wireless networks may operate on licensed or unlicensed portions of the frequency spectrum. Some wireless networks are fixed. this can be as easy as swapping a few DLL's. On a Windows or OS/2 system. In many cases.

Major types of wireless networks include: CDPD HSCSD PDC-P GPRS 1xRTT Bluetooth IrDA MMDS LMDS WiMAX 802.11 Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Local Multipoint Distribution Service Worldwide Interoperability for Wi-Fi Microwave Cellular Digital Packet Data High Speed Circuit Switched Data Packet Data Cellular General Packet Radio Service 1x Radio Transmission Technology Access 50 .

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