GRE SAMPLE VERBAL QUESTIONS

Instruction: This file contains 112 GRE sample questions for the following sections: Sentence Completion, Reading Comprehension, Antonym and Analogy. Each question is followed by the answer with complete explanation. For GRE test strategies and techniques, please order the Verbal Study Guide, Essay Prep Course, Math Review or the Complete GRE Prep Course.

SENTENCE COMPLETION
1. Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are----would be expected to be very----, but, surprisingly, they are not. (A) lethal.. rare (B) untreated.. dangerous (C) unusual.. refractory (D) new.. perplexing (E) widespread.. acute Explanation: The first part of the sentence is a statement: the more severe an inherited disease is, the more likely it is that the genes causing it will be eliminated by natural selection. The word "consequently" suggests that the missing words must, together, make a statement in keeping with this assumption. A is the correct answer. A disease that is "lethal" is very severe. Because, according to the statement, the most severe diseases are likely to be most strongly acted against and are therefore least likely to recur, one would expect "lethal" diseases to be very "rare". B is incorrect. It is possible that diseases that are "untreated" would be "dangerous," but the first part of the sentence suggests that the expectation concerns the elimination of hereditary diseases, not their dangerousness. C is also incorrect. There is no information in the sentence that suggests that the more "unusual" a disease is, the more "unusual" a disease is, the more "refractory" (resistant to treatment) it will be. D is not the correct answer. It is not unlikely that "new" hereditary diseases would be "perplexing," but the first part of the sentence suggests that the expectation concerns the elimination of hereditary diseases, not whether they are perplexing. E, the last choice, is not the correct answer. The idea that "widespread" diseases are "acute" does not follow from the statement give. Rather, the opposite would be expected, given the assumption. Answer: (A) 2. Although ancient tools were----preserved, enough have survived to allow us to demonstrate an occasionally interrupted but generally----progress through prehistory. (A) partially.. noticeable (B) superficially.. necessary (C) unwittingly.. documented (D) rarely.. continual (E) needlessly.. incessant

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Explanation: The first missing word describes how ancient tools were preserved. The phrase "enough have survived" indicates that not all survived, and the word "Although" indicates that the tools were preserved in a way that would not lead you to expect enough to survive. The second missing word describes a progress through prehistory. The word "but" suggests that the word that fills the second blank must contrast with the idea of occasional interruption. D is the correct answer. It is logical to say that enough tools have survived in spite of their being "rarely" preserved. A "continual" progress contrasts with one that is occasionally interrupted. Answer: (D) 3. For centuries animals have been used as----for people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that might later be used in humans. (A) benefactors (B) companions (C) examples (D) precedents (E) surrogates Explanation: The missing word describes a role animals play in experiments. The sentence indicates that experiments using animals occur before the agents studied in the experiments are used in people. The correct answer is E. A "surrogate" serves as a substitute. Answer: (E) 4. The pressure of population on available resources is the key to understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of----facts is----flawed. (A) demographic.. intrinsically (B) ecological.. marginally (C) cultural.. substantively (D) psychological.. philosophically (E) political.. demonstratively Explanation: The first part of the sentence emphasizes that, in order to understand history, it is important to take into account the great importance of the pressure of population on available resources. The word "consequently" indicates that the second part of the sentence describes a conclusion that follows from the statement made in the first part. In this case, what follows is a judgment about any historical writing that does not show recognition of the correctness of the statement. The first missing word will provide a one-word description of the type of fact suggested by the first part of the sentence. The second missing word describes in what way writing that fails to take this type of fact into account is flawed. A is the correct answer. "Demographic" facts are derived

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from the study of human populations. The "pressure of population" mentioned in the first clause is a "demographic" consideration. Because the sentence indicates that these facts are very important, you can conclude that the author believes that writing that fails to take them into account is "intrinsically" (essentially) flaw. Answer: (A) 5. During the opera's most famous aria the tempo chosen by the orchestra's conductor seemed----,without necessary relation to what had gone before. (A) tedious (B) melodious (C) capricious (D) compelling (E) cautious Explanation: The placement of the words "without necessary relation to what had gone before" in the sentence suggests that these words provide an explanation or elaboration of the missing word. C is the correct answer. A "capricious" choice is made without a rational basis. "What had gone before" is a possible rational basis for choosing a particular tempo. Answer: (C) 6. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, ----between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are----to the maintenance of community. (A) a compromise.. inimical (B) an interdependence.. subsidiary (C) a counterpoint.. incidental (D) an equivalence.. prerequisite (E) a reciprocity.. conducive Explanation: The first missing word is a brief description of the first clause in the sentence, which explains what a state is. The second missing word describes laws and procedures and explains their relationship to the maintenance of community. E is the correct answer. "A reciprocity" is an exchange, in this case of benefits and beliefs. A network of exchanged benefits and beliefs is very likely to be based on laws and procedures that are "conducive" (encouraging) to the maintenance of community. Answer: (E) 7. An investigation that is----can occasionally yield new facts, even notable ones, but typically the appearance of such facts is the result of a search in a definite direction. (A) timely (B) unguided

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. Answer: (B) 8. A "subjective" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction. A "propitiatory" gesture is one intended to divert anger. Winckelmann neglected to neutralize. intrigue with (B) enigmatic. unusual (D) sympathetically." The correct answer is B. An "uncomplicated" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction... "Timely" does not contrast with the idea of definite direction. familiarity with (C) propitiatory. significant (B) enthusiastically. (A) quietly. who agree that history and fiction deal with----orders of experience. Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power. The second missing word explains Winckelmann's relationship with the high and mighty.. questioning of (E) unfeigned. by some -----gesture of comradeship. Winckelmann's "involvement with" the high and mighty is indicated by the fact that he cultivated those in power. The characterization of historical analysis as a form of fiction is not likely to be received----by either historians or literary critics.... sympathy for Explanation: The first missing word describes a gesture of comradeship of a kind that would neutralize the resentment of Winckelmann's peers. distinct (E) contentiously. involvement with (D) salutary. realistic Explanation: 4 . the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his----the high and mighty. (A) quixotic. C is the correct answer. The other choices are all incorrect.(C) consistent (D) uncomplicated (E) subjective Explanation: The missing word describes an investigation that contrasts with a "search in a definite direction. A "consistent" investigation does not contrast with a search in a definite direction.. An "unguided" investigation contrasts with a search in a definite direction. Answer: (C) 9... shifting (C) passively.

. the characteristic is not incompatible with assisting those in need. as long as I have known her. The last part of the sentence explains the statement by indicating that philosophers' use of the ideas of science in developing philosophies is axiomatic (so obvious that it needs no proof). B is the correct answer. difficult (E) differences from. Documenting science's----philosophy would be----. it also produced new----. elementary (B) influence on. Answer: (E) 12. clarified... impossible Explanation: The first part of the sentence is a statement that you must complete. (A) intemperance (B) intolerance (C) apprehension (D) diffidence (E) frugality Explanation: The missing word in this sentence is a characteristic that is easily confused with miserliness (unwillingness to spend money. since it is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific concepts as the foundations for their speculations. lack of generosity). she has always been willing to assist those who are in need. data 5 . If historians and literary critics agree that history and fiction are "distinct" orders of experience. Since it is obvious that philosophers use the ideas of science.The first missing word describes a way in which historians and literary critics are not likely to react to the suggestion that historical analysis is a form of fiction. superfluous (C) reliance on. then they are unlikely to react "sympathetically" to the idea that historical analysis is a form of fiction. although it----some problems. finding proof of science's "influence on" philosophy would be unnecessary ("superfluous").. In addition. Her----should not be confused with miserliness. inappropriate (D) dependence on... E is the correct answer. but not the graspingness that makes miserliness incompatible with assisting those in need. Answer: (B) 11. (A) distrust of. The second missing word will depend on how the first missing word characterizes this way of reacting. "Frugality" suggests unwillingness to spend money. Answer: (D) 10. D is the correct answer. Physicists rejected the innovative experimental technique because.

but adolescents and children have no such----for resolving their conflict with the exclusive world of adults. like politics. hypotheses revealed. opportunity Explanation: The first missing word describes how adult social tensions are affected by politics. politics can be described as a "mechanism" that resolves conflicts. Answer: (A) 14. mechanism (E) revealed. Since the missing word is a verb that.. in the structure of the sentence. The word "such" indicates that the second missing word is a conflict revolver. inconsistencies Explanation: The word "because" indicates that the second part of the sentence.. interpretations resolved... The second missing word is some undesirable feature that the technique produced. explains why an innovative experimental technique was rejected by physicists.(A) (B) (C) (D) eased. relief (C) frustrated. D is the correct answer. where the missing words appear. 6 . (A) preserved (B) shortened (C) preempted (D) revised (E) improved Explanation: The word "although" indicates that the second part of the sentence presents a contrast with the first part." Answer: (C) 13. (A) intensified. it might still be rejected because it produced new "complications.. justification (D) adjusted.. Although a technique "resolved" some problems.. C is the correct answer.by politics. parallels the verb "have changed. attitude (B) complicated. If it adjusts tensions. A is the correct answer. although their pronunciations have changed. The spellings of many Old English words have been----in the living language.. The words "such _____for resolving their conflict" help you to fill in the first missing word by indicating that adult social tensions are affected by being resolved by politics." the missing word is a verb that contrasts with change. Social tensions among adult factions can be---. complications caused. the first missing word is something positive that can be done to problems. To have social tensions "adjusted" could be a way of resolving conflict. The word "although" indicates that the technique had some redeeming feature.. To have been "preserved" contrasts with having changed.

. ascent Explanation: The sentence describes a continuum of opinion on which "general endorsement" is one extreme. A is the correct answer. dissolution (E) relinquishment of. "Prophetic" signs. corruption (C) rejection of. you must decide what fate would be "imminent and welcome" for an "oppressive and bankrupt" institution. The missing word describes signs of adolescent anxiety as they relate to the infant. restitution (B) fascination with. It comes as no surprise that societies have codes of behavior. like harbingers. (A) flight from. Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are part of a natural process of development. If an institution is seen as oppressive and bankrupt. (A) prophetic (B) normal (C) monotonous (D) virtual (E) typical Explanation: The sentence contrasts the infant's reactions. then "dissolution" is a welcome fate for it.. with future unhappiness and anxiety. can often be----. "Censure" is all the opposite end of a continuum from general endorsement. (A) predictable (B) unexpected (C) admirable (D) explicit (E) confusing 7 . on the other hand. stable institution to widespread----it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose----was both imminent and welcome. adolescent anxiety is a future occurrence. Answer: (A) 16.Answer: (D) 15.. vogue (D) censure of. part of a normal developmental process. For the infant. from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile.. The first missing word describes the other extreme. not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or ----signs of adolescent anxiety. Answer: (D) 17. For the second missing word. D is the correct answer. the character of the codes. During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably.. foretell future occurrences.

" The last part of the sentence elaborates on the description provided by the missing word. Answer: (B) 19. and contrasts with the words "sensitive" and "idealistic" that characterize a person trying with difficulty to make such decisions.. B is the correct answer.. The words "far from" suggest that the missing word is not at all similar in meaning to "skeptical but enlightened. historians of the 1960's portrayed him as----thinker. edifying (B) pragmatic. In a----society that worships efficiency. eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like. (A) bureaucratic..Explanation: The words "on the other hand" indicates that people's reactions to the character of societies' codes of behavior are not like their reactions to the fact of the codes' existence. (A) an adventurous (B) a doctrinaire (C) an eclectic (D) a judicious (E) a cynical Explanation: The missing word describes Jefferson' thinking. B is the correct answer.. it is difficult for a sensitive and idealistic person to make the kinds of----decisions that alone spell success as it is defined by such a society. Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual. well-intentioned (D) competitive. A "pragmatic" society is one that is more concerned with practical matters than with idealism. dysfunctional Explanation: The first missing word describes a society that worships efficiency. " A doctrinaire" thinker is likely to want to fill the young with political orthodoxy and to censure other people's ideas. The correct answer is B to be "unexpected" means to be surprising.. Reaction to the existence of codes is likely to be the opposite of reaction to the character of codes. Such a society might well require "hardheaded" decisions rather than the idealistic ones preferred by a sensitive and idealistic person. Answer: (B) 8 . hardheaded (C) rational. The second missing word describes the kinds of decisions that such a society requires. evenhanded (E) modern. Answer: (B) 18.

the new expansion in literacy" are a strong clue for the first missing word. source (D) selection.. mistrust (B) reappearance. During a period of protracted illness. E is the correct answer. It is likely that the diversity of tropical plants would contribute to their seeming "inexhaustible" (incapable of being used up).20. The words "sheer diversity" suggest that the number of different kinds of tropical plants is by itself enough to indicate the character of the source. The ----of mass literacy coincided with the first industrial revolution. helped to nurture the----of popular literature. D is the correct answer. The "emergence" of mass literacy corresponds to the "new expansion in literacy. The words "in turn. Answer: (E) 21. The word "seemingly" tells out that the missing word may or may not truly characterize the source: whether it does so remains to be seen. display (C) receipt. in turn. (A) regaining (B) denying (C) pursuing (D) insuring (E) losing 9 . (A) building. of which only a few have been utilized. as well as cheaper printing. The first missing word suggests what happened to mass literacy during the industrial revolution. ----both the strength to work and many of the specific skills they once possessed. The second missing word suggests what happened to popular literature as a result of the expansion of literacy and the advent of cheaper printing." It is reasonable to assume that increased literacy and cheaper printing are likely to have contributed to the "rise" of popular literature. the new expansion in literacy. the sick can become infirm. Answer: (D) 22. (A) exploited (B) quantifiable (C) controversial (D) inexhaustible (E) remarkable Explanation: The missing word describes the character of a source of raw materials. influence (E) emergence. rise Explanation: The sentence describes a chain of occurrences.... The sheer diversity of tropical plants represents a seemingly----source of raw materials..

Explanation: The last part of the sentence explains what happens when people who are sick become infirm. if the attacker agrees with the bases of the policy. "Imperceptibly" means undetectably. to experience dismissed vigor implies "losing" strength and skills. (A) permanently (B) imperceptibly (C) irregularly (D) precariously (E) slightly Explanation: The missing word describes how land grades (levels off gradually and smoothly) into ice. (A) supplemented (B) undermined (C) wasted (D) diverted (E) redeemed Explanation: The person discussed in the sentence seems to approve of the assumptions of a policy while at the same time disapproving of the consequences of accepting it. A person who has become infirm may be said to be denied strength and skills. The correct answer E. In part of the Arctic. B is the correct answer. Answer: (B) 24. B is the correct answer. You must decide what is likely to happen to attacks on the ramifications of a policy when the attacker accepts the policy's underlying assumptions. A person who has become infirm my at the same time be "pursuing" strength and skills. The other four choices are all incorrect. the land grades into the land fast ice so----that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea. It is likely that. Answer: (B) 10 . his attacks on its ramifications would be "undermined" (insidiously weakened). rather than to be "denying" them. Unfortunately. It explains why you walk off the coast without realizing that you have done so. Answer: (E) 23. The fact that you can not detect the grading explains why you can walk off the coast without realizing it. his damaging attacks on the ramifications of the economic policy have been----by his wholehearted acceptance of that policy's underlying assumptions. Becoming infirm does not mean "regaining" strength and skills. but the condition of infirmity is not defined in this way. To become infirm means to experience diminished vigor. To become infirm does not imply "insuring" strength and skills. it means the opposite.

The middle of the sentence. exclude Explanation: The first missing word describes human intelledct (which makes use of creative reasoning) in a machinelike world.. The second missing word must make the meaning of the middle part of the sentence consistent with that of the first missing word. the human intellect appears----. flaw Explanation: The word "since" indicates that the second part of the sentence explains why recent criticism of the structure of Jones' novel is puzzling.. E is the correct answer.. then this ability appears "anomalous" (unexpected. One might well be puzzled that a novel is criticized for "lack of" structure.. The second part of the sentence gives the characteristic of the novel that has traditionally been criticized.) Answer: (A) 26. and the second missing word is a general name for such a characteristic. (A) popular. disparity (D) violation of. (A) anomalous. Answer: (E) 27.25. "since-creative reasoning... speak to (C) anachronistic. reenact (D) self-confident.. framework. revitalize 11 .." explains why the human intellect appears as it does in the machinelike world of classical physics. The first missing word helps to explain why the novel has been recently criticized. contradiction (E) lack of.. deny (D) enduring.... It is puzzling to observe that Jones's novel has recently been criticized for its----structure. when its rigid framework is often seen as an obvious "flaw". indeed schematic. or not in keeping with accepted ideas. allow for (B) abstract. since the mechanical nature of classical physics does not ----creative reasoning. interpret (C) idiosyncratic. dismiss (B) methodical. preoccupation (B) speculation about. value (E) contradictory. the very ability that had made the formulation of classical principles possible. characteristic (C) parody of. a thinker must not be too----: any effective intellectual leader depends on the ability of other people to----thought processes that did not originate with them. A is the correct answer.. since commentators have traditionally argued that its most obvious----is its relentlessly rigid. If classical physics does not "allow for" the ability that made its formulation possible. (A) attention to. In the machinelike world of classical physics.. To have true disciples.

since "rationality. whatever characteristic the leader has must enable others to deal with thought processes that are not their own but belong to the leader. "Flexibility. is not the opposite of self-interest. C is the best answer. E is also incorrect: "insincerity." that is. Also. The choice of B is incorrect. If an intellectual leader were too "idiosyncratic." meaning that the leader's thinking is unique to himself or herself. it is unlikely that a "methodical" approach would keep disciples from making interpretations. A is incorrect. because the thought processes would be so unlike their own. 12 . An intellectual leader might want people to "interpret" his or her thoughts. is not the opposite of self-interest. The colon (:) indicates that the second part of the sentence explains or amplifies what is said in the first part. E is incorrect." which can mean a tendency to yield to influence or ability to respond to change." or lack of honesty. The second missing word indicates what followers must be able to do with a leader's thought processes if the leader is to be effective.(E) pragmatic. C is also in correct. The sentence does not suggest any reason why a thinker should not be too "popular. Therefore. In addition. discourage Explanation: The first missing word describes a characteristic that a thinker with disciples (an intellectual leader) can have. "Diffidence" (reserve. Therefore. A leader's not being too "pragmatic" (practical) does not necessarily permit others to "discourage" the leader's thought processes. is not the opposite of self-interest. (A) rationality (B) flexibility (C) diffidence (D) disinterestedness (E) insincerity Explanation: The colon (:) indicates that the second part of the sentence will explain the first part. D is also incorrect. it is unlikely that intellectual leadership depends on the ability of followers to "discourage" thought. but cannot have in excess. "Disinterestedness" means lack of self-interest. The fact that a leader is not too "self confident" does not necessarily permit any followers to "revitalize" the leader's thought processes. The missing word will describe the opposite of the cynical conviction that "everybody has an angle. A is not the correct answer. Answer: (D) 28. In addition." Great popularity would not necessarily permit people to "dismiss" the leader's thought processes. D is the correct answer. the each person is concerned primarily with his or her own interests. or lack of confidence) is not the opposite of self-interest." or reasonableness. but not his or her thought processes. timidity.. it would be difficult for the leader's followers to "reenact" the leader's thought processes. B is not correct. ----has been presumed not to exist: the cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom. For some time now.

A "cat" is what a "kitten" will be when it grows up. Answer: A Relationship: expensive to general 3. MANSION : RESIDENCE :: (A) limousine : automobile (B) chandelier : candle (C) tuxedo : wardrobe (D) diamond : rhinestone (E) yacht : harbor Explanation: A "mansion" is a large and usually expensive "residence". ADULT : CHILD:: (A) horse : mare (B) cat : kitten (C) swine : sow (D) human : animal (E) cow : herd Explanation: An "adult" is what a "child" who grows up will be.Answer: (D) ANALOGY 1. A rationale for this analogy could be "X" is a large." specifically. Answer: B Relationship: big to small 2. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a container designed to protect objects such as 13 . A "limousine" is a special kind of "automobile. expensive member of class "Y". A rationale for this analogy could be "X (an adult) is what a Y (child) who grows up will necessarily be". a large and expensive one. ENVELOPE : LETTER :: (A) scarf : hat (B) box : bag (C) crate : produce (D) neck : head (E) blood : heart Explanation: One purpose of an "envelope" is to contain and protect a "letter" when it is sent from one place to another.

governing behavior. EVAPORATE : VAPOR :: (A) petrify : stone (B) centrifuge : liquid (C) saturate : fluid (D) corrode : acid (E) incinerate : fire Explanation: 14 . much as an "overdose" violates the rules set forth in a "prescription". Answer: B Relationship: violation to common 6. OVERDOSE : PRESCRIPTION :: (A) deprivation : materialism (B) indiscretion : convention (C) affliction : sympathy (D) adventure : expedition (E) drug : medicine Explanation: "Prescription" has several meanings. A "crate" is designed to protect things. during transport. Answer: E Relationship: pre-structure to outcome 5. An "indiscretion" is an action that violates such rules. The "plot" provides structure for a "story. An "overdose" is a dosage of a medication that exceeds the amount called for by the "prescription. but its use with "overdose" suggests that here it means written instructions for medication." A rationale for this analogy might be "X violates the rules set forth in a Y". Answer: C Relationship: container to object 4. A "convention" is a rule. CHOREOGRAPHY : DANCE :: (A) ceremony : sermon (B) agenda : advertisement (C) poetry : recitation (D) instrumentation : conductor (E) plot : story Explanation: "Choreography" (the art of composing dances) provides a structure that determines what will happen during a "dance". A rationale for this analogy could be "X provides the organizing structure for creation of Y". or set of rules.Y's during transport". usually unwritten. "produce" among them." a creative endeavor.

You can tell that "mercenary" is used as an adjective. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is an attribute of human character that means to seek or desire Y." Answer: A Relationship: characteristic to noun. and not as a noun. because "vindictive. not as a noun. 9. can be used only as an adjective." "Vindictive" means disposed to seek "revenge"." "Fragment" is one of several possible names for a piece broken off a "bone".To "evaporate" means to change or be changed into a "vapor". HAMMER : ANVIL :: (A) knocker : door (B) stick : gong (C) hand : drum (D) pestle : mortar (E) gavel : lectern Explanation: 15 . Answer: D Relationship: fragments to whole 8." the first word in the first answer choice. A rationale for this analogy could be " To X means to change into Y". SHARD : POTTERY :: (A) flint : stone (B) flange : wheel (C) cinder : coal (D) fragment : bone (E) tare : grain Explanation: A "shard" is a piece of "pottery" that has been broken off. MERCENARY : MONEY :: (A) vindictive : revenge (B) scholarly : library (C) immaculate : cleanliness (D) thirsty : water (E) belligerent : invasion Explanation: "Mercenary" means having a strong desire for "money" or serving as a soldier for pay rather than for a cause. to be "vindictive" means to desire "revenge." Answer: A Relationship: action to outcome 7. A rationale for this analogy could be "An X is a piece of Y that has been broken off. To "petrify" means to turn into "stone.

because "reflect" in the first choice is used only as a verb. not as an adjective. or "lustrous". You can tell that "numb" is used as a verb. Answer: B Relationship: action to characteristic of outcome 11. A "mortar" is a vessel that provides a surface on which a "pestle" is used to modify materials. TROUBLED : DISTRAUGHT :: (A) annoyed : disillusioned (B) disturbed : interrupted (C) covetous : rapacious (D) outmoded : ostentatious (E) tranquil : placid Explanation: 16 . EXORBITANT : MODERATION :: (A) dispassionate : equanimity (B) macabre : interest (C) perfidious : loyalty (D) brilliant : gullibility (E) lavish : extravagance Explanation: To be "exorbitant" means to exceed some customary or proper limit." A rationale for this analogy could be "something properly called X lacks Y. NUMB : INSENSIBLE :: (A) reflect : luminous (B) burnish : lustrous (C) heckle : raucous (D) repulse : odious (E) braid : sinuous Explanation: One way to make something "insensible" is to "numb" it." Answer: C Relationship: lacking relationship 12." "Perfidious" means disloyal. Something "exorbitant" is characterized by a lack of "moderation. not as an adjective." to "burnish" means to polish something so that it is shiny. A rationale for this analogy could be "To X something means to render it Y. a "perfidious" person lacks "loyalty. Answer: D Relationship: tools group 10. A rationale for this analogy could be "X provides a surface on which Y can be used to modify materials".An "anvil" is a metal tool that provides a surface on which things can be modified by a "hammer".

" a "hatch" is a barrier that is used to close off a "hold" (a place where cargo is kept).DOOR : ROOM :: (A) rudder : anchor (B) boat : ship (C) patio : terrace (D) hatch : hold (E) basement : attic Explanation: A "door" is a barrier that can be used to close off (access to) a "room". a rationale for this analogy could be "to be Y is to be very X." Answer: D Relationship: tool to professional 14. Answer: D Relationship: entry to closing 15. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a barrier that can be used to close off (prevent entry into) Y. A "coop" is an enclosure where people keep "chickens". CORRAL : HORSES :: (A) den : lions (B) meadow : sheep (C) herd : cattle (D) nest : birds (E) coop : chickens Explanation: "Horses" are kept in a "corral. Answer: C Relationship: degree and depth 13. To be "rapacious" means to be excessively "covetous. SCALPEL : SURGEON :: (A) laser : agronomist (B) magnet: ecologist (C) syringe : geologist (D) telescope : astronomer (E) microscope : geometrician Explanation: A "scalpel" is an instrument commonly used in the work of a "surgeon"." A rationale for this analogy could be "X is an enclosure where people keep Y"." A "telescope" is an instrument commonly used in the work of an "astronomer." or to be insatiable in desiring things. a rationale for this analogy could be "X (a scalpel) is an instrument commonly used in or associated with the work of a person called a Y (surgeon). 17 .To be "distraught" means to be greatly "troubled" or to show that one is "troubled"." to be "covetous" means to desire the possessions of others. Therefore. Therefore.

Answer: C Relationship: thing to purpose 18. usually explanations of words. Answer: C 18 . CANVAS : PAINTER :: (A) leather : shoe (B) brush : palette (C) chisel : wood (D) marble : sculptor (E) hammer : carpenter Explanation: A "painter" often paints on "canvas". PANEGYRIC : EULOGIZE :: (A) ballad : stigmatize (B) ode : criticize (C) lampoon : satirize (D) tirade : entertain (E) treatise : dispute Explanation: A "panegyric" is a speech or written work that is intended primarily to "eulogize"." A "legend" lists symbols or notations used on a "map" and is intended to help one understand the "map". the primary purpose of which is to Y". so a "sculptor" uses "marble. A "lampoon" is defined as a work that is intended to "satirize". As a "painter" uses "canvas" in creating a work of art. GLOSSARY : TEXT :: (A) bibliography : source (B) abstract : dissertation (C) legend : map (D) index : catalog (E) abbreviation : footnote Explanation: A "glossary" is a set of explanations." "Marble" is a material commonly used by a "sculptor".Answer: E Relationship: enclosure to animal 16. that accompanies a "text" and helps the reader to understand the "text. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a communication." A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a set of explanations that helps one to understand Y. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a material commonly used in the work of person Y." Answer: D Relationship: tool surface to professional 17.

something like pain or "sorrow". FERVOR : ZEALOT :: (A) antipathy : philanthropist (B) improvidence : spendthrift (C) concision : politician (D) determination : ecologist (E) nonchalance : acrobat Explanation: "Fervor"(intense feeling or passion) is a characteristic that has a fanatical interest in a cause. Answer: D Relationship: particular to kind 20.Relationship: explanation to thing 19. or to relieve. ASSUAGE : SORROW :: (A) retaliate : antipathy (B) dampen : ardor (C) entrust : reliability (D) counsel : reluctance (E) withhold : appreciation Explanation: To "assuage" means to lessen the intensity of. a rationale for this analogy could be "X is a particular kind of Y. Answer: B Relationship: lessening to degree 19 . LULLABY : SONG :: (A) narrative : volume (B) lecture : tutor (C) paragraph : page (D) diatribe : discourse (E) invective : compliment Explanation: A "lullaby" is a "song" sung to put children to sleep. To "dampen" can mean to diminish the intensity of a feeling such as "ardor". A rationale for this analogy could be " to X means to lessen the intensity of a feeling such as Y". A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a characteristic that must describe a person who is to be called a Y". "Improvidence" (failure to exercise thrift or to provide for the future) is a characteristic of a "spendthrift" (one who spends wastefully)." A "diatribe" is a bitter or abusive kind of "discourse"(an extended expression of thought). Answer: B Relationship: characteristic to person 21. Therefore.

This definition suggests that a rationale for this analogy could be " X is a tool used for Y. PERFUNCTORILY : INSPIRATION :: (A) insolently : veneration (B) ardently : passion (C) phlegmatically : composure (D) surreptitiously : obsession (E) haltingly : reluctance Explanation: Something done "perfunctorily" is done in a mechanical or superficial manner. Answer: C Relationship: model to modeling 23. but its use with "shaping' suggests that here it should be taken to mean a tool used to form an object. or a commanding presence). where Y is done to something else. One who feels admiration or reverence does not behave arrogantly. A rationale for this analogy could be "to X is to show a lack of Y". One who fawns is not characterized by "imperiousness" (arrogance. 20 . A rationale for this analogy could be "A person performing in a manner described as X is acting without feeling Y." A "drill" is a tool used for "boring" (making holes by piercing). FAWN : IMPERIOUSNESS :: (A) equivocate : directness (B) elaborate : originality (C) boggle : imagination (D) manipulate : repression (E) coddle : permissiveness Explanation: To "fawn" means to court favor in a cringing or flattering manner. and shows a lack of "directness"." a person who does something "insolently" (arrogantly or insultingly) does not feel "veneration". Answer: A Relationship: lacking 24. without enthusiasm or "inspiration".22. DIE : SHAPING :: (A) glue : attaching (B) anchor : sailing (C) drill : boring (D) pedal : propelling (E) ink : printing Explanation: "Die" has several meanings. To "equivocate" means to lie or deceive.

is." but a number of separate individuals. Answer: B Relationship: action to outcome 27." if a "crowd" is "dispersed. CLOT : DISSOLVED :: (A) enthusiast : influenced (B) carton : distorted (C) crowd : dispersed (D) chain : disengaged (E) disciple : inspired Explanation: A "clot" (a mass created when the components of something stick together) ceases to be a "clot" when it is "dissolved. when it has undergone the particular process of being Y). Answer: C Relationship: state to disappearing 26." People "search" in order to "find". "Wool" is the name of a kind of "fabric"." or "one way to y (learn) is to X (study). Answer: C Relationship: particular to kind 21 ." A rationale for this analogy could be "an X ceases to be an X when it is Y (that.Answer: A Relationship: lacking 25. one way to "find" something is to "search for it". a rationale for this analogy could be "People X (study) in order to Y (learn). STUDY : LEARN :: (A) pervade : encompass (B) search : find (C) gather : win (D) agree : keep (E) accumulate : raise Explanation: People "study" in order to "learn". Therefore." it is no longer a "crowd. APPLE : FRUIT :: (A) egg : chicken (B) rung : chair (C) wool : fabric (D) fuse : dynamite (E) wick : candle Explanation: An "apple" is a kind of "fruit". A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a kind of Y".

either to decorate it or to protect it. Therefore." Answer: E Relationship: characteristic to person 22 . A rationale for this analogy could be "the purpose of X (a tablecloth) is to cover Y (a table). AUTHORITATIVENESS : PUNDITS :: (A) dedication : signatories (B) sobriety : executors (C) sensitivity : literati (D) recklessness : warriors (E) allegiance : partisans Explanation "Pundits" are persons who are learned. or who are or act authoritative. A rationale for this analogy could be " the reason to X an organism is to increase its ability to Y. FERTILIZE : GROW :: (A) immunize : resist (B) nourish : enrich (C) hear : burn (D) graft : multiply (E) prune : dwarf Explanation: People "fertilize" plants in order to make them "grow". a rationale for this analogy could be "X is by definition a personal characteristic of persons called Y." A "sheet" is used to cover a "mattress. to increase its ability to "resist". TABLECLOTH : TABLE :: (A) tent : ground (B) shirt : hanger (C) window : sill (D) sheet : mattress (E) cloud : earth Explanation: A "tablecloth" is used to cover a "table'.28." Answer: D Relationship: coverings to things covered 29." where y is something the organism must do itself. that is. A reason to "immunize" something is to make it resistant to disease. Answer: A Relationship: action to purpose 30." "Partisans" are people who support a particular person or cause and are therefore characterized by "allegiance.

ATTENTIVE : OFFICIOUS :: (A) doubtful : ambiguous (B) absorbed : engrossed (C) refined : snobbish (D) magisterial : authoritative (E) impromptu : spontaneous Explanation: To be "officious" is a way of being "attentive. "Fresco" is also the name of a painting executed by this method. STRUT : WING :: (A) lever : handle (B) axle : wheel (C) buttress : wall (D) beam : rivet (E) well : pipe Explanation: A stationary structural element that is designed to support an airplane's "wing" is called a "strut"." "Parquetry" is a method of artistic decoration (the laying of pieces of wood flooring in a design) that is usually found on a "floor". Therefore. Answer: C Relationship: supporting things to things supported 33. Answer: B Relationship: decorative thing to thing decorated 32. FRESCO : WALL :: (A) fountain : courtyard (B) parquetry : floor (C) thatch : roof (D) statuary : passage (E) gargoyle : gutter Explanation: "Fresco" is a method of painting that is usually executed on a "wall"." and in acting "refined" is offensive to others. Answer: C 23 . examples of which are usually found on architectural surface Y. A rationale for this analogy could be " to be Y is to be X in a way that is unwelcome to others".31. "Parquetry" also names a "floor" laid in this manner. One who is "snobbish" wishes to be thought "refined. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is a method of artistic decoration." but it implies being "attentive" in a way that is unwelcome to others." A "buttress" is a stationary structure whose primary purpose is to support a "wall". a rationale for this analogy could be "X is a stationary structural element that can support a Y.

Relationship: degree and good-bad 34. AUDACIOUS : TREPIDATION :: (A) refractory : intransigence (B) laconic : volubility (C) sordid : aspiration (D) cursory : accumulation (E) derisive : subordination Explanation: An "audacious" person acts boldly and fearlessly, that is, without "trepidation" (nervousness or fear). A rationale for this analogy could be "A person properly described as X is not characterized by Y". "Laconic" means not characterized by "volubility" (talkativeness). Answer: B Relationship: lacking (antonym) 35. BLANDISHMENT : COAX :: (A) medal : honor (B) budget : save (C) diary : reminisce (D) concert : play (E) plea : threaten Explanation: "Blandishment" is a way to "coax" or persuade another by gentle urging. A rationale for this analogy could be "X is used by one person to Y another person." A "medal" is used to "honor" another. Although a "medal" is a concrete object and "blandishment" consists of words, each is used by one person to accomplish a goal related to another person. Answer: A Relationship: action to purpose 36. RELEVANT : CRUCIAL :: (A) marginal : unique (B) perceptible : obvious (C) apparent : real (D) peripheral : central (E) possible : desirable Explanation: Something "relevant" has a bearing on a matter under consideration but it may be of great or little importance. Something "crucial" is relevant and has the highest degree of importance. A rationale for this analogy could be something properly described as Y is X to a very high degree. Something properly described as "obvious" is "perceptible" to a very high degree: it is easy to perceive. Answer: B

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Relationship: degree and depth

ANTONYM
1. MOROSE: A. overawed B. agitated C. cherubic D. decisive E. cheerful Explanation: To be "morose" means to be gloomy or sullen. It is used to describe people's dispositions. A "cheerful" person is not gloomy or sullen. The correct answer is E. to be "overawed" means to be overcome by superior power or authority. To be "agitated" means to be excited or disturbed. It does not necessarily imply good humor. A gloomy person may or may not be "agitated". "Cherubic" is usually used to describe a person's appearance as rosy, innocent, or childlike. A cherub is not likely to appear "morose", but "cherubic" does not necessarily indicate a sunny disposition. A "decisive" person is able to make decisions and stick by them. A decisive person may or may not have a cheerful disposition. 2. OFFHAND: A. accurate B. universal C. appropriate D. premeditated E. disputatious Explanation: "Offhand" means done without preparation or much prior thought. It refers to a person's actions or statements. D is the correct answer. "Premeditated" means thought about or prepared for ahead of time. To be "accurate" means to be correct or free from error. An "offhand" statement is not necessary an inaccurate one. To be "universal" means to be applicable everywhere. It does not imply anything about prior thought or preparation. Something "offhand" is not by definition the opposite of "appropriate". To be "disputatious" means to be likely to argue. This quality does not imply anything about either preparation or lack of preparation. 3. WARMONGER: A. commentator B. liaison C. lobbyist D. emissary E. pacifist

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Explanation: A "warmonger" is one who incites other to make war. E is the correct answer. A "pacifist" is one who actively oppose war. A "commentator" is one who reports, usually in an objective manner and without taking sides on issues. A "liaison" is a person who provides a link between people or groups. A "liaison" does not necessarily have particular views about war. A "lobbyist" is one who promotes a particular point of view in order to influence public officials. No single view necessarily characterizes every "lobbyist". An "emissary" is a messenger or agent. No particular view necessarily characterizes an "emissary". 4. PERSEVERE: A. put into B. send out C. take away D. give up E. bring forward Explanation: To "persevere" means to continue in an enterprise in spite of opposition or other difficulties. D is the correct answer. To "give up" can mean to cease to try to accomplish something. To "put into" could mean to invest, as energy, or, more generally, to insert. To "send out" means to emit. To "take away" means to subtract, to relieve someone of something, or to remove. To "bring forward" can mean to move up or to carry over. It does not suggest a lack of perseverance. 5. EXPIRE: A. evolve B. stabilize C. come to life D. grow to fruition E. bring to light Explanation: To "expire" means to die or to run out of time. C is the correct answer. To "come to life" (to begin living) is the opposite of to die (to end life). To "evolve" means to develop gradually. The process of evolution must involve life, but to "evolve" is not the opposite of to die. to "stabilize" means to make steady or to maintain without change. To remain in a stabilized condition may mean to remain alive, but it is not the opposite of dying (ending life). To "growth to fruition" means to develop to the point of being productive. It is necessary to be alive in order to "grow to fruition," but the condition of being productive is not the opposite of dying. To "bring to light" means to reveal. It is done to another person or to a thing. 6. METAMORPHOSE: A. move ahead B. remain unaltered C. descend slowly

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To "descend slowly" means to come down without speed. sharp. unnecessary. unresponsiveness D. but "unresponsiveness" is a characteristic of the perceiver. Preparing in advance is a preliminary step. It is frequently used to describe tastes. stimulating. Examining in haste has no clear relationship to metamorphosis. prepare in advance Explanation: To "metamorphose" means to change or be transformed into something else." but "boredom" is a feeling rather than a quality. or stinging.D. that was formerly possessed or owned. but the idea of a position is not included in the definition of "divestiture" as it is in the definition of "promotion". presumably desirable. Coming down is not the opposite of transformation. "Subsidization" refers to a continuing process of being granted something rather than to the point at which something is attained. or repetitive. D is the correct answer. not the opposite of transforming. not of the thing perceived. promotion C. but to "metamorphose" is not the opposite of moving ahead. "pungency" is a quality that is directly perceived. "Pungency" is a quality that might provoke a response. subsidization D. Metamorphosis might be part of a process of moving ahead. "Subsidization" means the act of giving money or aid in any of several possible situations. examine in haste E. "Redundancy" refers to that which is extra. a stinging quality. 7. redundancy C. A is the correct answer. B is the correct answer. blandness E. monopolization Explanation: "Divestiture" is a taking away of something. "Consultation" means a conferring among 27 . It is not a common quality of tastes or smells. but it does not necessarily imply a lack of sharpness. and frequently applies to smells or tastes. DIVESTITURE: A. consultation E. not irritating. acquisition B. To "remain unaltered" is the opposite of changing or being transformed into something else. insignificance Explanation: In some contexts. or one can be divested of something during "divestiture". One can divest oneself. One could be divested of a new position. "Blandness" means lacking flavor. boredom B. "Promotion" means the act of advancing or raising to a new. It implies sharpness. Something that is the opposite of pungent might cause "boredom. "Insignificance" is a quality. PUNGENCY: A. "Acquisition" means coming into possession of something desired. better position. 8.

SEDULOUS: A. 10. 9. Presumptuousness does not necessarily have to do with performance of a task. It implies a lack of efficiency but implies nothing about the speed of operation. straightforward 28 . whereas "divestiture" does not imply amount or degree of divesting. presumptuous B. cautious D. An "aversion" is a feeling of dislike or a desire to avoid. It implies slowness and lack of quick efficiency. so "dispatch" must also be used as a noun. It does not suggest a lack of attention or application. "Presumptuous" means showing arrogance by overstepping one's authority. serenity B. heedlessness D. rather than a way of behaving. Though "dispatch" suggests activity. D is the correct answer. "Treacherous" means likely to betray. simplistic E. It does not describe an approach to a task. "Serenity" means calmness. "serenity" in the first choice is used only as a noun and not as a verb. it is not incompatible with "serenity". 11.people. Although "dispatch" can also be used as a verb. but "useless" does not describe the worker's approach to the work. "Careless" can mean failing to apply due attention to performance of a task. treacherous D. ponderous C. aversion Explanation: "Dispatch" in this question means quick efficiency. Work might be made "useless" if effort and attention were not applied to it. It does not imply lack of either speed or efficiency. It does not have to do with giving or taking. "Ponderous" means being hard to manage because of great weight or size. "Heedlessness" means lack of care in performance. careless E. "Leisureliness" means unhurried pace. informal C. It suggests continuing effort and attention to what is to be done. irregularity E. and may suggest a state of mind or an appearance of calm. enduring B. leisureliness C. "Irregularity" can suggest dishonesty or a lack of continuity in action. "Monopolization" implies having all of something. DISPATCH: A. useless Explanation: "Sedulous" means applying oneself faithfully to a task. TORTUOUS: A.

"Comprehensibility" indicates an ability to be understood. "Insularity" might make a nation susceptible. and is not indelible. Something characterized by "availability" can be obtained or used. devious. It often applies to nations or to peoples. INSULARITY: A. it can refer to physical entities like roads or rivers and also to people's actions or reasonings. It does not imply straightness or directness." 29 . availability B. It is unlikely that an insular people would be characterized by "willing hospitality. To be "cautious" means to be careful. but "susceptibility" means inability to resist some outside influence. "Enduring" means long lasting. 12. It does not imply straightness or directness. Something characterized by "retractability" can be disavowed or taken back. willing hospitality E. but the impression left by it may still be indelible. Something characterized by "decidability" can be decided. susceptibility D. decidability D. retractability Explanation: Something characterized by "indelibility" cannot be removed. to think ahead in order to avoid risks. or indirect. Something indelible is likely to be available as well. "Indebility" may refer to an actual mark like that made by a pen or pencil." it can refer to physical entities and also to people's actions and reasonings. "retractability" usually refers to statements or physical parts of things. but it does not imply a lack of isolation. knowledgeable consideration Explanation: "Insularity" means the state of being isolated or confined to a limited area. To be "simplistic" means to ignore complications. it may or may not be indelible. B is the correct answer. "Overzealousness" is excessive concern over an issue. D is the correct answer. "Cosmopolitanism" implies worldwide scope. "Straightforward" means direct or honest. Like "tortuous. It does not imply straightness or directness. cosmopolitanism C. overzealousness B.Explanation: "Tortuous" means not straight. It can mean winding. comprehensibility C. "Informal" means casual or not marked by ceremony. and does not have to do directly with isolation. Something characterized by "eras ability" can be erased or deleted. INDELIBILITY: A. It might result from isolation or the lack of it. or it may refer to an impression made on a person's mind. It is not the opposite of "indelibility". 13. It does not imply straightness or directness. erasability E. rather than to marks or impressions.

"Sincere" means honest or genuine. To be "scrupulous" means to be careful and exacting. It is a quality of people rather than of things. lacking courage." 14. halting 30 . C is the correct answer. but "scrupulous" does not necessarily imply being courageous. Something described as "gossamer" is not likely also to be "awkward. GOSSAMER: A. ponderous Explanation: "Gossamer" means light. because "sincere" in the first choice can be used only as an adjective and not as a noun. It is a quality of things rather than of people. "Taciturn" means not talkative. FLUENT: A. valorous D. CRAVEN: A. "Insularity" might result from a lack of "knowledgeable consideration. taciturn C. filmy. It refers to a quality of people rather than of things. scrupulous E." is not itself a state like "insularity. One who is "presumptuous" may or may not lack courage. petulant Explanation: "Craven" means cowardly. insensitive B. intense D. 16. To be "presumptuous" means to go farther than is proper. sincere B. awkward E. To be scrupulous" may in some instances require courage. "Intense" means having a quality to an extreme degree. indifferent B. inappropriate C. "Awkward" means clumsy or ungraceful." but to be "gossamer" does not necessarily imply lack of awkwardness. You can tell that "gossamer" is used as an adjective. "Petulant" means bad tempered. One who is "indifferent" is neutral or uncaring.but "willing hospitality" is not implied in the idea of a lack of isolation. E is the correct answer. Indifference does not necessarily have to do with courage or the lack of it. presumptuous C. 15. not as a noun. "Valorous" means courageous. or delicate. "Ponderous" means heavy and possibly cumbersome. derogatory D.

" but "courageous" does not mean the opposite of "flustered. it refers to a personal characteristic or the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. putting on a false appearance. To be "calm" means to be free from agitation or disturbance. mute B. It does not refer to a state of mind. heavy D. It can be used in many senses. To be "heavy" means to have great weight. courageous Explanation: To be "flustered" means to be confused and agitated to such a degree that one cannot think clearly or act decisively. conspirator Explanation: An "ally" is a helper or supporter. To be an "ally" has to do with a person's relationships with others. ingrained E. It refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. Inventiveness does not imply anything about a person's relationships with others. ALLY: A. To be "courageous" means to be brave. "Halting" means lacking in a smoothness that permits rapidity. but it does not describe the presence or absence of confusion and agitation. C is the correct answer. it refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. A "mediator" is one who reconciles differences among other parties without taking sides. It is often used to refer to effortlessly smooth and rapid speech. 17. To be "mute" means to be silent-unable or unwilling to speak. "Ingrained" describes attitudes that have becomes so firmly established that they are very hard to get rid of.E. felon C. A "conspirator" is one who plots with others as an "ally". A "felon" is one who has committed a crime. It is often used to refer to a manner of speech. rather than with a particular quality a person has. calm C. FLUSTERED: A. B is the correct answer. one who operates against another rather than helping or supporting. but to be a "conspirator" is not necessarily to be an enemy. D is the correct answer. An "adversary" is an enemy." 31 . Being "courageous" is not usually associated with being "flustered. it refers to the content of speech rather than to the manner of delivery. "Derogatory" means expressing a low opinion of something. mediator B. hypocritical Explanation: "Fluent" means able to flow rapidly. An "inventor" is one who comes up with new ideas. A conspiracy may involve a plot against another person. "Insensitive" means unfeeling. "Inappropriate" means unsuitable. inventor E. 18. adversary D. "Hypocritical" means saying one thing while meaning another.

but it is not the opposite of sending 32 . soggy B. it refers to the consistency of a material rather than to its resistance to water. Something "soggy" is not "waterproof. Something "soggy" has already been penetrated by a liquid. ACCELERATE: A. swerve B. retard Explanation: One meaning of "accelerate" is to speed up the progress or development of something.19. 21. reject E." but "soggy" implies more than being penetrable by water. demand C. natural C. prevent E. A is the correct answer. To "swerve" means to change course suddenly. It means having already absorbed a great deal of liquid. To "absorb" means to take in. dispel D. mistake D. arouse C." To "dispel" means to do away with something. require Explanation: To "emit" means to give out or send out. "Natural" does not indicate either resistance to water or lack of resistance. viscous E. absorb B. However. EMIT: A. To "reject" means. "Viscous" means gluey. Change in speed is not implied. 20. WATERPROOF: A. E is the correct answer. by water or other liquids. It does not necessarily imply a change in speed. To "retard" is to slow down or impede progress. generally. E is the correct answer. to "demand' means to ask for. It may imply a desire to take in. but a change in speed is not implied in the definition of "arouse. to turn away from something. especially by scattering its parts. unglazed D. No change in speed is implied. "unglazed" does not by definition mean lacking resistance to water. One might "arouse" something in order to hasten its progress. It is unlikely that an "unglazed" substance such as pottery is less "waterproof" than the same substance covered with a glaze. To "arouse" means to waken or stir up. "Permeable" means capable of being penetrated. permeable Explanation: Something that is "waterproof" cannot be penetrated by water.

It can be a characteristic of sounds or of relationships among people. relief from strain B. "Cyclical motion" could itself be considered a change. dogmatic persistence E. but the preventing itself is not the opposite of emitting. DISSONANCE: A. It is not a characteristic of the relationship. METAMORPHOSIS: A. "Dogmatic persistence" could refer to a refusal to change. "Continuation without change" is the opposite of change. A "confederacy" is an agreement or a body formed by agreement. It is not a characteristic of a relationship. The existence of a "contract" may imply a lack of "dissonance. "Relief from strain" may or may not accompany "metamorphosis". B is the correct answer. Emission might be prevented. lay claim to C. rather than the opposite of change. soothe E. "Varied activity" may or may not include the idea of physical change. cyclical motion D. It is an action of some kind rather than a characteristic of a relationship. varied activity Explanation: A "metamorphosis" is a change. "Consent" is approval of or compliance with something done or proposed by another. so "require" is not the opposite of "emit". usually in physical appearance or state. but it implies a state of mind rather than the physical kind of change usually implied by "metamorphosis". BROACH: A. concord B. To "require" means to have a compelling need.out. "Collusion" is not itself either harmonious or inharmonious. contract Explanation: "Dissonance" means a clash or lack of agreement. "Concord" means harmony or a state of agreement. "Collusion" means cooperation among people who intend to deceive others. It is fostered by a harmonious relationship among people. 22. continuation without change C. 24. To "mistake" means to make an error of an unspecified kind. collusion D. confederacy C. keep track of B. consent E. To "prevent" means to keep from occurring. A is the correct answer." but it is not a characteristic of a relationship. simplify 33 . close off D. A "contract" is a kind of formal agreement. 23. To need something does not mean the same thing as to receive it.

In some situations. not as a verb. C is the correct answer. Although "ferment" can also be used as a verb. It raises questions of ownership but it is not the opposite of opening up or introducing. A state of "ferment" does not promote "transparency. purity C. and does not imply luck or lack of it. To "lay claim to" means to call one's own. To "keep track of" means to follow the progress of something. or turbulence. lucidity D. It does not necessarily suggest opening or closing. To "simplify" means to lessen complication. A state of "ferment" does not promote "lucidity. FERMENT: A." one is not 34 . so "ferment" must also be sued as a noun. broaching could cause the opposite of comforting or placating. excited B. "Purity" means lack of contamination." but it is not the opposite of a state of "transparency. Like "ferment. sturdy. It can mean opening or breaking into an actual thing. To "broach" is not necessarily to complicate. disorder. assured of success Explanation: "Hapless" means unlucky or unable to achieve success because of bad luck. or uniform character. C is the correct answer. transparency E. such as a container or building. fortunate D. elated C. or to end access to something. If one is "assured of success. To "soothe" means to comfort or placate.Explanation: To "broach" means to open up. as well as a physical state." it can characterize a state of political affairs. "Transparency" means clarity or obviousness. "solidity" in the first choice can be used only as a noun. To " close off" is to end discussion. To be "completely self-reliant" means to be able to depend entirely on one's own abilities. but "soothe" is not the opposite of "broach". "Lucidity" means clarity or mental coherence. completely self-reliant E. or showing strong feeling. One who is "fortunate" is lucky. HAPLESS: A. solidity B. 25. they are not opposites." but it is not the opposite of a state of "lucidity"." 26. "Solidity" means substantial. Although it is unlikely that "ferment" and "solidity" would characterize the same things. "Excited" means stimulated. One might feel "elated" if one were not "hapless." but elation is an emotional state rather than the state that causes emotion. or it can refer to opening a topic for discussion. tranquility Explanation: "Ferment" in this question is a state of unrest. "Tranquility" means free from disturbance or turmoil. Something characterized by purity may or may not be in a state of "ferment'.

"Narrowness" means a state of lacking scope. 29. 27. dearth E. publicize widely E. A is the correct answer." "Confusion" means a lack of clear perception." A "choice" is an opportunity to choose or a thing chosen. NOISOME: A. gradually diminishing Explanation: "Noisome" means bad smelling. It suggests not only unpleasant smell. walk clumsily B. It does not describe a quantity. To be "attractively fragrant" means to have a peasant smell. subtly flattering C. D is the correct answer. as does "plethora. It does not describe quantity as does "plethora. not of a quantity. consistently patient D."hapless". It describes a characteristic of a particular quantity. behave naturally C. vacuousness B. but also harmful nature or unwholesomeness. impose arbitrarily D. POSTURE: A. that is. confusion Explanation: A "plethora" is more than is necessary. It is less than is needed. You can tell that "posture" is used as a verb. softly glowing E. because "walk clumsily" in the first choice can be used only as a verb and not as a noun. narrowness C. explain carefully Explanation: To "posture" means to pose or to take a position in order to create a desired effect. To be "subtly flattering" means to pay a possibly undeserved compliment without seeming 35 . It is a characteristic of a person or a thing. as does "plethora". It can refer to people's appearance and actions or to their statements. It does not describe quantity. A "dearth" is a scarcity. and is characteristic of a particular quantity. PLETHORA: A. 28. without posing or attempting to create an effect. choice D. luck or the lack of it is not a necessary element in the idea of being guaranteed success. To "behave naturally" is to act without artifice. not as a noun. "Vacuousness" means a state of being empty or stupid. attractively fragrant B. However.

angry C. stroke D. speak slowly 36 . In a legal context. by definition. In a legal context. discuss secretly D. "Gradually diminishing" means slowly becoming smaller. It does not imply anything about smell. A "frightened" person might not behave boisterously. admit willingly E. ABROGATE: A. To "discuss secretly" is not necessarily to keep something in existence. It implies activity as well as noise. JABBER: A. "Quiet" can imply low levels of both noise and activity. quiet. as when something official done away with or when something is done away with by law. It does not necessarily suggest anything about smell or wholesomeness. To "read thoroughly" does not mean to keep something in existence. It does not necessarily suggest anything about how something smells or about its wholesomeness. It does not imply a level of activity or of feeling. but there is not. it is likely to mean to keep something (like a rule or law) in existence rather than to do away with it. One who is "angry" might be. read thoroughly Explanation: To "abrogate" means to do away with. "Softly glowing" means giving off a non-glaring light. BOISTEROUS: A.to do so. To be "consistently patient" means to constantly carry on without complaint. frightened E. To "admit willingly" does not necessarily mean to keep something in existence. 31. or to delay. Expressing appreciation is not necessarily associated with particular levels of noise or activity. To "uphold" means to support something. E is the correct answer. argue C. 32. uphold B. To be "clever" means to be quick-witted or resourceful. grateful B. tickle B. quiet Explanation: "Boisterous" means noisy and high spirited. It does not necessarily suggest anything about smell or wholesomeness. To be "grateful" means to appreciate something. usually in a legal context. defer C. clever D. to "defer" is most likely to mean to put off. a connection between the two. 30. but is not necessarily.

terminate D. To "separate" means to disunite. but tickling is not the opposite of jabbering. It does not necessarily imply dissolution. It implies attaching one's name to an indication of approval." but endorsement is a step in a process of receiving payment. D is the correct answer. "Endorse" can mean to sign. so to "submit unwillingly" is too specific to be the opposite of the more general "endorse". A is the correct answer. 33. To "oppose publicly" is the opposite of lending one's name in approval. calibrate E. 35. To "tickle" means to excite in a pleasant way. To "provoke criticism" means to cause someone to criticize. submit unwillingly D. perform quickly Explanation: One meaning of "endorse" is to approve of something. rather than to express disapproval.E. but stroking is not the opposite of jabbering. To "terminate" means to put an end to or to come to an end. receive payment C. oppose publicly E. correlate Explanation: To "amalgamate" means to mix together or unite. To "joke inaptly" means to make inappropriate jests. in order to "receive payment. fixate C. joke inaptly Explanation: To "jabber" means to speak so rapidly as to be unintelligible. as the markings on an instrument. To "perform quickly' does not imply approval or disapproval." To "stroke" means to rub gently. It refers to the content rather than to the manner of speech and so cannot be the opposite of "jabber. D is the correct answer. and not its opposite. It does not refer to the speed or intelligibility of speech. "Endorse" does not suggest coercion or the absence of coercion. AMALGAMATE: A. To "fixate" means to gaze steadily at something. as one would sign a check. To "calibrate" means to adjust. provoke criticism B. GIST: 37 . such as a statement. To "speak slowly" is the opposite of speaking rapidly. To "submit unwillingly" may or may not suggest disapproval. To "correlate" means to show a relationship to something else. 34. ENDORSE: A. To "argue" means to dispute or to give reasons for something. separate B. It is different from jabbering in that it involves touch rather than verbal communication. It is different from jabbering in that it involves touch rather than verbal communication.

but it does not necessarily imply orderliness. B is the correct answer. importance Explanation: "Anarchy" means absence of order. There is no reason to suppose that it is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. To "solder" is to unite parts or to mend a break. keep silent D. There is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. eccentric method E. BREACH: A. garner B. neutrality E. To "garner" is to gather.A. C is the correct answer. singular event Explanation: The "gist" (of an argument. courtesy B. A "trivial point" is an unimportant one. 36." but it is not the opposite of "anarchy". "Neutrality." but this lack is not implied in the definition of "anarchy. A "singular event" is an occurrence that is individual or unusual. An "eccentric method" is a way of operating that is peculiar to a person or group. "Importance" is a quality that does not directly or necessarily have to do with order or the lack of it." "Hope" is an emotion. To "give approval" is to express a favorable opinion. artificial manner B. informal procedure D. not as a noun. 37. trivial point C. hope C. An "artificial manner" is an affected or unnatural way of behaving.) is the main. ANARCHY: A. order D. rather than a part of an argument or discussion. give approval Explanation: To "breach" means to break or to break into something. An "informal procedure" is a method of operation that is not rigidly specified. or most important. To "move forward" is to go ahead or to make progress. point. "Order" is the opposite of a lack of order. and not a state. 38 . There is no reason to suppose that it is unrelated to the main point. A lack of "courtesy" might well accompany a state of "anarchy. solder C. You can tell from the answer choices that "breach" is used as a verb. B is the correct answer. move forward E. It may or may not accompany "anarchy. To "keep silent" is to refrain from speaking or making noise. for instance." like "anarchy." can be a political state.

or to documents or other inanimate objects. extensive B. INCURSION: A. E is the correct answer. reparation D. extra Explanation: "Extant" means still existing. To be "eclectic" is to draw or be drawn from a variety of sources. immoral E. retreat Explanation: An "incursion" is an intrusion into another's territory. "Ephemeral" means lasting for a very short time. loss of respect B. eclectic B. "Extraneous" means inessential. corporeal Explanation: "Spiritual" refers to matters of the spirit rather than to the material world or the body. Though morality is sometimes seen as a concern of the "spiritual' world. extricable D. Such a thing is not nonexistent. Something "immoral" does not conform to a standard of morality. 40. but it does not imply nonexistence. extraneous C. extinct E. SPIRITUAL: A. in the case of an animal or kind of animal. Something that is "extensive" must still exist. It may imply unimportance. but it does not imply nonexistence. Though "retreat" is more general than 39 . "Corporeal" mean of the body or the material world. "immoral" is not the opposite of "spiritual". "Extinct" means. no longer existing or living. 39. It suggests aggression.38. ephemeral D. It may refer to living things. lack of resolve C. figurative C. so "figurative" cannot be the opposite of "spiritual". "Extra" means additional. EXTANT: A. Its use is not limited either to the realm of the material or to the realm of the immaterial. "Retreat" is often used in a military context to describe an end to formal aggression. "Figurative" refers to a way of representing something rather than to its nature. relapse E. a backing off from a former position. D is the correct answer. To be "extensive" means to cover a large area. Something "extricable" can be removed or disentangled. and is often used in a military context.

" It is likely that "incursion" is preceded by a certain amount of resolve. 42. It does not imply anything about character when it is used to describe persons. or making amends) may be required as a result of an "incursion. but it goes further in that it implies an obliviousness to efforts to influence. A "misunderstood advisor" is one whose advice is not properly comprehended. One who flatters may or may not have great knowledge. collect 40 . "Reparation" (repaying wartime damages. AVER: A. To make an "incursion" does not necessarily inspire respect in those whose territory is invaded. One who is incorrigible cannot be changed. Such a person may or may not have great knowledge. SAVANT: A. incorrigibility D. infertility B. An "unprincipled individual" is one who is unethical. A "savant" could also be a "bore". When "tractability" refers to a person. it suggests that something is easily changed or molded. It does not. indefatigability Explanation: "Tractability" can be a characteristic of either persons or materials. TRACTABILITY: A. A "bore" is a person who is unable to hold the interest of others. Such a person may or may not have great knowledge. "Implausibility" means unbelievability. An impenetrable person is unaware that influence is being exerted. 41. impenetrability E. especially knowledge acquired from books. unprincipled individual E. An "unlearned person" is one who has not acquired great knowledge through reading or other experience. "Indefatigability" means tirelessness. "Impenetrability" may. in some circumstances. flatterer B. "Infertility" means inability to produce or reproduce. it implies obedience or a tendency to be easily influenced by others. misunderstood advisor Explanation: A "savant" is a person characterized by great knowledge. When applied to materials. suggest unwillingness to be influenced by others. C is the correct answer."incursion" in that it does not necessarily refer to a position in another's territory. but a "lack of resolve" is not the opposite of an intrusion. It is not the opposite of an intrusion." but repayment is not the opposite of an intrusion. implausibility C. A "flatterer" is one who praises others excessively in order to achieve some end. unlearned person D. undesirable state. by itself. imply resistance to influence. "Incorrigibility" implies an unwillingness to be influenced by others. A "relapse" is a return to a previous. 43. so a "loss of respect" is not the opposite of "incursion. bore C. it is still the answer most nearly opposite to "incursion". C is the correct answer.

The ability of a statement to placate is not necessarily related to the certainty or truth of its content. "Lugubrious" means mournful and implies that a special attempt to appear mournful is being made. To "encourage" is to inspire or to help along. encourage Explanation: To "aver" means to state that something is certainly true. audacious Explanation: "Facetious" means humorous. To "augment" means to make greater. "Prodigious" means very large. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions.B. FACETIOUS: A. augment C. 41 . ingenuous D. the hunting carnivores and the herbivores that they hunted. To "deny' is to state that something is false. To "placate" means to soothe. but it does not refer to a statement or to proof. certain components of intelligence were improved far more than others. contentious C. prodigious E. and could refer to evidence in support of a position. unable to hide one' feelings. READING COMPLEHENSION Reading Passage 1 The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized groups of these animals. D is the correct answer. "Audacious" means bold or daring. "Ingenuous" means honest. deny E. A is the correct answer. placate D. Encouragement is not concerned with truth or the lack of it. "Contentious" means likely to argue or to cause an argument. It implies. however. specifically. 44. To "collect" means to gather. that a special effort to be funny has been made. lugubrious B. or to prove something positively to be true.

free-floating awareness to a highly focused. a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. sensitive to possibilities in cold trails and distant sounds-and yesterday's unforgotten lessons. The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in predator and prey. then gradually the activation is channeled. but aware in a sense closer to human consciousness than. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels. tuned by the nervous system and the adrenal hormones. Its mood of wariness rather than searching and its attitude of general expectancy instead of anticipating are silk-thin veils of tranquility over an explosive endocrine system. The herbivore prey is of a different mind. say. innerdirected. the large mammal predator is working out a relationship between movement and food. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the context of previous experience. Arousal is at first general.but the animal does experience something like it. The organism is more awake. 1.The author is primarily concerned with (A) disproving the view that herbivores are less intelligent than carnivores (B) describing a relationship between animals' intelligence and their ecological roles (C) establishing a direct link between early large mammals and their modern counterparts (D) analyzing the ecological basis for the dominance of some carnivores over other carnivores (E) demonstrating the importance of hormones in mental activity Answer: (B) Explanation: 42 . The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system. the holding of consistent images. a hungry lizard's instinctive snap at a passing beetle. arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands. arousal attunes the animal to what is ahead. with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem. Perhaps it does not experience forethought as we know it. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes. the effect in herbivores is primarily fear. more vigilant. For both.The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention-that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. active fixation. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. whereas in carnivores the effect is primarily aggression. The predator is searchingly aggressive. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Thus begins concentration. sensitivity to novelty is increased. Using past events as a framework. Although in both kinds of animal. It ranges from a passive.

The author makes a number of different points. that are less intelligent than the animals that are discussed.This question asks you identify the author's primary concern. and the rest of the passage presents additional information about the relationship described in that paragraph. not discussed in the passage. are better able to use past experience to help them survive than are less intelligent animals. The author refers to a hungry lizard (lines 68-69) primarily in order to (A) demonstrate the similarity between the hunting methods of mammals and those of nonmammals (B) broaden the application of his argument by including an insectivore as an example (C) make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness (D) provide an additional illustration of the brutality characteristic of predators (E) offer an objection to suggestions that all animals lack consciousness Answer: (C) Explanation: This question refers you to a specific element in the passage. The sensitivity described in lines 70-76 is most clearly an example of (A) "free-floating awareness" (lines 20-21) (B) "flooding of impulses in the brain stem" (lines 36-37) 43 . In the context of the entire passage. it can be inferred that more intelligent animals. specifically its role in furthering the author's argument. 3. It can be inferred from the passage that in animals less intelligent than the mammals discussed in the passage (A) past experience is less helpful in ensuring survival (B) attention is more highly focused (C) muscular coordination is less highly developed (D) there is less need for competition among species (E) environment is more important in establishing the proper ratio of prey to predator Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a conclusion from the information in the passage about animals. In lines 40-44. You are to identify the role this element plays in the passage. The "hungry lizard's instinctive snap" is contrasted with the mammal's awareness. the author defines intelligence in terms of an animals use of past experience. 4. The purpose of the contrast is to make a distinction between higher and lower levels of consciousness. 2. The primary concern of the passage is introduced in the first paragraph. but all of them are focused on a single main concern. such as the grassland mammals discussed.

as well as the statement that these elements come together "marvelously" (lines 49-50).II. the animal's sensitivity connects "details" such as cold trails and distant sounds with food. Then you must determine which of the given answer choices includes the Roman numerals of those questions. What occurs when the stimulus that causes arousal of a mammal is removed? (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) II and III only (E) I. you must determine the meaning of the word quoted from the passage in each answer. intelligent mammals. suggests that the author respects and admires at least some of their characteristics. An aroused herbivore is fearful because it must be ready 44 . The author's description of the animals' intelligence and ability to focus attention. 5. I can be answered. The author provides information that would answer which of the following questions? I. and then determine which quotation is most clearly illustrated by the words quoted in lines 70-76. Why is an aroused herbivore usually fearful? II.(C) "the holding of consistent images" (lines 39-40) (D) "integration of details with perceived ends and purposes" (lines 45-47) (E) "silk-thin veils of tranquility"(lines 80-81) Answer: (D) Explanation: To answer this question. you must first determine which of the three questions (I. the perceived end. What are some of the degrees of attention in large mammals? III. 6. II and III Answer: (C) Explanation: To answer this question. In lines 70-76. The author's attitude toward the mammals discussed in the passage is best described as (A) superior and condescending (B) lighthearted and jocular (C) apologetic and conciliatory (D) wistful and tender (E) respectful and admiring Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to use information in the passage to judge the author's attitude toward the main subject. and III) can be answered using the information in the passage.

II can be answered. the highest degree and the lowest. even though we try to be gods. cosmic purpose. joyful. According to the passage. loving. or laws of nature. The comic community to which artists address themselves is a community of reasoning. all of the following may occur EXCEPT (A) the production of adrenaline (B) the production of nor epinephrine (C) a heightening of sensitivity to stimuli (D) an increase in selectivity with respect to stimuli (E) an expansion of the range of states mediated by the brain stem Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you what does NOT occur during arousal. The author discusses only animals' reactions to the presence of stimuli. including escaping from a predator. and thus they seek to accentuate contradictions in social action. compassionate beings. not gloss over or transcend them by appeals to extrasocial symbols of divine ends. To answer the question. A directly paraphrases the statement in lines 7-10. it does not seek to mystify us. born out of the conviction that we are human. According to the passage. and it does not deny ambiguity by branding as evil whatever differs from good. you must first determine what does occur. Both I and II can be answered using information provided in the passage. which describes the author's view of the development of improved brain function in early mammals. 7. not their reaction to the removal of a stimulus. improvement in brain function among early large mammals resulted primarily from which of the following? (A) Interplay of predator and prey (B) Persistence of free-floating awareness in animals of the grasslands (C) Gradual dominance of warm-blooded mammals over cold-blooded reptiles (D) Interaction of early large mammals with less intelligent species (E) Improvement of the capacity for memory among herbivores and carnivores Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to identify a reason given in the passage for improved brain function among early large mammals. who are willing to 45 .for what is ahead. Great comic artists assume that truth may bear all lights. The moment of transcendence in great comic art is a social moment. 8. Reading Passage 2 Great comic art is never other-wordly. as the process of arousal in an organism continues. There is no indication in the passage that the range of states mediated by the brain stem expands during arousal. III cannot be answered. Lines 19-21 describe two degrees of attention in large mammals.

" That comic artists address themselves to this audience suggests optimism about the ability of humans to "act rationally". Therefore. The answer is not stated directly in the passage. an ability that great comic art attributes to humans. the author expresses admiration. 2. According to the passage. 1. great comic art arouses courage in reason. courage which grows out of trust in what human beings can do as humans.The passage suggests that great comic art can be characterized as optimistic about the ability of humans to (A) rid themselves of pride (B) transcend the human condition (C) differentiate clearly between good and evil (D) avoid social conflicts (E) act rationally Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify a human ability about which great comic art is optimistic. the "comic community" is made up of people willing to "assume the human risks of acting rationally. that is. Without invoking gods or demons. this is the correct answer. 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author admires great comic artists primarily for their (A) ability to understand the frequently subtle differences between good and evil (B) ability to reconcile the contradictions in human behavior (C) ability to distinguish between rational and irrational behavior (D) insistence on confronting the truth about the human condition (E) insistence on condemning human faults and weaknesses Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the characteristic of great comic artists that the author most admires. That great comic artists confront the truth about the human condition is implied in the author's statements that great comic art does not seek to mystify us. followed by specific examples (E) A succession of ideas moving from specific to general 46 .assume the human risks of acting rationally. Which of the following is the most accurate description of the organization of the passage? (A) A sequence of observations leading to a prediction (B) A list of inferences drawn from facts stated at the beginning of the passage (C) A series of assertions related to one general subject (D) A statement of the major idea. to deny ambiguity or to gloss over contradictions in social action. but must be inferred. By calling the art "great".

Optical astronomy is most directly affected. (D) The night sky appears dusty at all times to observers on Earth. Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to identify an effect that the dust that lies between the stars has on the perceptions of observers on Earth. (B) Many visible stars are made to seem brighter than they really are. (E) The dust is conspicuously visible against a background of bright stars. Rather. The average density of interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun is 1. the dust is not. comes in all shapes and sizes. 1. C is the correct answer. rather liketerrestrial clouds. (C) The presence of hydrogen and helium gas is revealed. dust is only a minor constituent of the material. According to the passage. 2. interstellar dust hides the stars behind it.000 times less than the best terrestrial laboratory vacuum. The rest is hydrogen and helium gas. that lies between the stars.000 to 10. Dust accounts for about one percent of the total mass of interstellar matter. A is the correct answer. which of the following is a direct perceptual consequence of interstellar dust? (A) Some stars are rendered invisible to observers on Earth. The interstellar material. related to the general subject of great comic art. Although its visual effect is so pronounced. you must consider all the elements in the passage and the relationships among them. The passage consists of a series of assertions. extremely low in density. they are dark because of interstellar dust that hides the stars behind it. with small amounts of other elements.Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most accurate description of the organization of the passage. It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant. It can be inferred from the passage that the density of interstellar material is (A) higher where distances between the stars are shorter (B) equal to that of interstellar dust (C) unusually low in the vicinity of our Sun (D) independent of the incidence of gaseous components (E) not homogeneous throughout interstellar space 47 .According to the passage. for although interstellar gas is perfectly transparent. based on the author's opinions. In order to answer. Reading Passage 3 The dark regions in the starry night sky are not pockets in the universe that are devoid of stars as had long been thought.

were possible. 3. The passage compares the interstellar material to clouds. The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. saying that it "comes in all shapes and sizes" (lines 15-16). such as the maintenance of a cultural heritage and the development of a communal consciousness. Gutman argues that one must look to the Black family and the slaves' extended kinship system to understand how crucial achievements. and Genovese. but must be inferred by putting together pieces of information found in the passage.Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a conclusion about the density of the material that exists between the stars. E is the best answer. It can be inferred from the passage that it is because space is so vast that (A) little of the interstellar material in it seems substantial (B) normal units of volume seem futile for measurements of density (C) stars can be far enough from Earth to be obscured even by very sparsely distributed matter (D) interstellar gases can. this suggests that the material is not uniformly distributed throughout interstellar space. for all practical purposes. according to the last sentence in the passage. Rather. C is the correct answer. The matter between the stars is very sparsely distributed (of very low density). but must be inferred by putting together pieces of information found in the passage. The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. But unlike these historians. has rightly stressed the slaves' achievements. Engerman. Reading Passage 4 In his 1976 study of slavery in the United States. like Fogel. Gutman gives plantation owners little credit for these achievements. 48 . but it is not transparent. Stars can be obscured by it. Also. be regarded as transparent (E) optical astronomy would be of little use even if no interstellar dust existed Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks what effect the vastness of space has. Herbert Gutman. The author's statement that " It is only because of the enormous interstellar distances that so little material per unit of volume becomes so significant" indicates that it is the vastness of space that accounts for the obscuring of the stars by material of low density. the reference to the "average density" of the interstellar material in the vicinity of our Sun (lines 16-17) suggests that the density of interstellar material varies from region to region and is not homogeneous.

however. a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences. (A) I and II only 49 . "fictive" kinship arrangements took their place until a new pattern of consanguinity developed. Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent. music. revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent.When blood relationships were few. Gutman discovers that cousins rarely married. II. Engerman. which. Gutman's study is significant because it offers a closely reasoned and original explanation of some of the slaves' achievements. Gutman suggests. though they differed from one tribal group to another. Gutman's examination of other facets of kinship also produces important findings. Fogel. Gutman recreates the family and extended kinship structure mainly through an ingenious use of what any historian should draw upon. Discounted the influence of plantation owners on slaves' achievements. because it is one of many indications of a strong awareness among slaves of an extended kinship network. argues Gutman. These sources indicate that the two-parent household predominated in slave quarters just as it did among freed slaves after emancipation. In sum. 1. as in newly created plantations in the Southwest. derived in this case mostly from plantation birth registers. Emphasized the achievements of slaves. only Gutman emphasizes the preference for stable monogamy and points out what stable monogamy meant for the slaves' cultural heritage. may have derived from West African rules governing marriage.According to the passage. Engerman. This preference for exogamy. one that correctly emphasizes the resources that slaves themselves possessed. Showed the connection between stable monogamy and slaves' cultural heritage. an exogamous tendency that contrasted sharply with the endogamy practiced by the plantation owners. Pointed out the prevalence of the two-parent household among slaves. and religious expression from one generation to another. quantifiable data. In less conclusive fashion Fogel. all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. This taboo against cousins' marrying is important. he shows that the slaves'preference. and Genovese had already indicated the predominance of two-parent households. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of-and so was crucial in sustaining-the Black heritage of folklore. He also uses accounts of ex-slaves to probe the human reality behind his statistics. III. was very much for stable monogamy. The fact that distantly related kin would care for children separated from their families also suggests this awareness. Genovese. and Gutman have all done which of the following? I. Gutman presents convincing evidence that this extended kinship structure-which he believes developed by the mid-to-late eighteenth century-provided the foundations for the strong communal consciousness that existed among slaves. IV.His findings compel attention.

the author mentions. and IV only Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to compare Gutman's work with the work of other historians mentioned in the passage. In lines 18-19. C is the correct answer. Fogel. and Genovese are mentioned in line 3. (C) Historians should rely exclusively on data that can be quantified." that is. " what an y historian should draw upon. According to lines 24-27. (D) Historians ought to make use of data that can be quantified. According to lines 28-33. Gutman is unlike the other historians in that he discounts the influence of plantation owners on slaves' achievements. Engerman. and IV only II. IV is not an answer. the resources that historians ought to use. stressed slaves' achievements. Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to infer something about the author's beliefs concerning historians' resources. and Genovese pointed out the prevalence of two parent households among slaves.(B) (C) (D) (E) I and IV only II and III only I. Which of the following statements about the formation of the Black heritage of folklore. III is an answer. music. According to lines 2-5. 50 . III. I is not an answer. Lines 16-23 describe Gutman's citing of sources to document the prevalence of two parent households. II and III both describe something that all the historians have done. (E) Historians ought to draw on earlier historical research but they should do so in order to refute it. only Gutman shows the relationship between stable monogamy and the slaves' cultural heritage. According to lines 6-7. 3. Gutman. Lines 18-20 indicate the author's belief that historians should make use of quantifiable date. III. II is an answer. D is the correct answer. (B) The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of those slaves who married their cousins. and again in lines 34-35. 2. (B) Historians should rely primarily on birth registers. I and IV do not. The historians Fogel. Engerman. and religious expression is best supported by the information presented in the passage? (A) The heritage was formed primarily out of the experiences of those slaves who attempted to preserve the stability of their families. With which of the following statements regarding the resources that historians ought to use would the author of the passage be most likely to agree? (A) Historians ought to make use of written rather than oral accounts. like the other historians.

but information in the passage permits you to make an inference. 4. (D) The heritage was not formed out of the experiences of only a single generation of slaves. the most probable reason why a historian of slavery might be interested in studying the type of plantations mentioned in line 31 is that this type would (A) give the historian access to the most complete plantation birth registers (B) permit the historian to observe the kinship patterns that had been most popular among West African tribes (C) provide the historian with evidence concerning the preference of freed slaves for stable monogamy (D) furnish the historian with the opportunity to discover the kind of marital commitment that slaves themselves chose to have (E) allow the historian to examine the influence of slaves' preferences on the actions of plantation owners Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most likely reason for a historian's interest in plantations where the sale of slaves was infrequent.(C) The heritage was formed more out of the African than out of the American experiences of slaves. where it is mentioned that on these plantations the slaves' preference for stable monogamy was revealed most clearly. 5. D is the best answer. families were not separated against their wishes. because sale was infrequent on the plantations mentioned in lines 31-32. Black culture was passed form one generation to another and was being continually fashioned out of both African and American experiences. According to the passage. It can be inferred from the passage that. D is the correct answer. It can be inferred that. The answer can be inferred from the information found in lines 30-33. Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to make an inference about the formation of black cultural heritage. (B) The rules forbade marriages between close kin. These two factors suggest that the heritage grew out of the experience of more than one generation. The answer is not necessarily stated in the passage. (E) The heritage was formed primarily out of slaves' experiences of interdependence on newly created plantations in the Southwest. According to the passage. and so the marital commitments they themselves chose were more likely to be evident. of the following. all of the following are true of the West African rules governing marriage mentioned in lines (57-61) EXCEPT: (A) The rules were derived from rules governing fictive kinship arrangements. 51 .

(E) The rules have been considered to be a possible source of slaves' marriage preferences. which statement is NOT true of these rules. Fictive kinship arrangements are mentioned later in the passage. Lines 59-63 describe West African rules governing marriage. (A) These practices began to alter sometime around the mid-eighteenth century. (D) The rules were not uniform in all respects from one West African tribe to another. Answer: (A) Explanation: This question refers you to a specific portion of the passage. A is the correct answer. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage? (A) The author compares and contrasts the work of several historians and then discusses areas for possible new research. and concludes by reiterating his thesis. from the information in these lines or in other parts of the passage. 52 . therefore. slaves rarely married their own cousins.(C) The rules are mentioned in Herbert Gutman's study. draws on the work of several historians for evidence to support his thesis. According to lines 54-57. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to draw a logical conclusion from the information in the passage about the marriage practices of plantation owners. You are to determine. 6. (C) Plantation owners usually based their choice of marriage partners on economic considerations. 7.) E is the correct answer. Which of the following statements concerning the marriage practices of plantation owners during the period of Black slavery in the United States can most logically be inferred from the information in the passage. These arrangements resulted from a set of circumstances peculiar to the settlement of new plantations and did not give rise to the marriage rules of West Africa. (B) The author presents his thesis. This contrasted sharply with the endogamy (marriage within the same family) practiced by the plantation owners. (B) These practices varied markedly from one region of the country to another. that plantation owners did marry their own cousins. (E) Plantation owners often married their cousins. (Marriage practices of plantation owners are mentioned only in lines 56-57. (C) The author describes some features of a historical study and then uses those features to put forth his own argument. (D) Plantation owners often married earlier than slaves. It can be inferred.

8. Reading Passage 5 "I want to criticize the social system. The author describes the general argument of Gutman's study in lines 8-14. In her novels. Music. But Virginia Woolf was a realistic as well as a poetic novelist. describes the study in more detail. and to show it at work. The main subject of the passage is Gutman's theory that extended kinship systems among slaves and the stability of slave families led to development of communal consciousness and the maintenance of cultural heritage. that is. a satirist and social critic as well as a visionary: literary critics' cavalier dismissal of Woolf's social vision will not withstand scrutiny. B is the correct answer. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics. how historical forces impinge on 53 .(D) The author summarizes a historical study. at its most intense. Woolf is deeply engaged by the questions of how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments. E is the correct answer choice. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the best description of the organization of the passage. (E) The author presents the general argument of a historical study. in lines 84-87. and then shows how the arguments are potentially in conflict with one another. and concludes with a brief judgments of the study's value. states the significance of the study. since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage. the relationship of the parts of the passage to one another. He then describes the details of Gutman's study and." Virginia Woolf's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. and Religious Expression: Its Growing Influence (E) The Black Family and Extended Kinship Structure: How They Were Important for the Freed Slave Answer: (B) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the title that best describes the content of the passage. examines two main arguments from the study. based on its content? (A) The Influence of Herbert Gutman on Historians of Slavery in the United States (B) Gutman's Explanation of How Slaves Could Maintain a Cultural Heritage and Develop a Communal Consciousness (C) Slavery in the United States: New Controversy About an Old Subject (D) The Black Heritage of Folklore.

fiction is a contemplative. she portrays people anxious to reform their society and possessed of a message or program as arrogant or dishonest. 1. suggesting. as we read him. and gender help to determine people's fates. calling into question..discreditable desires under the disguiseof loving their kind. Woolf works by indirection..Lawrence(among others) for working by this method. 54 . and criticized novelist D. mocking. too. (Her Writer's Diary notes: "the only honest people are the artists.. Even when Woolf is fundamentally sympathetic to their causes.people's lives. and the author emphasizes that the novels contain observations concerning "how individuals are shaped (or deformed) by their social environments" (lines 20-22). rather than asserting. "It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote. how class.. E is the correct answer. She describes phenomena and provides materials for a judgment about society and social issues. advocating. wealth. to know her society root and branch-a decision curcial in order to produce art rather than polemic. As a moralist. The topics of the passage is Woolf's novels." Like Chaucer..") Woolf detested what she called "preaching" in fiction. The pictures of reformers in her novels are usually satiric or sharply critical. You should consider the passage as a self-contained unit. bearing witness: hers is the satirist's art. it is the reader's work to put the observations together and understand the coherent point of view behind them.. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the passage? (A) Poetry and Satire as Influences on the Novels of Virginia Woolf (B) Virginia Woolf: Critic and Commentator on the Twentieth-Century Novel (C) Trends in Contemporary Reform Movements as a Key to Understanding Virginia Woolf's Novels (D) Society as Allegory for the Individual in the Novels of Virginia Woolf (E) Virginia Woolf's Novels: Critical Reflections on the Individual and on Society Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the most appropriate title for the passage. Woolf chose to understand as well as to judge.. Woolf's literary models were acute social observers like Checkhov and Chaucer. we are absorbing morality at every pore. and yet.harbor. As she put it in The Common Reader.H. not an active art. not as part of a larger work. unaware of how their political ideas serve their own psychological needs." whereas "these social reformers and philanthropists. since for her. subtly under-mining officially accepted mores. Most of her novels are rooted in a realistically rendered social setting and in a precise historical time. Woolf's focus on society has not been generally recognized because of her intense antipathy to propaganda in art. Woolf's own social criticism is expressed in the language of observation rather than in direct commentary.

if subtly. like Chaucer. This question asks you to identify the tone of the remarks made by the author of the passage concerning this assessment of Woolf's work. It can be inferred from the passage that Woolf chose Chaucer as a literary model because she believed that (A) Chaucer was the first English author to focus on society as a whole as well as on individual characters (B) Chaucer was an honest and forthright author. whereas novelists like D." Woolf's statement that readers absorb morality at every pore despite the fact that no laws were changed because of Chaucer indicates that she believed Chaucer's influence to be subtle. In the first paragraph of the passage. Therefore. she did not overtly and vehemently criticize contemporary society Answer: (D) Explanation: The author discusses Woolf's literary models. H. D is the correct answer. effective in influencing the moral attitudes of his readers (E) her own novels would be more widely read if. A is the correct choice. emphasizing Chaucer. the author's attitude toward the literary critics mentioned can best be described as (A) disparaging (B) ironic (C) factious (D) skeptical but resigned (E) disappointed but hopeful Answer: (A) Explanation: The literary critics discussed in the first paragraph ignored Woolf's intention to criticize society and saw her as a "poetic' novelist unconcerned with the real world. The author's characterization of the critics' assessment as "cavalier"(line 16) can be described as "disparaging" 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the most probable reason Woolf realistically described the social setting in the majority of her novels was that she 55 . 4. Line 61 indicates that Woolf's work as a moralist is subtle and done " by indirection. it is likely that it was Chaucer's subtle effectiveness that led Woolf to choose him as a model. Lawrence did not sincerely wish to change society (C) Chaucer was more concerned with understanding his society than with calling its accepted mores into question (D) Chaucer's writing was greatly.2. The reason why Woolf chose Chaucer as her model is not directly stated in the passage but must be inferred from the information there. in the last paragraph.

Lines 51-55 suggest that a contemplative art is expressed indirectly. 5. encourages readers to make their own judgements.(A) was aware that contemporary literary critics considered the novel to be the most realistic of literary genres (B) was interested in the effect of a person's social milieu on his or her character and actions (C) needed to be as attentive to detail as possible in her novels in order to support the arguments she advanced in them (D) wanted to show that a painstaking fidelity in the representation of reality did not in any way hamper the artist (E) wished to prevent critics from charging that her novels were written in an ambiguous and inexact style Answer: (B) Explanation: In lines 25-28. In lines 19-22. The juxtaposition of these lines with the statement in lines 25-28 strongly suggests that Woolf realistically described social settings because she was interested in their effect on character. The question asks why Woolf did so. B is the best answer. 6. The author implies that a major element of the satirist's art is the satirist's (A) consistent adherence to a position of lofty disdain when viewing the foibles of humanity (B) insistence on the helplessness of individuals against the social forces that seek to determine an individual's fate 56 . Which of the following phrases best expresses the sense of the word "contemplative" as it is used in line 51 of the passage? (A) Gradually elucidating the rational structures underlying accepted mores (B) Reflecting on issues in society without prejudice or emotional commitment (C) Avoiding the aggressive assertion of the author's perspective to the exclusion of the reader's judgment (D) Conveying a broad view of society as a whole rather than focusing on an isolated individual consciousness (E) Appreciating the world as the artist sees it rather than judging it in moral terms Answer: (C) Explanation: This question refers you to line 54 of the passage so that you can evaluate the context in which the author uses the word "contemplative. the author states that Woolf's novels presented social settings realistically. rather than by "aggressive assertion." You are to choose the definition of "contemplative" that is closest in meaning to the use of the word in that context. Wooolf's interest in the effect of social environment on the individual is described. C is the best answer. as a contemplative novelist." Lines 57-60 point out that Woolf.

the deuterium-tritium reaction that nuclear scientists are currently exploring with such zeal produces both alpha particles and neutrons.) Another common misconception is that nuclear fusion power is a virtually unlimited source of energy because of the enormous quantity of deuterium in the sea. which is about as plentiful as uranium in the 57 . in a nonpolemical way. Lawrence as concerned as Woolf was with creating realistic settings for his novels? (E) Does Woolf attribute more power to social environment or to historical forces as shapers of a person's life? Answer: (B) Explanation: This question asks you to determine which of the questions given can be answered using the information in the passage. and nonassertive way. The colon in line 65 indicates that the information in lines 61-65 describing Woolf's work leads to the statement. in fact. To make this determination. you must first attempt to answer each question using only the information presented by the author. (The neutrons are used to produce tritium from a lithium blanket surrounding the reactor. In lines 13-15. B is the correct answer. Reading Passage 6 It is a popular misconception that nuclear fusion power is free of radioactivity. E is the correct answer. "hers is the satirist's art. 7.(C) cynical disbelief that visionaries can either enlighten or improve their societies (D) fundamental assumption that some ambiguity must remain in a work of art in order for it to reflect society and social mores accurately (E) refusal to indulge in polemic when presenting social mores to readers for their scrutiny Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify an element that the author thinks is important in the satirist's art." This statement indicates that conclusions about Woolf's work as a satirist can lead you to conclusions about the art of satirists in general. Actually. H. The answer to the question is "No". subtle. the author characterizes Woolf as realistic and satirical as well as introspective and visionary. Lines 61-65 describe Woolf's satirical art as providing the materials for judgments about mores in an indirect. The passage supplies information for answering which of the following questions? (A) Have literary critics ignored the social criticism inherent in the work of Chekhov and Chaucer? (B) Does the author believe that Woolf is solely an introspective and visionary novelist? (C) What are the social causes with which Woolf shows herself to be sympathetic in her writings? (D) Was D. that is. its limits are set by the amount of available lithium.

For the immediate future. you must take into account all of the information in the passage. and fossil fuels to meet our energy needs. Answer: (C) Explanation: This question asks you to use the specific statements made in the passage to determine what the author believes about public awareness of nuclear fusion power. D is the best answer. The author mentions several reasons why nuclear fusion should not be accepted as a major source of energy at this time and recommends continued critical evaluation of its potential. 1. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) criticize scientists who believe that the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction can be made feasible as an energy source (B) admonish scientists who have failed to correctly calculate the amount of lithium (C) defend the continued short-term use of fossil fuels as a major energy source (D) caution against uncritical embrace of nuclear fusion power as a major energy source (E) correct the misconception that nuclear fusion power is entirely free of radioactivity Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you to determine the primary purpose of the passage. nuclear fission. (D) The public is not interested in increasing its awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power. Research should certainly continue on controlled nuclear fusion. we must continue to use hydroelectric power. 2. In order to do this. 58 . The author specifically mentions two misconceptions about nuclear fusion that he believes are generally held. C is the correct answer. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about the current state of public awareness concerning nuclear fusion power? (A) The public has been deliberately misinformed about the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear fusion power. indicating that he believes that people's knowledge of the scientific facts is incomplete. The energy sources already in major use are in major use for good reason. but no energy program should be premised on its existence until it has proven practical. (B) The public is unaware of the principal advantage of nuclear fusion over nuclear fission as an energy source.Earth's crust. (E) The public is aware of the disadvantages of nuclear fusion power but not of its advantages. (C) The public's awareness of the scientific facts concerning nuclear fusion power is somewhat distorted and incomplete.

(D) Nuclear scientists have not been entirely dispassionate in their investigation of the deuterium-tritium reaction. To make this determination. near the beginning of the passage. Reading Passage 7 59 . D is the correct answer. 4. This question asks you to determine what the passage most directly suggests about them. you must first attempt to answer each question using only the information presented by the author.3." The passage states that it is commonly believed that there is an enormous quantity of deuterium in the sea. The passage provides information that would answer which of the following questions? (A) What is likely to be the principal source of deuterium for nuclear fusion power? (B) How much incidental radiation is produced in the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction? (C) Why are scientists exploring the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction with such zeal? (D) Why must the tritium for nuclear fusion be synthesized from lithium? (E) Why does the deuterium-tritium reaction yield both alpha particles and neutrons? Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to determine which of the questions given can be answered using the information in the passage. (C) Nuclear scientists may have overestimated the amount of lithium actually available in the Earth's crust. A is the correct answer. (B) Nuclear scientists exploring the decuterium-tritium reaction have overlooked key facts in their eagerness to prove nuclear fusion practical. the author does not deny this. The answer to the question posed in this choice is "the sea. (E) Nuclear scientists have insufficiently investigated the lithium-to-tritium reaction in nuclear fusion. Answer: (D) Explanation: The author mentions nuclear scientists only once. Which of the following statements concerning nuclear scientists is most directly suggested in the passage? (A) Nuclear scientists are not themselves aware of all of the facts surrounding the deuterium-tritium fusion reaction. The author's statement that scientists are studying the deuterium-tritium reaction with "zeal" suggests that he believes that they are not dispassionate.

1. more active. can survive well on a sporadic food supply. the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids. muscle glycogen is used only when needed and even then only in whatever quantity is necessary. leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted.000 humans at maximum oxidative metabolic energy production. a debt that is proportionally much greater for the larger vertebrates than for the smaller ones. normally torpid. however. There are limitations. one might assume that smaller. It might seem that this interminably long recovery time in a large vertebrate would prove a grave disadvantage for survival. for example. through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). animals could prey on larger ones. some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur. the great equalizer.It has long been known that the rate of oxidative metabolism (the process that uses oxygen to convert food into energy) in any animal has a profound effect on its living patterns. the energy provider. but can generate little metabolic energy per gram of body weight. to this compensation. for example. for example. the energy of 3. with their relatively low metabolic rates. without oxygen. Fortunately. after which only the normal oxidative metabolic source of energy remains. the gigantic dinosaur would have required more than three weeks. If. at most. The high metabolic rate of small animals. This explains how many large species have managed to compete with their more active neighbor: the compensation for a low oxidative metabolic rate is glycolysis. With the conclusion of a burst of activity. at least if they attacked in groups. the dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously. During this process the enormous energy debt that the animal has run up through anaerobic glycolysis must be repaid. for only about two minutes at maximum effort.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. but at the cost of requiring constant consumption of food and water. Whereas the tiny shrew can replace in minutes the glycogen used for maximum effort. The glycogen reserves of any animal are good. which is then sent (in part) back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis. Very large animals. via oxidative metabolism. If only oxidative metabolic rate is considered. gives them sustained power and activity per unit of weight. via anaerobic glycolysis. Thus the anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) refute a misconception about anaerobic glycolysis (B) introduce a new hypothesis about anaerobic glycolysis (C) describe the limitations of anaerobic glycolysis 60 . Anaerobic glcolysis is a process in which energy is produced. Perhaps they could if it were not for anaerobic glycolysis. Only in times of panic or during mortal combat would the entire reserves be consumed. by the liver into glucose. therefore.

and limitations of anaerobic glycolysis in order to describe how the process affects animal survival. B is the best answer. 2. you must identify a limitation that the author mentions. According to the author. glycogen is broken down into APT and lactic acid." he does state that the recovery period leaves the animal vulnerable to attack." Though he denies that it is a "grave disadvantage.According to the author. To answer this question. In order to do this. glycogen is crucial to the process of anaerobic glycolysis because glycogen (A) increases the organism's need for ATP (B) reduces the amount of ATP in the tissues (C) is an inhibitor of the oxidative metabolic production of ATP (D) ensures that the synthesis of ATP will occur speedily (E) is the material from which ATP is derived Answer: (E) Explanation: The process of anaerobic glycolysis is described in the second paragraph. and therefore is crucial to anaerobic glycolysis. you must consider all the parts of the passage. You are to determine the role of glycogen in the process. The passage provides information about the nature. According to the first sentence in the second paragraph. The author describes the recovery period in large animals as "interminably long. It is the material from which ATP is derived.(D) analyze the chemistry of anaerobic glycolysis and its similarity to oxidative metabolism (E) explain anaerobic glycolysis and its effects on animal survival Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the primary purpose of the passage. E is the correct answer. E is the correct answer. chemistry. 61 . a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis is that it can (A) produce in large animals more lactic acid than the liver can safely reconvert (B) necessitate a dangerously long recovery period in large animals (C) produce energy more slowly than it can be used by large animals (D) consume all of the available glycogen regardless of need (E) reduce significantly the rate at which energy is produced by oxidative metabolism Answer: (B) Explanation: The limitations of anaerobic glycolysis as a compensation for slow oxidative metabolism are discussed in the third paragraph. 3.

more active animals might be able to prey on larger ones "at least if they attacked in groups" suggests that a single smaller. since the amount of energy that can be produced is a function of the amount of glycogen present. You are to recognize the situation or situations in which the dinosaur's method of energy production would have made it particularly vulnerable to attack. An attack by an individual adversary of similar size (A) II only (B) I and II only (C) I and III only (D) II and III only (E) I. Sustained attack by numerous smaller. II. Repeated attacks by a single smaller. more active adversary would not be a marked threat to a large animal. Therefore. The passage suggests that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate's size because (A) larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates (B) larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates (C) the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size (D) the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size (E) the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize Answer: (D) Explanation: This question asks you why anaerobic energy reserves are proportional to a vertebrate's size. and III Answer: (A) Explanation: This question is concerned with the vulnerability of a 100-ton dinosaur to different kinds of attacks.5 percent of their muscles' wet weight. The passage states that the amount of glycogen is a fixed proportion of the vertebrate's muscle weight. The author discusses the relationship of size to anaerobic energy reserves in the second paragraph. the author states that it is possible that smaller. If the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is related to its size. 5. In the third paragraph the author continues the discussion of how energy production helps the dinosaur and what price the animal's body must pay for this help. I is not an answer. on the basis of energy production. The author's statement in the first paragraph that smaller. the animal's energy reserves are proportional to its size. The author suggests that. more active adversary II. The author discusses a 100-ton dinosaur in the second paragraph.4. II is an answer. The second paragraph states that "The amount of energy that can be produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present-in all vertebrates about 0. a 100-ton dinosaur would have been markedly vulnerable to which of the following? I. then the amount of glycogen must increase with size. In the first paragraph. more active adversaries III. 62 ." D is the correct answer.

II and III are all factors.more active animals could prey on a larger one if they attacked as a group. Percentage of glucose that is returned to the muscles (A) I only (B) III only (C) I and II only (D) I and III only (E) I. the author states that the energy generated by anaerobic glycolysis lasts only about two minutes when the animal puts forth maximum effort. this process takes about three weeks. II is an answer to the question posed. II is an answer. by means of oxidative metabolism. the animal is vulnerable to attack until the lactic acid in its body fluids is converted back to glycogen. The information in the passage suggests that a 100-ton dinosaur and an adversary of similar size would have available similar amounts of energy. you must infer from the information given in the third paragraph what factors influence the amount of time it will take an animal to replace the muscle glycogen it used during the production of energy by means of anaerobic glycolysis. The lactic acid left in the muscles following anaerobic glycolysis is reconverted. I is an answer. If the rate of reconversion is held constant. Thus. Rate of oxidative metabolism II. into glucose for use in muscle glycogen resynthesis. Muscle glycogen is replenished by the reconversion of lactic acid into glucose. I. A is the correct answer. After lactic acid is reconverted to glucose. Therefore. For the dinosaur. E is the correct answer. The author is most probably addressing which of the following audiences? (A) College students in an introductory course on animal physiology (B) Historians of science investigating the discovery of anaerobic glycolysis (C) Graduate students with specialized training in comparative anatomy 63 . a larger quantity of lactic acid will take more time to reconvert than will a smaller amount. 7. III is not an answer. II. In the third paragraph. 6. III is an answer. the rate at which oxidative metabolism takes place is a factor in determining how quickly the reconversion takes place. Quantity of lactic acid in the body fluids III. and III Answer: (E) Explanation: To answer this question. I and III are not answers. the dinosaur's method of energy production would not have disadvantaged it in this situation by making it particularly vulnerable to attack. Sending a greater proportion to the muscles will decrease the time required to repay the animal's energy debt. part of it is sent to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis. After that. It can be inferred from the passage that the time required to replenish muscle glycogen following anaerobic glycolysis is determined by which of the following factors? I.

8. Reading Passage 8 Tocqueville. you must note the author's style.(D) Zoologists interested in prehistoric animals (E) Biochemists doing research on oxidative metabolism Answer: (A) Explanation: This question asks you to decide what audience the author is addressing in the passage. Jacksonian America was not a fluid. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? (A) The disadvantage of a low oxidative metabolic rate in large animals can be offset by their ability to convert substantial amounts of glycogen into energy. (C) The benefits to animals of anaerobic glycolysis are offset by the profound costs that must be paid. apparently. Answer: (A) Explanation: To determine the central idea of the passage. The passage begins with a discussion of oxidative metabolism and its disadvantage for large animals. (B) The most significant problem facing animals that have used anaerobic glycolysis for energy is the resynthesis of its by-product. The topic of the passage. but technical terms are defined and processes are explained in detail. as they would be in an introductory course. A is the correct answer. you must take into account the way the passage is organized as well as the kind of information given. A is the correct answer. 64 . as well as the kind of information provided. as it would be in a college-level course. (E) The great differences that exist in metabolic rates between species of small animals and species of large animals can have important effects on the patterns of their activities. into glycogen. is appropriate for inclusion in an introductory course on animal physiology. At least to argues E. (D) The major factor ensuring that a large animal will triumph over a smaller animal is the large animal's ability to produce energy via anaerobic glycolysis. The subject matter is complex. The rest of the passage discusses in detail how the disadvantage can be overcome. and what the author assumes about the knowledge already possessed by the audience. Pessen in his iconoclastic study of the very rich in the United States between 1825 and 1850. glucose. To do this. egalitarian society where individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral conditions. animal energy production. was wrong.

Indeed. Pessen indicates that all of the following were true of the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT: (A) They formed a distinct upper class. (E) Many of them retained their wealth in spite of financial upheavals. According to the second paragraph. Answer: (D) Explanation: The author of the passage discusses the work of another author. they did NOT accumulate their own fortunes.The author's attitude toward Pessen's presentation of statistics can be best described as (A) disapproving (B) shocked (C) suspicious (D) amused (E) laudatory Answer: (E) Explanation: 65 . together with some refreshingly intelligible statistics. According to the passage. In no sense mercurial. Pessen. Although these observations are true." Therefore. (D) Most of them accumulated their own fortunes. but had inherited family fortunes. Though active in commerce or the professions. 2.Pessen does present a quantity of examples. plutocratic society even before industrialization. "most of the wealthy were not self-made. Therefore. but had inherited family fortunes. in several cities the wealthiest one percent constantly increased its share until by 1850 it owned half of the community's wealth. (C) Some of them worked as professionals or in business. Pessen overestimates their importance by concluding from them that the undoubted progress toward inequality in the late eighteenth century continued in the Jacksonian period and that the United States was a class-ridden. you must first determine which of the statements given can be attributed to Pessen. This question asks what statements the author of the passage attributes to pessen concerning the very wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850. (B) Many of them were able to increase their holdings. most of the wealthy were not self-made. D is the correct answer. 1. these great fortunes survived the financial panics that destroyed lesser ones. to establish the existence of an inordinately wealthy class. You are to identify the one statement that CANNOT be correctly attributed to Pessen.

According to the first paragraph. The author of the passage discusses Pessen's statistics near the beginning of the second paragraph.. Pessen's conclusions are incorrect. but he draws conclusions that are incorrect. Pessen challenges Tocqueville's view.To answer this question." E is the correct answer. According to the second paragraph. He calls Pessen's statistics "refreshingly intelligible. so "laudatory" describes the author's attitude toward Pessen's presentation of statistics. Pessen challenges Tocquevile's view. Which of the following best states the author's main point? (A) Pessen's study has overturned the previously established view of the social and economic structure of early nineteenth-century America. Answer: (E) Explanation: This question asks you to identify the main point that the author of the passage makes. The words "refreshingly intelligible" can be taken as praise. you must determine the attitude of the author of the passage toward Pessen's presentation of statistics. According to the first paragraph. (D) The social patterns and political power of the extremely wealthy in the United States between 1825 and 1850 are well documented. (B) Tocqueville's analysis of the United States in the Jacksonian era remains the definitive account of this period. E is the correct answer. 66 . 3. (E) Pessen challenges a view of the social and economic system in the United States from 1825 to 1850. you must separate the author's description of Pessen's work and views from the author's evaluation of Pessen's work. (C) Pessen's study is valuable primarily because it shows the continuity of the social system in the United States throughout the nineteenth century. To do this.

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