Power Transformer

INTRODUCTION Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltage transmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be the simplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problems associated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities. In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which are wound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, called the primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces a counter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawn from the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two componentsone in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, and the other 90° behind the voltage which magnetizes the core. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetising effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that IP.NP = IS.NS Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NS are the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns in the primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primary and secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or through a coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to the windings.


CONSTRUCTION 1- Transformer Core Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core type

Fig (1) core type The core of shell type is sh own Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions.


In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designed With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.

Fig (2) shell type

Fig.(3) Single phase Transformer Fig. (4) Single phase Transformer .


Fig. (5) 3- phase Transformer Shell type

Fig. (6) 3- phase Transformer core type

Fig. (7) Cross section of a three-phase Distribution Transformer (Core Type) Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. Where Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity, five-leg core is used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport. Even among thermal/nuclear power station Transformers, which are usually transported by ship and freed from restrictions on in-land transport, gigantic


Transformers of the 1000 MVA class employ five-leg core to prevent leakage flux, minimize vibration, increase tank strength, and effectively use space inside the tank. Regarding single-phase Transformers, two-leg core is well known. Practically, however, three leg cores is used, four-leg core and five-leg core are used in large capacity Transformers. The sectional areas of the yoke and side leg are 50 % of that of the main leg; thus, the core height can be reduced to a large extent compared with the two leg core. For core material, high-grade, grain oriented silicon steel strip is used. Connected by a core leg tie plate fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. As a result, the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates, which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits, keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. In large-capacity Transformers, which are likely to invite increased leakage flux, nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. When erecting a core after assembling, a special device shown in Fig. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate.

Fig (8)

Fig (9) The steel strip surface is subjected to inorganic insulation treatment. All cores employ miter-joint core construction. Yokes are jointed at an angle of 45° to utilize the magnetic flux directional characteristic of steel strip. A computer-controlled automatic machine cuts grain-oriented silicon steel strip with high accuracy and free of burrs, so that magnetic characteristics of the grain-oriented silicon steel remains unimpaired. Silicon steel strips are stacked in a circle-section. Each core leg is fitted with tie plates


this type is applied to windings ranging from BI L of 350kV to BI L of 1550kV. (11). (10) Thus. a special device shown in Fig. a Transformer of 100MVA 160 . 2 . resulting in smaller coil outside diameter and thus reducing Transformer dimension. Thus. As a result. this type of winding is also termed "interleaved disk winding. which faces to an inner winding of relatively high voltage. upper and lower clamps are connected by a core leg tie plate. (12) is applied to large current. In large-capacity Transformers. it is known that these conductors have very large capacitance. electrically isolated turns are brought in contact with each other as shown in Fig. while transposed cable Fig. 2 . the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. with resin-impregnated glass tape wound around the outer circumference. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force.on its front and rear side. Rectangular wire is used where current is relatively small. Unlike cylindrical windings. the resin undergoes heating for hardening to tighten the band so that the core is evenly clamped Fig. the construction of this type of winding is appropriate for the winding.Continuous Disk Winding This is the most general type applicable to windings of a wide range of voltage and current Fig. 1 . When voltage is relatively low. general EHV or UHV substation Transformers employ Helical disk winding to utilize its features mentioned above. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux.Winding Various windings are used as shown below.12 assume a shape similar to a wound capacitor.4 and conductors 9 . the optimum winding is selected so as to utilize their individual features. Sturdy clamps applied to front and rear side of the upper and lower yokes are bound together with glass tape. Helical disk winding requires no shield on the winding outermost side. fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. This capacitance acts as series capacitance of the winding to highly improve the voltage distribution for surge. (9). According to the purpose of use. which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits. And then.Helical Disk Winding (Interleaved disk winding) In Helical disk winding. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. Comparatively small in winding width and large in space between windings. Also." Since conductors 1 . When erecting a core after assembling.

even conventional continuous disk construction is satisfactory in voltage distribution. the advantage of transposed cable may be fully utilized. a helical coil is used which consists of a large number of parallel conductors piled in the radial Direction and wound.Helical windings For windings of low voltage (20kV or below) and large current. and as a result the location of each conductor opposed to the high 161 . Also. (11). (12) Transposed conductor construction Diagram Further.or more capacity handles a large current exceeding 1000A. potential distribution is improved by inserting a shield between turns. Fig. since the number of turns is reduced. In this case. Continuous Disk Winding Fig. (10) Fig. 3 . Adequate transposition is necessary to equalize the share of current among these parallel conductors. Fig (12) illustrates the transposing procedure for double helical coil. thereby ensuring adequate dielectric characteristics. whenever necessary. Each conductor is transposed at intervals of a fixed number of turns in the order shown in the figure.

Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal overpressure specified. the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. whose compression is limited by steel stops. In addition.Tank. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings.voltage winding is equalized from the view point of magnetic field between the start and the end of winding turn. over which a cover is sometimes bolted. Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. Fig. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads. without permanent deformation. Fig (14) Power Transformer 30 MVA 132 / 11 KV 162 . The base and the shroud. The tank has two main parts: a –The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil. The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints. (13) double helical coil 3 .

The Transformers usually include: 163 . sealing joints.Handling devices: Various parts of the tank are provided with the following arrangements for handling the Transformer.Valves: The Transformers are provided with sealed valves.Four pull rings (on two sides of the base) . .Four locations (under the base) intended to accommodate bidirectional roller boxes for displacement on rails. (16) 4 . 5 .Tank Earthing terminals: The tank is provided with Earthing terminals for Earthing the various metal parts of the Transformer at one point. The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air. locking devices and position indicators.Conservator The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. (15) Fig. Fig.b . . The magnetic circuit is earthed via a special external terminal.Four jacking pads (under the base) .

Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54.One refilling valve for the on-load tap-changer. Fully enclosed terminal box for cables Fig.Two isolating valves for the "Buchholz" relay. Optional conduit hubs suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation. plus protection against drip.One isolating valve per radiator or per cooler. . .. with or without stress cones.One conservator drainage and filtering valve. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings removal of Transformer by simply bending back the cables.) Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. (17&18) Available for either HV or LV side. or spray water. . Fig. .Two isolating valves for the protection relay.One drain plug for the tap-changer compartment. or for both. (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact's With live parts. 6 .One drainage and filtering valve located below the tank. (17) 164 .Connection Systems Mostly Transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN or IEC in their standard version. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct Connection of bare or insulated wires. three basic insulated termination systems is available. . And when there is an on-load adjuster: . splash.

and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment. 165 . (19) LV Side (11KV) connection terminal 3-cable for each phase 7 . Construction and Operation See Fig.The dehydrating breather The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors. (18) HV Side 300 KV Fig. (20) The dehydrating breather uses silica .Fig. The specifications of the dehydrating breather are shown in Table (1) and the operation of the component parts in Table (2).gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air.

Fig. (20) Dehydrating breather 166 .

to Maintain the oil pot in a good operating condition. Wing nut 12.Filter 8.Absorbent 10.Silica-gel (Main component SiO2) Shape. silica-gel 9. Peep window 3. Oil pot Oil and filter absorbent 167 .Light pink Removes moisture and dust in the air inhaled by: the Transformer or reactor. Absorbs dust and deteriorated matter in the oil pot.1. Ø4 – Ø5 Mixed ratio --. Suppression screw 14. Oil level line (Red Table .Light purple ----. indicates the Extent of moisture absorption by discoloration. In addition to the removal of moisture.5 kg Desiccating agent FP4. it seals the desiccating agent from the outer air to prevent unnecessary moisture Absorption of the desiccating agent. Set screw 15. Oil pot 5. (Dry condition) (Wet condition ) Blue -----.1 Type Weight of desiccating agent 4. Size --. In addition.5A Material --.2 Item Silicagel Blue silica -gel Action Removes moisture in the air inhaled by the Transformer Or reactor.Cover 13. approx. Case 2.white silica-gel 75% blue silica-gel 25% Table . Flange 4. Oil pot holder 6. while it is not performing breathing action. Breathing pipe 7. Oil (Transformer oil) 11.spherical.

of enclosed construction. 22&23).Bushing Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to 800kVclass.000A rated current. offers the Following features: • High reliability and easy maintenance. 168 . (21). mainly consisting of a condenser cone of oil-impregnated insulating paper. Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below. this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions. Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation. is used For high-voltage application (Fig. Fig. (22) 800 KV bushing The oil-impregnated. this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus duct Fig. This bushing. paper insulated condenser bushing. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor. (21) 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated. this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25. Paper-insulated Condenser Bushing Fig. especially.

• Partial discharge free at test voltage. (24) Cut away view of Transformer bushing type GOE Construction of Cable Connection and GIS Connection Cable Connection In urban-district substations connected with power cables and thermal power stations suffered from salt-pollution. • Provided with voltage tapping for connecting an instrument Transformer if required. (23) Bushing type GOEK 1425 for direct connection of 420 KV Power Transformer to gas insulated Switchgear or high voltage cable Fig. with a cable connecting chamber attached to the Transformer tank. Cable connections and oil filling can be separately performed upon completion of the tank assembling. cable direct-coupled construction is used in which a Transformer is direct-coupled with the power cable in an oil chamber. a coil terminal is connected to the cable head through an oil-oil bushing in the cable connection chamber. • Provided with test tapping for measuring electrostatic capacity and tan δ. Fig. Indirect connection system in which. Construction of the connection chamber can be divided into sections. 169 .

(26) Indirect Cable Connection GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Connection There is an increasing demand for GIS in substations from the standpoint of site-acquisition difficulties and environmental harmony. Fig. The SF6 gas bus is connected directly with the Transformer coil terminal through an oil-gas bushing. Oil-gas bushing support is composed of a Transformer-side flange and an SF6 gas bus-side flange. (27) Direct GIS Connection 170 . In keeping with this tendency. permitting the oil side and the gas side to be completely separated from each other.Fig. GIS connection-type Transformers are ever-increasing in their applications.

abrupt gas production causes pressure in the tank to flow oil into the conservator.3Q-0. To detect these phenomena. Buchholz Relay The 2nd stage contact is used to detect major faults. When gas produced in the tank due to a minor fault surfaces to accumulate in the relay chamber within a certain amount (0. In the event of a fault. oil or insulations decomposes by heat. Fig. a Buchholz relay is installed. thereby actuating the alarm device. the float lowers and closes the contact. There are a 1st stage contact and a 2nd stage contact as shown in Fig. In 171 . the 1st stage contact is used to detect minor faults. (28). Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is installed at the middle of the connection pipe between the Transformer tank and the conservator. (28).35Q) or above. In the event of a major fault. an alarm is set off or the Transformer is disconnected from the circuit.Buchholz Relays The following protective devices are used so that. producing gas or developing an impulse oil flow. upon a fault development inside a Transformer.

If specified.this case. The indicating part. the dial temperature detector is used to measure maximum oil temperature. (29) Construction of Winding Temperature Indicator Relay 172 . is of airtight construction with moisture absorbent contained therein. the float is lowered to close the contact. during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures. Further. Temperature Measuring Device Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. thereby causing the Circuit Breaker to trip or actuating the alarm device. the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication. thus. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on a bobbin used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. (30&31). Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES) The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element. there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. Fig. provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer. With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer.

Fig (30) Oil Temperature Indicator Fig. The heating elements with a matching resistance is fed with current from the Transformer associated with the loaded winding of the Transformer and compensate the indicator so that a temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to a temperature increase of the winding-over-the maximum. which changes in volume with varying temperature. In this way the instrument indicates the temperature in the hottest part of the Transformer winding. 173 .oil temperature. (31) Winding Temperature Indicator The temperature sensing system is filled with a liquid. The matching resistance of the heating element is preset at the factory. the measuring bellows react to both the temperature increase of the winding-over-the-maximum-oil temperature and maximum oil temperature. The sensing bulb placed in a thermometer well in the Transformer tank cover senses the maximum oil temperature. Therefore.

7 kg/cm.sq.S. Fig. the device is automatically reset to prevent more oil than required from being discharged. 2026 (Part 11)-1977 are: (a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable insulating liquid O (b) Non flammable synthetic insulating liquid L (c) Gas G (d) Water W 174 . (32) Pressure Relief Device Cooling System METHODS OF COOLING The kinds of cooling medium and their symbols adopted by I. The pressure relief device starts automatically to discharge the oil.35-0.Pressure Relief Device When the gauge pressure in the tank reaches abnormally To 0. When the pressure in the tank has dropped beyond the limit through discharging.

2. For oil immersed Transformers the cooling systems normally adopted are: 1.Oil Immersed Natural cooled – Type ONAN. Fig. Oil Immersed Air Blast . the third letter represents the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling system and fourth symbol represents the kind of circulation for the external medium. Additional surface is obtained with the provision of radiators. Thus oil immersed Transformer with natural oil circulation and forced air external cooling is designated ONAF. (35 & 36) In this case circulation of air is obtained by fans. In large Transformers the surface area of the tank alone is not adequate for dissipation of the heat produced by the losses.(e) Air A The kids of circulation for the cooling medium and their symbols are: (a) Natural N (b) Forced (Oil not directed) F (c) Forced (Oil directed) D Each cooling method of Transformer is identified by four symbols. It becomes possible to reduce the size of the Transformer for the same rating and consequently save in cost. the second letter represents the kind of circulation for the cooling medium. 175 . The first letter represents the kind of cooling medium in contact with winding. Cooling is obtained by the circulation of oil under natural thermal head only.Type ONAF Fig. (33 & 34) In this case the core and winding assembly is immersed in oil.

(33) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN Fig.Fig. (34) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN 176 .

In addition fans are added to radiators for forced blast of air. (37) In this system of cooling also circulation of oil is forced by a pump.Type ONAF 3.Type OFAF Fig. 4. The circulation of oil is only by convection currents. 5.Type OFAN Fig. Except at hydropower stations this would off-set the saving in cost when special means have to be provided for adequate supply of water. (35) Oil Immersed Air Blast . (38) In this method of cooling. pump is employed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil. 177 .Type ONAF Fig. Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . (36) Oil Immersed Air Blast .Type ONWN In this case internal cooling coil is employed through which the water is allowed to flow. Apparently this system of cooling assumes free supply of water. This type of cooling was employed in older designs but has been almost abandoned in favor of the Type OFWF discussed later. Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled .Fig. Oil Immersed Water Cooled .

Type OFAF Fig.Type OFWF In this type of cooling a pump is added in the oil circuit for forced circulation of oil.Type OFAN 6. (38) Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled .Fig. Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling -ODAF. 178 . Forced Oil Water Cooled . Forced-air-cooled . 7. (37) Forced-oil. through a separate heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow.

(b) Permit good transfer of heat. Since the electric strength and the life of a Transformer depend chiefly upon the quality of the insulating oil. Where special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of the water. The rating of a Transformer with ONAN/ONAF cooling may be written. INSULATING OIL (SPECIFICATIONS AND DEHYDRATION AT SITE) In Transformers. saving in price in changing from ONAN cooling to other forms of cooling is negligible. (f) Have a high flash point. ONAN/ONAF/ OFAF.g. ONAN/ONAF or ONAN/OFAF or sometimes three systems e. the fans will not be working. will cool Transformers at a much better rate. These are Switched on automatically when the load on the Transformer exceeds 45 MVA. having greater fluidity. (e) Have low pour point.e. (d) Have a low viscosity. As soon as the load exceeds a preset value. It is quite common to select Transformers with two systems of Cooling e. (c) Have low specific gravity-In oil of low specific gravity particles which have become suspended in the oil will settle down on the bottom of the tank more readily and at a faster rate.It should be remembered that Transformers cooling type OFAF and OFWF will not carry any load if air and water supply respectively is removed. the insulating oil provides an insulation medium as well as a heat transferring medium that carries away heat produced in the windings and iron core... The lower the flash point 179 . the installation costs for OFWF Transformers may increase. with other systems of cooling of Transformers. Type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer. It shall be appreciated that the ONAN cooling has the advantage of being the simplest with no. dimensions and weight in case of type OFWF can be fully realised only where water supply is readily available. Site conditions sometimes influence the preferred cooling arrangement. say. the fans/pumps are Switched on. a property aiding the oil in retaining its homogeneity. These determine the type of cooling upto certain loading.. i. On bigger units not only there is a saving in price but also the reduced weights and dimensions. On smaller units say up to 10 MVA.Oil with low viscosity.g. fans or pumps and hence no auxiliary motors. it is very important to use a high quality insulating oil.Oil with low pour point will cease to flow only at low temperatures. render the transport easy and decrease the cost of Foundations etc. The flash point characterizes its tendency to evaporate. For example the advantage of reduced price. The insulating oil used for Transformers should generally meet the following requirements: (a) Provide a high electric strength. as 45/60 MVA. This means that so long as the load is below 45 MVA.

(h) Have chemical stability to ensure life long service. Electric strength (breakdown voltage) Min. The gases (with the exception of N2 and O2) dissolved in the oil are derived from the degradation of oil and cellulose molecules that takes place under the influence of thermal and electrical stresses. Pour Point Max. 7 30 kV (rms) 60 kV (rms). Different stress modes. normal operating 180 . (b) Total sludge. it loses in volume.89 g/cm3 0. 0. (a) Neutralization value. Min.5°C. (a) New unfiltered oil (b) After filtration Dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ) at 90 °C Max. 104 °C .g..04 N/m.002 35 X 1012 8 9 Ω / cm 1012 1500 X Ω / cm 10 0. Flash point Min. and an explosive mixture may be formed with the air above the oil.the greater the oil will tend to vaporize. Various national and international specifications have been issued on insulating oils for Transformers to meet the above requirements. i. Max.10 percent by weight 11 12 The oil shall not contain antioxidant additives. 0. a gas volume corresponding to about 1 millionth of the volume of the liquid (ppm). its viscosity rises. e. Max Interfacial tension at 270°C. Max. Specific resistance (resistivity): (a) At 9 0 °C Min. This method is very sensitive and gives an early warning of incipient faults. Corrosive Sulphur (in terms of classification of copper strip).4 mg KOH/g 0. Oxidation stability. It is indeed possible to determine from an oil sample of about one litre the presence of certain gases down to a quantity of a few mm3 .9 °C Non-corrosive. The specifications for insulating oil stipulated in Indian Standard 335: 1983 are given below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 characteristic Appearance Density at 29.. (b) at 2 7 0 °C Min. (g) Not attack insulating materials and structural materials. after oxidation Max. When oil vaporizes.e. Requirement The oil shall be clear and transparent and free from suspended matter or sediments. after oxidation. 15 ppm Gases analysis The analysis of gases dissolved in oil has proved to be a highly practical method for the field monitoring of power Transformers. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Water content.

When a Buchholz (gas-collecting) relay or pressure monitor gives a signal. Extraction and analysis To be able to carry out a gas analysis. To assure effective degassing (> 99 per cent).g. 3 .When a defect is suspected (e. the tan value. the oil is allowed to run slowly over a series of rings which enlarge its surfaces. partial discharges and flashovers. the neutralization coefficient and other physical quantities is not replaced by the gas analysis. APPLICATION. abnormal noise). The gas extracted by the vacuum pump is accumulated in a vessel. A low pressure is maintained by a vacuum pump. 2 . One sampling per year appears to be customary for large power Transformers (Rated >= 300 MVA >= 220 kV). The oil sample to be degassed is sucked into a pre-evacuated degassing column. which analyses the gas sample. With the composition of the gas mixture and the total gas content in the oil sample known.CARBON MONOXIDE CO 181 . Using calibration gases it is possible to identify the different peaks on a chromatogram. Some typical cases where gas analysis is particularly desirable are listed in the following: 1 . Both these kinds of information together provide the necessary basis for the evaluation of any fault and the necessary remedial action. the gases dissolved in the oil must be extracted and accumulated. produce different compositions of the gases dissolved in the oil. The frequency with which oil samples are taken depends primarily on the size of the Transformer and the impact of any Transformer failure on the network. Any water that may have been present in the oil is removed by freezing in a cooling trap to ensure that the water will not disturb the vacuum pumping. followed by a further test some months later. IEC and IEEE. The following gases are analyzed: 1 . This method of monitoring power Transformers has been studied intensively and work is going on in international and national organizations such as CIGRE. Different routines for sampling intervals have been developed by different utilities and in different countries. The routine that has been used over a long period of time of checking the state of the oil every other year by measuring the breakdown strength.In connection with the commissioning of Transformers that are of significant importance to the network. Recalculation of the height of a peak to the content of this gas is done by comparison with chromatogram deflections from calibration gases. the content (in ppm) of the individual gases in the oil is obtained.. The accumulated gas is injected by means of a syringe into the gas chromatograph.temperatures.Directly after and within a few weeks after a heavy short circuit 4 . The relative distribution of the gases is therefore used to evaluate the origin of the gas production and the rate at which the gases are formed to assess the intensity and propagation of the gassing. The volumes of the gas and the oil sample are determined to permit calculation of the total gas content in the oil. hot spots with different high temperatures. An oil pump provides the necessary circulation. The result is plotted on a recorder in the form of a chromatogram.

methane and carbon monoxide about 5 ppm and for carbon dioxide about 2 ppm. H2 CORONA METHANE. ELECTRIC ARCS H2 ACETYLENE.. AGEING CO CARBON DIOXIDE.ETHANE 5 . C2H2 ETHANE. LOCAL C2H6 OVERHEATING ETHENE.5 ppm. for hydrocarbons (except methane) the limit lies below 0. C2H4 PROPANE. until all factors influencing the gassing rate are known. The fault types that can and should be identified are corona. but certain care should be observed when making assessments.2 . electrical discharges. C3H6 HYDROGEN.CARBON DIOXIDE 3 .METHANE 8 .g. It is possible to obtain an idea of the type of fault by using a diagnosis scheme.HYDROGEN 4 . one frequently uses quotients between different gases. during a heat run test or when oil samples are taken at intervals of only a few days. excessively hot metal surfaces and fast degradation of cellulose. This high sensitivity is necessary in those cases where it is desired to determine a trend in the gas evolution at short sampling intervals. To avoid having to deal with the contents of the individual gases.ACETYLENE 7 . Some schemes give an appearance of great precision. A number of different schemes of this type have been prepared. for hydrogen. CH4 Gas concentration limits used in the Interpretation of DGA data A statistical survey concerning gas concentrations in Transformer Oil using the results of that survey the following limits have been set: 182 . e.ETHENE 6 . Identification of faults. CO2 HYDROGEN. GAS ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER Type Of Gas Caused By CARBON MONOXIDE.PROPANE CO2 H2 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CH4 C3H6 The detection limits depend partly on the total gas content.

and guide for electrical insulating oils Of petroleum origin ASTM D923-97 Standard practices for sampling electrical insulating liquids ASTM D3613-98 Standard test methods of sampling electrical Insulting oils for gas analysis and determination of Water content ASTM D36 12-98 Standard test method for analysis of gases dissolved In electrical insulating oil by gas chromatography ASTM D3487-88(1993) Standard specification for mineral insulating oil Used in electrical apparatus PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 183 . Specifications.H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO CO2 Threshold Limit 20 10 10 20 1 300 5000 Warning Limit 200 50 50 200 3 1000 20000 Fault Limit 400 100 100 400 10 Unit ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm The limits above are for a Transformer which are open with a breather and have no OLTC or has a separate conservator for the OLTC. test methods. If the Transformer tank and the OLTC have a common conservator the warning and fault limits are 30 ppm and 100 ppm respectively for C2H2 Standard IEC 60475 Method of sampling liquid dielectrics IEC 60422 Supervision and maintenance guide for mineral Insulating oils in electrical equipment IEC 60567 Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases IEC 60599 Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in Service -Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and Free gases analysis IEC 60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformers and Switchgear ASTM Dl 17-96 Standard guide for sampling.

It is the intention here to discuss the last two i. With three winding Transformers. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variants of connections.Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when (1) there are no circulating currents on open circuit. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anti-clockwise.two or more three phase Transformers. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0. These requirements necessitate that any . 7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings. and (2) the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. IS: 2026 (Part 1V)-1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star. In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector. is represented by the use of clock hour figure. 184 . d or z for the intermediate and low voltage windings. Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330° in steps of -30°. -180" and -330° (clock-hour setting 0. zigzag-delta. should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation. 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio. which are desired to be operated in parallel.e. 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals. the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation. star and delta and vectors of 66 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0° and -330° with the reference (220 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 . Connections of Phase Windings The star. 4) The same polarity. D or Z for the high voltage winding and y. delta-zigzag. For example a 220/66/11 kV Transformer connected star. and star zigzag. followed by the symbols of windings in diminishing sequence of voltage.Yd11.. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. zigzag star. 1. delta or zigzag connection of a set of windings of a three phase Transformer or of windings of the same voltage of single phase Transformers. 5) The same phase rotation. delta-delta. however. If the neutral point of a star or zigzag connected winding is brought out. 6 and 11) are shown in Table ( below) Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first. 2) The same percentage impedance. delta star. the indications are Y N or Z N and y n and z n respectively. forming a three phase bank are indicated by letters Y. Phase Displacement between Windings The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. star-delta. with anticlockwise rotation. depending on the method of connections. -300. sixth and seventh conditions in detail.

If a pair of three phase Transformers have the same phase displacement between high voltage and low voltage windings and possess similar characteristics (Such as no load ratio of transformation phase rotation. (39a) and (39b) respectively. Fig. Similarly.V terminals U1. with the phase sequence of the supply connected to terminals U. low voltage terminals U1V1 and of one Transformer should be connected to U1. Sometimes it may be required to operate a three-phase Transformer belonging to one group with another three-phase Transformer belonging to a different group.V. W of the two being RYB in the anti-clockwise direction are as shown in Figs. This is possible with suitable changes in external connections. For example. percentage impedance) these can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond physically and alphabetically. V1 and W1 of one Transformer to HV terminals U1. Thus taking the case of two three phase Transformers having vector symbols Dd0 and Yy0. Referring to Table (below) the phasor diagrams of the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings of the two Transformers. V1 and W1 terminals of the second Transformer. let us consider a three-phase Transformer with vector symbol Dy1 and see how this can be operated in parallel with a three-phase Transformer of similar characteristics but having vector symbol Yd11. these can be put into parallel operation by connecting H. V1 and W1 of the other Transformer. (39) Example of parallel operation of Transformers of groups 3 and 4 (Transformers having symbols Dy 1 and Yd 11 operating in parallel 185 .

(39c) and therefore results in a phase displacement of -30° between the induced voltages in the h-v and lv windings [see Fig. This can be achieved by interchanging externally two of the h-v connections of the incoming Transformer to the supply. for the successful parallel operation of these Transformers. However. 186 .It may be seen from these diagrams that the phase displacement between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings is -30° in the first Transformer and it is -330° in the second Transformer. (39c) by full lines instead of Connecting 1V to bus Y and 1W to bus B as shown in Fig (39b) by dotted lines. Vector Group This results in the reversal from anticlockwise direction to clockwise direction of the phase rotation of the induced voltages as shown by arrows in Fig.e. (39c)]. i. by connecting 1V to bus B and 1W to bus Y as shown in Fig.. the phase displacement must be the same in the two.

however. This is proved below. 1 and 11 can be operated in parallel with one another by interchanging two of the external h-v and also the corresponding l-v connections of one Transformer. However. (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented by their equivalent circuits) connected in parallel. to obtain the same percentage impedance. Fig. have a phase rotation reversed with respect to that of the secondary voltages of the first Transformer. This can be set right by changing again the two corresponding l-v external connections. Fig (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented) ( ZH )1 ( ZM )1 ( ZL )1 = = ( ZH ) 2 ( ZM ) 2 ( ZL ) 2 187 . ( PH )1 ( PM )1 ( PL)1 = = ( PH ) 2 ( PM ) 2 ( PL) 2 Where (PH)1 and (PH)2 represent the powers of the h-v windings (say primary). (39b). by connecting 2V to bus b and 2W to busy as shown in Fig. Thus Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No.e. i. (39c) instead of connecting 2V to busy and 2W to bus b as shown in Fig.e. Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. The general principle applying to the parallel operation of a three winding Transformer with another three winding Transformer are the same as those for the paralleling of two winding Transformers. Between the three pairs of windings of the two (or more) Transformers (being paralleled) it is imperative that the power ratio of the corresponding windings of the Transformers should be the same. The currents flowing in the various circuits and windings are shown in the figure.The change in two of external it-v connections of the second Transformer thus brings it -30°. (PM)1 and (PM)2 represent the powers of the medium voltage windings (say secondary) and (PL)1 and (PL)2 represent the powers of the low voltage windings (say tertiary) of the two Transformers labeled 1 and 2. i. 0 and 6 however. cannot be operated in parallel with one another without altering the internal connections of one of them as change of external connections only brings about change in phase rotation.. The secondary voltages of this Transformer.

This as is evident also fulfils the second condition of same percentage impedance. Therefore. From a very early stage. Transformers with a turn ratio changeable within certain limits have been used for electrical power transmission. Tap Changer The method to change the ratio of Transformers by means of taps on the winding is as old as the Transformer itself. When Transformers which do not fulfilling this condition are paralleled the operation may be satisfactory without fulfilling the ideal conditions so long as the loads to be carried do not overload either Transformer.Thus the power ratios of the corresponding windings are similar. since this is the simplest method to control the voltage level as well as the reactive and active power in electrical networks. when new three-phase 3 winding Transformers are to be purchased for parallel operation with existing three-phase 3-winding Transformers the purchase order must specify the power ratings of the various windings of the existing Transformers along with other specifications and indicate that the power ratios of the corresponding windings of the various Transformers must be identical failing which it will be impossible to design Transformers with same percentage impedances for the corresponding windings. Tap-changer with single phase transformer 188 .

500 3000 10000 -1300 765 2000 Interconnection 200 110 300 . However. solutions which were quite satisfactory in regards to operating safety and efficiency. At that stage these parameters could only be controlled at the generating plant. It was not possible to control voltage drops caused by load changes in the network. The introduction of OLTCs improved the operating efficiency of electrical systems considerably and this technique found acceptance worldwide.000 operations per year while the rated currents range from approximately 50 to 3000 Amps.400 60 . i. In general the percentage of Transformers equipped with OLTCs is increasing with the increase of the load density and interconnection of electrical networks. then power consumption took a sharp upward trend. In addition. which were connected according to the necessity of the network.e. In other industrialized countries the situation is comparable. Obviously. within a few years. even on such applications experience shows that with proper maintenance several million operations can be obtained. Today's state of the art OLTC has reached such a high level of reliability that it is safe to state that its mechanical life expectancy is equivalent to that of the Transformer. The demand for (OLTCs) came an urgent necessity in the 1920ies.1600 2000 7000 20000 189 .300 5000 25000 -1500 765 3000 Distribution 15 . These range from some hundred to around 300. Switching devices were needed which permitted the change of the turn ratio of Transformers under load condition.At the beginning of the development it was sufficient to have tappings connected to bushings outside the Transformer tank. Transformer No of operation data Power Power Voltage Current OLTC Per Transformer ring ring ring Year MVA KV A Min Mean Max Generator 100 110 100 .which could only be actuated when the Transformer was de-energized.525 50 . The very rapid development brought. this simple device only permitted occasional corrections of the Transformer ratio. OLTCs applied in industrial process Transformers as regulating units in the chemical and metallurgical industry is another important field of application. To solve this problem. which required the interconnection and expansion of the electrical networks.today called "on-load taps changers" (OLTC) – were introduced to Transformers more than 70 years ago. Table below shows a survey of the typical number of operations for various applications. The development of (OLTCs) was accelerated over the years due to the steady increase of the transmission voltage and power. A more comfortable way was to connect the tappings to tap Switches today called "off-circuit" or "no-load tap changers" . Exceptions may be applications in industrial process Transformers. Without interrupting the load current such Switching devices .

110 50 . The transition impedance is been carried out with ohmic resistor with this principle the current Switched and the recovery voltage are in phase. The tap-changer provides two basic functions.300 20 . To avoid a short circuit of the winding transition impedances. 190 . Phase-Shifting Transformers or EHVTransformers. The reactor principle OLTC in these fields can only be applied by mean of booster Transformers. hut also in Germany inventions were applied for a patent in 1905 and 1906. its application is limited to loner voltages. in the USA the reactor principle is still used in a large scale and reactor type OLTCs are still under production. During the load transfer operation between to adjacent taps. Jansen of a diverter Switch and a tap selector. The high-speed resistor type OLTC has its origin in the invention of Dr. In addition to this the costs of transition reactors increase considerably with higher step voltages. The transition resistors hake to be dimensioned only for a short-time loading which enables an economic use of OLTCs in case of higher step voltages and power.230 50 .1000 1000 20000 70000 2. Thus the reactor Switching principle over the years has lost the remarkable importance it had in the beginning of the OLTC development. which can be reactors or resistors? Are inserted. In the late 1940 is many OLTC manufacturers abandoned the production of OLTCs with this Switching principle.5 . Because of the fact that the reactor Switching principle causes a 90 degree phase shift between the Switched current and the recovery voltage arising at the Switching distance. The reactor type OLTC has its development origin in the USA.5 .the slow motion reactor Switching principle and the high speed resistor Switching principle. the reactor type OLTC is less suitable for large step voltages. Today both principles have been developed into reliable OLTCs.1000 2000 50000 300000 150 0 The problem to be solved when changing taps under load is how to connect the tappings of the Transformer winding successively to the same output terminal without interrupting the load current. Two basic principles have been invented and are still used today . DESIGN CONCEPTS OF ON-LOAD TAP-CHANGERS With an on-load tap-changer the Transformer voltage ratio can be varied in steps by adding or subtracting turns.20 . Which make its application more difficult in regards to transport weight. For this purpose a Transformer is furnished with a tapped winding and these taps are connected to terminals on the tap-changer. This lightens the quenching of the arc in the current zero.Electrolysis Chemistry Arc furnace 10 .3000 1000 30000 150000 0 1. transport size and profile and overall economic considerations compared to the resistance principle OLTC. However.Transformers. whereas the resistor principle dominates in the high voltage field or in special applications like HVDC .110 50 . both taps must be temporarily connected to the output terminal. Though the reactor principle has also proven itself. Which were patented in 1926.80 20 .

Various tapping winding configurations are possible. combines these two functions into one device. Whereas separate selectors and diverter or transfer Switches are used for higher power requirements. the Switching devices are located in their own Switching compartment to separate the contaminated oil from the oil in the transformer main tank. HIGH-SPEED RESISTOR TYPE OLTC 191 . Mainly used in the USA. The transfer of electrical power involves arcing in the oil and therefore contamination of the insulating oil (the exception are OLTCs that use vacuum interrupters as Switching devices). The former providing similar Switching conditions for advanced or retard power flow from the Transformer.Fig (2) Basic connection of a star-point linear regulation The first is to “select” a Transformer tapping connection in an open-circuit condition. The simplest type OLTC. Selector Switches are designed for operation within an enclosure inside the Transformer tank (in-tank type) or externally in a separate oil-tilled housing bolted to the outside of the main Transformer tank (compartment type). The action of the diverter or transfer Switch can be rotary or oscillatory. the diverter or transfer Switch is required to make and break current at a recovery voltage whose value is in the same order as the voltage between two taps. The selection function can be without change-over selector (linear). The mechanical configuration of the tap selector can be designed as a single or double multiway selector. Or with change-over selector (reversing or coarse / fine). the second is to “divert” or “transfer” power to that selected tapping without interrupting the through-current. Therefore. reactor transition. A basic connection of a star-point linear regulation is given in Fig (2). change-over selector and the diverter or transfer Switch. The transfer of the load current from the connected to the preselected trip is either achieved by means of resistor transition or the alternative method. To fulfill this requirement several designs have been developed. All designs of tap-changers maintain direct mechanical synchronism between the tap selector. the selector Switch. The power transfer function can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. In service.

The selector Switch principle is represented in Fig. Line-end applications with highest voltages for equipment of 362 kV and rated through-currents of 4500 A have been realized. Figure (4) shows an OLTC comprising a tap selector and diverter Switch. With the tap selector-diverter Switch concept the tap-change is affected in two steps. Fig (3) Principle scheme of a selector Switch type OLTC The latter is economical to manufacture. but certain inherent limitations reduce the possible applications to small and medium size Transformers with highest voltages of equipment of 132 kV and rated-through currents in the range of 500 A to 600 A. Fig (4) Principle scheme of a-tap selector and diverter Switch type OLTC This type can only be built in one enclosure as mentioned above and. The tap adjacent to the one in 192 .The high-speed resistor type OLTC is designed either as a tap selector and a diverter Switch. but also with insulation subject to high voltages. therefore. (3) The OLTC comprising a tap selector and a diverter Switch lends itself for any application up to the highest Transformer rating. or as a selector Switch combining the functions of the tap selector and diverter Switch into one device. the arc products are in contact not only with wearing mechanical parts.

Thereafter the Fig (4) Switching sequence for tap-changer on Switching from position 6 to position 5. a) Position 6. d) The resistor contact u has closed. resistor Ru. The load current passes through Ru and contact u f) The main contact V has closed. The tap-changer is now in position 5. 193 . The load current passes through the resistor Ry and the resistor contact y.service is pre-selected load free by the tap selector. The main contact x carries the load current. e) The resistor contact y has opened. b) Selector contact H has moved in the no-current state from tap 7 to tap 5. The load current is shared between Ry and Ru The circulating current is limited by the resistance of Ry + Ru. c) The main contact X has opened. Has been short-circuited and the load current passes through the main contact V. Selector contact V lies on tap 6 and selector contact H on tap 7.

Fig (45) Three-phase tap-changer type UCBRN 380/600. neutral point design for 21 position with plus/minus Switching 194 .

Fig. (46) Motor-drive mechanism type BUE for UC tap-changer Testing Tap-changers undergo type tests according to the international standards for on-load tap-changers, IEC 214 the first edition of which was published in 1966 and the most recent one in 1976. The tests on the tap-changer itself comprise: 1- Temperature rise of contacts at 1.2 times the maximum rated through-current. 2- Switching tests. 3- Short-circuit current tests. 4- Temperature rise of transition resistors. 5- Mechanical tests. 6- Dielectric tests. And for the motor-drive mechanism: 1- Mechanical load test. 2- Overrun test. 3- Degree of protection of motor-drive cubicle. SF6 Transformer Introduction Demand for effective space utilization is becoming increasingly stronger as a result of grade advancement of commercial/industrial activities and urban life styles. Concurrently, city construction facilities including buildings, underground shopping areas, traffic systems, and public structures are becoming larger in size and gaining in the degree of complications. Since such facilities immensely contribute to improving the efficiency of urban activities, the current trend indicates the possibility of further expansion in the future. On the other hand, accidents involving outbreaks of extensive fire and other troubles are occasionally occurring in these large-sized urban facilities, resulting in the creation of public voices demanding improved fire or accident


preventive measures.

These construction facilities of cities represent high-valued social assets. However, since a great number of citizens utilize such .facilities day after day, it is quite essential to provide effective means to eliminate outbreaks of fire. To achieve this purpose, it is important to install modern fire-fighting systems capable of coping with various causes of fire. At the same time, Basically it is most important to eliminate the possible causes of fire. The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are designed to ideally satisfy Non flammability-ensuring plans of power reception and transformation systems installed in these urban facilities. Since no oil for insulation is used, these Transformers can completely free structures or adjacent rivers from oil contamination during new installation work or system operation. In other words, the SF6 gas-insulated Transformers qualify themselves as truly "non flammability-ensuring equipment" usable for power systems required to prevent fires or accidents and eliminate pollution.


Features The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers offer excellent insulation and cooling characteristics and thermal stability. Additionally, these Transformers possess the following features resulting from containing the active parts in a tank sealed with nonflammable, harmless, and odorless SF6 gas. 1. High-level stability Even should the actual Transformer develop an accident, or should a fire break out on the installation environment, combustion or an explosion will not occur. Since all live parts are housed in grounded metal cases, maintenance and inspection can be achieved easily and safely. 2. Outstanding accident preventive characteristics Nonflammable structure employing no insulation oil contributes to minimizing the scope of associated accident-preventive facilities such as fireproof walls, fire-fighting equipment, or oil tanks. 3. Compactness of substation By directly coupling with gas-insulated Switchgear, substation space can be minimized as the result of compact facilities. 4. Simplified maintenance and long service life Because the Transformers are completely sealed in housing cases, no contact exists with exterior atmospheric air, thereby eliminating problems of degradation or contamination triggered by moisture or dust accumulation. Constant enveloping of components with inactive, dry SF6 gas results in minimizing aging deterioration of insulating materials and prolonging Transformer service life. 5. Easy, clean installation SF6 gas can be quickly sealed into the Transformer tank from a cylinder. Installation work never contaminates surrounding areas, and ensures maintenance of a clean environment. 6. Ideal for high voltage systems By increasing the seal pressure, SF6 gas Transformers offer insulation performance comparable to that of oil-insulated types, being ideal for high voltages of 22 kV to 154 kV. Applications The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are suitable for the following applications: 197

Locations where safety against fire is essential Buildings such as hotels, department stores, schools, and hospitals Underground shopping areas, underground substations Sites close to residential areas, factories, chemical plants Locations where prevention of environment pollution is specifically demanded Water supply source zones, residential quarters, seaside areas Water treatment stations Locations where exposure exists to high-level moisture or dust accumulation Inside tunnels, industrial zones

Specifications and Ratings The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are manufactured under the following standard specifications. Table 1 Standard specifications

NOTES: 1. Mounting of on-load tap-changer is possible. The voltage adjusting range in this case is ±10 % of the rated voltage. 2. As for codes affixed to the primary tap voltage, F indicates full-capacity taps and R indicates rated taps. 3. Consultation regarding ratings other than the above is accepted. Quality specifications The following specifications are provided to ensure safe operation of gas-insulated Transformers. • Withstand voltage during zero gas gauge pressure No problem is caused by operation under normal operating voltage. • Permissible load under zero gas gauge pressure No problem is caused by 50 % load continuous operation. • Permissible load under 1-series operation when 2-series coolers are provided No problem is caused by 75 % load continuous operation.


External Dimensions and Weight Figures below show external dimensions and weight. Since external dimensions are subject to change without notice, please obtain final confirmation from approval drawings. Also,


Natural-cooled type 200 .

Natural-cooled type NOTE: In case of 72.5 kV." 201 . X size (up to bushing Terminal end) becomes "the value in the above Table + 600 mm. GIS direct-coupling type.

Forced-gas-circulated. forced-air-cooled type 202 . natural-air-cooled type SF6 gas-insulated Transformer Forced-gas-circulated.

capable of measuring the positive pressure up to 3. The gauge is a compound type that measures both positive and negative pressure. The temperature indicator is provided with alarm contacts and a pointer for indicating maximum temperature. Since vacuum suction is conducted when sealing SF6 into the tank. the temperature indicator itself can be removed. cm 2 203 . Since this protective cylinder maintains air tightness of the gas. The pressure gauge is provided with alarm contacts that actuate at the upper limit of normal pressure during operation.Accessories SF6 gas temperature indicator (dial thermometer) Measures temperature of SF6 gas sealed in Transformer tanks. Gas temperature is measured by the heat sensing probe of a thermometer inserted into the protective cylinder provided in the tank or on the cover. only the positive pressure is indicated during operation. Dial thermometer SF6 gas pressure gauge (compound gauge) This gauge is used to measure the pressure of SF6 gas sealed in the Transformer tank. the graduations for negative pressure are provided for use during this gas sealing. Generally.0 kg / and the negative pressure up to 760 mmHg.

Temperature compensating pressure switch SF6 Gas Properties Introduction SF6 is a combination of sulfur and fluorine its first synthesis was realized in 1900 by French researchers of the Pharmaceutical Faculty of Paris. Pressure in the Transformer tank is compared with pressure in the reference pressure chamber inserted into the protective cylinder provided in the tank or on the cover. the Americans discovered its properties for extinguishing the electric arc. In 1953. This aptitude is quite remarkable. 204 . In the United States about 1935. regardless of temperatures in the Transformer. Therefore. SF6 gas leakage is accurately detected and the alarm contacts are actuated.Pressure gauge (compound gauge) Temperature compensating pressure Switch Leakage is detected of SF6 gas sealed in the Transformer tank. It was used for the first time as insulating material.

SF6 is a stable gas 205 . The dielectric strength of SF6 in on average 2.5 bar of relative pressure. The principal characteristics of the gas are as follows: Molar mass 146.3 ppm SF6 is therefore 99. contains impurities (within limits imposed by IEC standards No.1 4kg / m3. and. at atmospheric pressure. SF6 has the same strength as fresh oil. It is a gas which the speed of sound propagation is about three times less than in air. The interruption of the arc will therefore be less loud in SF6 than in air. by increasing pressure. Tests have been carried out replacing the nitrogen content of air by SF6 (the gaseous mixture consisted of 79 % SF6 and 24 % oxygen): five mice were then immersed in this atmosphere for 24 hours. it can be seen that the dielectric strength also increases and than around 3.03 % Water 15 ppm C02 traces HF 0.078 Critical temperature 45.2°C and in which noise propagates badly.99 % pur.5 times that of air.Physical properties It is about five times heavier than air. odorless and non-toxic. it becomes liquid at 63. 376) Carbon tetra fluoride (CF4) 0.55°C Critical pressure 37. and has a density of 6. SF6 at atmospheric pressure is a heavier gas than air. It is colorless. Given that the energy released during synthesis is the same as is needed in order to dissociate the final element.59 bars In short. SF6 on the market SF6 which is delivered in cylinders in liquid phase. This approximately similar to coal combustion. it can immediately be seen that: . without feeling any ill effects.03 % Oxygen + nitrogen (air) 0. Chemical properties SF6 is a synthetic gas which is obtained as we have just explained by combination of six atoms of fluorine with one atom of sulfur: S 2 + 6 F 2 → 2SF 6 + 524 Kcal You can see therefore that this reaction is accompanied by an important release of heat.

it gives silicon tetra fluoride SF4. since the International electro technical Commission (IEC) has shown that five mice left for 24 hours in an atmosphere of 79 % SF6 and 21 % oxygen will not only remain alive but will show no signs of abnormal behavior. this gas will not support life. In contact with the parts where electric currents circulate. it gives carbon tetra fluoride CF4. calories are necessary for molecular breakdown. the concentration of SF6 would have to be high. With carbon dioxide (impurity in the gas).It is uninflammable. This does not mean that no precautions need to be taken: because of its lack of oxygen. under certain conditions is poisonous. the gas is stable. and dioxide). air. and does not react with its environment.524 k.It is non-toxic. You can therefore see that a large number of products have been dissociated by the electric arc. the gas is heated to temperatures of around four hundred degrees SF6 gives the following decomposition products: Thionyl fluoride SOF2 Sulfur fluoride SO2F2 Sulfur tetra fluoride SF4 Sulfur deca fluoride S2F10 Thionyl tetra fluoride SOF4 SF6 also reacts with the materials that are found in its environment: With water (impurity in the gas). carbon. Initial state In its initial state. SF6 is perfectly safe in normal conditions: . The importance of the remaining products may be lessened by adding a powder (alumina silicate). it gives sulfur dioxide SO2. . and May. It is thus that. With the araldite casings which are high in silicon dioxide. it gives hydrofluoric acid HF. SF6 Safety precautions: Today there is no known dielectric and breaking agent combined better than SF6 gas. there only remain: Sulfur fluoride SO2F2 Carbon tetra fluoride CF4 Silicon tetra fluoride SIF4 Sulfurous anhydride SO2. At these temperatures.It will not explode. An electric are develops high temperatures which can reach 15000 °C. we can there fore already expect that it will be a powerful cooling agent: 6 F 2 → S 2 + 2 SF 6 + 524 Kcal The dissociation products before interruption of the arc At normal temperature.. 206 . With air dioxide (impurity in the gas). . All these gases are heavier than air. However. The dissociation products after interruption of an arc. besides the impurities of the gas (water. before it has undergone thermal stress (usually the electric arc). many dissociation products that we have previously studied disappear.

Quantity. have ventilation and / or a system for detecting this halogen placed at the lowest points of the installations. This makes any danger impossible in normal operation. All this . Probability. This means that dangerous thresholds are rarely reached. When the work positions are indoors. In normal operation.together with the powders themselves . the putrid smell would make us aware of it immediately. The heat given off by the cigarette may decompose the gas. This sieve is present in all extinguishing chambers. It is these products that need to be spoken about. you must leave your post and ensure that the gas is eliminated by means of powerful ventilation. Your cigarette would then take on a very strange taste also avoid operating combustion engines in this gas. electric Switchgear using SF6 has a leak rate guaranteed to be less than 1 % of the mass per year. In extreme cases. Post-breaking state As we seen at the beginning of this Chapter. Once the polluted gas has disappeared (when the smell becomes bearable) you are still in contact with solid decomposition products. This device will warn you any gas leaks. Certain of these gases are medically defined as being violent irritants of the mucous membranes and of the lungs. The presence of hydrogen sulphide.This creates gaseous and solid decomposition products. gloves and appropriate clothing. This is fortunately extremely infrequent. 207 . Precaution and hygiene. Remember that SF6 is a very heavy gas. Following this rather unpleasant description of the SF6 after breaking we may reassure ourselves on two counts: . And if by chance such an incident accrued. the heat from the arc modifies the SF6. makes an excellent alarm signal.For reasons of probability. Regeneration time is short.shall be sent to a factory for dealing with dangerous products. The solid decomposition products (whitish powder) an aggressive when the react with the humidity of the mucous membranes and of the hands. but depends on the number of ampere being broken. Precautions and hygiene The first recommendation is not to smoke when SF6 gas is around. Operations on the equipment must be carried out with a gas mask. noticeable through its sickening smell. they may cause pulmonary edema. The abnormal situation is the risk of an appliance exploding. The volume of decomposed is microscopic. If you were to find yourself in contact with decomposed SF6 gas.Man dies when the oxygen level of the gas he is breathing falls below 12 %.For reasons of quantity . The smell detection threshold is ten times lower than the toxic threshold (1 ppm is detected by smell). thanks in part to the molecular sieve which regenerates the decomposition products to form pure SF6.

and will cause the temperature of the surroundings to increase. The electric arc: We have seen that the electric field was at the origin of the displacement of electrons. when placing one’s hand near to a television screen. We have an avalanche. at regular intervals. If. One can reach temperature of 15000 °C. This is partly due to its weight. In order to eliminate these electrons. The temperature will decrease all the more rapidly as: 208 . The electric arc is thus going to follow the variations of alternating current. The value of the thermal power can be 10MW. blowout. one could: . under the influence of temperature. the electric field draws electrons to the hot points. creation of electrons. which one calls dielectric. what one calls an electric field. and thus. which will accelerate. Conclusion It is important to point out that sulfur hexafluoride does not bring about an increase in the risks entailed in the work stations.Any damage to the hands caused by these powders can be neutralized by limewater. and becomes conductive. the arc will extinguish rapidly itself. At this moment. These electrons themselves. These electrons are going to circulate in surroundings which are not conductive. mechanical or thermodynamic blow-out. the year in which SF6 was first used as a breaking agent. it is crossed by a strong current. When the contacts separate. which ensures the survival of the arc. The latter is the source of an electric current.) Out-off a current If we perfect a system which allows cooling the arc (turning arc. An electric field appears at the separation of the live contacts. like blow-out for example. in fact.use dielectric with a very high speed of recuperation (the case of SF6) . etc. will create others. in this apparatus..use a process to reduce the temperature of the element (decompression. All bodies. Such a field of a very great intensity will draw electrons at the hot points of contacts. the surroundings remain conductive. etc . The electric arc The creation of an arc Everyone has noticed that. the arc will disappear and reappear immediately. on the other hand. magnetic blow-out. There exists. If its own energy is not sufficient. and for the same reasons. The electric arc has been born. As a matter of interest SF6 does not harm the ozone layer. Under the effect of current passing through it. will see a temperature decrease as soon as the alternating current starts its descent towards 0. that is to say. . one feels a force which attracts.Rid oneself of them by some physical means. it draws throughout its own energy.). One can well understand that the arc increasing to temperatures of 1500°C. This lack of specific danger is furthermore confirmed by the fact that we have not had to record any accident since 1960.. it parts with electrons. if they are in sufficient number. for it is this that displaces the electrons in the conductors. if the electrons have not been eliminated because in this case. end up by reaching their threshold of ionic dissociation.

.. This lowering of temperature will make the ionic recombination of the bodies and the dielectric will recover its insulating properties which thus ensure interruption of the current. as we have seen in its physical properties. Fig (1) Disruptive voltage versus pressure Fig (2) SF6 absolute pressure versus temperature with constant volume mass (density) 209 . The blow out of the arc will thus (mean) evacuate a large quantity of energy. and thus its temperature.SF6. Lastly the hydrofluoric acids attack all metals giving metallic fluorides which are all very hydroscopic insulating powders.SF6 has two states of conduction. and appearance of the resistive arc will bring about a fall in the intensity. is a gas which Absorbs large quantities of energy when it dissociates.

10. simplicity. 2 .sayedsaad.Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost.Load Points. Reliability. data collection.Maximum possible coverage of the supply network.Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits. 3 . radio interference. 2 . 3 .Supply of required electrical power. 5 . 11. Degree of flexibility in operations. Freedom from total shutdown and permissible period of shutdown. Protective zones. 2 .Bus-Bar schemes. space for approaching various 6.Optimum efficiency of plants and the network. Economic considerations. Bypass facilities.5 Hz and 50. and Aesthetics. Low voltage Switchgear and control room. 210 . Switching requirements during abnormal operations. (49. Safety of personnel. 5. 4 . Noise. www. Data transmission etc. 4 . Long service life. 7 . 14. www.Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits. etc. Technical requirements such as ratings. back-up protection 8. 3 . space requirement.Maximum security of supply. Compatibility with ambient conditions. Environmental aspects.Electrical Substations Electrical Network comprises the following regions: 1 . cost of the equipment. foreign exchange involvement.5 Hz). 3.com Essential Features for substation 1 .com Functions of a Substation 1 .com Substation Layouts 1. Requirements of network monitoring. Switching requirements for normal operation. 7. Provision for extensions. 12.Outdoor Switchyard having any one of the above. 2. Quality. such as short circuits and overloads. 4 . www. 15. 8 . 6 . RI. 4. Medium voltage Switchgear.Transmission Systems. main protection.Distribution Systems.Generating Stations. Earthing lightning protection.Office building. audible noise.sayedsaad.High voltage Switchgear. clearances. power line communication. 9.Shortest possible fault-duration. Maintenance requirements. availability. 13.sayedsaad. TI etc.

www. Current Transformers. the clearances required are smaller. However outdoor GIS have also been installed earlier. 14 .Cooling water system.sayedsaad. overhead shielding.5 . As the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is higher than air. Isolators. the various equipments like Circuit Breakers. etc. the overall size of each equipment and the complete substation is reduced to about 10 % of conventional Air-insulated substations. drinking water system. are housed in metal enclosed modules filled with SF6 gas.Lighting protection system. 7 . The SF6 gas provides the phase to ground insulation. In such a substation.com SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) 1. Voltage Transformers Earthing Switches.Auxiliary power supply Low voltage AC. 13 . 145 kV.Battery room and low voltage DC. Security system etc. 211 . 10 . etc. Introduction SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are preferred for voltage ratings of 72.5 kV. 300 kV and 420 kV and above. 6 . 15 .Incoming line towers and outgoing line towers/cables.Fire fighting system. 8 .Fence and gates. Supply system. 11 .Drainage system. Hence. As a rule GIS are installed indoor.Substation lighting system etc.Station Earthing system.Store. Bus-Bars. As the dielectric strength of SF6 gas provides the phase to ground insulation.Maintenance workshop (if required). 17 . Load Break Switches.Roads and rail track for transporting equipment. 9 . 16 . 12 .

com 212 .High voltage Gas Insulated Switch gear Type B95 Double Bus-Bar (make Alostom) www.sayedsaad.

the installation time is substantially reduced.sayedsaad. Thereafter. They are also preferred in heavily polluted areas where dust. 2 – Spring Mechanism . they a taken to site for final assembly.com 4 – Slow Earthing Switch 5 – Make Proof Earthing Switch.sayedsaad. where cost of land is very high and higher cost of SF6 insulated Switchgear (GIs) is justified by saving due to reduction in floor area requirement. chemical fumes and salt layers can cause frequent flashovers in conventional outdoor air-insulated substations 213 . www. Such installations are preferred in cosmopolitan cities. www. Such substations are compact and can be installed conveniently on any floor of a multistoried building or in an underground substation. 3 – Disconnected . etc.com The various modules of GIS are factory assembled and are filled with SF6 gas at a pressure of about 3 kg/cm2. As the units are factory assembled.Single line diagram High voltage Gas Insulated Switch gear Type B95 Double Bus-Bar (make Alostom) 1 – Circuit Breaker . 6 – Current Transformer.. industrial townships. 8 – HV cable connection. 7 – Voltage Transformer.

The GIs has gas-monitoring system. The space occupied by SF6 installation is only about 8 to 10 % of that a conventional outdoor substation.com 8. Some of the insulators are designed as barriers between neighboring modules such that the gas does not pass through them. Quality of material and dimension of grooves and O-seals are important to ensure gas-tight performance.sayedsaad.Base.Compactness.Disconnector Switch (GL-Type) 3. www. All the live parts are enclosed in metal housings filled with SF6 gas. 7. The live parts and supported on at resin insulators. 6. High cost is partly compensated by saving in cost of space.sayedsaad. the O-rings are squeezed by about 20 %. The gas density in each compartment is monitored.GIS bay single Bus-Bar Make Mitsubishi 1. A typical 214 .Voltage Transformer. Static O-seals placed between machined flanges provide the gas tightness. Thereby the gas monitoring system of each compartment can be independent and simpler.Earthing Switch (GRE-Type) 5.com Advantages of GIs and Application Aspects: 1. The SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIs) contains the same Components as in the conventional outdoor substations.com The entire installation is sub-divided into compartments which are gas tight with respect to each other.3-ph.Disconnector Switch (GR-Type) 4. If pressure drops slightly. The O-rings are placed in the grooves' such that after assembly. www.Current Transformer. the low-pressure alarm is sounded or automatic tripping or lock-out occurs www.Circuit Breaker 2. Bus-Bar. The enclosures are of non-magnetic material such as aluminum or stainless steel and are earthed. the gas is automatically tapped up with further gas leakage.sayedsaad.

www. High flexibility and application versatility provide novel.sayedsaad. the time-consuming high cost galvanized steel structures are eliminated. 3 . Heavy foundations for galvanized steel structures.Increased Safety. However.sayedsaad. The external moisture. www. and economic overall concepts. www.sayedsaad. SF6 Switchgear installations take up only 1/10 of the space Required for conventional installations. the substations are generally housed inside a small building. an expedient design and a high standard of manufacturing quality assure Long service life with practically no maintenance requirement.sayedsaad. www. In SF6 substations. An extremely careful selection of materials. Each conventional substation requires several months for installation. SF6 GIS can be suitably mounted indoor on any floor or basement and SF6 Insulated Cables (GIC) can be taken through walls and terminated through SF6 bushing or power cables..Reduced Installation Time.com 4 . SF6 breakers and SF6 filled equipment are explosion proof and fire-proof.000 m2 for a conventional air insulated substation. snow dust etc. 6 . Site erection time is reduced to final assembly of modules.420/525 kV SF6 GIs requires only 920 m2 site area against 30.com Equipment support structures etc are eliminated. 2 . tested and dispatched with nominal SF6 gas. Oil Circuit Breakers and oil filled equipment are prone to explosion.Protection from pollution.com Summary of Merits of SF6 GIS Safe Reliable Space saving Economical Maintenance free Operating personnel are protected by the earthed metal enclosures The complete enclosure of all live parts guards against any Impairment of the insulation system. to facilitate installation and maintenance.Explosion-proof and Fire-proof installation. Modular SF6 GIS can be tailor made to Suit the particular site requirements. have little influence on SF6 insulated substation. Atmospheric Pollution. Modules are factory assembled. The principle of building block construction (modular construction) reduces the installation time to a few weeks. 5. 215 . This results in economy and reduced project execution time. This results is saving of otherwise Expensive civil-foundation work.com As the enclosures are at earth potential there is no possibility of accidental contact by service personnel to live parts.Choice of Mounting Site.

5 . www.com The GIS installations are assembled from a variety of standard modules. Earthing Switches for conductors. Each of these main components has its own gas -filled metal enclosed module.sayedsaad.sayedsaad.com The essential parts of a GIS are: 1 . VTs. Adjacent modules are joined by means of multi-bolts tightened on flanges. all basic substation Bus-Bar schemes used.sayedsaad.sayedsaad.com 6 . www. in conventional plant constructions can be realized. Installations with single or multiple Bus-Bar-also alternatively with a bypass bus-can be made with the standard modules.sayedsaad. Configuration of GIS: www. Suitable neoprene rubber “O” ring gaskets are provided for ensuring Gas-tight sealing joints.Excessive damage in case of internal fault.com 4 . and Bus-Bar coupling.Conductors which conduct the main circuit current and transfer power these are of copper or aluminum tubes. protection and Monitoring system.com 1.Requirement of cleanliness is very stringent. One and-a-half circuit breaker and ring-bus systems can also be realized economically. including Bus-Bar sectionalizing with disconnects and Breakers. www. 3 . Conductors also need phase to phase insulation. 3 . Adequate stock of gas must be maintained. www. Dust or moisture can cause internal flashovers. Enclosures are of aluminum alloy or stainless steel. correspondingly Low cost foundations and buildings.sayedsaad.com 2 . In SF6 GIS these insulation requirements are met by cast resin insulators and SF6 gas insulation. Any maintenance and overhaul work on Switch contacts can be done without removing the enclosure.Such substations are generally in door. 216 . Spares conventional substation is totally indigenous up to 400 kV. www. This is generally not required for conventional outdoor substations.Project needs almost total imports including SF6 Gas. Bushing-ends and Bus-Bars. 2 . 5 . Disadvantages of GIS: www. They need a separate building. CTs.Gas filled modules have nonmagnetic enclosures. Gas-tight barrier insulators in the Switchgear sections prevent neighboring Switchgear parts from being affected by overhauls.Procurement of gas and supply of gas to site is problematic.Auxiliary LV DC and LV AC supply system.Conductors need insulation above grounded enclosures.Gas filling. Which are joined together by flange connections and plug contacts on the Conductors. So as to easily permit subsequent disassembly of individual components.Low weight Low weight due to aluminum enclosure.sayedsaad. This is air-insulated like in conventional sub-station. With GIS installations. Quick site assembly ensured by extensive Shop assembled preassembly and Testing of complete feeders or large units in the factory. Long outage periods as Repair of damaged part at site may be difficult. Isolator. monitoring system.Various circuit components in main circuit are: CB. cable-ends. 6 .com 4 .High cost compared to conventional outdoor substation. The two-breaker. control.

com This alternative is more widely used now for all GIS 3. This alternative was used for Components and Bus-Bars in early GIs. The GIS developed during 1980’s are with this philosophy. Separate enclosure for each phase. 2. www.com Design Aspects The SF6 insulated Switchgear contains the same components as a conventional outdoor substation.sayedsaad. Separate enclosure for components and a common single enclosure For three phase enclosure for Bus-Bars. Fig (1) illustrates the construction of typical bay.sayedsaad.The Bus-Bars are conducting bars to which various incoming and outgoing bays are connected.com The bays are connected to Bus-Bars cross-wise. Alternatives of Enclosures.sayedsaad. GIS. Single three phase and three single enclosures Three phase Single Enclosures Three phase and three single enclosures The following alternatives are available to the designers for configuration of GIs. Common single enclosure for all three phases for components and For Bus-Bars. Now it is used only for EHV and UHV. In SF6 GIS the Bus-Bars are laid l longitudinally in GIS hall. The per cent trend is to use single three phase modules for components and Bus-Bars for all GIS. The GIS above 420 kV are generally with separate enclosure for each phase. www. Bus-Bars are either with a three-phase enclosure or single phase enclosure. 217 . www. 1.

4 – C. Live parts are supported on cast resin insulators. www. 218 . 9 – Cable sealing End. All the live parts are enclosed in metal housing filled with SF6 gas. the O-rings get squeezed by about 20 %. 2 – Isolator.com 8 – High Speed Earthing Switch. The entire installation is sub-divided into compartments.phase Bus enclosure. Fig (2) below. 12 – Epoxy partition fig. 7 – VT. 10 – Operating mechanism (cabinet). Thereby the gas monitoring system of each compartment can be independent and simple The enclosures are of nonmagnetic material such as aluminum or stainless steel and are earthed. (2). The O-rings are placed in the grooves such that after assembly. The gas tightness is provided by static O-seals placed between machined flanges.B puffer type.Fig (1) Section of a 145 KV SF6 GIS with duplicate bus-bar 1 – 3. Quality of material and dimension of groove are important. Enclosures are earthed. which are gas tight with respect to each other.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. Pressurized SF6 gas provides internal insulation between conductors and metallic enclosures. High grade insulators of Epoxy partition resin give support to active parts inside the enclosures and are also used as barriers between adjacent gas filled compartments. 5 – CT's www. 3 – Earthing Switch. Some of the insulators are designed as barriers between neighboring modules such that the gas does not pass through them. 11 – Conductor tube. Aluminum or stainless steel enclosures surround all live parts.com 6 – Line Isolator.

sayedsaad.Fig(2) Epoxy partition resin Individual compartments (modules) are connected by silver plated Plug contacts for current conduction. www. auxiliary Switches. relays. Control cabinet installed near the bay contains instruments. for local control. control wiring etc. alarm etc. indication. Expansion bellows (Bellows compensators) Expansion Bellows 219 . Flanges of enclosures are bolted.com GIS is installed on self supporting steel structures fixed on t he floor.

Inside the enclosures.sayedsaad.com 220 .Outside the enclosures the magnetic field of enclosures opposes the magnetic field of conductor currents. The conductor tends to remain along the central axis of enclosure. which take up axial or lateral tolerances. Transformers. the magnetic field of enclosure currents adds to that of conductor current resulting in centralizing force on conductor.Expansion Bellows Variations in length due to temperature changes and dimensional differences due to assembly tolerances are resolved by making use of the wide range of bellows.sayedsaad. Conductors are usually of aluminum alloy tubes. www. .com The enclosures are of welded aluminum or stainless steel plates to which cast aluminum or stainless steel flanges are welded. reactors. www. The conductors are plugged to silver plated finger contact assembly mounted on support insulators. The induced currents circulate in enclosures and provide magnetic field of [heir own such that. These sliding contacts permit tubular conductors to expand axially with temperature rise without any additional stress on support insulators. Metallic connections between adjacent enclosures are ensured to permit circulation of full return current.com . www. These bellows are self compensated or compensated in compression by tie-rods Bellow compensators permit absorption of manufacturing tolerances in Bellow Compensators also permit absorption of vibrations caused by length of enclosures Bus-Bars.sayedsaad.

can be connected.Cable connection All cables. irrespective of their type of insulation (oil impregnated paper or XLPE) and section. 221 . The cable sealing end is fixed inside the SF6 gas Filled compartment. in parallel with closing of the cable earth Switch.Safety is fully ensured by earthing of the cable Side through access (3). in accordance with the IEC 859 standard commonly used. Isolation of the Switchgear from the high voltage cables during dielectric testing is achieved by removing the contact (1) and the conductor (2).

Removable contact's 2 . Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker Small Oil Volume Breaker Vacuum Circuit Breaker SF6 Circuit Breaker Air Blast Circuit Breaker Current Transformer.Gas tight bushing. 3 . 5 . Compartments of SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear Bus-Bar . 4 . Voltage Transformer. Circuit Breaker.Connection to Transformer 1 . ‫قضبان التوزيع الرئيسية‬ ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ ‫محول تيار‬ ‫محول جهد‬ 222 .Access for Earthing rod.Removable conductor.High voltage. 3 – Expansion bellows 4 – Bushing. Cable connection box 1 – Removable contact's 2 – Removabl conductor.

The dimensions of conductor tubing depend upon the mechanical strength corresponding to short circuits forces. The contact areas are silver plated. Single phase BusBars are necessary to suit other components having single phase enclosures. 223 . The main conductors are aluminum or copper tubes. The tubular conductors are supported on epoxy resin cast insulators Fig (13) the shape of insulators is such that the field distribution is uniform. Cable End ‫طرف توصيل الكابل‬ ‫سكينة تأريض‬ ‫سكينة عزل‬ Bus-Bar Modules The Bus-Bar modules are either with single phase or three phase enclosure. The size so obtained is generally adequate for carrying normal current without excessive temperature rise. Isolator (Disconnector Switch). The three Bus-Bars are conveniently staggered by a distance equal to centre spacing. There is a provision of expansion joints which permits axial elongation at higher temperatures. The diameter of enclosure depends on rated voltage and internal clearance requirements. Threephase enclosures are compact and have lesser eddy current losses.Earth Switch.

Bellows 4 . below. the following standard elements are included in the assembly Fig.Bus-Bar dismantling principle 1 . (b) Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length) (c) Parallel compensator (for joint between Bus-Bars at an angle) (d) Bellow compensator 224 .Removable contact 3 .Bus-Bar Disconnector 2 . (a) Lateral mounting unit. Depending upon particular local requirements.Bus-Bar conductor Modular components fitted in Bus-Bar lengths and bays.

L .Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length) 1.T-unit with flange for Earthing switch 225 .Four-way junction unit 3.unit (9o° junction) 2 .

The operation of automatic opening and closing the contacts is achieved by means of the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker. Each pole of the Circuit Breaker comprises one or more interrupter or arc-extinguishing chambers.com The arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts is interrupted by a suitable medium and by adopting suitable techniques for arc extinction.sayedsaad.4 . During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the fault and close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker.sayedsaad. the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker starts the opening operation. As the relay contacts close. The Circuit Breaker can be classified on the basis of the arc extinction medium.Angle unit (120° to 180° jaunaion ) Circuit Breaker The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault currents. The operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker gives the necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the Circuit Breakers. Thereafter the Circuit Breaker opens. www. A Circuit Breaker suitable for three phase system is called a ‘triple-pole Circuit Breaker.com The Fault Clearing Process During the normal operating condition the Circuit Breaker can be opened or closed by a station operator for the purpose of Switching and maintenance.sayedsaad. open and closed.com The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. www. The Circuit Breaker has two working positions. The part of the Circuit Breakers connected in one phase is called the pole. www. These correspond to open Circuit Breaker contacts and closed Circuit Breaker contacts respectively. 226 . The interrupter encloses a set of fixed and moving contact's The moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the operating links of the operating mechanism.

1. 2.Fault Occurs.Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized. The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating torque. www. Rated transient recovery voltage for terminal faults. The Circuit Breaker contacts separate. the currents increase and the relay gets actuated. Rated voltage. The relay takes some time to close its contacts. 2 . 4 . The fault is said to be cleared. wave.com The Trip-Circuit Fig (1) below illustrates the basic connections of the Circuit Breaker control for the opening operation STANDARD RATINGS OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND THEIR SELECTION The characteristics of a Circuit Breaker including its operating devices and auxiliary equipment that are used to determine the rating are: (a) Rated characteristics to be given for all Circuit Breakers. 4. 5. The process of current interruption is completed when the arc is extinguished and the current reaches final zero value.The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation. The arc is extinguished at some natural current zero of a. 227 .The contacts of the Circuit Breaker open and an arc is draw between them. Rated short Circuit Breaking current. The arc is extinguished in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques. 3. Rated insulation level. 3 . Rated frequency. rated current.sayedsaad.Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts.com The process of fault clearing has the following sequence: 1. 6. www. the fault impedance being low.sayedsaad. As the fault occurs. The current reaches final zero as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again.c.

(Miniature Circuit Breaker). 2 . 7. Rated out of phase breaking current.5 kV and for single pole Circuit Breakers.head transmission lines. for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at 72. (2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil) (3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker.5 kV and above. Rated short circuit making current. 9. Rated supply frequency of auxiliary circuits The type of the Circuit Breaker The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction. Medium Air at atmospheric pressure Air at atmospheric pressure Dielectric oil Dielectric oil Compressed Air (20 – 40 ) bar 228 Voltage. Type 1 – Air break Circuit Breaker 2 – Miniature CB. (c) Optional rated characteristics: 1.Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices. 35000 MVA up to 1100 KV. Rated line charging breaking current. 5 . Rated small inductive breaking current. 3 – Tank Type oil CB. The classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows: www.Rated line charging breaking current. where applicable.6-12) KV .7. Rated operating sequence. 4 – Minimum Oil CB. www. Rated single capacitor bank breaking current. where applicable.6 . (4) Air blast Circuit Breaker.sayedsaad.Rated characteristics for short line faults for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at 72. Breaking Capacity (430 – 600) V– (5-15)MVA (3. 50000 MVA . 5. Rated short time current.Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices.145 )KV 245 KV.sayedsaad. more than 12. 4 .com (b) Rated characteristics to be given in the Specific cases given below: 1 . where applicable. for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at less than 72. Rated supply voltage of auxiliary circuits. 3. (Single pressure or Double Pressure). 4. 2.5 kA rated short circuit breaking current and designed for direct connection to overhead transmission lines.com (1) Air break' Circuit Breaker. (6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker. 5 – Air Blast CB.Rated pressure of compressed gas supply for operation and Interruption. 6. Rated cable charging breaking current. 3 .500 MVA (430-600 ) V (3. (5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker. 8.5 kV and above and intended for Switching over.6 – 12) KV (3.

www. SF6 Gas 7 – Vacuum CB. as means of extinguishing the arc and also for providing insulation between the live parts and the metallic tank. is shown in Fig (1) The contacts are actuated by a lever assembly L housed within the top-plate and connected to the lifting bridge N by links M.sayedsaad. An oil seal F is fitted to prevent leakage from top-plate and an indicator arm is operated by a pin E on the driven end of the beam lever. type OKM. etc. 7500 MVA 245 KV . breakers with double arc pressure chambers and axial jet pressure chamber oil Circuit Breakers. Various designs exist according to the preferences and requirements of individual manufacturers and designations such as ‘Cross Jet Type’.sayedsaad.DC CB. www.V. Vacuum Vacuum .. rods 229 . This employed pressure chamber and is still widely used because it is relatively cheap to make and gives greatly improved performance in terms of final extinction. bulk oil breaker manufactured by M/s English Electric Co.com Many oil Circuit Breakers feature special arc control devices most of which are based on the simple pressure chamber principle but incorporate certain modifications aimed at improving the breaking capacity. www.com This led to the development of controlled break oil Circuit Breaker. plain break type breaker could no longer keep pace with the requirements. 1000 MVA 36 KV . i.sayedsaad. SF6 Gas 12 KV. 2000 MVA 145 KV.com For general illustration.6 – SF6 CB. The lifting bridge N which carries the lift rods Q and moving contacts R moves vertically on guide I. Depending on the working principle of these special pressure chambers the breakers are designated as: impulse oil Circuit Breakers deign grid breakers.sayedsaad. as against the plain break oil Circuit Breaker.e. 10000 MVA 36 KV.com In its simplest form the process of separating the current carrying contacts was carried out under oil with no special control over the resulting arc other than the increase in length caused by the moving contact's As the power systems began to develop resulting in higher voltages and higher fault levels. 8 – H. 750 MVA 500 KV DC Bulk Oil Type Breaker In Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker oil serves a two-fold purpose. a view of the contact actuating mechanism of 33 kV. www. gap length and arcing time. This is the oldest amongst the three types having been developed towards close of the nineteenth century. Various methods of controlling the breaking process were investigated and developed. ‘Explosion Pot’ and ‘Baffle pot’. The beam lever assembly is pivoted on a shaft H fixed in bearings in the top-plate and is operated by a tie rod G connected by an adjustable coupling J to the vertical pullrod K from the Circuit Breaker operating mechanism.

com These oil buffers arrest the downward or contact opening movement. The moving contacts are clamped by pinch bolts at each end of a cross bar which is bolted to the lift rod. www.sayedsaad. The view of the interrupter is shown in Fig (2) the interrupter pot is screwed and locked on to an interrupter top block. www. Assembled in the top of the chamber is the fixed spring loaded cluster type contact. Alternate cluster fingers are extended to form arcing contacts. At the top end of each guide rod and fastened to the top plate by clips A is an accelerating spring C.com The internal space available for gas is thus little more than that swept out by the moving contact.D fixed in the top-plate. The separation of the contacts and drawing out of the arc take place in the interrupter pot which almost completely restricts the movement of the oil within it. At the lower end of each guide rod is an oil dashpot assembly P. The mechanism is prevented from over traveling the closed position by adjustable stops B in the topplate.com The pressure rise and the condition resulting there from are believed to play a large part in giving this type of oil Circuit Breaker a very much higher breaking capacity than the plain break type. www. the fingers of which are arranged in a circular formation to engage with the moving contact which is of the solid rod of candle type.com These springs are compressed by the lifting bridge during the closing stroke and provide a throw off force when the breaker is tripped open. The working part of the breaker is cylindrical chamber known as an interrupter pot. and a pressure is set up which depends upon the rate of gas production and its rate of flow through the vents.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. 230 . www. These parts carry the arc current and protect the normal current carrying parts from burning. The interior of the chamber is fitted with insulating dividing plates which form labyrinths and oil flow passages.sayedsaad.

com Fig (2)www.Fig (1)www.sayedsaad.sayedsaad.com Small Oil Volume Breaker 231 .

Breakers of 232 . The electric arc itself has. This led to the development of small oil volume or low oil content breakers in the continent of Europe. the sectional view of working portion of 170 kV 3500 MVA. Simultaneously improvements were made in the technique of ceramics. therefore. To prevent the arc restricting after a natural Passage Through zero. Supplied the necessary energy for its own extinction. to illustrate the principles of working.As the system voltages and fault levels increased the Bulk Oil Breakers required huge quantities of insulating oil and became unwieldy in size and weight. Like the Bulk Oil Breakers these have also since then passed through many stages of development with varying designs of the arcing chambers. Today the small oil volume breakers are available for voltages up to 36 kV and the fault levels associated therewith. in which arc extinction and dielectric recovery are affected by means of an external quenching medium. This added enormously to the cost of a power system.dynamic origin. Only a small quantity of oil was used to perform its functions as arc quenching medium. There are now numerous manufacturers of small oil volume breakers However. The function of oil as insulating medium in the Bulk Oil Breakers was transferred to the porcelain containers. Contrary to the operation of the impulse type Circuit Breaker. such as air blast Circuit Breaker. The increase in internal pressure due to the Splitting up and vaporization of oil by the arc creates a rapid movement of the extinguishing medium round the arc This self-quenching effect causes a rapid cooling of the ionized column along its whole Length due to partition of the explosion pot and the dielectric recovery is sufficiently rapid. During the tripping operation an arc strikes in oil between the moving contact and the fixed contact's This arc is elongated vertically in the explosion pot until the distance traveled is sufficient to withstand the voltage between contacts. the process of arc extinction in the small oil volume Circuit Breaker is of internal thermo.

the current flows from the Upper current terminal (1) to the contact fingers. The contact rod rapidly reaches a very high linear speed. (2) Follows the movable contact rod (7) and reaches the current terminal (10) across the lower contact fingers (8). At this moment gases escape without hindrance towards top of the apparatus. in the axis of which moves the contact rod and within which breaking occurs. Wards by the tripping springs. the contact rod strongly pulled down.Fig (4) M/s Delle France have been shown in Fig. In the on position. (4) the most important part of the breaker is its extinguishing chamber. it moves the arc downwards and forces it to enter the explosion pot (5) where it is maintained rectilinear and is elongated in a direction opposite to the release of gases towards fresh oil. an arc strikes between the contact rod tips (6) and the stationary Arcing ring (3) protecting the upper contact fingers. Since the arc is as short as possible the arc voltage is minimized and the 233 . starts a high speed opening motion. At the beginning of the stroke and before breaking. Then. The arcing chamber is supported at its base by a casing enclosing a mechanism whose function is to move the contact rod According to the impulses given by the control mechanism. This takes the form of an insulating cylinder containing oil.

The explosion pot (5) is intended to withstand high pressures. presently. exhausting the highly ionized gaseous mass. The optimum distance is thus obtained. 2. depending on the arc extinguishing principles employed. considered at disadvantage are: (I) Switch unloaded lines. owing to reduced quantity of oil and consequent liability to quick carbonization. Rated breaking capacities in general are covered securely by a circuit breaking of any design but. 234 . This is because the oil Circuit Breakers are much less sensitive to the natural frequency of the restricting voltage.com (III) Out of phase disconnection.sayedsaad. The situations where the small oil volume breakers are. (iii) Quick and simple maintenance. difficulties are sometimes encountered in performing certain specific duties.com However. low oil content breakers have been designed and constructed for rapid reclosing duties by established makers of this class of breakers.energy dissipated is reduced. they generate a considerable pressure in the explosion pot (5). inadequate and improper maintenance. Interruptions on lines carried on pin insulators are rather too many on account of poor workmanship. the jet of oil causes the dielectric strength to be rapidly increased.Kilometric faults.com One of the limitations put forward against this class of breakers is frequent maintenance. For this very reason doubt was expressed about the ability of these breakers for rapid reclosing duty. In addition there are certain other advantages which may be summed up as under: (I) Light and reduced size rendering transport (ii) Simple construction making erection easy. the arc is impeded from restricting and the breaking is thus achieved. (II) Evolving faults. and at the following current zero.com The small oil volume breakers have distinct advantage over the air blast breakers under the following conditions: 1 . for this reason alone.sayedsaad. it may not be worthwhile to reject these breakers unless the difference in cost with Bulk Oil Breakers is meager. since the gases can no longer develop freely. thus producing a violent upward axial blast of oil vapor. this allows a second break to occur with complete safety at the full short circuit current. www. www. The low oil content Circuit Breakers require separate current Transformers of wound type.www.sayedsaad. However. It is partitioned into several components by means of discs whose function is to retain a certain quantity of fresh oil while the first break is proceeding. on circuits susceptible to frequent trappings because of too many faults.sayedsaad. Still. Still at all voltages from 33 kV and above the costs of these breakers inclusive of current Transformers compete favorably with that of the Bulk Oil Breakers. www. Disconnection of Transformers on load.

is not serious in this class of breakers as the arc extinguishing Energy is always proportional to the broken current.button 88 – on push – button 235 . Restricting voltage 1 – Circuit Breaker pole 2 – Mechanism housing 2a – cover of mechanism housing 3 – Pole head 4 – Pole cylinder 5 – Crank housing 6 – Upper main terminal 13 – Bottom main terminal 22 – Vent housing 23 – 0il level indicator 39a – square on charging shaft 47 – Spring condition indicator 82 – off push .The current chopping phenomenon which causes over voltages. before natural zero.

com Current of a lesser value is chopped prior to current zero. as may happen during interruption of no load magnetizing currents of unloaded Transformers. (7) When the contacts separate. the current to be interrupted initiates a metal vapor arc discharge and flows through this plasma until the next current zero. blown up view of which is given in Fig. Certain minimum current is necessary to maintain the metal vapor arc discharge. www.sayedsaad. The rapid build up of the dielectric strength in the break enables the arc to be safely extinguished even if contact separation occurs immediately prior to current zero the maximum arcing time for the last pole to clear is stated to be 15 ms.sayedsaad. Further the arc voltage developed in vacuum interrupter is low (say between 20 to 200 V) due to high conductivity of metal vapor plasma. High Switching life is claimed on this account. marketed by M/s Driescher Picnicker Madras is shown is Fig. As a result. (6) the most important part is the vacuum interrupter. causing unduly high voltages. www. the dielectric strength in the break builds up very rapidly. For there reasons the arc energy developed in the break is very small. Performance is claimed to be immune to pollution because of interrupters being hermetically sealed.98 – Circuit Breaker indicator 99 – Operation counter 119 – Lifting hole for transport www.sayedsaad.com Fig (5) Small Oil Volume Breaker type OD4 makes BBC Vacuum Circuit Breaker Sectional view of a Vacuum Circuit Breaker. The self generated field causes the arc root to travel. thereby preventing local overheating when large currents are being interrupted. 236 .com The arc is then extinguished and the conductive metal vapor condenses on the metal surfaces within a matter of microseconds.

Breaking spring.Tie bar.sayedsaad.Main link. 8 .Common operating shifts .Vacuum Interrupter 2 . 10 . 6 . 5 . 12 .Loading spring. Vacuum Circuit Breakers are specially suited in industrial applications.com Fig (6) 1 . 11 .Support insulators.sayedsaad.com 7 . where the Switching frequency is high combined with high degree of pollution. www.Locking cam. 237 . 13 . 9 . www. 4 .operating corn .Terminal 3 .The manufacturing range of M/s Driescher Panicker covers Vacuum Circuit Breakers up to rated voltage of 36 kV.Making spring .Flexible connection .Operating rod.

Rear pull strap 7.cast resin post insulator 2.upper connection 3.Front pull strap 8.vacuum Switching chamber 9.1 transmission lever 10.5.upper contact support 4.3 actuation crank 238 .2 burn-off indicator 10.fastening nuts 6.contact Switch with toroidal contact Lower contact support Consisting of :10.Fig (7) 1.

com The number and ratings of the cores are adapted according to customer requirements.sayedsaad.4 actuation lever 10.Terminal box 3 .Gas tight enclosure 2 .com 239 .5 telescope rod with contact spring 11 hook stick Fig (8) Construction of the Switch pole type VA. VXC Current Transformer Current Transformers comprise air insulated cores mounted inside a cylindrical enclosure. Between the cores and the conductor. separates the cores from the SF6 thus preventing any risk of leakage from the LV terminals.sayedsaad. Current Transformer (Make ABB) 1 .Secondary winding www. The central main conductor forms the primary winding a second cylindrical enclosure. Current Transformers can be installed on either or both sides of the circuit-breakers and at the ends of outgoing circuits.10. www.

The Transformers can be installed Any where on the substation. Capacitive Voltage Transformers are preferred Inductive type Voltage Transformer. They are connected to the Switchgear with the standardized connecting flange via a barrier insulator.Secondary winding. Voltage Transformer Module For rated voltage up to 145 kV inductive Transformer with cast resin coil For rated voltage of 245 kV inductive VT with SF6 gas as main insulation. 2. separated from the other parts of the installation. upon which are placed the secondary windings and the high voltage winding. The active portion consists of a rectangular core. The Transformers are equipped with two metering windings and one tertiary winding for earth-fault protection. Voltage Transformer Voltage Transformers are induction type and are contained in their own SF6 compartment. The single-pole inductive type Voltage Transformers (Fig. 3. The connection between the secondary winding and the terminals in the external terminal box is made through a gas tight multiple bushing.Transformers with high capacitance connected to an intermediate Transformer. Capacitor Voltage Transformer In Switchgear for voltage above 300 kV. Capacitor Voltage Transformers are also employed. 240 . The low-voltage choke and the intermediate Voltage Transformer are housed separately in a cabinet on the earth potential side.Current Transformer (Make Alostom) 1. by a flexible connection. For 300 kV and above. The oil-insulated capacitor of conventional design is accommodated in an enclosure filled with SF6 gas.Main conductor. A synthetic film separates the different wraps of the windings. Two systems are available: . The primary winding is insulated with SF6 gas and connected to the HV. Provision is made for up to two secondary windings for measurement and an additional open delta winding for earth fault detection. 1) can be mounted either vertical or horizontal.Shunt Insulating . The primary winding (2) surround the core on which the secondary windings (1) are also wound. The high-voltage connection to the GIS is made through a barrier insulator.

2 . There are several versions of Earthing Switches for following applications 1 ..Transformers with a low capacitance accommodated in the current Transformer or in a separate housing. manually operating mechanism with a provision of filling motor mechanism.Density Switch (Fig.Maintenance Earthing Switches.Primary winding 3 .High Speed Earthing Switches. There can be three types of Earthing witches in metal-clad Switches manually operated automatic high speed Earthing Switch. These are operated by spring energy. These are single pole or three pole units.Secondary winding 2 . Spring is charged by motor-mechanism 241 .Support insulator 5 . protective Earthing Switch for Earthing the installation.Safety diaphragm 7 .Filling valve 6 .Terminal box 4 . connected to an electronic 1 . 1) Voltage Transformer (Make ABB) Earthing Switch Earthing Switch is necessary to earth the conducting parts before maintenance and also to provide deliberate short-current while testing.

Moving contact 2.Fig (1) Fig (2) the one pole Earthing Switch Closed position Earthing Switch: 1.Position indicator 242 .Operating lever 3.

These are suitable for interrupting capacitive and inductive currents from parallel overhead lines. without having to open the enclosure. Special high speed Earthing Switches with interrupting capability are also available. This enables various tests to be performed on the Switchgear or item of equipment. During normal operation the insulation is bypassed by a short-circuit-proof link. overhead line etc. the Earthing Switch can be equipped with a capacitive tap for connecting a voltage test unit. For Earthing isolated sections of Switchgear for protection of personal during maintenance and over-hauls or erection. (1) Earthing Switch has to satisfy various requirements. Disconnector switch Isolating Switches are normally Switched only when not on load but they may also interrupt the no load current of small Transformers as well as disconnect short pieces of overhead lines or cables. such as testing the current Transformer of measuring the operating time of breakers. Earthing Switches are fitted to the enclosure with interposed insulation. the maintenance Earthing Switches are employed. 243 . To check whether a point to be earthed really is dead.Open position The earth Switch is mounted direct on the enclosure Fig. In certain cases. This additional safety device reduces the risk of closing onto a live conductor.) high speed Earthing Switch are employed. the Bus-Bars may be earthed either by maintenance or high-speed Earthing Switches. For Earthing higher capacitances (cables. Depending on the substation scheme.

Drive insulator 7 .Moving earthing contact 6 . and very short lengths of cable.Moving contact 4 . 244 . 1 .Fixed contact 3 . Bus-Bar connections.Coupling contact 5 .Support insulator 2 .Arcing contact The BS: 3078-1959 on isolators distinguishes between “off load” and “on load” isolator as under: 1 . 2 .Disconnector Switch.On Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit where there is a parallel path of low impedance so that no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each pole occurs when it is operated.Off Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit either when the isolator is already disconnected from all sources of supply or when the isolator is already disconnected from the supply and the current may be due to capacitance currents of bushings.

Insulation level.supporting insulator 2. 400 A. 630 A (alternatively 800 Amps). 24.driving insulator To ensure that the off load isolators are not operated inadvertently under load it is necessary that the isolators are suitably interlocked with the connected breakers.Frequency Rated frequency should be 50 Hz in Kuwait. 2 . 12.Normal current (for Disconnector only) The rated normal current of an isolator or an earthing Switch should have one of the following Standard values: 200 A. 36.earthing Switch 5. 2500 A.fixed contact 3. given below: 3.5. 145. 1250 A. The rated insulation level should be selected from standard Tables according To IS: 9921 3 . a) Bus isolator. 2000 A. 72. The rated voltage of an isolator or an earthing Switch shall be one of the highest system voltages. 7. 3150 A. 245. Isolating Switches can broadly be divided into the three categories given ahead. c) Transformer isolating. 123.Disconnector: 1.moving contact 4.2. 300 and 420 kV. 1600 A.Short time withstand current 245 . RATINGS AND THEIR SELECTION An isolator may be constructed single pole or three poles and shall be rated in terms of: 1 . b) Line isolator.Voltage. 4 . 5000 A and 4000 A. 5 . 6.

80 or 100 KA.Short circuit making current (for earthing Switches only) The earthing Switches to which a rated short circuit making current has been assigned shall be capable of making at any applied voltage. I2X 246 . 63. 8 . upto and including that corresponding to their rated voltage. peak power And total duration of operations. 11 . The rated maximum duration of short circuit is one second. For examples of rated contact zones.5 times the rated short time withstand current. The rated supply voltage shall preferably be one of the standard values given below: DC.Duration of short circuit The short time current rating of an isolator. plus wind loads acting on the equipment itself. Volts AC. the relation between current (I) and time (t). where assigned. For short circuit duration greater than one second. shall be assumed to be in accordance with the formula: t = constant 7 . unless otherwise specified. volts 24 110 Single phase 48 240 Single phase 110 240 /415 three phases 220 The operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator at any value of the supply voltage between 85 percent and 110 percent of the rated voltage. The rated supply frequency of an operating device or an auxiliary circuit is the frequency at which the conditions of operation and heating are determined.Peak withstand current The rated peak withstand current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch is that peak current which it shall be able to carry in the closed position without material deterioration.5. 50. the reader may refer to IS: 9921 (Part II)-1982.Supply voltage closing and opening devices (where these operating devices are supplied separately) of auxiliary circuits. 12 . unless directly associated with and protected by a fuse or by a Circuit Breaker fitted with series releases or current Transformer operated releases when it need not be assigned a short time rating. 10.Pressure of compressed gas supply for operation.5.Mechanical terminal load Disconnector and Earthing Switches should be able to close and open whilst subject to their rated mechanical terminal loads. any current upto and including their short circuit making current. 9 . 25. 6 . 10 . 20.Contact zone Divided frame Disconnector and earthing Switches shall be able to operate within the limits of their rated contact zone. 12. 40. 31. should not be less than the short circuit current at the point of installation or the corresponding ratings of the associated Circuit Breaker. It shall have a value 2.Supply frequency of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits. 16. 13 .The rated short-time withstands current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch should have one of the following values: 8.

Type Tests laid down in IS: 9921(part 4)-1985 A) Normal Type Tests . in parallel with closing of the cable earth Switch. irrespective of their type of insulation (oil impregnated paper or XLPE) and section.Switching Impulse Voltage Tests for rated 3 . The pneumatic operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator when the air pressure is between 85 percent and 105 percent of the rated supply pressure. in accordance with the IEC 859 standard commonly used. 1600. 1 . 3.Tests on Auxiliary and Control Circuits. 247 . 6.Artificial Pollution Tests. 2-Voltage Test on Auxiliary Equipment.Safety is fully ensured by earthing of the cable Side through access (3). 2000 or 3900 kPa.Operation test 4. 1000. 4 .Power Frequency Voltage Test.Power Frequency Voltage Tests. can be connected. The cable sealing end is fixed inside the SF6 gas Filled compartment. B) Routine Tests The following shall comprise routine tests: 1. Cable connection All cables. Isolation of the Switchgear from the high voltage cables during dielectric testing is achieved by removing the contact (1) and the conductor (2). TESTS 1.Measurement of the Resistance of the Main Circuit. if installed and preferably have one of the following standard values: 500.Dielectric Tests Comprising Of.Lightning Impulse Voltage Tests 2 .Partial Discharge Tests.The rated pressure should correspond to the operating pressure of the associated air blast Circuit Breakers. 5 .

com 8 – CT's For Line protection and metering.sayedsaad.com 3 – Bus section Bay. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 6 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection.Gas tight bushing.High voltage Types of Bays SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. ‫خلية رابط قضبان طولى‬ 4 – Bus coupler Bay. ‫سكينة تأريض مغذى‬ 2 – Isolator for Voltage Transformer. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 248 . ‫سكينة محول جهد‬ 3 – Voltage Transformer.sayedsaad. ‫خلية مغذى‬ 2 – Transformer Bay.Removable conductor. 1 – Feeder Bay.com 4 – Line Isolator. ‫ قاطع الدائرة‬www. 3 – Expansion bellows. SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIs) Cable connection box 1 . (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل المغذى‬ 5 – Maintenance Earth Switches. 3 . ‫محول تيار المغذى و أجهزة القياس‬ 9 – Maintenance Earth Switches. 4 – Bushing. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار‬ 7 – Circuit Breaker.Removable contact's 2 .com Drawing Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Feeder bay 1 – High Speed Earth Switche (Line Earth Switch). ‫خلية رابط قضبان عرضى‬ www.Access for Earthing rod.Connection to Transformer 1 – Removable contact's 2 – Removable conductor. 5 . ‫ محول جهد‬www. 4 . ‫ خلية محول‬www.

com 5 – CT's for Bus-Bar protection and metering. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Transformer protection.sayedsaad.com Drawing ‫ خلية مغذى‬Feeder Bay Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Transformer bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 6 – Maintenance Earth Switches.10 – Bus-Bar Isolator ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ www. ‫محول تيار لجهزة وقاية المحول‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker. (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches.sayedsaad. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 7 – Transformer Isolator. ‫سكينة عزل المحول‬ 249 . ‫ قاطع الدائرة‬www.

8 – Maintenance Earth Switches.S) ‫سكينة تأريض المحول‬ Drawing ‫ خلية محول‬Transformer Bay 250 . (Transformer E.

(Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches.sayedsaad. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 7 – Bus-Bar Isolator.com Drawing ‫ خلية رابط قضبان طولى‬Bus Section bay Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Bus coupler bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator.Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Bus section bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection and metering. ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ Drawing ‫ خلية رابط قضبان‬Bus coupler bay 251 . ‫سكينة تأريض‬ www. ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ 5 – Maintenance Earth Switches. (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection and metering. ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ 6 – Maintenance Earth Switches.

Speed 5.Important considerations when design protection system Important considerations when design protection system 1. Bus-bars. Auxiliary supplies 12. CT’s and VT’s ratio required 11. Back-up protection 13. Overlap of protections 9. Transformers.DIFFERENTIAL For feeders. VT’s. Directional C . Low Impedance 3. Non-Directional 2. Phase discrimination / selectivity 10. Quantities available for measurement 3.Over current and earth fault Widely used in All Power Systems 1. Types of protection available 4. Distribution Feeders and Transformers. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against 2. Auxiliary Supplies B . Restricted E/F 4. Security / stability 8. Fault position discrimination 6.Fuses For LV Systems. Cost 14. Generators etc 1. Dependability / reliability 7. Biased 252 . Duplication of protection Types of protection A . High Impedance 2.

5. Recoverable Power Swings 253 .Distance For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders. due to: 1. Examples: 1. 5. Back-up Protection and 2. tap change control. 2. 5. Pilot Wire D . Under and over voltage 2.Miscellaneous: 1. 8. Under and over frequency 3. Faults on other parts of the system 3. directional comparison with signaling Fault position discrimination Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty equipment or section Dependability / reliability Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and disruptive Faults are rare. 4. etc. Time-stepped distance protection Permissive underreach protection (PUP) Permissive overreach protection (POP) Unblocking overreach protection (UOP) Blocking overreach protection (BOP) Power swing blocking Phase comparison for transmission lines Directional comparison for transmission lines E .: 1. 3. duplicate Protection Security / Stability Protection must not operate when not required to e. tripping and auxiliary relays Speed Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security can be costly to achieve. 4. distance protection with signaling 4. differential protection 2. Control relays: auto-reclose.g. also used as back-up protection for transformers and generators without signaling with signaling to provide unit protection e. differential protection with digital signaling 3.g. 6. A special relay for generators. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by use of: 1. Load Switching 2. 7. motors etc. transformers.

This is a function of the system X/R ratio. phase comparison and differential protections. provide for overlap of protections. Busbar VT’s: Special consideration needed when used for Line Protection. if possible. 1A and 5A secondary current ratings. TPX. Output rating under fault conditions must allow for maximum transient offset. 60. 220. SP. 11 0. Protection and trip relays • AC. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems. • During operation. Saturation of current transformers during heavy fault conditions should not exceed the limits laid down by the relay manufacturer. component ripple in the dc supply: <10% of voltage rated 254 . X IEC: 10P.Overlap of protections 1. TPY. 440 Preferred operative range of relays: 80 to 10% of voltage rated AC. They must be suitably specified to meet the requirements of the protective relays. Location of CTs should. Closing circuit breakers 3. T. • DC. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which can appear at the relay auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range. • Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply. Refer to relay documentation for details of operative range. Tripping circuit breakers 2. Auxiliary supplies Required for: 1. Current Transformer Standards/Classes: British Standards: 10P. In particular for directional. Correct connection of CTs to the protection is important. 48. Where possible use overlapping CTs Phase discrimination / selectivity Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase Tripping and auto-Reclosing applications Current and voltage transformers These are an essential part of the Protection Scheme. the rated value is marked on the relay. • Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security. IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6): Rated battery voltages: 12. 24. • Separately fused supplies used for each protection. distance. Current transformers for fast operating protections must allow for any offset in the current waveform. TPZ American: C. VT’s may be Electromagnetic or Capacitor types. they draw a large current which increases due to operation of output elements. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies. 250. 125. Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage range. No blind spots 2. 5P.

Protection may be the minimum consistent with . Sensitivity: Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more severe fault 4. CT’s and VT’s 5. fully discriminative high speed protection 3. the consequences of maloperation or failure to operate are less serious than for transmission systems. Risk of security of supply should be reduced to the lowest practical levels 5. Although important. Security/Stability 3.COST The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant. Reliability Total cost should take account of: 1. High speed protection requires unit protection 6. Large number of switching and distribution points. Commissioning 4. 2. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared with the need for highly reliable. transformers and feeders. Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily Distribution systems 1. 6. schemes and associated panels and panel wiring 2. Minimum cost: Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection Other factors: 1. Setting studies 3. Damage repair if protection fails to operate 7. Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics 2. Speed less important than on transmission systems 5. Relays.statutory safety regulations 4. Speed 2. Transmission systems 1. Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system elements protected. 4. and loss of supply and customer goodwill. Duplicate protections used to improve reliability 7. Maintenance and repairs to relays 6. Economics often overrides technical issues 3. Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an economic limit on what can be spent. Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain system stability 255 . Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main protection.

It is important to realize that the system is viable only between the cross-over points A and B. 256 . On the other hand. each controlled by switchgear in association with protective gear. it is instructive to look at the relationship between the reliability of a system and its cost and value to the consumer. Subdivision of the system into zones. its cost and value to the consumer. provides flexibility during normal operation and ensures a minimum of dislocation following a breakdown. regardless of cost.Basic of protection system Introduction The purpose of an electrical power generation system is to distribute energy to a multiplicity of points for diverse applications. Figure 1 Relationship between reliability of supply. high reliability should not be pursued as an end in itself. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy. which is shown in Figure 1. taking all factors into account. increasing the spare capacity margin and arranging alternative circuits to supply loads. but should rather be balanced against economy. As these two requirements are largely opposed. Security of supply can be bettered by improving plant design. and the necessity of achieving sufficient reliability. The diagram illustrates the significance of reliability in system design.

but also to keep the system in full operation as far as possible continuously.C. and mechanical damage throughout the system. In general.C. in practical terms. In addition to relays the term includes all accessories such as current and voltage transformers. and earn the most. D. This is the measure of the importance of protective systems in modern practice and of the responsibility vested in the protection engineer. trips and fuses. which imposes a sudden and sometimes violent change on system operation. A system is not properly designed and managed if it is not adequately protected. Rapid isolation of the fault by the nearest switch-gear will minimize the damage and disruption caused to the system. Nor is the installation of switchgear alone sufficient. But the term also covers directacting A. 257 . as any fault produces repercussions throughout the net-work. The object of the system will be defeated if adequate provision for fault clearance is not made. locating and initiating the removal of a fault from the power system. A power system represents a very large capital investment. the main switchgear. particularly to machine and transformer windings. Relays are extensively used for major protective functions. as are also common services. so that it may give the best service to the consumer. The risk of a fault occurring. designed according to the characteristics and requirements of the power system. is excluded from the term 'protective gear'. For this reason it is necessary not only to provide a supply of energy which is attractive to prospective users by operating the system within the range AB (Figure 1. the chance of a fault occurring and the disturbance that a fault would bring are both so great that without equipment to remove faults the system will become. Revenue for the supply authority. Absolute freedom from failure of the plant and system network cannot be guaranteed. and A.C. discriminative protective gear. accompanied by the localized release of a considerable quantity of energy. can cause fire at the fault location. Fundamentals of protection practice This is a collective term which covers all the equipment used for detecting. although fundamentally protective in its function. shunts. When the system is large.The greatest threat to a secure supply is the shunt fault or short circuit. inoperable. To maximize the return on this outlay. wiring and any other devices relating to the protective relays.1). The large current which then flows. is multiplied by the number of such items which are closely associated in an extensive system. however slight for each item. the system must be loaded as much as possible. must be provided to control the switchgear.

Installation. 258 2. but the complexity of the interconnections of many systems and their relation-ship to the remainder of the station may make. The need for correct installation of protective equipment is obvious. The nature of the power system condition which is being guarded against must be thoroughly understood in order to make an adequate design. In many cases it is not feasible to protect against all hazards with any one relay. No attempt should be made to 'type test' the equipment or to establish complex aspects of its technical performance. while the whole coordinated combination of relays is called a 'protection scheme'. . observation simply of the magnitude of the fault current suffices in some cases but measurement of power or impedance may be necessary in others. Incorrect operation can be attributed to one of the following classifications: a. In order to fulfil the requirements of discriminative protection with the optimum speed for the many different configurations. Testing is therefore necessary. it is necessary to test the complete assembly of relays. these tests must be directed to proving the installation. Each individual protective arrangement is known as a 'protection system'. d. Incorrect installation.such as the station battery and any other equipment required to secure operation of the circuit breaker. and this testing should cover all aspects of the protection. b. Deterioration. it has been necessary to develop many types of relay which respond to various functions of the power system quantities. Relays frequently measure complex functions of the system quantities. since it will be difficult to reproduce all fault conditions correctly. operating conditions and construction features of power systems. Comprehensive testing is just as important. Use is then made of a combination of different types of relay which individually protect against different risks. For example. and the tests must simulate fault conditions realistically. c. which should be limited to such simple and direct tests as will prove the correctness of the connections and freedom from damage of the equipment. Incorrect design. Design This is of the highest importance. Difficult the checking of such correctness. as well as reproducing operational and environmental conditions as closely as possible. This is the function of site testing. Protection performance 1. current transformers and other ancillary items. For many protective systems. which are only readily expressible by mathematical or graphical means. Reliability The need for a high degree of reliability is discussed in Section 1.

in which each step taken and quantity measured is checked before final acceptance. Protection performance The performance of the protection applied to large power systems is frequently assessed numerically. contacts may become rough or burnt owing to frequent operation. coils and other circuits may be open-circuited. and easily visible double-ended clip-on leads where 'jumper connections' are required. For this purpose each system fault is classed as an incident and those which are cleared by the tripping of the correct circuit breakers and only those are classed as 'correct'. On this basis. such arrangements are commonly applied to circuit breaker trip circuits and to pilot circuits. When temporary disconnection of panel wiring is necessary. This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation of the protection of the system as a whole. The percentage of correct clearances can then be determined. Staff must be technically competent and adequately trained. relays should be given simple basic tests at suitable intervals in order to check that their ability to operate has not deteriorated.3. A very big step. as well as self-disciplined to proceed in a deliberate manner. and mechanical parts may become clogged with dirt or corroded to an extent that may interfere with movement. but it is severe in its judgment of relay performance. a performance of 94 % is obtainable by standard techniques. For example. Two complete sets of equipment are provided. or tarnished owing to atmospheric contamination. can be taken by providing duplication of equipment or 'redundancy'. After a piece of equipment has been installed in perfect condition. 4. auxiliary components may fail. The quality of testing personnel is an essential feature when assessing reliability and considering means for improvement. Important circuits which are especially vulnerable can be provided with continuous electrical super-vision. during which period defects may have developed unnoticed until revealed by the failure of the protection to respond to a power system fault. in time. a test plug can be inserted between the relay and case contacts giving access to all relay input circuits for injection. Draw-out relays inherently provide this facility. Testing should be carried out without disturbing permanent connections. and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to be recorded. Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by further improvements in construction. This can be achieved by the provision of test blocks or switches. however. Deterioration in service. could interfere with correct functioning. deterioration may take place which. mistakes in correct restoration of connections can be avoided by using identity tags on leads and terminals. If the risk of 259 . For this reason. and arranged so that either by itself can carry out the required function. in that many relays are called into operation for each system fault. clip-on leads for injection supplies. One of the particular difficulties of protective relays is that the time between operations may be measured in years.

that is. This 'unit protection' or 'restricted Protection' can be applied throughout a power system and. Probability theory suggests that if a power network were protected throughout on this basis. Such schemes have already been used to a limited extent and application of the principle will undoubtedly increase. When a fault occurs the protection is required to select and trip only the nearest circuit breakers. any common factors. only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping function. Protective systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times which are graded through the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault. although a number of protective equipments respond. The former arrangement guards against unwanted operation. can be relatively fast in operation. Where x is small the resultant risk (x2) may be negligible. important circuits have been provided with duplicate main protection schemes. This property of selective tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods: 1. Certain protective systems derive their 'restricted' property from the configuration of the power system and may also be classed as unit protection.98 % should be attainable. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. is x2. the resultant risk. 2. for instance. the latter against failure to operate.an equipment failing is x/unit. common current transformers or tripping batteries. In other cases. which should cover the power system completely. Whichever method is used. a 'one-out-of-two' arrangement. leaving no part unprotected. 260 . since it does not involve time grading. Unit systems. Time graded systems. These two features can be obtained together by adopting a 'two-out-ofthree' arrangement in which three basic systems are used and are interconnected so that the operation of any two will complete the tripping function. This performance figure requires that the separate protection systems be completely independent. It has long been the practice to apply duplicate protective systems to busbars. It is possible to design protective systems which respond only to fault conditions lying within a clearly defined zone. both being required to operate to complete a tripping operation. Protection is arranged in zones. allowing for redundancy. either being able to trip independently. it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design. will reduce the overall performance to a certain extent. that is. Unit protection is usually achieved by means of a comparison of quantities at the boundaries of the zone. Selectivity. a protection performance of 99. such as. a 'two-out-of-two' arrangement.

Zones of protection Ideally. this ideal is not always achieved. as in Figure 3. 261 .It is a function of the correct co-ordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of relay settings. taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents. the zones of protection should overlap across the circuit breaker as shown in Figure 2. Location of current transformers on both sides of the circuit breaker. Figure 2. This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A within which a fault is not cleared by the operation of the protection that responds. system impedances and so on. maximum load current. For practical physical reasons. where appropriate. In Figure 3 a fault at F would cause the bus-bar protection to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault would continue to be fed through the feeder. accommodation for current trans-formers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers. the circuit breaker being included in both zones.

This problem is dealt. would not operate. With by some form of zone extension. Figure 4 Overlapping zones of protection systems. since the fault is outside its zone. The feeder protection. The point of connection of the protection with the power system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. The protection may be of the unit type. although by restricting this operation to occasions when the bus-bar protection is operated the time delay can be reduced. if of the unit type. in which case the boundary will be a clearly 262 . A time delay is incurred in fault clearance.Figure 3 Location of current transformers on circuit side of the circuit breaker. to operate when opening the circuit breaker does not fully interrupt the flow of fault current.

the start will be defined but the extent will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time.5 shows typical relations between system loading and fault clearance times for various types of fault. Speed. which would necessitate the shutting down of plant. Figure 1. It will be noted that phase faults have a more marked effect on the stability of the system than does a simple earth fault and therefore require faster clearance. The object is to safeguard continuity of supply by removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread loss of synchronism. the greater can be the loading of the system. even with a great deal of personal supervision.defined and closed loop. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great. Stability. applied to protection as distinct from power networks. Even away from the fault arc itself. This term. the term 'discrimination' is the equivalent expression applicable to non-unit systems. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. the zone may be unrestricted. It is not enough to maintain stability. refers to the ability of the system to remain inert to all load conditions and faults external to the relevant zone. Alternatively. unnecessary consequential damage must also be avoided. Loading the system produces phase displacements between the voltages at different points and therefore increases the probability that synchronism will be lost when the system is disturbed by a fault. The shorter the time a fault is allowed to remain in the system. heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds 263 . Figure 4 illustrates a typical arrangement of overlapping zones. It is essentially a term which is applicable to unit systems. The function of automatic protection is to isolate faults from the power system in a very much shorter time than could be achieved manually.

This is the true measure of the input requirements of the relay. distribution circuits for which the requirements for fast operation are not very severe are usually protected by time-graded systems. relays the VA input also represents power consumption. Relay power factor has some significance in the matter of transient performance. Many factors may cause protection failure and there is always some possibility of a circuit breaker failure. For this reason. For D. must be weighed against economy. and the burden is therefore frequently quoted in watts. A given type of relay element can usually be wound for a wide range of setting currents. however. A protective system is said to be sensitive if the primary operating current is low. For this reason. When the term is applied to an individual relay.Figure 5 Typical values of power that can be transmitted as a function of fault clearance time. Primary and back-up protection The reliability of a power system has been discussed in earlier sections. Sensitivity Sensitivity is a term frequently used when referring to the minimum operating current of a complete protective system. so that the volt-ampere product at any setting is constant. it is usual to supplement primary protection with other systems to 'back-up' the operation of the main system and 264 . the only limiting factor will be the necessity for correct operation. and so also of the sensitivity. It will be seen that protective gear must operate as quickly as possible. the coil will have an impedance which is inversely proportional to the square of the setting current value.C. speed. it does not refer to a current or voltage setting but to the volt-ampere consumption at the minimum operating current. but generating plant and EHV systems require protective gear of the highest attainable speed.

In this way complete back-up cover is obtained. where system stability is at risk unless a fault is cleared quickly. Current trans-formers. the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker. or. Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection. trip coils and D. the above operation will be repeated so that all parallel infeeds are tripped. time delayed cover. voltage transformers. Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme. not even possible. the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading. which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed. owing to the effect of multiple infeeds. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed. as described above. The extent and type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the system. The following compromises are typical: 265 . supplies would be duplicated. Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. Where the system interconnection is more complex. and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure. For distribution systems where fault clearance Times are not critical. automatic back-up protection is not obtained. but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip. one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker. but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay. auxiliary tripping relays. all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted. time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for EHV systems. or separately by means of additional equipment.C. If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes. should be chosen.ensure that nothing can prevent the clearance of a fault from the system. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough. may be less discriminative. even as a backup protection. the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. in some cases. at best. thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. local back-up. and confines the tripping operation to the one station. Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and. depending on the power system configuration. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection. Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. If this does not occur. as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits.

Burden. Biased relay. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided.a. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity. and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided. prevent an unwanted operation of the protection. it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and. The loading imposed by the circuits of the relay on the energizing power source or sources. 266 . Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system. expressed as the product of voltage and current (volt-amperes. Since security of the VT output is vital. 2. Definitions and Terminology 1. because of the voltage transformers them-selves. 5. where appropriate. by modifying contact performance for example. Back-up protection.C) for a given condition. so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost. Auxiliary relay. and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity. Trip circuits should be continuously supervised. All-or-nothing relay A relay which is not designed to have any specified accuracy as to its operating value. A protective system intended to supplement the main protection in case the latter should be in-effective. An all-or-nothing relay used to supplement the performance of another relay. or by introducing time delays. as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden. 4. c. or to deal with faults in those parts of the power system that are not readily included in the operating zones of the main protection. 3. b. which may be either at 'setting' or at rated current or voltage. d. or watts if D.

Check protective system. current for an over current relay. for which definite values are assigned to each of the parameters. A test to prove the performance for a particular application. R. the value of which characterizes the operation of the relay. expressed in VA. Specific conjunctive test. An auxiliary protective system intended to prevent tripping due to inadvertent operation of the main protective system. Parametric conjunctive test. 10. A quantity. Dependent time delay relay. 267 .The rated output of measuring transformers.I. is always at rated current or voltage and it is important. Discrimination. 12. The test may be parametric or specific. impedance for an impedance relay.) The maximum value of the System Impedance Ratio up to which the relay performance remains within the prescribed limits of accuracy. 11. 6. Conjunctive test. 9. A test to ascertain the range of values that may be assigned to each parameter when considered in combination with other parameters. 7. 14. The quality whereby a protective system distinguishes between those conditions for which it is intended to operate and those for which it shall not operate. a. in assessing the burden imposed by a relay. Characteristic angle. The phase angle at which the performance of the relay is declared. A relay drops out when it moves from the energized position to the un-energized position. Characteristic impedance ratio (C. while still complying with the relevant performance requirements. time for an independent time delay relay. 13. Drop-out. to ensure that the value of burden at rated current is used. 8. A time delay relay in which the time delay varies with the value of the energizing quantity.g. Characteristic curve. It is usually the angle at which maximum sensitivity occurs. e. The curve showing the operating value of the characteristic quantity corresponding to various values or combinations of the energizing quantities. voltage for a voltage relay. phase angle for a directional relay. b. A test on a protective system including all relevant components and ancillary equipment appropriately interconnected. Characteristic quantity.

18. A dependent time delay relay having an operating time which is an inverse function of the electrical characteristic quantity. Effective setting The 'setting' of a protective system including the effects of current transformers. after which the time delay becomes substantially independent. A three-phase transformer intended essentially to provide a neutral point to a power system for the purpose of Earthing.15. Inverse time delay relay with definite minimum (I. Earth fault protective system. Electrical relay A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more electrical circuits after the appearance of certain conditions in the electrical circuit or circuits controlling it. within the above definition. 16. 19. A time delay relay in which the time delay is independent of the energizing quantity. Drop-out / pick ratio. in particular those concerning precision. or of the energizing quantities to which the relay will respond and satisfy the requirements concerning it. either current or voltage. Effective range The range of values of the characteristic quantity or quantities.D. it is possible. The ratio of the limiting values of the characteristic quantity at which the relay resets and operates. A relay which operates and resets with no intentional time delay. NOTE: The term 'relay' includes all the ancillary equipment calibrated with the device. to discuss the operating time characteristics of an instantaneous relay. which alone or in combination with other energizing quantities. Instantaneous relay. 22. 21. Inverse time delay relay. 268 . must be applied to the relay to cause it to function.) A relay in which the time delay varies inversely with the characteristic quantity up to a certain value. 20. 23. Energizing quantity. M . 22. NOTE: All relays require some time to operate. A protective system which is designed to respond only to faults to earth. The electrical quantity. 21. Earthing transformer. The effective setting can be expressed in terms of primary current or secondary current from the current transformers and is so designated as appropriate. This value is sometimes called the differential of the relay. T. Independent time delay relay. 17.

m. A relay is said to 'pick-up' when it changes from the un-energized position to the energized position. which. including protective relays. for use in a protective system. A means of interconnection between relaying points for the purpose of protection. Notching relay. 28. Measuring relay. Protective gear. Knee-point e. applied to the secondary terminals of a current transformer. 27. Operating time characteristic. A relay intended to operate with a specified accuracy at one or more values of its characteristic quantity. 269 . Operating time. the time which elapses between the application of a characteristic quantity and the instant when the relay operates.24. The apparatus. Main protection. 33. The portion of a power system protected by a given protective system or a part of that protective system. That sinusoidal e. 30.f. causes the exciting current to increase by 50%.m. 34.f. 25. With a relay de-energized and in its initial condition. Pilot channel. 35. 26. The protective system which is normally expected to operate in response to a fault in the protected zone. Protected zone. 29. The curve depicting the relationship between different values of the characteristic quantity applied to a relay and the corresponding values of operating time. Operating value. when increased by 10 %. trans-formers and ancillary equipment. A relay which switches in response to a specific number of applied impulses. Overshoot time. 31. The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay actually operates. Pick-up. The extent to which the condition that leads to final operation is advanced after the removal of the energizing quantity. 32. expressed as time at the rate of progress of the said condition appropriate to the value of the energizing quantity that was initially applied.

The coordinated arrangements for the protection of one or more elements of a power system.36. Protective scheme. Residua/ current. The nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the designation of a relay. 40. Protective relay./. System impedance ratio (S. usually abnormal. A unit relay which responds to abnormal conditions and initiates the operation of other elements of the protective system.). 45. Residua/ voltage. 39. 38. The R. 47. The algebraic sum. in a multi-phase system.S. percentages of rated values. The nominal value usually corresponds to the CT and VT secondary ratings. Stability. 270 . 41. 46. Stability limits. A protective scheme may comprise several protective systems. Setting.M. 43. 42. The algebraic sum. Such values are usually marked on the relay and may be expressed as direct values. Resetting value. in a multi-phase system. 37. or multiples. under predetermined conditions. of all the line-to-earth voltages. the disconnection of an element of a power system. or to give an alarm signal. or both. The limiting value of a 'characteristic' or 'energizing' quantity at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions. The quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions other than those for which it is specifically designed to operate. value of the symmetrical component of the through fault current up to which the protective system remains stable. Rating. Protective system. A relay designed to initiate disconnection of a part of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal.R. The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay returns to its initial position. 44. of all the line currents. Starting relay. A protective relay may include more than one unit electrical relay and accessories. in the case of a fault or other abnormal condition in the installation. A combination of protective gear designed to secure.

Time delay. Through fault current.Damage fault A fault which involves repair or replacement action at the point of the fault [IEC 604-02-08.Typical examples are self-extinguishing arcs in switching equipment or general overheating without paper carbonization. some of them based on IEC 60050(191).Fault An unplanned occurrence or defect in an item which may result in one or more failures of the item itself or of other associated equipment [IEC 604-02-011 NOTE . Unrestricted protection. 52.Incident An event related to an internal fault which temporarily or permanently disturbs the normal operation of an equipment [IEV 604-02-03.In electrical equipment. A delay intentionally introduced into the operation of a relay system. 50. the following definitions. Fault Definitions and: For the purpose of this International Standard. modified] 271 . [IEC 604-02-091 3. 49. 2. Unit protection. a fault may or may not result in damage to the insulation and failure of the equipment. A protection system which is designed to operate only for abnormal conditions within a clearly defined zone of the power system. Unit electrical relay. IEC 60050(212) and IEC 60050(604) apply: 1. The current flowing through a protected zone to a fault beyond that zone.The ratio of the power system source impedance to the impedance of the protected zone. 53.Non-damage fault A fault which does not involve repair or replacement action at the point of the fault NOTE . A relay having an intentional delaying device. 51. Time delay relay. A single relay which can be used alone or in combinations with others. modified] 4. A protection system which has no clearly defined zone of operation and which achieves selective operation only by time grading. 48.

. . 5. failure will result from a damage fault or incident necessitating outage.Partial discharge A discharge which only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. fire or explosion. The passage of an arc following the breakdown of the insulation [IEC 604-03-38. equipment tripping or equipment leakage. NOTE 2 .Discharge (disruptive) .Failure The termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function [IEC 191-04-01] NOTE . in the conventions of physics. modified] NOTE 1 .Flashover (discharge at the surface of the solid insulation).sparking discharges which.Discharges are often described as arcing. NOTE 3 . breakdown or short circuits. modified] NOTE 1 . It may occur inside the insulation or adjacent to a conductor [IEC 212-01-34. such as internal breakdown. .In the electrical equipment. rupture of tank.spark over (discharge through the oil). The more specific following terms are also used: . 6.Sparking of low energy.Corona is a form of partial discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors which are remote from solid or liquid insulation. 8. This term is not to be used as a general term for all forms of partial discharges.Electrical fault a partial or disruptive discharge through the insulation. for example because of metals or floating potentials. modified]. 7. repair or replacement of the equipment. is sometimes described as Partial discharge but should rather be considered as a discharge of low energy.X-wax is a solid material which is formed from mineral insulating oil as a result of electrical discharges and which consists of polymerized fragments of the molecules of the original liquid [IEV 212-07-24.Typical examples are gas alarms. are local Dielectric breakdowns of high ionization density or small arcs.NOTE .tracking (the progressive degradation of the surface of solid insulation by local Discharges to form conducting or partially conducting paths). . 272 . Comparable products may be formed from other liquids under similar conditions.puncture (discharge through the solid insulation).

9.Typical causes are .overheating of internal winding or bushing connection lead. and which are over passed by only an arbitrary percentage of higher gas contents. NOTE 1 . climate. . it will be described as a discharge of low or high energy. in many countries and by many users.Thermal fault Excessive temperature rise in the insulation NOTE . 10. depending on operating practices (load levels.). based on the extent of damage observed on the equipment .Typical values will differ in different types of equipment and in different networks.Depending on the amount of energy contained in the discharge.NOTE 2 . LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS 2 Time delay starting or closing relay. NOTE 2 . gas concentrations normally found in the equipment in service which have no symptoms of failure. . eddy currents. stray losses or leakage flux).Excessive currents circulating through the insulation (as a result of high Dielectric losses). but this term has not been used here to avoid possible misinterpretations. etc.Insufficient cooling. leading to a thermal runaway. . are quoted as "normal values".Typical values. 3 Checking or interlocking relay 21 Distance relay 25 Synchronizing or synchronism check relay 27 Under voltage relay 30 Annunciator relay 32 Directional power relay 273 .Excessive currents circulating in adjacent metal parts (as a result of bad Contacts.Typical values of gas concentrations. for example 10 % .

274 .37 Undercurrent or under power relay 40 Field failure relay 46 Reverse phase or phase balance current relay 49 Machine or transformer thermal relay 50 Instantaneous over current or rate-of-rise relay 51 A. They can be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary electromagnetic element. These contacts remain in the operated position after the controlling quantity is removed. returning to their original condition when it is removed.c.c. directional over current relay 68 Blocking relay 74 Alarm relay 76 D.c. reclosing relay 81 Frequency relay 83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay 85 Carrier or pilot wire receive relay 86 Locking-out relay 87 Differential protective relay 94 auxiliary tripping relay For Detail about LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS Click Here Relay contact systems Relay contact systems Self-reset. time over current relay 52 A. Hand or electrically reset relays are used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or a lock-out condition. The majority of protective relay elements have self-reset contact systems. a. over current relay 78 Phase angle measuring or out-of-step protective relay 79 A.c.c. Contacts are shown on diagrams in the position corresponding to the un-operated or de-energized condition regardless of the continuous service condition of the equipment. which. The contacts remain operated only while the controlling quantity is applied. Hand or electrical reset. For example. can be made to give hand reset output contacts by the use of auxiliary elements. a voltage b. circuit breaker 52a Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally open 52b Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally closed 55 Power factor relay 56 Field_application relay 59 Over voltage relay 60 Voltage or current balance relay 64 Earth fault protective relay 67 A. if it is so desired.

may do so through the agency of another multi-channel auxiliary relay. 275 . Most other types of relay develop an effort which is independent of the position of the moving system. being made up of a hand-trip control switch and the contacts of the protective relays in parallel to energize the trip coil from a battery. for a small 'distribution' circuit breaker. The basic trip circuit is simple. A protective relay is usually required to trip a circuit breaker. to 3000 watts for a large extra-high-voltage circuit breaker. or.supervising relay. since the protective relay contacts will usually be quite incapable of performing the interrupting duty. according to the coil rating. Examples of these conventions and variations are shown in Figure 6. through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by the circuit breaker. The power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may range from up to 50 watts. This auxiliary switch is needed to open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens. an electrically operated valve. to make the protection effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault. which is continually picked-up. the tripping mechanism of which may be a solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the mechanism latch or. Protective relays are precise measuring devices. Attracted armature relays. which combine many of the characteristics of measuring devices and contactors. in the case of air-blast or pneumatically operated breakers. The auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as possible in the closing stroke. would still be shown in the deenergized condition. Occupy an intermediate position and according to their design and consequent closeness to one or other category. whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when the relay is un-energized and opens when the relay picks up. The relay may energize the tripping coil directly. Figure 6 indications of contacts on diagrams. may have an appreciable contact capacity. and the number of circuits to be energized. the contacts of which should not be expected to perform large making and breaking duties. A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks up.

whereas in America they are known as 'targets'. and other control functions to be performed. These various operations are carried out by multi-contact tripping relays. and. there being insufficient force to compress the spring of the first contact to make. but can be made to reverse its orientation by the application of a field. which. The edge of the magnet is colored to give the indication. care must be taken in their alignment. and may be either mechanically or electrically operated. or modules. are bi-stable devices. but if more than one contact pair is fitted any slight misalignment may result in only one contact being closed at the minimum operating value. Indicators. A mechanical indicator consists of a small shutter which is Released by the protective relay movement to expose the indicator pattern. static relays have discrete measuring and tripping circuits. interlocking with other functions (for example auto-reclosing arrangements). further. The magnet. These effects can be reduced by providing a small amount of 'run-in' to contact make in the relay behavior. The functioning of the measuring modules will not react on the tripping modules. Operation indicators. and lying between the poles of an electromagnet. so that the number or rating of outputs has no more significance than the fact that they have been provided. Not every component relay will have one. Not only does this limit the 'making' capacity of the contacts. consists of a red diagonal stripe on a white background.At setting. the margin for operating the contacts being negligibly small. and a small tolerance in the closing value of operating current may have to be allowed between them. lines up its magnetic axis with the electromagnet poles. two or more breakers may have to be tripped by one protective system. which is free to rotate. with very few exceptions. For the above reasons it is often better to use inter-posing contactor type elements which do not have the same limitations. although some measuring relay elements are capable of tripping the smaller types of circuit breaker directly. which are energized by the protection relays and provide the necessary number of adequately rated output contacts. on GEC Measurements relays. In general. as indicators are arranged to operate only if a trip operation is initiated. For larger switchgear installations the tripping power requirement of each circuit breaker is considerable. In British practice these are called 'flags'. Electrical indicators may be simple attracted armature elements either with or without contacts. For this reason. protective systems are invariably provided with indicating devices. As a guide for power system operation staff. the electromechanical effort is absorbed by the controlling force. by the small amount required to permit closure of the second. There may also be remote signaling requirements. Although two contacts can be fitted. 276 . by special shaping of the active parts. Operation of the armature releases a shutter to expose an indicator as above. Such a relay is equivalent to a sensitive electromechanical relay with a tripping contactor. These may be small attracted armature type elements fitted in the same case as the measuring relay. the provision of multiple contacts on such elements is undesirable. An alternative type consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet magnetized across a diameter.

care must be taken to line up their operation with the closure of the main contacts. Another advantage is that the indicator can operate only after the main contacts have closed. which would be a serious handicap for certain types. and the contactor closes a contact in parallel with the protective relay contact. c. 277 . even if chatter occurs at the main contact. The indicator must have operated by the time the contacts make. Series sealing. The coil of the series contactor carries the trip current initiated by the protective relay. Auxiliary contactors can be used to supplement protective relays in a number of ways: a.Relay tripping circuits. Shunt reinforcing. When such auxiliary elements are fitted. b. Series sealing. Electrically operated indicators avoid imposing an additional friction load on the measuring element. they can conveniently carry the operation indicator. Figure 7 Typical relay tripping circuits. Ta. but must not have done so more than marginally earlier. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. With indicators operated directly by the measuring elements. avoiding the need for indicators on the measuring elements. These are illustrated in Figure 7. This is to stop indication occurring when the tripping operation has not been completed. This closure relieves the protective relay contact of further duty and keeps the tripping circuit securely closed.

278 . which usually interrupt their own coil current. The coils of these contactors must be of low impedance. since it is not permissible to energize the trip coil and the reinforcing contactor in parallel. It should be noted that two contacts are required on the protective relay. with about 5 % of the trip supply voltage being dropped across them. and more than one protective relay were connected to trip the same circuit breaker. all the auxiliary relays would be energized in parallel for each relay operation and the indication would be confused. which then reinforces the contact which is energizing the trip coil. If this were done. The duplicate main contacts are frequently provided As a three point arrangement to reduce the number of contact fingers. This may pose a problem in design if a variable number of auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may be required to operate in parallel to energize a common tripping relay.Nothing is added to the total tripping time. Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the circuit breaker and simultaneously to energize the auxiliary unit. and the indicator does not operate until current is actually flowing through the trip coil. Shunt reinforcing. The main disadvantage of this method is that such series elements must have their coils matched with the trip circuit with which they are associated. b. When used in association with high speed trip relays. the auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and release the flag before their coil current is cut off.

relay contacts. The chattering would only end when the circuit breaker had finally tripped. c. This is a development of the shunt reinforcing circuit to make it applicable to relays with low torque movements or where there is a possibility of contact bounce for any other reason. Supervision of trip circuits. and in some cases through a considerable amount of circuit wiring with intermediate terminal boards. It will be seen that the effect of bounce is countered by means of a further contact on the auxiliary unit connected as a retaining contact. and the possible burning out of the contacts not only of the sensitive element but also of the auxiliary unit. 279 . auxiliary switch contacts and so on. because it is sometimes inconvenient to find a suitable contact to use for this purpose. This means that provision must be made for releasing the sealing circuit when tripping is complete. this is a disadvantage. Using the shunt reinforcing system under these circumstances would result in chattering on the auxiliary unit. such as fuses. The trip circuit extends beyond the relay enclosure and passes through more components. links. Shunt reinforcement with sealing.Figure 8 Examples of trip circuit supervision.

280 . Figure 1. 3. Monitoring.1. as shown in Figure 8(a).1 Classification: Protection relays can be classified in accordance with the function which they carry out. generally to close or open electrical contacts to initiate some further operation. The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused by failure of the lamp. the incoming signal and the type of functioning.1. With the circuit healthy either or both of relays A and B are operated and energize relay C.1 General function: Auxiliary. Schemes using a lamp to indicate continuity are suitable for locally controlled installations. the addition of a normally open push-button contact in series with the lamp will make the supervision indication available only when required.2 Construction: Electromagnetic. usually from a current and/or voltage source. but when control is exercised from a distance it is necessary to use a relay system. Figure 8(c) illustrates such a scheme. have directed attention to its supervision. Control. for example the tripping of a circuit breaker. Computerized. by the addition of a normally closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit. The alarm supply should be independent of the tripping supply so that indication will be obtained in the event of the failure of the tripping battery. Classification and function of relays A protection relay is a device that senses any change in the signal which it is receiving. Microprocessor. This provides supervision while the circuit breaker is closed. their construction. which is applicable wherever a remote signal is required. I n either case.8(b) shows how. 3.These complications. coupled with the importance of the circuit. Both A and B must reset to allow C to drop-off. Solid state. the relay will operate. Relays A and C are timedelayed by copper slugs to prevent spurious alarms during tripping or closing operations. The resistors are mounted separately from the relays and their values are chosen such that if any one component is inadvertently short-circuited. The simplest arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp. a simple extension gives pre-closing supervision. Protection. 3. If the magnitude of the incoming signal is outside a preset range. a tripping operation will not take place. supervision can be obtained while the breaker is both open and closed.

Nonelectric (thermal.2 Electromagnetic relays Electromagnetic relays are constructed with electrical. Over voltage.).1. Other.. Reverse power. Distance. 3... Frequency. 3 . for example G for generator.4 Type of protection Over current. Temperature. pressure . Velocity. magnetic and mechanical components. Τ for transformer etc. 3.etc. 3. The construction characteristics can be classified in three groups. Directional over current. have an operating coil and various contacts and are very robust and reliable. Differential. Others. Nonelectric relays are outside the scope of this book and therefore are not referred to. Figure 1 Armature-type relay In some cases a letter is added to the number associated with the protection in order to specify its place of location. 2 . as detailed below. 1 Attraction relays 281 ..3 Incoming signal: Current.1.. Voltage. Pressure.

It can be shown that the force of attraction is equal to K1I2 .i Where: T= torque B = flux density L =length of the coil a = diameter of the coil N = number of turns on the coil i = current flowing through the coil 282 . The other type is the piston or solenoid relay. the effective area and the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. 2 .Attraction relays can be supplied by AC or DC. K2 is the restraining force. In order to control the value at which the relay starts to operate. Attraction relays effectively have no time delay and. thus modifying the restricting force. the restraining tension of the spring or the resistance of the solenoid circuit can be varied.a. usually produced by a spring. which is closed or opened according to the design when the armature is attracted to the coil. where Κ1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid. are widely used when instantaneous operations are required. which is shown in figure 1. The torque produced in the coil is given by: T = B. consists of a bar or plate of metal which pivots when it is attr acted towards the coil. the piston also carries the operating contacts. and operate by the movement of a piece of metal when it is attracted by the magnetic field produced by a coil.l. 3 . In this case. the air gap. So that I = K 2 / K1 = constant.K2. among other factors. There are two main types of relay in this class.N. The attracted armature relay. The coil is restrained by two springs which also serve as connections to carry the current to the coil. The armature carries the moving part of the contact. 2 Relays with moveable coils This type of relay consists of a rotating movement with a small coil suspended or pivoted with the freedom to rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet. illustrated in Figure 2. the resultant force is zero and therefore Κ112 = K2. for that reason. in which α bar or piston is attracted axially within the field of the solenoid. When the relay is balanced.

Figure 2 Solenoid-type relay

Figure 3 Inverse time characteristic From the above equation it will be noted that the torque developed is proportional to the current. The speed of movement is controlled by the damping action, which is proportional to the torque. It thus follows that the relay has an inverse time characteristic similar to that illustrated in Figure 3. The relay can be designed so that the coil makes a large angular movement, for example 80º. 3 . 2 . 3 Induction relays An induction relay works only with alternating current. It consists of an electromagnetic system which operates on a moving conductor, generally in the form of a disc or cup, and functions through the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes with the parasitic Fault currents which are induced in the rotor by these fluxes. These two fluxes, which are mutually displaced both in angle and in position, produce a torque that can be expressed by T= Κ1.Φ1.Φ2 .sin θ,


Where Φ1 and Φ2 are the interacting fluxes and θ is the phase angle between Φ1 and Φ2. It should be noted that the torque is a maximum when the fluxes are out of phase by 90º, and zero when they are in phase.

Figure 4 Electromagnetic forces in induction relays It can be shown that Φ1= Φ1sin ωt, and Φ2= Φ2 sin (ωt+ θ ) , where θ is the angle by which Φ2 leads Φ1. Then:

iΦ 1 α

dΦ 1 α Φ 1 cos ω t dt
dΦ1 α Φ1 cos ( ωt + θ ) dt

iΦ1 α

Figure 4 shows the interrelationship between the currents and the opposing forces. Thus: F = ( F 1 - F 2 ) α (Φ2 iΦ1+ Φ1 iΦ2 )

F α Φ2 Φ1 sin θ α T

Induction relays can be grouped into three classes as set out below. Shaded-pole relay In this case a portion of the electromagnetic section is short-circuited by means of a copper ring or coil. This creates a flux in the area influenced by the short circuited section (the so-called shaded section) which lags the flux in the nonshaded section, see Figure 5.


Figure 5 Shaded-pole relay

Figure 6 Wattmetric-type relay In its more common form, this type of relay uses an arrangement of coils above and below the disc with the upper and lower coils fed by different values or, in some cases, with just one supply for the top coil, which induces an out-of-phase flux in the lower coil because of the air gap. Figure 6 illust r ates a typical arrangement. Cup-type relay This type of relay has a cylinder similar to a cu which can rotate in the annular air gap between the poles of the coils, and has a fixed central core, see Figure 7. The operation of this relay is very similar to that


Figure 7Cup-type relay Of an induction motor with salient poles for the windings of the stator. Configurations with four or eight poles spaced symmetrically around the circumference of the cup are often used. The movement of the cylinder is limited to a small amount by the contact and the stops. Α special spring provides the restraining torque. The torque is a function of the product of the two currents through the coils and the cosine of the angle between them. The torque equation is T= ( KI1I2 cos (θ12 – Φ) – Ks ), Where K, .Κs and Φ are design constants, Ι1 and I2 are the currents through the two coils and θ12 is the angle between I1 and I2. In the first two types of relay mentioned above, which are provided with a disc, the inertia of the disc provides the time-delay characteristic. The time delay can be increased by the addition of a permanent magnet. The cup-type relay has a small inertia and is therefore principally used when high speed operation is required, for example in instantaneous units.

Calculation of short circuit current The current that flows through an element of a power system is a parameter which can be used to detect faults, given the large increase in current flow when a short circuit occurs. For this reason a review of the concepts and procedures for calculating fault currents will be made in this chapter, together with some calculations illustrating the methods used. Although the use of these short-circuit calculations in relation to protection settings will be-considered in detail, it is important to bear in mind that these calculations are also required for other applications, for example calculating the substation Earthing 286

grid, the selection of conductor sizes and for the specifications of equipment such as power-circuit breakers. 1 Mathematical derivation of fault currents The treatment of electrical faults should be carried out as a function of time, from the start of the event at time until stable conditions are reached, and therefore it is necessary to use differential equations when calculating these currents. In order to illustrate the transient nature of the current, consider an RL circuit as a simplified equivalent of the circuits in electricitydistribution networks. This simplification is important because all the system equipment must be modeled in some way in order to quantify the transient values which can occur during the fault condition. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the mathematical expression which defines the behaviour of the current is: e(t) = L di + Ri(t) 2.1
t = 0+

Vmax Sin( ωt + α )

Figure 1 RL, circuit for transient analysis study This is a differential equation with constant coefficients, of which the solution is in two parts:

ia ( t ) : ih ( t ) + i p ( t )
Where: ih(t) Is the solution of the homogeneous equation corresponding to the transient period and ip(t) is the solution to the particular equation corresponding to the steady-state period. By the use of differential equation theory, which will not be discussed in detail here, the complete solution can be determined and expressed iii the following form:

i (t ) =

Vmax ( Sin (ω t + α ) − Sin(α − Φ).e −( R / L ) ) Z



while the second term decreases exponentially with a time constant of L/R. The latter term can be recognised as the DC component of the current. owing to a fault. If the tripping of the circuit.2. see Figure 2.Where: Z = R 2 + ω2 L2 α = the closing angle which defines the point on the source sinusoidal voltage when the fault occurs and Φ= tan −1 (ω / R ) L It can be seen that. and zero value when Φ=α. takes place when the sinusoidal component is at its negative peak. − = Φ ± /2 Figure 2 Variation of fault current with time a (α–Φ) =0 b (α–Φ)=π/2 288 . in eqn. the DC component reaches its theoretical maximum value half a cycle later. and has an initial maximum π value when α . 2. It is impossible to predict at what point the fault will be applied on the sinusoidal cycle and therefore what magnitude the DC component will reach. the first term varies sinusoidally.

I".Xd and Xd. Notwithstanding this. applied to an RL circuit.m. This effect is known as armature reaction. and which makes the calculations quite difficult.f. can be seen in Figure 3. comes close to the three discrete levels of current.An approximate formula for calculating the effective value of the total asymmetric current. with acceptable accuracy can be obtained from the following expression: I rms. The physical situation that is presented to a generator. In Figure 4 it will be noted that the variation of current with time.asym = 2 2 I rms + I DC 2. owing to the gradual decrease in the magnetic flux caused by the reduction of the e. 1(t).3 The fault current which results when an alternator is short circuited can easily be analysed since this is similar to the case which has already been analysed. including the AC and DC components. i. of the induction current. the subtransient. The reduction in current from its value at the onset. respectively. Figure 3 Transient short-circuit currents in a synchronous generator 289 . 1 ' and I.e. transient and steady-state currents. The corresponding values of direct axis reactance are denoted by " ' Xd. when voltage is. in the majority of practical applications it is possible to take account of the variation of reactance in only three stages without producing significant errors. can be interpreted as a reactance which varies with time.

Of necessity. short-circuit values based on the transient reactance are used. switchgear specifications require reliable calculations of the short-circuit levels which can be present on the electrical network. the behaviour of the generator under short circuit conditions. when calculating short-circuit currents it is necessary to take into account two factors which could result in the currents varying with time: the presence of the DC component. Taking into account the rapid drop of the short-circuit current due to the armature reaction of the synchronous machines.010 and C37. and the fact that extinction of an electrical arc is never achieved instantaneously. Transient reactance values are generally used in stability studies. ANSI Standards C37. in some cases. time for each of these is illustrated in Figure 5. Time delay units can be set using the same values but. 290 . To sum up. depending on the operating speed of the protection relays.Figure 4 Variation of current with time during a fault Figure 5 Variation of generator reactance with time during a fault And the typical variation with.5 recommend using different values of subtransient reactance when calculating the so-called momentary and interrupting duties of switchgear. In studies of electrical protection some adjustment has to be made to the values of instantaneous short circuit current calculated using subtransient reactance's which result in higher values of current.

The peak values are obtained by multiplying the R. value of interrupting current is used in which.s.M.s.9V / X d ) 2 I rms = 2 2 I DC + I AC 2. It should be noted that. the AC and DC components are taken into account.sym 2.e.m. the so-called r.S. a factor of 1.4 The momentary current is used when specifying the closing current of switchgear.56 I rms.: " " = (0.m. in general. the AC component is multiplied by a factor of 2 Thus: I peak = I Dc + I AC = (0. The asymmetrical values are calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the DC component and the r. Typically.s.m. again. current would then be: 2 I rms. i.m.56V / X d =1. the AC and DC components decay to 90% of their initial values after the first half cycle. values can be defined depending on whether or not the DC component is included. in this case.6 When considering the specification for the switchgear-opening cur-rent. values by 2 .asym. The peak value is obtained by arithmetically adding together the AC and DC components.9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0.9 " 2 V / X d ) + ( 0 .5 Usually.s.clo sin g = 2 I DC + I AC . value of the AC current.9V / X d ) 2 " =1. sys " " = (0. the value of the r. this value should be used when carrying out similar calculations.Asymmetrical or symmetrical r.9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0.55 I rms.rms .sym 2.9 " 2V / Xd ) = 2.6 is used by manufacturers and in international standards so that. From this. and therefore: Replacing the DC component by its exponential expression gives: 291 .

reproduced by permission of the IEEE) NOTE: Fed predominantly through two or more transformations or with external reactance in series equal to or above 1. IEEE Standard C37.sym.int = I rms .sym. and for different switchgear contact-separation times.5 times generator subtransient reactance 292 . int / I rms . int 2 I rms . sym. sys .rms . in ANSI Standard C37.7 The expression ( ) has been drawn for different Values of X/R. int = I DC + I Ac. int 2.sym.int 2e −2 ( r / l ) t +1 I rms . The multiplying factor graphs are reproduced in Figure 6 Figure 6 Multiplying factors for three-p hase and line-to-earth faults (total current rating basis) (from.asym.int e −( R / L ) ) 2 + I rms .5-1979.int = ( 2 I rms. asym.2 2 I rms.5–1979.

a=1 °. f is 60 Hz and the ratio X/R With this arrangement. 2 and a similarly gives a phase shift of 240°. the following matrix relationship can be established: ∠ 120 ∠ 240° Va  1 1 1  Va 0  V  = 1 a a 2  × V    a1   b  Vc  1 a 2 a  Va 2        Inverting the matrix of coefficients: 1 1 1  V a  Va 0  V  = 1 1 a a 2  × V    b  a1  3  1 a 2 a  Vc  Va 2        From the above matrix it can be deduced that: 293 . Va Vb and Vc can be represented thus: Va =Vao + Va1 + Va2 Vb =Vbo + Vb1 + Vb2 Vc =Vco + Vc1 + Vc2 It can be demonstrated that: V b= V ao+a 2V a1+aV a2 V c= V ao+aV a1+ a 2V a2 where a is a so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120° clockwise and a multiplication of unit magnitude. voltage values of any three-phase system. i. a 2=1 Therefore. If the frequency. Consider a circuit breaker with a total contact-separation time of two c yc l e s o n e cycle due to the relay and one related to the operation of the breaker mechanism.e.As an illust r ation of the validity of the curves for any situation. i.e.

and gives: I a = I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 I b = I a 0 + a 2 I a1 + aI a 2 I b = I a 0 + a I a1 + a 2 I a 2 Therefore: 1 I a0 = (I a + Ib + Ic ) 3 1 I a1 = ( I a + aI b + a 2 I c ) 3 1 I a 2 = ( I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) 3 In three-phase systems. therefore. the neutral current is equal to In = (Ia + Ib + Ic) and.1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) 3 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) 3 1 Va 2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) 3 The foregoing procedure can also be applied directly to currents. a three-phase unbalanced system is shown in Figure 8 together with the associated symmetrical components. 294 . l n= 3 I 0 By way of illustration.

295 .

70 1. for most studies only the reactance's of synchronous machines are used.and negative-sequence impedances of overhead-line circuits are identical.5 with an earth wire. Z2 and Z0. The negative and zero-sequence net-works do not contain e. the generated voltages are of positive sequence only. The positive.25 1. For a double-circuit line Zo/Z1 = 5. Table 1 Typical per-unit reactance for three -phase synchronous machines Type of machine Turbine generator 2 pole 4 pole X d" X d' Xd X2 X0 0.20 0. These sequence impedances are designated Z1.30 1.m.14 0.m. Zo/Z1 = 2 when no earth wire is present and 3. transient and synchronous reactance. the positive and negative-sequence impedances are equal because in static circuits these impedances are independent of the phase order.20 0.20 1. Since generators are designed to supply balanced voltages. The zero-sequence impedance is either the same as the other two impedances. and 3 to 5 for three-core cables: For transformers.1 Importance and construction of sequence networks The impedance of a circuit in which only positive-sequence currents are circulating is called the positive-sequence impedance and.5. depending on the transformer connections. as are those of cables.25 for single core. those in which only negative and zero-sequence currents flow are called the negative and zero-sequence impedances.28 296 0. depending on the machine characteristics and fault clearance time.09 0. The resistance of the windings is much smaller and can generally be neglected in short-circuit calculations. In fault studies the subtransient and transient reactance of generators grid motors must be included as appropriate. For a single-circuit line. the positive-sequence network is composed of an e.f source in series with the positive-sequence impedance. respectively. respectively. Xd' and Xd.f but only include impedances to the flow of negative and zerosequence currents.15 0. and are used in calculations involving symmetrical components.14 0.03 0.22 0.30 0. The following ratios may be used in the absence of detailed information. being independent of the phase if the applied voltages are balanced.35 0.07 0. When modelling small generators and motors it may be necessary to take resistance into account. Three values of positive reactance are normally quoted-subt r ansient.18 0.20 0.12 Salient with pole dampers generator without . For underground cables Zo/Z1 can be taken as 1 to 1. The zero-sequence impedances of lines different from the positive and negative-sequence impedances since the magnetic field creating the positive and negative-sequence currents is different from that for the zero-sequence currents.09 0. Therefore. denoted by X".2. similarly. provided that the applied voltages are balanced. or infinite. However.

9 illustrates the sequence networks for a generator.dampers X"= subtransient reactance. Xd=synchronous reactance X. are obtained from the point an on phase a relative to the reference bus bar. the reference busbar for the positiveand negative-sequence networks is the generator neutral which. and can be deduced from Figure 2. The equations for the components of voltage.1 sec. Figure 2. Typical per-unit reactance's for three phase synchronous machines are given in Table 1. The zero sequence networks carries only zero-sequence current in one phase which has an impedance of Zo = 3Ζn + Zeo The voltage and current components for each phase are obtained from the equations given for the sequence networks. in these networks. corresponding to the phase of the system. In connecting sequence networks together.9 as follows: Va1 = E a − I a1 Z 1 Va 2 = − I a 2 Z 2 Va 0 = − I a 0 Z 0 Where Εa = no load voltage to earth of the positive-sequence network Z1 = positive-sequence impedance of the generator Z2 = negative-sequence impedance of the generator Zo= zero-sequence impedance of the generator (Zeo) plus three times the impedance to earth The above equations can be applied to any generator which carries unbalanced currents and are the starting point for calculations for any type of fault. the fault level falls to a value determined by the transient reactance and then decays exponentially to a steady-state value determined by the synchronous reactance. X'd =transient reactance. The current which flows in the impedance between the neutral and earth are three times the zero-sequence current. The same approach can be used with equivalent power systems or applied to loaded 297 . X0=zero sequence reactance The subtransient reactance is the reactance applicable at the onset of the fault occurrence. The reference busbar for zero-sequence networks is the earth point of the generator. is at earth potential so that only zero-sequence currents flow through the impedances between neutral and earth.2=negative sequence reactance. Within 0.

I2 and Io respectively. the appropriate combination of sequence networks is formed in order to obtain the relationships between fault currents and voltages.2. carrying currents I1. are connected together in a particular arrangement to represent a given unbalanced fault condition. Consequently. 298 . in order to calculate fault 1 levels using the method of symmetrical components.2 Calculation of asymmetrical faults using symmetrical components The positive.type of fault. Ic =0 and V a =0. for each . Ea then being the voltage behind the reactance before the fault occurs. negative and zero-sequence network.generators. Then. Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a solid fault from line a to earth are represented by the equations Ib=0. 2. it is essential to determine the individual sequence impedances and combine these to make up the correct sequence networks.

From these equations it can be proved that: 299 . the sequence networks will be connected in series. the zero-sequence network is not involved and the overall sequence network is composed of the positive.10b.Single phase fault connected to earth As in the previous equations. with no zero-sequence current.10a. The current and voltage conditions are the same when considering an open-circuit fault in phases b and c. it can be shown that I ao = 0 and I a1 = E a /(Z 1 +Z 2 ) = Ia2 . and thus the treatment and connection of the sequence networks will be similar.and negative-sequence networks in parallel as indicated in Figure 2. as indicated in Figure 2. it can easily be deduced that I a1 = Ia2 = I ao = E a / (Z 1 +Z 2 + Z o ). Therefore. Equally. Phase-to-Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a fault between lines b and c and earth are represented by the equations 1a = 0 and Vb=Vc =0. I b = –I c and V b = V c . Phase-to-Phase fault The conditions for a solid fault between lines h and c are represented by the equations I a = 0. For this case.

it may be assumed that overall Ζ2 = Z1 which simplifies the calculations.2Z1 3 Supplying the current and voltage signals to protection systems In the presence of a fault the current transformers (CTs) circulate current proportional to the fault current to the protection equipment without distinguishing between the vectorial magnitudes of the Sequence components. the system must first of all be represented by its corresponding sequence impedances.10c. For lines and cables the positive and negative ímpedances are equal.e.I a1 = Ea ZoZ2 Z1 + Zo + Z2 The three sequence networks are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.3 Equivalent impedances for a power system. 2. Where VLN = line-to-neutral voltage and Zo= (3VLN / Ia) . on the basis that the generator ímpedances are not significant in most distribution-network fault studies. 300 . the above formula reduces to Ia = 3I0 = 3 VLN / (2Z1 + Zo). When it is necessary to study the effect of any change on the power system. i.and negative-sequence impedances can be calculated directly from: Z= V2/P Where: Z = Equivalent positive and negative-sequence impedances V =nominal phase-to-phase voltage P = three-phase short circuit power The equivalent zero-sequence of a system can be derived from the expressions of sequence components referred to for a single-phase fault. Ia1=Ia2=Ia3 = VLN/ (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) Where: VLN = the line-to-neutral voltage. Thus. Thus. The equivalent positive.

It is very important to emphasise that. in the majority of cases. 301 . the advantage of using symmetrical components is that they facilitate the calculation of fault levels even though the relays in the majority of cases do not distinguish between the various values of the symmetrical components. given this. the relays operate on the basis of the corresponding values of fault current and / or voltages.Figure 10 Connection of sequence networks for a3ymmetrical faults a Phase-to-earth fault b Phase-to-phase fault c Double phase-to-earth fault Therefore. regardless of the values of the sequence components.

Figure 11a Currents and voltages for various types of faults


Figure 11b Currents and voltages for various types of faults a Sequence currents for different types of fault b Sequence voltages for different types of fault In Figure 11a & b the positive and negative sequence values of current and voltage for different faults are shown together with the summated values of current and voltage. Relays usually only operate using the summated values in the right-hand columns. However, relays are available which can operate with specific values of some of the sequence components.


In these cases there must be methods for obtaining these components, and this is achieved by using filters which produce the mathematical operations of the resultant equations to resolve the matrix for voltages and for currents. Although these filters can be constructed for electromagnetic elements, the growth of electronics has led to their being used increasingly in logic circuits. Among the relays which require this type of filter in order to operate are those used ιn negative-sequence and earth-fault protection. Current and voltage transformers Current or voltage instrument transformers are necessary for isolating the protection, control and measurement equipment from the high voltages of a power system, and for supplying the equipment with the appropriate values of current and voltage - generally these are 1A or 5Α for the current coils, and 120 V for the voltage coils. The behaviour of current and voltage transformers during and after the occurrence of a fault is critical in electrical protection since errors in the signal from a transformer can cause maloperation of the relays. In addition, factors such as the transient period and saturation must be taken into account when selecting the appropriate transformer. When only voltage or current magnitudes are required to operate a relay then the relative direction of the current flow in the transformer windings is not important. However, the polarity must be kept in mind when the relays compare the sum or difference of the currents. 1- Voltage transformers: With voltage transformers (VTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage. In order to achieve this, VTs are designed in such a way that the voltage drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the saturation value so that the magnetization current is small; in this way magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the required voltage range. The secondary voltage of a VT is usually 110 or 120 V with corresponding line-to-neutral values. The majority of protection relays have nominal voltages of 110 or 63.5 V, depending on whether their connection is lineto-line or line-to-neutral.


Figure 1 Voltage transformer equivalent circuits

Figure 2 Vector diagram for voltage transformer 1.1 Equivalent circuits VTs can be considered as small power transformers so that their equivalent circuit is the same as that for power transformers, as shown in Figure 1a. The magnetization branch can be ignored and the equivalent circuit then reduces to that shown in Fig 1b. The vector diagram for a VT is given in Figure.2, with the length of the voltage drops increased for clarity. The secondary voltage Vs lags the voltage Vp/n and is smaller in magnitude. In spite of this, the nominal maximum errors are relatively small. VTs have an excellent transient behaviour and accurately reproduce abrupt changes in. the primary voltage. 1.2 Errors When used for measurement instr uments, for example for billing and control purposes, the accuracy of a VT is important, especially for those values close to the nominal system voltage.


Notwithstanding this, although the precision requirements of a VT for protection applications are not so high at nominal voltages, owing to the problems of having to cope with a variety of different relays, secondary wiring burdens and the uncertainty of system parameters, errors should he contained within narrow limits over a wide range of possible voltages under fault conditions. This range should be between 5 and 173% of the nominal primary voltage for VTs connected between line and earth. Referring to the circuit in Figure 1a, errors in a VT are clue to differences in magnitude and phase between Vp/n, and Vs. These consist of the errors under open-circuit conditions when the load impedance Ζ B is infinite, caused by the drop in voltage from the circulation of the magnetization current through the primary winding, and errors due to voltage drops as a result of the load current IL flowing through both windings. Errors in magnitude can be calculated from Error V T = {(n Vs - Vp) / Vp} x 100%. If the error is positive, then the secondary voltage exceeds the nominal value. 1.3 Burden The standard burden for voltage transformer is usually expressed in voltamperes (VΑ) at a specified power factor. Table 1 gives standard burdens based on ANSI Standard C57.1 3. Voltage transformers are specified in IEC publication 1 8 6 Α by the precision class, and the value of volt-amperes (VΑ). The allowable error limits corresponding to different class values are shown in Table 2, where Vn is the nominal voltage. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage. The voltage error is the percentage difference between the voltage at the secondary terminals, V2, multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio, and the primary voltages V1. 1.4 Selection of VTs Voltage transformers are connected between phases, or between phase and earth. The connection between phase and earth is normally used with groups of three single-phase units connected in star at substations operating with voltages at about 34.5 kV or higher, or when it is necessary to measure the voltage and power factor of each phase separately. The nominal primary voltage of a VT is generally chosen with the higher nominal insulation voltage (kV) and the nearest service voltage in mind. The nominal secondary voltages are generally standardized at 110 and 120 V. In order to select the nominal power of a VT, it is usual to acid together all the nominal VΑ loadings of the apparatus connected to Table 1 Standard burdens for voltage Transformer
Standard burden Characteristics for 120 V and 60 Hz resistance( Ω ) inductance (H) impedance (Ω) Characteristics for 69.3 V and 60 Hz resistance (Ω) inductance (H) impedance (Ω)



power factor


for this reason.2 27.1 0.85 0.070 1152 575 192 72 36 411 38.0 80.5 C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e t r a n s f o rm e r s In general.0 0. especially if the distance between the transformers and the relays is large.70 0.0 0.1 0.0 80.0 80.010 0.85 0.356 384 192 64 24 12 137 Χ Υ Ζ ΖΖ Μ Table 2 Voltage transformers error limits Class Primary voltage Voltage error (±%) Phase error (±min) 0.2 2.0 400.2 0.0 200.0403 1.0168 0.2 0.10 0. it is important to take account of the voltage drops in the secondary wiring.5 1.0 80.5 1. 1 .0 40.089 0.0 3.2 82.20 115.5 10.2 163.0 Vn and 1.0 2.2 Vn 0.0 1.2 0.4 1. is to use a capacitor voltage transformer.85 0.4 10.2 0.0 Vn Vn = nominal voltage The VT secondary winding.8 Vn .040 1.0 20. 307 .0 0.0 120.W 12.5 Vn 1.4 20.0 0.0 0. the size of an inductive VT is proportional to its nominal voltage and.1 0.5 1.0 1. This device is effectively a capacitance voltage divider.in fact the two parts of the divider taken together can be considered as the source impedance which produces a drop in voltage when the load is connected. One alternative.2 31.2 61.0 40.0 0.2 403. 1.364 0.0 0.4 54.0 2.0 75. In addition.090 0. and is similar to a resistive divider in that the output voltage at the point of connection is affected by the load .5 25.4 134.0 35.101 0. the cost increases in a similar manner to that of a high voltage transformer.5 1.268 0. and a more economic solution.0 40.0 40.034 0.1 0.3 3.

Referred to the inter-mediate voltage. while Vs' and Is' represent the secondary 308 . in an actual situation on a network. The divider can reduce the voltage to a value which enables errors to be kept within normally acceptable limits. With an ideal reactance there are no regulation problems . some resistance is always present.however. Α simplified equivalent circuit of a capacitor VT is shown in Figure 4 in which Vi is equal to the nominal primary voltage. For improved accuracy a high voltage capacitor is used in order to obtain a bigger voltage at the point of connection. Rs' Z B' respectively. C is the numerically equivalent impedance equal to ( C1 + C2 ). L is the resonance inductance.fact that this impedance can be compensated for by connecting a reactance in series at the point of connection.Figure 4 Capacitor VT equivalent circuit The capacitor divider differs from the inductive divider in that the equivalent impedance of the source is capacitive and the . Ri represents the resistance of the primary winding of transformer Τ plus the losses in C and L. the resistance of the secondary circuit and the load impedance are represented by and voltage and current. which can be reduced to a standard voltage using a relatively inexpensive trans-former as shown in Figure 3. and Ze is the magnetization impedance of transformer Τ.

and thus. when the primary voltage collapses. provide better protection. whereas the phase error is indicated by the angle θ. From the diagram it can be seen that. is very small. with the exception of C. Ri and R's are not large and. for frequencies different from the resonant frequency. 309 . in general. the circuit in Figure 4. under stable system conditions the capacitor VT acts like a conventional transformer.4 is the same as the equivalent circuit of a power transformer. in addition.5 which is drawn for a power factor close to unity. at the system frequency when C and L are resonating and canceling out each other. the values of EL and EC predominate.Figure 5 Capacitor VT vector diagram It can be seen that. This is illustrated in the vector diagram shown in Figure 4. Ie is small compared to I' s . so that the vector difference between Vi and V's which constitutes the error in the capacitor VT. Therefore. The voltage error is the difference in magnitude between Vi and V's. Capacitor VTs display better transient behaviour than electro-magnetic VTs as the inductive and capacitive reactance in series are large in relation to the load impedance referred to the secondary voltage. C and the transformer T. 2 Current transformers Although the performance required from a current transformer (CT) varies with the type of protection. causing serious errors in magnitude and phase. the secondary voltage is maintained for some milliseconds because of the combination of the series and parallel resonant circuits represented by L. high grade CTs must always be used. Good quality CTs are more reliable and result in less application problems and.

2. Rm and Xm represent the losses and the excitation of the core. 310 . In general.6b where ZH can be ignored. is resistive and Ιe lags Vs by 90°.1 Equivalent circuit An approximate equivalent circuit for a CT is given in Figure 4. to avoid this.7. is shown in Figure 4. with the voltage drops exaggerated for clarity. In all these cases the CT should be a ble to supply sufficient current so that the relay operates satisfactorily. ZL.Figure 6 Current transformer equivalent circuits The quality of CTs is very important for differential protection schemes where the operation of the relays is directly related to the accuracy of the CTs under fault conditions as well as under normal load conditions. The vector diagram. Where n2ZH represents the primary impedance ZH referred to the secondary side. CTs can become saturated at high current values caused by nearby faults. The current flowing through Xm is the excitation current Ιe. Note that the net effect of Ie is to make I lag and be much smaller than ΙH /n. since it does not influence either the current IH/n or the voltage across Xm. the primary current referred to the secondary side. The circuit in Figure 4.6a. ZL. so that Ie is the principal source of error. care should be taken to ensure that under the most critical faults the CT operates on the linear portion of the magnetization curve.6a can be reduced to the arrangement shown in figure 4. and the secondary impedance is.

the excitation current should he measured at various values of voltage the so-called secondary injection test. The phase error. it can be seen that the voltage across the magnetization impedance. leaving the primary winding open-circuited. and the magnetic characteristics of the material. The errors are principally due to the current which circulates through the magnetizing branch. When investigating the behaviour of a CT. Thus. it is essential to measure or calculate the excitation curve. is directly proportional to the secondary current. has a small phase error and the excitation component results almost entirely in an error in the magnitude.2 Errors The causes of errors in a CT are quite different to those associated with VTs. and referring to the equivalent circuit of Figure 4.6b. the primary impedance of a CT does not have the same influence On the accuracy of the equipment it only adds an impedance in series with the line. Figure 4. represented by θ. The magnetization current of a CT depends on the cross section and length of the magnetic circuit.Figure 7 Vector diagram for the CT equivalent circuit 2. for a given CT. it is more convenient to apply a variable voltage to the secondary winding. This point is referred to in the ANSI / IEEE standards as the intersection of the excitation curves with a 45° 311 . From this it can be concluded that. In European standards the point Κp on the curve is called the saturation or knee point and is defined as the point at which an increase in the excitation voltage of ten per cent produces an increase of 50 % in the excitation current.3 AC saturation CΤ errors result from excitation current. Usually. The magnitude error is the difference in magnitude between ΙH / n and IL and is equal to Ir the component of Ie in line with k (see Figure 7). Es. the number of turns in the windings. is related to Iq the component of Ie which is in quadrature with IL.8a shows the typical relationship between the secondary voltage and the excitation current determined in this way. so much so that. when the primary current and therefore the secondary current is increased. In effect. in order to check if a CT is functioning correctly. these currents reach a point where the core commences to saturate and the magnetization current becomes sufficiently high to produce an excessive error. 2. The values of the magnitude and phase errors depend on the relative displacement between Ie and IL. but neither of them can exceed the vectorial error it should be noted that a moderate inductive load. which can be ignored. with Ie and IL approximately in phase.

The phase error is considered positive when the secondary current leads the primary current. which denotes whether the transformer is suitable for measurement or protection purposes.5 Selection of CTs When selecting a CT. By way of example.4 Burden The burden of a CT is the value in ohms-of the impedance on the secondary side of the CT due to the relays and the connections between the CT and the relays. The European knee point is at a higher voltage than the ANSI/IEEE Knee point. i. I2 = secondary current (A) and CTR = current transformer transformation ratio. from the primary current. The current and phase-error limits for measurement and protection CTs are given in Tables 4a and 4.13. where I1 = primary current (A).4b. IEC Standard Publication 185(1987) specifies CTs by the class of accuracy followed by the letter Μ or P. the standard burdens for CTs with a nominal secondary current of 5 A are shown in Table 3. respectively.8b.tangent line. as indicated in Figure 4. 2.e. 2. based on ANSI Standard C57. {(CTR x Ι2) – I1} ÷ I1 (%). Those CT classes marked with `ext' denote wide range (extended) current transformers with a rated continuous current of 1. it is important to ensure that the fault level and normal load conditions do not result in saturation of the core and that CT magnetization curves Figure 8a CT magnetization curves 312 . The current error is the percentage deviation of the secondary current. multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio.2 or 2 times the nameplate current rating.

5 0.5 Voltamps Power factor 313 .13-1978.0 (mH) 2.3 Standard burdens for protection CTs with 5 Α secondary current Designation Resista nce Inductance Impedance (Ω) B-1 B-2 B-4 0.5 0.0 2.Figure 8b CT magnetization curves a Defining the knee point in a CT excitation curve according to European standards b Typical excitation curves for a multi ratio class C CT (From IEEE Standard C57.3 4. reproduced by permission of the IEEE).0 25 50 100 0.6 9.2 (Ω) (at 5 A) 1. Table 4.0 4.5 1.0 2.

CT classes of accuracy. The secondary voltage Ε in Figure 4.0 1.50 1.5 The errors do not exceed acceptable limits.0 18.2 0.2 1. Bmax. These factors can be assessed from: formulae.1 0.0 3.0* 1. The third only provides a qualitative estimation.0 200 0.05 0.6U has to be determined for all three methods.0* . If the impedance of the magnetic circuit.44.00 2.0 0.5 1.75 1.s.2 1 0. 0 5 1 0 3 0 6 0 - 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.35 0.5 0.50 0. The first two meth ods provide precise facts for the selection of the CT.25 2. CT magnetization curves. 2 8 1 5 4 5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.B-8 4.20 .00 12 9 0 - _ 12 314 .4 8. Xm is high.05 5 10 30 60 - 10 20 60 12 0 - 0. Α =cross-sectional area of core (cm 2) Ν =number of turns Bmax =flux density (lines/cm2) Table 4α Error limits for measurement current transformers Class % current error at the given proportion  of rated current shown below % phase error at the given proportion of the  rated  current shown below 2 1.10 0.1 0. N.0 3. Α. voltage induced in the secondary winding =maximum secondary current in amperes. this can be determined by dividing the maximum Fault current on the system by the transformer turns ratio selected ZB = e x t e r n a l impedance connected ZL = impedance of the secondary winding ZC =impedance of the connecting wiring Use of the formula This method utilizes the fundamental transformer equation: Vs = 4. this can be removed from the equivalent circuit with little error' giving Es=Vs and thus: Vs=IL (ZL+ZC+ZB) (1) IL Where Vs = r.f.1 0 -8 V (2) Where f =frequency in Hz.m.0 3.1 0.5 - 0.5 1.00 0.

2 ext 0. N= 2000/5 = 400 turns And Vs=87.5 - 0.5 1.1 0. IL. Assume that a CT with a ratio of 2000/5 is available. V is determined from eqn.5 30 60 120 0.5 1.1X108/4. Example 1.25 In cm2 and a secondary winding with a resistance of 0.2 0.2.4 5 5 1 0 3 0 0 8 1 5 4 5 10 20 60 15 30 90 0.25 0. there could be appreciable errors in the secondary current and the CT selected would not be appropriate. can now be calculated: Bmax = 202.0 0.4 0. including connections.2 0. is 2 Ω.1 0.percentage Current ratio error +/.2 0. If Bmax. Bmax.00 - 0. Using eqn.1 0.0 0.31 Ω.0 +/. Determine whether the CT would be saturated by a fault of 35 000 A at 50 Hz. having a steel core of high permeability.2 0. The cross-sectional area of metal and the saturation flux density are sometimes difficult to obtain.0 3.75 10 1.5 A.0 - 0. then the secondary current.75 1. 4.1 and Bmax. which is a typical value for modern transformers. The latter can be taken as equal to 100 000 lines/Cm2.0 0.00 2. 4.1 0.44X50X3.35 0.1 0. is then calculated using eqn. Solution If the CT is not saturated.25X400=70 030 lines/ cm2 Since the transformer in this example has a steel core of high permeability. To use the formula.5 ext 1.31+2) =202. a cross-sectional area of 3.0 ext - 60 - 120 90 - 120 - - 3. Exceeds the saturation density. is 35 000x 5/2000=87.50 1.0 3.5 1. The impedance of the relays.1 0.5 1.75 1.5 1.2 0.5 0.0 ext Table 4b Error limits for protection current transformers Accuracy Class % Current 0.75 1. this relatively low value of flux density should not result in saturation.2 0.1 V. 2.5x (0.Phase error (minutes) 5 0.0 15 30 90 180 8 5 5 15 10 10 45 30 30 90 60 60 Total error for nominal error limit current and nominal load is five per cent for 5P and 5Ρ ext CTs and ten per cent for 10P and 10P ext CTs.2 0. Using the magnetization curve 315 .35 0.5 3 20 100 120 5 20 100 120 0.

The method consists of producing a curve which shows the relationship between the primary and secondary currents for one tap and specified load conditions. 4.s. voltage to the secondary winding.9 using the magnetization curve a .9. Figure 4. such as shown in Figure 4. and with the help of the magnetisation curves.+ I e ) e . (b) Calculate Vs in accordance with eqn.find I e from the curve d . and find the associated value of the magnetization current. The curves give the magnitude of the excitation current required order to obtain a specific secondary voltage. current obtained on applying an r. (d) Calculate I H / n (=IL + Ie) and multiply this value by n to refer it to the primary side of the CT. The process is summarized in the following steps: (a) Assume a value for IL. the value of the corresponding primary current can be determined.m. Starting with any value of secondary current. and the process is then repeated to obtain other values of IL and the resultant values of IH. (e) This provides one point on the curve of IL against IH. Ie.Typical CT excitation curves which are supplied by manufacturers state the r.m.1. with the primary winding open-circuited. (c) Locate the value of Vs on the curve for the tap selected. By joining the points together the curve of IL against IH is obtained.draw the point on the curve 316 .assume a value for IL.s. b .Vs = I L ( Z L + Z C + Z B ) c .IH=n(I1.

these define the capability of the CT. NP.13) is described by two symbols — a letter and a nominal voltage. and the error should not exceed ten per cent if the secondary current does not go outside the range of 1 to 20 times the nominal current and if the load does not exceed 1Ω (1Ω x 5 Ax 20=100 V) at a minimum power factor of 0. is the fraction of the total number of turns being used and Vc is the ANSI voltage capacity for the complete CT. high fault currents circulate through the CTs. The permissible load is defined as ZB= (NP Vc) / 100. The classification T includes those CTs with a dispersion flux which considerably affects the transformation ratio. assuming that there is no saturation for the tap selected. However. within defined limits. This converted value can be taken as IL initially for the process described earlier. If not. this error is not great and the simplification snakes it easier to carry out the calculations.This method incurs an error in calculating I H /n by adding I e and IL together arithmetically and not vectorially.6 DC saturation Up to now. When considering a winding provided with taps. If the tap is found to be suitable after finishing the calculations. opening the secondary circuit of a CT could result in 317 . Accuracy classes established by the ANSI standards The ANSI accuracy class of a CT (Standard C57. is the permissible load for a given tap of the CT. with a CT of class C—100 the ratio can be calculated. this could result in the circulation of unbalanced secondary currents which would cause the system to malfunction. and in consequence it can only feed a portion of the load without exceeding the ten per cent error limit. After construction.7 Precautions when working with CTs Working with CTs associated with energized network circuits can be extremely hazardous. For example. which implies not taking account of the load angle and the magnetizations branch of the equivalent circuit. changing the tap until the fault current is within the linear part of the characteristic. then a value of IH can be obtained which is closer to the fault current. These accuracy classes are only applicable for complete windings. In particular. and T indicates that the transformation ratio can be determined by means of tests.5. then it will be necessary to repeat the process. each tap will have a voltage capacity proportionally smaller. The classification C includes those CTs with uniformly distributed windings and other CTs with a dispersion flux which has a negligible effect on the ratio. If saturation occurs in different CTs associated with a particular relay arrangement. 2. In practice it is not necessary to draw the complete curve because it is sufficient to take the known fault current and refer to the secondary winding. where ZB. 2. without considering the DC transient component of the DC saturation is particularly significant in complex protection schemes since. the curve should be checked to confirm that the maximum primary fault current is within the transformer saturation zone. the behavior of a CT has been discussed in terms of a steady state. C indicates that the transformation ratio can be calculated. in the case of external faults.

say from 5 to 15 times the rated current o f the transformer. It is standard practice in such applications to use a cascade arrangement of say 5. Over current relays with Inverse and Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) lag characteristic In general. 3938:1973.dangerous over voltages which might harm operational staff or lead to equipment being damaged. the maximum ratio of CT’s is usually limited to about 3000/1. When such relays are set to operate at high values of over current. Rated outputs higher than 15VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are not recommended for general purposes. however. because the current transformers are designed to be used in power circuits which have impedance much greater than their own. the accuracy limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure fast relay operation. for both directional and non-directional relays class 10P current transformers should be used Earth fault relays with inverse time characteristic (1) Schemes in which phase fault current stability and accurate time grading are not required. secondary circuits associated with CTs must always he kept in a closed condition or shortcircuited in order to prevent these adverse situations occurring.S. an example is given next using typical data for a CT and a 13. primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the normal full load current o f the protected circuit. and/or of unduly large dimensions. Class 10P current transformers are generally recommended in which the product of rated output and rated accuracy limit fact or approaches 150 provided that the earth fault 318 . Generally speaking. e. to combine a higher rated accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa. To illustrate this. But when the product of these two exceeds 150 the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical. Standard primary ratings are given in B. such as those encountered on large turbo alternators. This is due to (I) limitation of size of CT’s and more importantly (II) the fact that the open circuit volts would be dangerously high for large CT’s Primary ratings. when secondary circuits are left open.000 amperes. A secondary accuracy limit current greatly in excess of the value t o cause relay operation serves no useful purpose and a rated accuracy limit of 5 will usually be adequate. t. the equivalent primarycircuit impedance is almost unaffected but a high voltage will be developed by the primary current passing through the magnetizing impedance Thus. 5. As a consequence.g.000/20A together with 20/1A interposing auxiliary CT’s Instantaneous over current relays Class P method of specification will a suffice. Choice of CT’s Primary rating The c. It is possible.2 kV feeder.

T. Vk = K In (RCT + 2RL + R0) Where K .any other resistance (or impedance) in circuit Protection Scheme 1 .Feeders Protection Schemes. H. The rated accuracy limit factor is not less than 10 the earth fault relay is not set below 30 % The burden of the relay at its setting does not exceed 4VA The use of a higher relay setting the use of an earth fault relay having a burden of less than 4VA at its setting The use of current transformers having a product of rated output and rated accuracy factor in excess of 150. Hence a statement of knee point voltage is the parameter of prime importance and it is normal to derive. 3 . They are in general suitable for ensuring phase fault stability up to 10 times the rated primary current and for maintaining time grading of the earth f a u l t relays.g. T. from heavy current test results. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O. Lines • 500 KV O.Is a constant found by realistic heavy current tests? In . up to current values of the order of 10 times the earth fault setting provided t h a t the phase burden effectively imposed on each current transformer does not exceed 50% of it s rated burden. H.secondary winding resistance of the line current transformers RL .Bus Bar Protection Schemes. 2 . Class 5P current transformers in which the product of rated output and accuracy limit factor approaches 150 should be used.Transformers Protection Schemes.Generators Protection Schemes. Class “X” Current Transformer Protection current transformers specified in terms of complying with Class ' X I Specification is generally applicable to unit systems where balancing of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital.lead burden (route length) in ohms Ro . (2) Schemes in which phase fault stability and/or where time grading is critical. H. a formula stating the lowest permissible value of VK if stable operation is to be guaranteed.rated current of C. This balance. 4 . e.relay is not set below 20% of the rated current of the associated current transformer and that the burden of the relay at its setting current does not exceed 4VA. or stability during through fault conditions. is essentially of a transient nature and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zone is of paramount importance. T Line 319 . and relay RCT . T Line • 400 KV O.

D. G. T Line • 11 KV O. Cable • 132 KV U.M. Lines Protection Schemes • Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Lines Protection Schemes • Main Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. Inter Trip. Cable • 66 KV U.M. Lines Protection Schemes • I. Cable • 220 KV U.D. 4.D.T. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 132 and 66 KV O. 3. (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1. G.D. (PUTT) • Back up Protection: 1. H.M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. G.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 320 . H.T.T.M. T Line • 132 KV O. Cable • 11 KV U. G. T Line • 220 KV O. Cables • 275 KV U. Cable 500. Cable • 33 KV U. 2. G.M. Inter Trip.H. T Line • 22 KV O. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. H. H.H. 3. H. 400. 4.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 275 and 220 KV O. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. I. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O. G. 2. T Line • 66 KV O. I. T Line B – U. Lines Protection Schemes • I.T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I. G.D.H.H. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 33 and 22 KV O. H. T Line • 33 KV O. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme.T.• 275 KV O. H.

SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.M.G.D.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. • Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.C. and 66 KV U.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.D. 22 KV U.C. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe 3. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: 1. 2.C.G. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132.G. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 33. 4.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 4. 3. 2. 220 U. Example for 300 KV feeder protection scheme 321 .T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable • Back up Protection: 1.G.M. I. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable).D.C. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. 11 KV U.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.D. I.D.M.275. • I.M. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I.M. Line Protection Scheme • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Inter Trip.

Example for 132 KV feeder protection scheme 322 .

323 . 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV.Δ). & 45 MVA. 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV.• • • • Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers 300 MVA. 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV. 20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV. 75 MVA.Y. (Y.

(For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA. 6. 2. • Main (A) Protection: 1. Winding). 8. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.M. Oil Temperature Trip. • Backup Protection: 1. Buchhols Trip. I. 8.B Fail to trip. Winding Temperature Trip.M. • BackupProtection: 1.Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. • Backup Protection: 1. Buchhols Trip. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. (for cable tails ) 10. Differential Protection. • Main (A) Protection: 1. C. 7. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Differential Protection. C.M. I. 2. 2.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme.M. Winding). I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3. (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding. Buchhols Trip. Winding.33 / 11 KV. 324 . 7. 2. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. 9. Differential Protection. 2. 75. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4.B Fail to trip. (For 132 KV. 6. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). Inter Trip (through pilot cable).D.B only) 3. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. 2. • Main (A&B) Protection: 1. 5. 45 And 30 MVA. 5.D. (At the neutral of the LV. C.D. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. I. (At the neutral of the LV. Winding Temperature Trip. 4.D. SF6 pressure Low Trip. Winding. Inter Trip (through pilot cable).T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip.

. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme. • 500.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar.Example for 132 KV Transformer protection scheme Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes. 400. 275. 325 . 220 and 132 KV.

326 . “for 132 kV only”). .Arc protection or Micro switches protection.D. • Winding Temperature Trip. SF6 Pressure low Trip. • Oil Temperature Trip..D. 275 &132 KV.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay.B. • Cable oil pressure Low Trip. 400.M. 33 KV.M. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme. .I. • • • • I.M. 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.SF6 Pressure Trip. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.Inter Trip (through pilot cable). .T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.SF6 Pressure low Trip.B Fail to Trip. 275. .I.B only).T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 500.I. .B Fail to trip. .C. Buchhols Trip.D.D. and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection. . Winding Temperature Trip.B Fail to Trip. • I. 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. (For 132 KV.D. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected to 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer. • • • Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.M. Oil Temperature Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. . . . • 66 and 33 KV.M. (For cable tails) • SF6 pressure Low Trip. • C.M. • Buchhols Trip.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. C.I. • • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme.C.D. • Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme.

Over-current relaying has following types: 1. Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by overcurrent relays. Over-current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. Directional Over-current protection (of above types). High speed Over-current protection. Short circuits a be phase faults. Overloading of a machine or equipment generally) means the machine is taking more current than its rated current. earth faults or winding faults. The basic element in Over-current protection is an Over-current relay. and current surges. This is most widely used protection. the fault current is more than load current. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance is reduced to a low value and therefore a fault is accompanied by large current. Several protective devices are used for over-current protection these include: 1. high-set instantaneous relaying is used. Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers. • The protection should be coordinated with neighboring overcurrent protections so as to discriminate. 327 .Over-current and Earth Fault Protection Introduction As the fault impedance is less than load impedance. Fuses 2. 3. normally by means of CT's. Inverse minimum time Over-current protection. there is an associated temperature rise. Definite time Over-current protection. 4. the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault. The permissible temperature rise has a limit based on insulation class and material problems. The primary requirements of over-current protection are: • The protection should not operate for starting currents. 4. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). permissible over-current. Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits. 2. To achieve this. When a machine is protected by differential protection. If time delay cannot be permitted. Hence with overloading. The Over-current relays are connected to the system. Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads. Over-current protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relays. 3.

Attracted armature type. etc. generally up to 11 kV.Applications of Over-current Protection Over-current protection has a wide range of applications. Protection of Utility Equipment The furnaces. over-current relays are provided in addition to differential relays to take care of through faults. thermal relays and HRC fuses are employed. drop out fuses. 4. It can be applied where there is an abrupt difference between fault current within the protected section and that outside the protected section and these magnitudes are almost constant. Inverse time and instantaneous phase and ground over-current relays can be employed for motors above 1200 H. 2. as the cost of relays plus circuit-breakers is not generally justified Line Protection. industrial and domestic equipment are all provided with over-current protection.P. 3. are used in low voltage medium voltage and high voltage distribution systems. Relays used in Over-current Protection The choice of relay for over-current protection depends upon the Time / current characteristic and other features desired. Temperature indicators and alarms are always provided for large transformers. 1. Double actuating quantity induction relay with directional feature. The following relays are used. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. Static over-current relays. However. thermal relays used for overload protection and HRC fuses for short-circuit protection. moving iron type. For small/medium size motors where cost of CT's and protective relays is not economically justified. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. HRC fuses. 5. For instantaneous over-current protection. For inverse time characteristic. (2) Inverse time over-current relays. Electromagnetic induction type. only. Transformer Protection Transformers are provided with over-current protection against faults. Directional over-current protection. Small transformers below 500 kVA installed in distribution system are generally protected by drop-out fuses. Lines can be protected by impedance or carrier current protection also. The over-current protection is provided for the following: Motor Protection Over-current protection is the basic type of protection used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motors. industrial installations commercial. (3) Directional over-current relay. 328 . The lines (feeders) can be protected by (1) Instantaneous over-current relays. when the cost of differential relaying cannot be justified.

6. Very Inverse In definite characteristic. Extremely Inverse 4. usually less than 0. These are classified according to their type and characteristics. Definite characteristic 2. time is inversely proportional to current i. Not: Now Digital Numerical Relay you can used for all types Characteristics of relay units for over current protection There is a wide variety of relay-units. I1 * T = K In more inverse characteristic In * T = K Where n can be between 2 to 8 the choice depends on discrimination desired.e. Inverse characteristic 3. bellows. dash poss. the time of operation is almost definite i. Thermal relays are used widely for over-current protection. As suck they are not instantaneous in real sense. However even definite time relay has a characteristic which is slightly inverse The characteristic with definite minimum time and of inverse type is also called Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics (Fig.e. escape mechanisms. In inverse characteristic. The typical characteristics are shown in (Fig. 1) An inverse curve is one in which the operating time.1).08 second. back-stop arrangement. Definite time curve is one in which operating time is little affected by magnitude of actuating current.1 second. The major characteristic includes: 1. becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is increased. The operating time of a relay for a particular setting and magnitude actuating quantity can be known from the characteristics supplied by the manufacturer. etc. I0 * T = K Where: I = Current in relay coil T = Relay lime K = Constant. The relays which are not instantaneous are called Time Delay Relay'. 329 . Instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time lag sod which operate in less than 0. Such relays are provided with delaying means such as drag magnet. However for higher magnitudes of actuating quantity the time is constant.

2) the three current transformers and relay coils connected in star and the star point is earthed. thereby the trip circuit is closed and the circuit breaker-operates The over-current protection scheme with three over-current relays (Fig. the choice of CT's and polarity connections should be correct. When short circuit occurs in the protected zone the secondary current of CT's increases. the relay contacts close.(Fig. 330 . For proper functioning of over-current and earth fault protection. These current flows through relay coils and the relay picks-up. Therefore such schemes are used with solidly earthed systems where phase to phase and phase to earth faults are likely to occur. 2) responds to phase faults and earth faults including single-phase to earth fault.1) Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics Principle of trip circuit Referring to (Fig.

331 .2) Over Current protection with three phase OC relays Methods of CT Connections in Over-current Protection of 3-Phase Circuits Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays Over-current protection can be achieved by means of three over-current relays or by two over-current relays (See Table 1). Table 1 Fig 1 Description Note One OC with one For balanced CT for over load load only. protection. 2 Two OC relays with two CT's for phase to phase fault protection.Fig.

EF current > two time pickup phase current 4 5 Three OC relays EF setting less with three CT's than phase for phase to fault setting phase fault protection and phase to earth fault. the residually connected earth-fault relay does not operate. Since earth faults are relatively frequent. Two OC and one EF relays for phase to phase and phase to earth fault protection Earth-Fault Protection When the fault current flows through earth return path. the fault is called Earth Fault.3 and Fig. When separate earth fault protection is not economical. Hence the vector sum of three secondary currents is also zero. 4). in the absence of earth-fault. in presence of earth fault the conditions is disturbed and (IR+I Y +I B ) is no more zero. Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection 1. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults. IR+I Y +I B =0 The sum (IR+I Y +I B ) is called residual current The earth-fault relay is connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs. Following are the method of earth fault protection. However. 3 In absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three line currents is zero. Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided. Earth fault protection senses earth fault current.3 Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Therefore. If 332 . the phase relays sense the earth fault currents. Hence flows through the earth-fault relay. Residually connected Earth-fault Relay Referring to Fig. earth fault protection is necessary in most cases. However such protection lacks sensitivity.

Hence the protected zone is not definite. Such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection (Fig. (Fig.the residual current is above the pick-up value. the earth-fault relay operates. In the scheme discussed here the earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause the residual current flow.4) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault protection 333 .3) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit.

The relay senses the earth faults beyond the transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection. Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level. 4) The increase in current of phase causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. 5). Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection It is convenient to incorporate phase-fault relays and earth-fault relay in a combined phase-fault and earth-fault protection. The earth-fault protection by relay in neutral to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral Earthing. In case of large generators. The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected in neutral to earth connection. (Zero Sequence CT) 334 . The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows through the neutralto-earth connected. Hence two relay-units are enough. The secondary current flows through respective relay-units Very often only two-phase relays are provided instead of three.2. In this type of protection. (Fig. Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig 5. reactance or solid) and location of fault. because in case of phase faults current in any at least two phases must increase. 5) Earth-fault protection by earth-fault-relay connected in neutral-to-earth circuit. The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator winding alone. voltage transformer is connected between neutral and earth (Fig. Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Current Transformers. The zone of protection cannot be accurately defined. The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthing (resistance.

Φb and Φc be corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core. Io is zero sequence current and In. Let Ia. (Ia + Ib + Ic) = 0 Hence Φr = 0 and relay does not operate During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return neutral path.In this type of protection (Fig. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance schemes. Referring to theory of symmetrical components (Ia + Ib + I c )= 3 I c= I n Where. The cross-section of ring-core is (Fig. such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary. the components of fluxes due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligible. Very large crosssection of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10 A. Core-balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of low-voltage and medium voltage systems. is current in neutral to ground circuit. so that saturation is not a problem. when earth fault is absent. During earth faults. 6) a single ring shaped core of magnetic material. encircles the conductors of all the three phases. During no-earth-fault condition. For example for single line ground fault.6) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault protection Ample. Φ=k (Ia + Ib + I c ) where k is a constant Φ = K * Ia. we get resultant flux Φ as. During normal condition. Theory of Core Balance CT . Assuming linearity. If = 3Iao = In 335 . The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. Ib and I c . A secondary coil is connected to a relay unit. be the three line currents and Φa.

The switchgear is lightly y insulated from the earth. For eliminating the error due to sheath current (Ish) the earthing lead between the cable-box and the earth should be taken through the core of the core balance protection. Cable terminal box 2. Thereby the error due to sheath currents is eliminated. 336 . (Fig. Core balance CT Fig (7) Mounting of Core Balance CT with Cable Terminal Box Frame-leakage Protection The metal-clad switchgear can be provided with frame leakage protection. The induced current flowing through cable sheath of normal healthy cable needs particular attention with respect to the core balance protection. 7). The sheath currents (Ish) flow through the sheath to the cover of cable-box and then to earth through the earthing connection between cable-box. 1. Insulator support for 1 4.Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant flux Φr in the core. The cable box should be insulated from earth. the Core Balance Protection is used along with the cable box and should be installed before making the cable joint. Application for Core Balance CT's with Cable Termination Joints The termination of a three core cable into three separate lines or bus-bars is through cable terminal box. Sheath of 3 core cable connection to (1) 3. Earthing connection passing through 5 5. The metal-frame-work or enclosure of the switchgear is earthed with a primary of a CT in between (Fig. 8). Ref. Hence core balance current transformer is also called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT).

Residually connected relay. The power directional relay does not measure the power but is arranged to respond to the direction of power flow. Consider a feeder AC (Fig. the earth-fault current finds the' path through the neutral connection. 9) passing through sub-section B. the resistance to earth being about 12 ohms. Directional over-current protection comprises over-current relay and power directional relay. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault occurs. 8) Principle of frame-leakage protection of metal-clad-switchgear Circulating current differential protection also responds to earth-faults within its protected zone.The concrete foundation of the switchgear and the cable-boxes and other conduits are slightly insulated from earth. While doing so. Relay connected in neutral-to-ground circuit. If power flow is in the opposite direction. Metal clad switchgear Earthing bus Earth fault current EF Relay Earth (Fig. 5. Circulating current differential protection. Earth-fault protection can be achieved by following methods: 1. The circuit breaker CB3 is provided with a directional 337 . 6.in a single relay casing. relative to the location of the relay. It is set such that it actuates for faults occurring in one direction only. Directional over-current protection responds to over-currents for a particular direction flow. Distance relays arranged for detecting earth faults on lines. 2. Core-balance-scheme. 4. 3. the directional over-current protection remains un-operative. Directional Over-current Protection The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional element in the protection system. In the event of an earth fault within the switchgear. Directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be achieved by directional relaying. Frame leakage method. it is sensed by the earth fault relay. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction.

the circuit breaker CB3 does not trip unnecessarily. the directional element does not measure the magnitude of power. There are four common methods of connecting the relay depending upon phase angle between current in the current coil and voltage applied to the voltage coil. In directional over-current relay. the directional element measures magnitude and direction of power flow. It senses only direction of power flow. Therefore for faults in feeder AB. 10). having phase to phase output (of 110 V). Reverse power relay is different in construction than directional over-current relay. 9) Principle of directional protection Relay `R' which will trip the breaker CB3 if fault power flow in direction C alone. Directional of flow For tripping CB R (Fig. 10) Reverse powers protection against motoring action of a generator Directional power protection operates in accordance with the direction of power flow. the generator continues to run as a motor and takes power from bus-bars. 338 .A B C CB1 CB2 CB3 CB4 R R R R (Fig. However for faults in feeder BC the circuit-breaker CB3 trips Because it's protective relaying is set with a directional feature to act in direction AC Another interesting example of directional protection is that of reverse power protection of generator (Fig. If the prime mover fails. in Reverse Power Relays. However. The voltage coil of directional element is connected to a line VT. Relay connections of Single Phase Directional Over-current Relay : The current coils in the directional over-current relay are normally connected to a secondary of line CT. Reverse power protection operates when the power direction is reversed in relation to the normal working direction.

339 .

Although power measuring devices in principle.12 Phase voltages for a B-C fault Responding purely to the active component would not develop a high torque and might be much slower and less decisive than it could be. it is necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of directional control elements.Fig. as shown in (Fig. leaving zero voltage across the fault. apart from loads. These are basically power measuring devices in which the system voltage is used as a reference for establishing the relative direction or phase of the fault current. but the fault voltage to earth will be half the initial phase to neutral voltage. So a B—C phase fault will cause the B and C phase voltage vectors to move together. When the fault is single-phase. The power system. Normal system voltages Vb 1 and V c 1 Voltages at fault location on faulted phases Vb 2 and V c 2 Voltages remote from fault location Fig. A relay V a . is reactive so that the fault power factor is usually low. they are not arranged to respond to the actual system power for a number of reasons: 1. 1. Vb and Vc. At other points in the system the vector displacement will be less. the locus of their ends being the original line be for a homogeneous system. The system voltage must collapse at the point of short circuit. and Overload Protection Relay 3-Phase Directional over current relays When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location. but relays located at such points will receive voltages which are unbalanced in their value and phase position. it is the particular voltage across the shortcircuited points which are reduced.11 Numerical Over current.12) At the point of fault the vectors will coincide. 340 .

For unity power factor and 0. the potential coil voltage lags the current in the current coil by 30° and gives a tripping zone from 60° leading to 120° lagging currents. When only two phase elements and an earth fault element are 341 . when applied to plain feeders If applied to transformer feeders. that ensures correct operation when used for the protection of plain feeders. there is a danger that at least one of the three phase relays will operate for faults in the reverse direction. 13a). and it is satisfactory under all conditions for plain feeders provided that three phase elements are employed. Also. In this case. This connection has been used widely in the past. taking into account the possible range of source and line impedances. A number of different connections have been used and these are discussed below. for all fault conditions. is 0°. and it can be shown that a directional element having this connection and 0° MTA will provide correct discrimination for all types of faults.5 lagging power factor the maximum torque available is 0. so the maximum torque occurs when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 30°. as shown in (Fig. by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced. for this reason a directional element having this connection should never be used to protect transformer feeders. Relay maximum torque The maximum torque angle (MTA) is defined as the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum torque. and which will remain in a satisfactory relationship to the current under all conditions. The most satisfactory maximum torque angle for this connection.866 of maximum. To this end. each phase of the relay is polarized with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively except by close three-phase faults. however. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied Vac voltage by 90°. 30° relay connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage V ac. The various connections are dependent on the phase angle. Relay connections This is the arrangement whereby suitable current and voltage quantities are applied to the relay.The effect of the large unbalance in currents and voltages is to make the torques developed by the different phase elements vary widely and even differ in sign if the quantities applied to the relay are not chosen carefully. at unity system power factor. its characteristic can be varied by the addition of phase shifting components to give maximum torque at the required phase angle. Examination of the suitability of each arrangement involves determining the limiting conditions of the voltage and current applied to each phase element of the relay. Although the relay element may be inherently wattmetric.

although correct. An interphase short circuit causes two elements to be energized but for low power factors one will receive inputs which. operation will depend upon the C element.used there is a probability of failure to operate for one condition. This is satisfactory provided that three phase elements are used. but the C element will receive Ic and the collapsed Vcb voltage. which may fail to operate if the fault is close to the relaying point. but in the case of a two phase and one earth fault element relay. A phase element connected l a Va c B phase element connected l b Vb a C phase element connected Ic Vcb (a) Characteristic and inputs for phase A element (b) B-C Fault with voltage distortion (Fig. which quantities have a large relative phase displacement. In particular a B—C fault will strongly energize the B element with lb current and Vba voltage. as shown in (Fig. 13) Vector diagrams for the 30° connection 342 . with the B phase element omitted. will produce only a poor torque. 13b).

When used for the protection of plain feeders there is a slight possibility of the element associated with the A phase mal-operating for a reversed B—C fault. is 0°. 1 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with lab current and Vac voltage.5 of maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. 1 connection (phase A element) However.866.14) Vector diagram for the 60° No. gives a current leading the voltage Vac by 60°.14). although the directional element may mal-operation. In this case. The torque at unity power factor is 0. one which ensures correct directional discrimination with the minimum risk of mal-operation when applied to either plain or transformer feeders. see (Fig. A phase element connected lab Vac B phase element connected I b c V b a C phase element connected Ica Vcb (Fig. that is. This connection. so maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. For this reason the connection may be safely recommended for the protection of plain feeders. which uses Vac voltage with delta current produced by adding phase A and phase B currents at unity power factor.60° No. and provides a correct directional tripping zone over a current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. When applied to transformer feeders there is a possibility of one of the directional elements mal-operation for an earth fault on the star side of a 343 . It has been proved that the most suitable maximum torque angle for this relay connection. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage to the relay by 90°. it is unlikely that the over current element which the directional element controls will receive sufficient current to cause it to operate.

delta/star transformer. This connection gives A phase element connected Ia —Vc B phase element connected Ib — Va C phase element connected Ic —Vb (Fig. For mal-operation to occur.15). which usually precludes their being used for any other protective function. see (Fig. does suffer from the disadvantage that it is necessary to connect the current transformers in delta. 344 . The possibility of mal-operation with this connection is very remote. 2 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage In this case. it is rarely used. for two reasons: first. 2 connection (phase A element). a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. For this reason.866. however. in most systems the source impedance may be safely assumed to be largely reactive. 60° No. the source impedance would have to be relatively small and have a very low angle at the same time that the arc resistance of the fault was high.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. and secondly. the flux of the voltage coil lags the applied voltage by 90° so the maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. remote from the relay end.15) Vector diagram for the 60° No. and also because it offers no advantage over the 90° connection. if the arc resistance is high enough to cause mal-operation of the directional element it is unlikely that the over current element associated with the mal-operation directional element will see sufficient current to operate. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. The connection.

depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce the relay maximum torque angle. two types are available.30° characteristic (30° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with la current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30° in an anti-clockwise direction.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0.45° characteristic (45° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage Vbc displaced by 45° in an anti-clockwise direction. A relay designed . the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 60°. 90°. and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. even if this maximum torque angle is used.for quadrature connection and having a maximum torque angle of 30° is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point.866.30° connection (Phase A element) 90° relay quadrature connection This is the standard connection for the type CDD relay.16) Vector diagram for the 90°. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. and the relay maximum torque is 345 . For this reason. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 45°. 90°. see (Fig. 2 connection is now never recommended.The most suitable maximum torque angle for a directional element using this connection is 0°. In this case. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. there is a risk of incorrect operation for all types of faults with the exception of three-phase faults. A phase element connected Ia Vbc B phase element connected Ib Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig. the 60° No.16). However. In this case.

in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/ delta transformer. nonexistent. The 90°. in practice. three fault conditions can cause mal-operation of the directional element: a phase-phase ground fault on a plain feeder. for all practical purposes. however.45° connection is essential in the case of parallel trans-formers or transformer feeders. It should be remembered. 346 . a phaseground fault on a transformer feeder with the zero sequence source in front of the relay and a phase-phase fault on a power transformer with the relay looking into the delta winding of the transformer. A phase element connected Ia .produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45°. are such that. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45° leading to 135° lagging. see (Fig. It can be shown analytically that the possibility of maloperation with the 90°.707 of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging.Vbc B phase element connected Ih Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig.17) Vector diagram for the 90°-45° connection (Phase A element) This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders which have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. that the conditions assumed above to establish the maximum angular displacement between the current and voltage quantities at the relay.17). This connection should also be used whenever single-phase directional relays are applied to a circuit Theoretically. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0.45° connection is. the magnitude of the current input to the relay would be insufficient to cause the over current element to operate.

the relays at the supply end and at the midpoint substation. the difference between their operating times is never less than the grading margin. one at each end of the feeder. Grading of ring mains 347 . provided that in the latter case the relays are located on the same feeder. This is done by setting the directional relays R'1 and R'2 as shown in (Fig. With this type of system configuration it is necessary to apply directional relays at the receiving end and to grade them with the non-directional relays at the sending end. isolate both lines and completely disconnect the power supply.18) with their directional elements looking into the protected line. regardless of the relay settings used.18) Directional relays applied to parallel feeders. It may also be noted that. to ensure correct discriminative operation of the relays during line. The usual practice is to set relays R'1 and R'2 to 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and 0.1 TMS. It is interesting to note that when the number of feeders round the ring is an even number. can be made non-directional. whereas when the number of feeders is an odd number. Parallel feeders If non-directional relays are applied to parallel feeders. faults. and giving them lower time and current settings than relays R1 and R2. any faults that might occur on any one line will.(Fig. so the relay with the longer operating time can be non-directional. where the setting of both relays are identical. that is. the two relays with the same operating time are at different substations and therefore do not need to be directional. but care must be taken to ensure that their continuous thermal rating of twice rated current is not exceeded. at inter-mediate substations. whenever the operating times of the relays at each substation are different. Ring mains Directional relays are more commonly applied to ring mains. In the case of a ring main fed at one point only. the two relays with the same operating time are at the same substation and will have to be directional.

As in any parallel system.The usual procedure for grading relays in an inter-connected system is to open the ring at the supply point and to grade the relays first clockwise and then anti-clockwise. Thus. It will also be found that the operating times of the relays that are inoperative are 348 . at each substation in the ring. as shown in (Fig. such as those at intermediate substations around the ring where the power can flow in either direction. The directional relays are set in accordance with the invariable rule. and a single-headed arrow a directional relay.19) (Fig. Disconnection of the faulty line is carried out according to time and fault current direction. applicable to all forms of directional protection that the current in the system must flow from the substation bus-bars into the protected line in order that the relays may operate. A double-headed arrow is used to indicate a non-directional relay. the relays looking in a clock-wise direction round the ring are arranged to operate in the sequence 1—2—3—4—5—6 and the relays looking in the anti-clockwise direction are arranged to operate in the sequence 1'—2'—3'—4'—5'—6'. the fault current has two parallel paths and divides itself in the inverse ratio of their impedances. one set of relays will be made inoperative because of the direction of current flow.19) Grading of ring mains The arrows associated with the relaying points indicate the direction of current flow that will cause the relays to operate. that is. and the other set operative. such as those at the supply point where the power can flow only in one direction.

V RS= V a + V b + V c Where V a . Fig. where the operating times of relays 3 and 3' happen to be the same. by means of a suitable high set instantaneous over-current relay and then to proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. The other coil gets residual voltage. One to the coils is connected in residual current circuits (Ref. When two or more power sources feed into a ring main. Directional earth fault relays sense the direction in which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay location and it operates for fault in a particular direction. and then proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. V b a n d V c are secondary voltages of the potential transformer 349 . whichever is more convenient. time graded over current protection is difficult to apply and full discrimination may not be possible. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual current I RS = (Ia + Ib + Ic) or residual voltage VRs = V a + V b + V c Where V a . V b and Vc are phase voltages. Consequently. 5). In directional earth fault relay. the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. such as pilot wire relays. Directional Earth-Fault Protection In the directional over-current protection the current coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of line CT. with the exception of the mid-point substation. Referring to (Fig. In directional over-current relay.faster than those of the operative relays. This coil gets current during earth-faults. The relays which are operative are graded downwards towards the fault and the last to be affected by the fault operates first. whereas the current coil of directional earth fault relay is actuated by residual current. the second to treat the section of the ring between the two supply points as a continuous bus separate from the ring and to protect it with a unit system of protection. The first is to open the ring at one of the supply points. With two sources of supply. The directional earth fault relay (single phase unit) has two coils. 11) the directional earth-fault relay has two coils. This applies to both paths to the fault. the faulty line is the only one to be disconnected from the ring and the power supply is maintained to all the substations. the voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line VT. two solutions are possible.

Such directional relays are used when power can flow from both directions to the fault point. 2. The torque is proportional to T = I RS * V RS * cos (Φ . rotating machines and feeder circuits. Frame leakage protection can be used for metal clad switchgear. (Fig. Summary Over-current protection responds to increase in current above the pick-up value over-currents are caused by overloads and short-circuits. It is generally sufficient to use machine transient reactance X'd and to work on the instantaneous symmetrical currents.α) Φ = angle between I RS and VRs α = angle of maximum torque. 20) Connections of a directional earth-fault relay. Since large scale tests are normally impracticable. the out of balance current is given to the current coil and the residual voltage VRs is given to the voltage coil of the relay. Earth fault protection responds to single line to ground faults and double line to ground faults. The data required for a relay setting study are: 1. showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated current transformers. definite time characteristic. system analysis must be used. Core balance CTs are used for earth-fault protection.e. 20). The coil connected in potential-transformer secondary circuit gives a polarizing field. The over-current relays are connected the secondary of current transformer.('Three phase five limb potential transformer or three separate single phase potential transformers connected as shown in Fig. per cent or per unit. The characteristic of over-current relays include inverse time characteristic. Directional over-current relay and Directional Earth fault relay responds to fault in which power flow is in the set direction from the CT and PT locations. The residual current I RS i. A one-line diagram of the power system involved. of all power transformers. The maximum and minimum values of short circuit currents that are expected to flow through each protective device. 350 . Co-ordination Correct current relay application requires knowledge of the fault current that can flow in each part of the network. The impedances in ohms. The current coil of earth-fault relay is connected either in neutral to ground circuit or in residually connected secondary CT circuit. 3.

The alternatives are a common MVA base or a separate current scale for each system voltage. 5. Each protection unit comprises a definite time delay over current relay in which the operation of the current 351 . Make sure that the relay farthest from the source has current settings equal to or less than the relays behind it. D and E. each one must select and isolate only the faulty section of the power system network. The starting current requirements of motors and the starting and stalling times of induction motors. Whenever possible. that is. A simple radial distribution system is shown in (Fig. C.4. Discrimination by time In this method an appropriate time interval is given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first. leaving the rest of the system undisturbed. use relays with the same operating characteristic in series with each other. 8. It is usually more convenient to use a scale corresponding to the current expected at the lowest voltage base or to use the predominant voltage base. PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay coordination are those using either time or over current or a combination of both time and over-current. 7. 11. The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generally be stated as follows: 10. that the primary current required operating the relay in front is always equal to or less than the primary current required operating the relay behind it. on a common scale. The common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination. that is. 9. such as fuses. It is always advisable to plot the curves of relays and other protective devices. Performance curves of the current transformers. The relay settings are first determined so as to give the shortest operating times at maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected. The maximum peak load current through protective devices. 21) Radial systems with time discrimination Circuit breaker protection is provided at B. 21) to illustrate the principle. (Fig. 6. That is to say. 1. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators. at the infeed end of each section of the power system. that are to operate in series.

Hence. which provides the means of discrimination. therefore.725 = 8800 A So a relay controlling the circuit breaker at C and set to operate at a fault current of 8800 A would in simple theory protect the whole of the cable section between C and B. 1. 22) illustrates the method. The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faults in the section closest to the power source. (Fig. If a fault occurs at F. the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker.sensitive element simply initiates the time delay element. Typically.24 ohms Hence I=6350/0.25s. 352 . the relay is sometimes described as an 'independent definite time delay relay' since its operating time is for practical purposes independent of the level of over current. However. and the subsequent operation of the circuit breaker at B will clear the fault before the relays at C. typically. The relay at B is set at the shortest time delay permissible to allow a fuse to blow for a fault on the secondary side of trans-former A. there are two important practical points which affect this method of co-ordination. D and E have time to operate.25s is adequate. because of the difference in impedance values between the source and the fault. the system short circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1) A Where Zs = source impedance = 11 2 / 250 = 0. where the fault level (MVA) is highest. 22) Radial system with current discrimination For a fault at F1. the relay at B will operate in 0. (Fig. Discrimination by current Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault. a time delay of 0. It is the time delay element. Provided the setting of the current element is below the fault current value this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination. For this reason.485 ohms ZL1= cable impedance between C and B = 0.

the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) Where ZS = source impedance =112 / 250 = 0. a relay controlling the circuit breaker at B and set to operate at a current of 2200 A plus a safety margin would not operate for a fault at F 4 and would thus discriminate with the relay at A.1%.24 + 0. A 353 .1.93 + 0.24 ohms ZL2 = cable impedance between B and 4 MVA transformer 0.485 + 0. Assuming a fault at F 4. the problem changes appreciably when there is significant impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. at the end of the 11 kV cable feeding the 4 MVA transformers. This can be seen by considering the grading required between the circuit breakers at B and A in (Fig. Alternatively. the relay at B would operate correctly for faults anywhere on the 11 kV cable feeding the transformer. corresponding to a change in fault current of approximately 0.3 x 2200. 22). assuming a fault at F3. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) I = 6350 /(0. there would be variations in the source fault level. that is. it is reasonable to choose a relay setting of 1.04)=8300 Amp.12 ohms Hence I = 6350/ 2. that is. since the distance between these points can be only a few meters. Now. At this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800 A even for a cable fault close to C. 2.485 ohms ZL1 = cable impedance between C and B 0. It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at Fl and a fault at F 2. 2860 A for the relay at B.24 + 0. Assuming a safety margin of 20% to allow for relay errors and a further 10% for variations in the system impedance values. However. so a relay set at 8800 A would not protect any of the cable section concerned.04 ohms ZT = transformer impedance =0. assuming a source fault level of 130 MVA: I = 6350 /(0. for either value of source level. In practice. In other words.885 = 2200 A For this reason.07(112/4) =2. Discrimination by current is therefore not a practical proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at C and B. typically from 250 MVA to 130 MVA.004)=5250 Amp.

designs where the criterion for design depends on the mechanical strength. material of electrodes. and is equal to the electric field intensity E = −∇ϕ Where E is the electric field intensity. nature of applied voltage. The most common cause of insulation failure is the presence of discharges either within the voids in the insulation or over the surface of the insulation. field configurations.Z The electric breakdown strength of insulating materials depends on a variety of parameters. failure can occur as a result of thermal or electrochemical deterioration of the insulation. the most important material used in a high voltage apparatus is the insulation. Gas/vacuum as Insulator Air at atmospheric pressure is the most common gaseous insulation. temperature. humidity. etc. And (read Del) operator is defined as ∇ →1 ∇ = ax ∂ ∂ ∂ + ay + az ∂X ∂Y ∂Y Where ax. An understanding of the failure of the insulation will be possible by the study of the possible mechanisms by which the failure can occur. φ is the applied voltage. ay. and surface conditions of electrodes. As already mentioned. of the materials and the stresses that are generated during their operation. The probability of failure will be greatly reduced if such discharges could be eliminated at the normal working voltage. and aZ are components of position vector x y z . such as pressure. stress to which an insulating material is subjected to is numerically equal to the voltage gradient.Y + a . in high voltage applications. r = a . Then. It can also be defined as the voltage at which the current starts increasing to very high values unless controlled by the external impedance of the circuit. the dielectric strength of insulating materials and the electric field stresses developed in them when subjected to high voltages are. The breakdown of air is of considerable practical importance to the design engineers of power 354 . X +a . The dielectric strength of an insulating material can be defined as the maximum dielectric stress which the material can Withstand. The important factors in high voltage systems in a high voltage apparatus the important materials used are conductors and insulators. imperfections in dielectric materials. While the conductors carry current the insulators prevent the flow of currents undesired paths the electric.ELECTRIC FIELD STRESSES ELECTRIC FIELD STRESSES Like In mechanical .

x-ray and field emission tubes. the breakdown strength of such gases is substantially large.transmission lines and power apparatus. In some gases. The breakdown mechanism in the case of very pure liquids is the same as the gas breakdown. is sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The breakdown voltage at higher pressures in gases shows an increasing dependence on the nature and smoothness of the electrode material. the breakdown mechanisms are significantly altered by the presence of the solid impurities and dissolved gases. provides a flexible and reliable medium for high voltage insulation using gases at high pressures. In the next few years. dichlorodifluor9methane (CC12F2) (popularly known as Freon). This decreases to less than 105 V/cm for gaps of several centimeters. An example of such a gas. where the pressures are below 10-4 ton. but in commercial liquids. SF6/N2. capacitors. free electrons are removed by attachment to neutral gas molecules. Under high vacuum conditions. of the gases examined to-date. vacuum is the best insulator with field strengths up to 107 V/cm. field gradients up to 25 MV/m have been realized. Ideally. 355 . Temporary failures due to over voltage are reinsulated quickly by liquid flow to the attacked area. However. Electrons get multiplied in an exponential manner. Under actual service conditions. and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 has probably the most attractive overall dielectric and arc quenching properties for gas insulated high voltage systems. However. the breakdown cannot occur due to collisional processes like in gases. the breakdown strength reduces considerably due to the presence of impurities. Highly purified liquids have dielectric strengths as high as 1 MV/cm. and if the applied voltage is sufficiently large. limited only by emissions from the electrode surfaces. Breakdown occurs in gases due to the process of collisional ionization. electron microscopes. SF6 gas has to be replaced by a new gas and lot of research is being done to find such a gas. It is relevant to point out that. in recent years pure SF6 gas has been found to be a green house gas causing environmental hazards and therefore research efforts are presently focussed on finding a replacement gas or gas mixture which is environmentally friendly. LIQUID DIELECTRICS Liquids are used in high voltage equipment to serve the dual purpose of insulation and heat condition. Vacuum insulation is used in particle accelerators. Nitrogen (N2) was the gas first used at high pressures because of its inertness and chemical stability. High pressure gas. with larger dielectric strength. and hence the breakdown strength is quite high. Pure nitrogen. Other important practical insulating gases are carbon dioxide (CO2). breakdown occurs. air and SF6/N2 mixtures show good potential to replace SF6 gas in high voltage apparatus. They have the advantage that a puncture path is self-healing. the products of the discharges may deposit on solid insulation supports and may lead to surface breakdown over these solid supports. and Circuit Breakers. but its dielectric strength is the same as that of air.

However. Because of their low dissipation factor and other excellent characteristics. On the other hand. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. in 1970s it was found that Askarels which more extensively used. A number of considerations enter into the selection of any dielectric liquid. the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). it can be used at stresses as high as 100–200 kV/cm. fluorocarbons. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). The important electrical properties of the liquid include the dielectric strength. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. giving rise to composite insulation systems. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths. and organic esters including castor oil are used in significant quantities. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulates in electrical equipment. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Kraft paper. conductivity. in practice. Many organic and inorganic materials are used for high voltage insulation purposes. etc. silicones. natural rubber. synthetic and fluorinated hydrocarbons. Many new liquids have since been developed which have no adverse environmental hazards. stability. more than one types of insulation are used together. exhibit health hazards and therefore most countries have legally banned their production and use. These include silicone oils.Petroleum oils are the commonest insulating liquids. In general. and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. viscosity. Composites In many engineering applications. flash point. However. gas content. mainly in parallel. where the liquid only fills up the voids in the solid dielectric. dissipation factor. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). · SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1. polybutanes are being increasingly used in the electrical industry. in applications like high voltage bushings. solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans356 . However. In practical applications liquids are normally used at voltage stresses of about 50–60 kV/cm when the equipment is continuously operated. the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. dielectric constant. 2.

former winding insulation. Further. Therefore. ρ Is the space charge density in the region Is the electric permittivity of free space (vacuum) However. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). Special care should be exercised in eliminating the stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum. dielectric strength. such as in the presence of sharp points. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known-in a high voltage apparatus. and hence the potential distribution is governed by the Laplace's equation: ε0 ∇ 2ϕ = 0 →3 357 . · Estimation and control of electrical The electric field distribution is usually governed by the Poisson's equation: 2 ∇ ϕ =− ρ ε0 → 2 Where φ is the potential at a given point. In the application of composites. loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. in most of the high voltage apparatus. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown. mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. space charges are not normally present. it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. which may adversely affect its resistivity. the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid.

The important rules are 4. where dv is the voltage difference between two successive equipotentials.In Eqs. Other methods of stress control are shown in Fig. This is a case normally encountered in high voltage electrodes of the bushings. a good understanding of the problem is possible by using some simple rules to plot the field lines and equipotentials. In many practical cases. However. the density of the field lines is an indication of the electric stress in a given region. Considerable amount of labour and time can be saved by properly 'choosing the planes of symmetry and shaping the electrodes accordingly. standard capacitors. The potential distribution can also be calculated directly. (2) and (3) the operator properties ∇2 is called the Laplacian and is a vector with ∇2 = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 ∂X 2 ∂y ∂Z There are many methods available for determining the potential distribution. the stress in the gas becomes times that in the solid dielectric. When two dielectrics of widely different permittivity are in series. Once the voltage distribution of a given geometry is established. the electric stress is very much higher in the medium of lower permittivity. The equipotentials cut the field lines at right angles. The most commonly used methods are 1. and in any region. dx apart. this is very difficult except for simple geometries. 2. where is the relative permittivity of the solid dielectric. it is easy to refashion or redesign the electrodes to minimize the stresses so that the onset of corona is prevented. 1 εr εr 358 . When the equipotentials and field lines are drawn to form curvilinear squares. and The numerical methods 3. 5. etc. the maximum electric field is given by dv/dx. The electrolytic tank method. Considering a solid insulation in a gas medium. This enhanced stress occurs at the electrode edges and one method of overcoming this is to increase the electrode diameter.

the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. which may adversely affect its resistivity. more than one types of insulation are used together. and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. Many organic and inorganic' materials are used for high voltage insulation purposes. silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulate in electrical equipment. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). However. the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. mainly in parallel. natural rubber. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans-former winding insulation. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown. Kraft paper. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known in a high voltage apparatus. Therefore. In the application of composites. In general. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. Composites In many engineering applications. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. dielectric strength. Further. in practice.Fig. mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. Special care should be exercised in eliminating the 359 . giving rise to composite insulation systems. 1 Control of stress at an electrode edge SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1. loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. 2.

The work done on a charge when moved in an electric field is defined as the potential. The force F on any charge q at that point in the field is given by F = q*E 4 The electric flux density D associated with the field intensity E is D = ε*E 5 Where E is the permittivity of the medium in which the electric field exists. The potential φ is equal to Where l is the path through which the charge is moved. 360 . The field intensity E at any location in an electrostatic field is the ratio of the force on an infinitely small charge at that location to the charge itself as the charge decreases to zero. Several relationships between the various quantities in the electric field can be summarized as follows: Where F is the force exerted on a charge q in the electric field E . Electric Field A brief review of the concepts of electric fields is presented. and S is the closed surface containing charge q. as it is essential for high voltage engineers to have knowledge of the field intensities in various media under electric stresses. In the design of high voltage apparatus. It also helps in choosing proper electrode configurations and economical dimensioning of the insulation. otherwise higher stresses will trigger or accelerate the aging of the insulation leading to its failure. Electric field control methods form an important component of the overall design of equipment. Over the years. the electric field intensities have to be controlled.stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum such as in the presence of sharp points. such that highly stressed regions are not formed and reliable operation of the equipment results in its anticipated life. many methods for controlling and optimizing electric fields to get the most economical designs have been developed.

Uniform or approximately uniform field distributions exist between two infinite parallel plates or two spheres of equal diameters when the gap distance is less than diameter of the sphere. It has the minimum field E at the conductor having the large radius of curvature. are presented Below. In the absence of space charges. the maximum electric field Em is always higher than the average value. Spherical electrodes are frequently used for high voltage measurements and for triggering in impulse voltage generation circuits. the electric fields between any two electrodes can be both uniform and non-uniform. the average field E in a non-uniform field gap is maximum at the surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature. For some common field configurations. Most of the practical high voltage components used in electric power systems normally have non-uniform and asymmetrical field distribution. whereas in a non-uniform field gap. the average field E is the same throughout the field rigion. parallel plates of finite size are used to simulate uniform electric fields. when gap separation is much smaller than plate size. E is different at different points of the field region. f = Em / Eav 1-Parallel plates Em = r V r f =1 Parallel plate 361 . the maximum value of Em and the field enhancement factor f given by Em/Eav.Uniform and Non-Uniform Electric Fields In general. the field is not only non-uniform but also asymmetrical. Sometimes. In this case. Estimation of Electric Field in Some Geometric Boundaries It has been shown that the maximum electric field Em in a given electric field configuration is of importance. In a uniform field gap. The mean electric field over a distanced between two conductors with a potential difference of V12 is Ε av = V12 d In field configurations of non-uniform fields.

at any instant of time after the application of an impulse. it is. necessary to consider the maximum voltage differences occurring. An experimental assessment of the dielectric strength of insulation against the power frequency voltages and surge voltages. in each region. The transient voltage distribution in. The response of a power apparatus to the impulse or surge voltage depends on the capacitances between the coils of windings and between the different phase windings of the multi-phase machines. on less complex 362 . The effect of the surge voltages is severe in all power apparatuses. the windings as a whole are generally very nonuniform and are complicated by traveling wave voltage oscillations set up within the windings.Parallel cylinders of equal diameter SURGE VOLTAGES. In the actual design of an apparatus. The transient high voltages or surge voltages originate in power systems due to lightning and Switching operations. of course. and to take into account their durations especially when they are less than one microsecond.2. on samples of basic materials. THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL The design of power apparatus particularly at high voltages is governed by their transient behavior.Concentric cylinders 3.

by insertion of higher dielectric strength insulation at high stress points. such data can be very useful. by shaping the conductors to reduce stress concentrations. unless experimentally tested. such data can never really be complete to cover all future designs and necessitates use of large factors of safety. CCl2F2. Such an ideal condition is impossible to achieve in practice. halogens such as chlorine) make good insulators. it is possible to build up a considerable stock of design information. and are quite expensive. Some gases though.assemblies. considerable quantities of insulation must be used. plant capacity is limited. when this factor is high. A survey of typical power apparatus designs suggests that factors ranging from 2 to 5 can occur in practice. Gases with electronegative species (i. in the mid 90's. they tend to be corrosive. Generally.e. Since the design of an electrical apparatus is based on the dielectric strength. although expensive. R-22) are not being produced any more. the cost of insulating gases has greatly increased in the last few years largely due to the various treaties regulating halocarbon refrigerants. High voltage testing is done by generating the voltages and measuring them in a laboratory. CCl4. 363 .g. a highly electronegative element. Improvements can be effected in the following ways: 1. When high voltage testing is done on component parts. dissociate only where the discharge is (or wants to be).HC-134a) . Nevertheless it provides information on stress concentration factors the ratios of maximum local voltage gradients to the mean value in the adjacent regions of relatively uniform stress. and C2Cl2F4 Unfortunately. 2. In the mid 1980's SF6 was about $3-4/lb. elaborate insulation assemblies. Unfortunately. CCl3F. In an ideal design each part of the dielectric would be uniformly stressed at the maximum value which it will safely withstand. A different approach to the problem is the exact calculation of dielectric strength of any insulation arrangement. which is not only dense (breakdown voltage is roughly proportional to density) but is mostly Fluorine. it is about $100/lb. modern refrigerants are relying more on fluorinated or per-fluoro hydrocarbons (e. The halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants are also a popular insulator. making them particularly good insulators. Now. and by selection of materials of appropriate permittivity to obtain more uniform voltage gradients. and complete full-scale prototype apparatus (called development testing). and plants that used to make SF6 are now making fluorinated hydrocarbons resulting in much higher prices for SF6. due to the practical limitations of construction. Since a pound is only about 10 liters. Since the regulatory thrust eliminated chlorinated alkanes. for dielectrics of different electrical strengths. However. The traditional Freons (R-12. the design cannot be completely relied upon. Insulating gases Electronegative gases make good insulators since the ions rapidly combine with the ions produced in the spark. hence the popularity of SF6. filling up a large insulating tank with SF6 has become a very expensive proposition. or on complete equipment must involve high voltage testing. However.

flames. Even air forms highly reactive nitrogen oxides and other corrosive compounds. The saturated vapor pressure of C2Cl2F4 at 23C is 2 atm abs. An even higher insulating strength can be obtained by adding nitrogen to the saturated CCl2F2 to bring the total pressuire to the desired value. One disadvantage of the halogenated compounds is that the dissociation products are highly corrosive. it leaks through very tiny holes (even the pores in the metal tanks). Relative spark breakdown strength of gases Gas N2 Air NH3 CO2 H2S O2 Cl2 H2 SO2 C2Cl2F4 V/Vair 1.The breakdown voltage of most gases can be increased by increasing the absolute pressure. at which condition it has a relative dielectric strength of 5.Hydrogen gas is not a particularly good insulator (65% of air) from a breakdown voltage standpoint. Hydrogen . Its very low viscosity and high thermal capacity make it an insulating gas of choice for high speed.The vapor pressure of CCl2F2 (R-12) is 90 psi at 23C. On the other hand. although its breakdown is only about 15 % better than air. Pure Nitrogen seems to not have these disadvantages. The breakdown of air is very well researched. High pressure air can also support combustion due to the oxygen content. provided that the oxygen content in the hydrogen tank is kept below the flammable limit (around 5%).approximate breakdown is 30 kV/cm at 1 atm. to the point where the breakdown voltage of a calibrated gap is used to measure high voltages.30 3.85 0.e. but very hot.15 1 1 0. where the breakdown is some 17 times that of air at 1 atm. freon (CC12F2) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are also used.Sulfur Hexafluoride is probably the most popular insulating gas.simplest and the most commonly found dielectrics are gases. Freon 12 liquifies at 5 atmospheres).95 0. small currents flow between the electrodes and they insulation retains. there is a limit imposed by the liquefaction point at normal operating temperatures (i. Of course. In the case of some gases.9 Conduction and breakdown in Gases 1 – Gases as insulating Media The .65 0. high voltage machinery such as turbo generators. Most of the electrical apparatus use air as the Insulating medium. it's electrical properties. so it is important that operating voltages remain well below corona starting voltages. and perfectly colorless.85 0.2 CCl2F2 2. although its cost has risen dramatically recently. = 30 + 1.53d where d in cm.6 times N2 at 1 atm Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) . There isn't an explosion hazard. if the applied voltages 364 . Freons. Air . carbon dioxide (CO2).9 0. When the applied voltage is low. and in a few cases other gases such nitrogen (N2). particularly if there is any water vapor present. Mixtures of gases can overcome some of these issues and a mixture of Freon 12 and Nitrogen was popular. hydrogen has lots of other handling problems. Various phenomena occur in gaseous dielectrics when a voltage is applied. including hydrogen embrittlement.

(i) Townsend theory (ii) Streamer theory are known 'Which explain the mechanism of breakdown under different condition? The various physical condition of gases namely' pressure. At present two types of theories. viz. Elastic collisions: Elastic collisions are collisions which when occur. The build-up of high currents in a breakdown is due to the process known as ionization in which electrons and ions are created from neutral atoms or molecules' and their migration to the anode and cathode respectively leads to high current. (ii) self. Inelastic collisions: Inelastic collisions. they transfer only a part of their kinetic energy to the much heavier ions or gas molecules with which they collide. COLLISION PROCESSES 1. electrode field configuration nature of electrode surfaces and the availability of initial conducting particles are known to govern the ionization processes. called spark is the transition of non-sustaining discharge into a self-sustaining discharge.are large. When electrons collide with gas molecules. These collisions do not occur in practice. These results in very little loss of energy by the electrons and therefore electrons gain very high energies and travel at a much higher speed than the ions. The breakdown in a gas. Types of Collision An electrical discharge is normally created from unionized gas by collision processes. Since electrons are very light in weight. temperature.order to understand the breakdown phenomenon in gases. are those in which internal changes in energy take place within an atom or a molecule at the expense of the total kinetic energy of the colliding particle. The collision often results in a change in the 365 . The electrical discharges in gases are of two types:(i) Non-sustaining discharge. the current flowing through the insulation increases very sharply an electrical breakdown occurs. These are of the following two types. Therefore in all electrical discharges electrons play a leading role.sustaining. on the other hand. a single electron traces' a zig-zag path during its travel. The maximum voltage applied to the insulation at the moment of breakdown is called the breakdown voltage In . a study of the electrical properties of gases and the processes by which high current are produced in gases is essential. But in between the collisions it is accelerated by the electric field. A strongly conducting spark formed during breakdown practically produces a short circuit between the electrodes. These processes are mainly gas processes which occur due to the collision between the charged particles and gas atoms or molecules. no change takes place in the internal energy of the particles but only their kinetic energy gets redistributed.

2. which has been defined as the average velocity. Any externally applied electric field will cause the electrons to gain energies much higher than their mean thermal energy. This process is known as diffusion and the. Thus all collisions that occur in practice are inelastic collisions. then they tend to redistribute themselves uniformly throughout the space. which is exhibited as a random motion. excitation. So the electron drift velocity. but is determined from the energy distribution function. In three dimensions this may be written as δn = −D∇2 n δt →3 366 . is not a simple function of E/p. the drift velocity in the field direction Wi is proportional to the electrical field intensity E and may be expressed as follows: Wi = µi * E (1) Where µi is called the mobility of ions the mobility is mainly a characteristic of the gas through which the ion moves. rate at which this occurrence is governed by the diffusion passing through unit area in unit time perpendicular to the concentration gradient and for unit concentration gradient. When the energy gained by the ions from the electric field is small compared with the thermal energy. with which the centre of mass of the electron swarm moves in the direction of the field. are distributed unevenly throughout a space. Diffusion Coefficient When particles possessing energy.structure of the atom. Mobility of Ions and Electrons When an ion moves through a gas under the influence of a static uniform electric field. For example ionization. it gains energy from the field between collisions and loses energy during collisions. recombination are inelastic collisions. However. the concept of ionic mobility cannot be directly applied to electrons because of their extremely low mass. From the kinetic theory the electron drift velocity We is given in microscopic terms as follows: We = Ee / 3ma2 d/dc (l c2) (2) Where l is an equivalent mean free path of an electron with speed c 3. with the resulting acceleration being eE/m. At normal temperatures and pressures the mobility µ is of the order of several cm2/volt-sec. Electric force on an electron/ion of charge e is eE. attachment.

The Maxwellian distribution has been found to apply where there is thermal equilibrium between the electrons and molecules.5 F (ε ) = C 2ε Where C2 is another constant ε2 ε −2 0.Where n is the concentration of particles.5 F (ε ) = C1ε 0. Electron Energy Distributions For the development of a complete theory giving the relationship between the data concerning single collisions of electrons with gas molecules. The presence of walls confining a given volume increases the de-ionisation effect since charged particles lose their charge on hitting the wall. This process is called diffusion and this causes a deionising effect in the regions of lower concentration. This distribution takes the form ( −1. Both diffusion and mobility result in mass motion described by a drift velocity caused either by unbalanced collision forces (concentration gradient) or by the electric field itself.e ) →6 367 . whenever there is a non-uniform concentration of charges there will be migration of these charges from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The most widely used distribution functions are the Maxwellian and Druyesteynian distributions which apply specifically to elastic conditions. a knowledge of the electron energy distribution functions is essential. 4.e ε ) ε− →5 Where Cl is the constant and is the mean energy. Druyesteynian distribution applies when the electron or ion energy is much greater than the thermal energy and is therefore expected to be more of application in transcends discharges. and the experimentally obtained average properties of discharges. The distribution takes the form ( −1.5 .5 . Kinetic theory gives D in microscopic terms as follows D = 1/3 (lc) 4 Where l is the mean free path and c the random velocity. the average being taken over c In electrical discharges.

When a discharge occurs large number of collisions occurs between the electrons and the gas molecules.. qe. If q. etc. the total area of impaCT'sThis area of contact is different for each type of collision. respectively. From this equation it is seen that at a pressure of 1 torr. the gas becomes a conductor and an electrical breakdown occurs.e.. charge transfer. charge transfer. In other words. the distance between the two collisions vary The average of this is the mean free path. The collision cross section is also expressed in terms of the probability of a collision to take place.. If the pressure is 10-6 ton. The mean free path can be expressed as λ =k / p (8) (7) Where k is a constant and p is the gas pressure in microns. are the cross sections for ionization. P = nq which is the reciprocal of the mean free path. For simultaneously. excitation. chemical reactions.. Depending on the initial energy of the colliding electron. The free path is a random quantity and its mean value depends upon the concentration of particles or the density of the gas. Collision Cross Section Collision cross section is defined as the area of contact between two particles during a collision. IONIZATION PROCESSES A gas in its normal state is almost a perfect insulator. the area of impact is more for ionisation while for an excitation it is less. and if qi. the effective cross section is obtained by simple a addition of all the cross sections. then qt= qi +qe + qc + ……. etc. excitation. The value of k for nitrogen is 5. 6 The Mean Free Path (λ) The mean free path is defined as the average distance between collisions. etc. i. For example.. Thus the use of collision cross sections instead of mean free paths has often proved to be advantageous. is the total cross section. From this it is seen that mean free path is very large at very low pressures and is very small at high pressures. then λ = 5 x 10+3 cm. λ is 5 x 10-3 cm. However. when a high voltage is applied between the two electrodes immersed in a gaseous medium. qc . 368 . occurring processes such as ionization.5.

since the number of electrons reaching the anode 369 . If he energy (ε) gained during this travel between collisions exceeds the ionization potential. The additional electrons. This process can be represented as e − + A → e − + A+ + e − Where. then. If we consider a low pressure gas column in which an electric field E is applied across two plane parallel electrodes. This represents an increase in the electron current.The processes that are primarily responsible for the breakdown of a gas are ionization by collision. photo-ionization. a free electron collides with a neutral gas molecule and gives rise to a new electron and a positive ion. Vi. then ionization takes place. ionize neutral gas particles producing positive ions and additional electrons. In insulating gases (also called electron-attaching gases) the process of attachment also plays an important role. A is the atom. In the process of ionization by collision. and the secondary ionization processes. Ultraviolet Light Cathode Anode d + Current limiting resistor R HV source A Fig 1 Arrangment for study of a townsend discharge A few of the electrons produced at the cathode by some external means. as shown in Fig. A + is the positive ion and a is the electron. any electron starting at the cathode will be accelerated more and more between collisions with other gas molecules during its travel towards the anode. 1 then. say by ultraviolet light falling on the cathode. 1. themselves make `ionizing collisions' and thus the process repeats itself. which is the energy required to dislodge an electron from its atomic shell. Ionization by Collision The process of liberating an electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous production of a positive ion is called ionization.

it should be given enough energy to overcome the surface potential barrier. They are briefly described below. is greater than twice the work function of the metal. the threshold frequency will be that corresponding to a wavelength λ = 2755 Aº. Secondary Ionization Processes Secondary ionization processes by which secondary electrons are produced are the one which sustain a discharge after it is established due to ionization by collision and photo-ionization. the sum of its kinetic energy and the ionization energy. then one electron will be ejected and a second electron will neutralize the ion. A positive ion approaching a metallic cathode can cause emission of electrons from the cathode by giving up its kinetic energy on impaCT's If the total energy of the positive ion. . The frequency (v) is given by the relationship v= ϕ h (10) Is known as the threshold frequency For a clean nickel surface With φ = 4. If the incident radiation has a greater frequency than the threshold 370 . namely. The probability of this process is measured as .5 eV. Electron emission from a metal surface occurs at the critical condition h . the positive ions also reach the cathode and on bombardment on the cathode give rise to secondary electrons. increases with ion velocity and depends on the kind of gas and electrode material used. The energy can also be supplied in the form of a photon of ultraviolet light of suitable frequency. and being positively charged. In addition. (i) Electron Emission due.v ≥ ϕ where cp is the work function of the metallic electrode.per unit time is greater than those liberated at the cathode. they travel towards the cathode. (ii) Electron Emission due to Photons γi γi To cause an electron to escape from a metal. which is called the Townsend's secondary ionization coefficient due to positive ions and is defined as the net yield of electrons per incident positive ion. to Positive Ion Impact Positive ions are formed due to ionization by collision or by photo-ionization. 2.

Since φ is typically a few electrons volts.frequency '. C3F8. C12. for the interactions of excited He atom with a clean surface of molybdenum. All electrically insulating gases.C2F6. and is called the Townsend's first ionization coefficient). In the attaching or insulating gases. At low energies the yield is considerably less. Electron Attachment Process The types of collisions in which electrons may become attached to atoms or molecules to form negative ions are called attachment collision. because the lifetime of other excited states is too short for them to reach the cathode and cause electron emission. F2. have an affinity for electrons. nickel or magnesium. At any distance x from the cathode. a positive ion and an electron are formed. Electron attachment process depends on the energy of the electron arid-the nature of the gas and is a very important process from the engineering point of view. such as O2. then the excess energy goes partly as the kinetic energy of the emitted electron and partly to heat the surface of the electrode. An electron attachment process can be represented as: Atom + e.→ negative atomic ion + (Ea + K) 11 The energy liberated as a result of this process is the kinetic energy K plus the electron affinity Ea. TOWNSEND'S CURRENT GROWTH EQUATION Referring to Fig. When these nx electrons travel a further distance of dx they give X=0 nx=n0 d nx/dx = α nx . The attachment process plays a very important role in the removal of free electrons from an ionized gas when arc interruption occurs in gas-insulated Switchgear. . therefore. unless they originate very near to the cathode surface. provided that their total energy is sufficient to overcome the work function. the yields can also be large nearly 100%. (iii) Electron Emission due to Metastable and Neutral Atoms A metastable atom or molecule is an excited particle whose lifetime is very large (103 s) compared to the lifetime of an ordinary particle (10-8 s). CC12F2. let the number of electrons be nx. When one electron collides with a neutral particle. and SF6 exhibit this property. Therefore. C4F10. Let α be the average number of ionizing collisions made by an electron per centimeter travel in the direction of the field (α depends on gas pressure p and E/p. nx=n0 e αx Then. The number of electrons reaching the anode (x=d) 371 . This is called an ionizing collision. CO2. Neutral atoms in the ground state also give rise to secondary electron emission if their kinetic energy is high (= 1000 eV). the threshold frequency lies in the far ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. Electrons can be ejected from the metal surface by the impact of excited (metastable) atoms. 1 let us assume that no electrons are emitted from the cathode. the atoms or molecules have vacancies in their outermost shells and. This process is most easily observed with metastable atoms.

discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. the avalanche current was followed by a steep rise in the current between the electrodes leading to the breakdown of the gap.d) -1 = (nd . discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. But in practice. On the other hand.no) / no 12 Therefore. The Townsend Mechanism failed to explain all the above phenomena and therefore around 1940. when the charge concentration was higher than 108. 372 . according to the Townsend theory. In his studies on the effect of space charge on avalanche growth. by each electron is e(α. Raether observed that when charge concentration was between 106 and 108. Secondly. which is equal to the number of electrons traveling per second will be I =Io. on the average. Fig. in actual practice. Both the slow growth at low charge concentrations and fast growth at high charge concentrations have been attributed to the modification of the originally applied uniform field (E) by the space charge P. The growth of charge carriers in an avalanche in a uniform field is described by eαd. Also. breakdown voltages were found to depend on the gas pressure and the geometry of the gap. while in actual practice breakdown was observed to occur at very short times of the order of 10-8 s.d) 13 where 10 is the initial current at the cathode. This is valid only as long as the influence of the space charge due to ions is very small compared to the applied field. the mechanism predicts time lags of the order of 10-5 s. the average current in the gap. 2 shows the electric field around the avalanche as it progresses along the gap and the resulting modification to the applied field. Raether and Meek and Loeb independently proposed the Streamer theory. Firstly. While the Townsend mechanism predicts a very diffused form of discharge. Rather and. Streamer Theory In practice. BREAKDOWN IN GASES Townsend mechanism when applied to breakdown at atmospheric pressure was found to have certain drawbacks. the growth of the avalanche became weak. e(α.d) The number of new electrons created. around 1940.nd=no e(α. current growth occurs as a result of ionization processes. only. Loeb independently proposed the Streamer theory. meek and. The Townsend mechanism failed to explain all these observed phenomena and as a result.

Under these conditions. the combined applied field and the space charge field cause intense ionization and excitation of the gas particles in front of the avalanche. In the theories proposed by Raether and Meek it has been shown that when the avalanche in the gap reaches a critical size. 3.For simplicity. but as the distortion is significant only in the vicinity of the top of the avalanche its effect is still negligible. the photo-ionization process gives rise to rapid development of conduction channels across the gap. the space charge at the head of the avalanche is assumed to have a spherical volume containing negative charge at its top because of the higher electron mobility. at the bottom of the avalanche. Further. However. Fig. cloud chamber photographs of the avalanche development have shown that. the field between electrons and ions reduces the applied field (E). It has been shown that transformation from an avalanche to a streamer generally occurs when the. Thus. For example. the space charge fields play an important role in the growth of avalanches in corona and spark discharges in non-uniform field gaps. Thus. Since photons travel with the velocity of light. charge within the avalanche head reaches A critical value of no e(αxe) = 108 or αxc lies between 18 and 20. This 1% field distortion over the entire gap will lead to a doubling of the avalanche size. in nitrogen at p = 760 ton and with a gap distance of 2 cm. the field distortion occurs and it becomes noticeable with a charge carrier number n < 106. the field gets enhanced at the top of the avalanche with field lines from the anodes terminating on its head. Instantaneous recombination between positive ions and electrons releases photons which in turn produce secondary electrons by photo-ionization. Where xc is the length of the avalanche in which the secondary electrons are produced by photo-ionization of gas molecules in the inter-electrode gap. 373 . the filled field distortion will be about 1%. These secondary electrons under the influence of the field in the gap develop into secondary avalanches as shown in Fig. Still further down the field between cathode and the positive ions gets enhanced. if a charge density in the avalanche approaches n = 108 the space charge filled field and the applied field will have the same magnitude and this leads to the initiation of a streamer. under certain conditions.( 2) Field distortion in a gap due to space charge Further. Ole space charge developed in an avalanche can transform the avalanche into streamers which lead to very rapid development of breakdown.

The conditions for the transition from the avalanche to streamer assumes that the space charged field. E. crooked channels and the branching of the spark channels. The equation simplifies into. the minimum breakdown voltage is obtained when Er = E and x = d in the above equation.5+ln(E/P)+1/2 ln(d/p) (17) This equation is solved between α/P and E/P at which a given p and d satisfy the equation. The field Er produced by the space charge. α d+ln(α/P)= 14. According to Meek. and cleared up many ambiguities of the Townsend mechanism when applied to breakdown in a high pressure gas across a long gap. d. The above simple criterion enabled an agreement between the calculated and the measured breakdown voltages.27 * 10-7(α e(αxe))/(X/P)1/2 V/cm (16) Where α is Townsend's first ionization coefficient. at the radius r. is given by Er = 5. p is the gas pressure in ton. 374 .Fig. (14)) becomes αxc = 17. a minimum breakdown voltage by streamer mechanism occurs only when a critical length xc = d. (3) Formation of secondary avalanches due to photo-ionization On the basis of experimental observations Raether proposed an empirical expression for the streamer spark criterion of the form αxc = 17. This theory also neatly fits in with the observed filamentary.7+ln xc (15) The minimum breakdown value for a uniform field gap by streamer mechanism is then obtained on the assumption that the transition from an avalanche to a streamer occurs when the avalanche has just crossed a gap. Meek proposed a simple quantitative criterion to estimate the electric field that transforms an avalanche into a streamer.7 + In xc + In (Er/E) (14) Where Er is the space charged field directed radially at the head of the avalanche and E is the applied field. and x is the distance to which the streamer has extended in the gap. Thus. The breakdown voltage is given by the corresponding product of E and d. approaches the externally applied field (E = Er) and hence the breakdown criterion (Eq.

Further increase in current results in a very small reduction in voltage across the gap (CD) corresponding to the normal glow region. the voltage drop between the electrodes is substantially constant. High temperature plasmas are used for generation of electricity through magneto-hydro dynamic (MHD) or nuclear fusion processes. Glow and arc discharges are the post-breakdown phenomena. such as cold cathode gaseous voltage stabilized tubes (voltage regulation tubes or VR tubes). when the current is increased more. Arc Discharge If the current in the gap is increased to about 1 A or more. If the current in the normal glow is increased such that the discharge covers the entire cathode surface. It is generally assumed that for pd values below 1000 torr-cm and gas pressures varying from 0.It is still controversial as to which mechanism operates in uniform field conditions over a given range of pd values. ranging from 75 to 300 V over a current range of 1 mA to 100 mA depending on the type of the gas. It is used for welding and cutting of metals. The phenomena that occur in the region CG are the post-breakdown phenomena consisting of glow discharge (CE) and the arc discharge (EG). called the arc plasma. Arcing is associated with high temperatures. The glow discharge covers the cathode partly and the space between the cathode and the anode will have intermediate dark and bright regions. The colour of the glow discharge depends on the cathode material and the gas used. In a glow discharge. ranging from 1000°C to several thousand degrees Celsius. This is the region of the arc discharge (EG). 1 This phase is called the arc discharge and the current density over the cathode region increases to very high values of 103 to 107A/cm2. It is a convenient high temperature high intensity light source. but eventually leads to a considerable drop in the applied voltage. POST-BREAKDOWN PHENOMENA AND APPLICATIONS This is the phenomenon which occurs after the actual breakdown has taken place and is of technical importance. The gap voltage again increases (DE). It is the light source in lamps such as carbon arc lamp. 375 .01 to 300 torr. and as an amplifier. Glow Discharge A glow discharge is characterized by a diffused luminous glow. for rectification. Further to this point (B) only the current increases and the discharge changes from the Townsend type to Glow type (BC). This is called normal glow. while at higher pressures and pd values the Streamer mechanism plays the dominant role in explaining the breakdown phenomena. as a relaxation oscillator. the voltage across the gap suddenly reduces to a few volts (20—50 V). then it becomes abnormal glow. In a Townsend discharge see Fig. the Townsend mechanism operates. and there are many devices that operate over these regions. (1) The current increases gradually as a function of the applied voltage. The study of arcs is important in circuit breakers and other switch contacts. The discharge becomes very luminous and noisy (region EG in Fig. The discharge will contain a very high density of electrons and positive ions. The properties of the glow discharge are used in many practical applications.

the more rigorous would he the requirements which it should meet.Fig. (e) good heat transfer. it is useful to gain knowledge of what the gas does. and (f) ready availability at moderate cost. (1) d. (d). the preferred properties of a gaseous dielectric for high voltage applications are: (a) high dielectric strength. dielectric strength is the most important property of a gaseous dielectric for practical use. Therefore. low temperature of condensation. Before adopting a particular gas or gas mixture for a practical purpose. (b) thermal stability and chemical inactivity towards materials of construction. voltage-current characteristic of an electrical discharge with electrodes having no sharp points or edges PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN USING GASES AND GAS MIXTURES FOR INSULATION PURPOSES Over the years. SF6 was also found to have excellent arc-quenching properties. what its composition is. and it can be used over a wide range of operating conditions. The greater the versatility of the operating performance demanded from an insulating gas or gas mixture. (2. Of the above properties. These requirements needed by a good dielectric do not exist in a majority of the gases. (c) non-flammability and physiological inertness. and what the factors is that influence its performance. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) which has received much study over the years has been found to possess most of the above requirements.). It is clear that SF6 has high dielectric strength and low liquefaction temperature. considerable amount of work has been done to adopt a specific gas for practical use.c. and environmentally nonhazardous. The dielectric strength of gases is comparable with those of solid and liquid dielectrics see Fig. it is widely used as an insulating as well as arc-quenching medium in high voltage apparatus 376 . Generally.

There has been a large concern for these environmental effects and therefore the electrical industry has been looking for an alternate gas or gas mixture to be used in electrical equipment which presently use SF6 gas. SF6 molecules absorb energy from the sun and radiate it into the atmosphere for long duration of time. The production and use of SF6 gas has increased steadily and today it is about 10. Ideally the gas mixture should be suitable for use in the existing equipment as well as in the equipment that will be designed and manufactured in future. SF6 gas has been found to be a green house gas that causes environmental problems.0 Nitrogen 377 . air and CO2 has given breakdown values which are 80—90% of the pure SF6 values as shown in Table Lightning Impulse Breakdown Strength of SF6/Other Gas Mixtures (Breakdown Strength (kV/cm Breakdown Strength Mixture Ratio ((kV/cm 89. gas and vacuum insulations in uniform. The concentration of SF6 in the environment has been steadily increasing. breakdown strength of typical solid. The large amount of experimental data that is presently available suggest that 40% SF6/60% N2 mixtures have all the dielectric characteristics that make it suitable for use as insulation in high voltage equipment.000 metric tons due to leakages into the atmosphere from the electrical equipment.Fig (2) d. Extensive research work done in SF6 and its mixtures with N2. However. as an insulating and arc interruption medium.0 SF6 gas 100% 1% SF6/99% 80.c. The release of SF6 into the atmosphere leads to concentration of large volumes of SF6 gas in the upper atmosphere. liquid. fields SF6 and Other Gas Mixtures SF6 is widely used for applications in power system due to its high dielectric strength and good arc interruption properties.

it may be said that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the use of SF6 gas and its leakage from power apparatus. mixtures with different SF6 concentrations varying from 5% to 40%. Wherefore. cables. further research has to be carried out to identify a suitable gas mixture. requiring no change in hardware. The cost of such mixtures is low and is less sensitive to field non-uniformities present inside the equipment. SF6/N2 mixtures have been used in Gas Insulated Transmission System and were found to perform well.10% SF6/90% Nitrogen 20% SF6/80% Nitrogen 40% SF6/60% Nitrogen 10% SF6/90% CO2 20% SF6/80% CO2 40% SF6/60% CO2 10% SF6/90% Air 20% SF6/80% Air 40% SF6/60% Air 78.5 75. For many applications.5 76. the work done so far has shown that the ability of SF6/N2 mixtures to quench high current arcs is promising. test procedures or ratings. It has been found that a mixture containing 69% SF6/31 % N2 gave higher recovery rate than pure SF6 at the same partial pressure.5 75. current transformers and voltage transformers. capacitors.6 76. its pressure and its arc interruption capability to be used in the existing apparatus and the apparatus that will be designed and manufactured in future. but it has to be ensured that there is no loss in the performance of the equipment.5 75. It has also been shown that it is possible to further improve the arc interruption properties of SF6 by using SF6/N2 or SF6/He mixtures. SF6/N2 mixtures show promise as a medium in circuit breakers. such as Gas Insulated Transmission Systems. Use of gas mixtures appears to be feasible. In summary. SF6/N2 mixture is the one that has been found to be a good replacement for SF6.6 The industry is looking for a gas mixture that can replace the pure SF6 gas in the existing SF6 insulated apparatus. Insulating Liquids Property Transformer Cable Capacitor Silicone Askarels Oil Oil Oil Oils 378 .5 77. In view of the above. the industry is trying to find out the optimum mixture ratio and the total pressure of the SF6/N2 mixture that would be required for a variety of applications.0 76.0 76. Also.

10-1.60E-3 .10E-3 0.89 30 1.4 1.6-1.01 7e-4 50 0.1 .4740 0.01 7e-4 5e-4 <30 <30 negligble negligible 1.2 2.50E-3 1e121e13-1e14 2e12 1e13 0.50001.3 .1 200-250 300-400 4. Compare. Many organic and inorganic' materials are used for high 379 .0001 0.6000 Pure Liquids Pure liquids often have much higher breakdown strengths than commercial liquids.1E-3 3e14 1.1-1.4700 0.Breakdown strength (20 C.4820 0. for example.6000 <0.9 1.0 1. but when highly purified. For instance.89 30 1.8 2-73 .01 7e-4 50 1.3-2. or 1000 kV/cm.001 .3 1. Max Breakdown Strength MV/cm 1.7 1. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths.0 0.01 7e-4/deg 50 300 2.5mm sphere gap) Relative Permittivity (50Hz) Loss Tangent (50Hz) Loss Tangent (1 kHz) Resistivity (Ohm -cm) Specific Gravity at 20 C Viscosity at 20 C (cStokes) Refractive Index Saponification Thermal Expansion Max permissible Water content (ppm) 150 2.0005 1e12-1e13 0.88-0.01 <0.6 200 2. it is almost 8 times that. the breakdown for Transformer Oil is usually taken as 150 kV/cm (see above table).01% water to insulating oil reduces its breakdown strength to 20% of the "dry" value.0-1.002 0.001 0.4 100-150 10-1000 1. the addition of 0.93 30 1.1 1. 2.2-2.0-1.42 Liquid Hexane Benzene Transformer Oil Silicone Liquid Oxygen Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Helium Liquid Argon SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1.25E-3 0.

otherwise higher stresses will trigger or accelerate the aging of the insulation leading to its failure. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. in practice. Electric Field A brief review of the concepts of electric fields is presented. In the design of high voltage apparatus. the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid. solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans-former winding insulation. Therefore. In the application of composites. Special care should be exercised in eliminating the stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum such as in the presence of sharp points. loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. many methods for controlling and optimizing electric fields to get the most economical designs have been developed. It also helps in choosing proper electrode configurations and economical dimensioning of the insulation. mainly in parallel.voltage insulation purposes. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. 2. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulate in electrical equipment. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known in a high voltage apparatus. Electric field control methods form an important component of the overall design of equipment. Further. The force F on any charge q at that point in the field is given by F = q*E 4 380 . the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. as it is essential for high voltage engineers to have knowledge of the field intensities in various media under electric stresses. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). which may adversely affect its resistivity. and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. In general. However. the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. natural rubber. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown. the electric field intensities have to be controlled. Composites In many engineering applications. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). Over the years. more than one types of insulation are used together. giving rise to composite insulation systems. such that highly stressed regions are not formed and reliable operation of the equipment results in its anticipated life. They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. Kraft paper. dielectric strength. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). The field intensity E at any location in an electrostatic field is the ratio of the force on an infinitely small charge at that location to the charge itself as the charge decreases to zero. mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment.

The work done on a charge when moved in an electric field is defined as the potential. Most of the practical high voltage components used in electric power systems normally have non-uniform and asymmetrical field distribution. Sometimes. Spherical electrodes are frequently used for high voltage measurements and for triggering in impulse voltage generation circuits. the average field E in a non-uniform field gap is maximum at the surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature. whereas in a non-uniform field gap. In the absence of space charges. the average field E is the same throughout the field rigion. when gap separation is much smaller than plate size. The potential φ is equal to Where l is the path through which the charge is moved. parallel plates of finite size are used to simulate uniform electric fields. In a uniform field gap. Several relationships between the various quantities in the electric field can be summarized as follows: Where F is the force exerted on a charge q in the electric field E . E is different at different points of the field region. and S is the closed surface containing charge q. the electric fields between any two electrodes can be both uniform and non-uniform. Uniform and Non-Uniform Electric Fields In general. Estimation of Electric Field in Some Geometric Boundaries 381 . the field is not only non-uniform but also asymmetrical. Uniform or approximately uniform field distributions exist between two infinite parallel plates or two spheres of equal diameters when the gap distance is less than diameter of the sphere.The electric flux density D associated with the field intensity E is D = ε*E 5 Where E is the permittivity of the medium in which the electric field exists. In this case. It has the minimum field E at the conductor having the large radius of curvature.

the maximum value of Em and the field enhancement factor f given by Em/Eav.Parallel cylinders of equal diameter 382 . f = Em / Eav 1-Parallel plates Em = r V r f =1 Parallel plate 2. the maximum electric field Em is always higher than the average value. are presented Below.It has been shown that the maximum electric field Em in a given electric field configuration is of importance. For some common field configurations.Concentric cylinders 3. The mean electric field over a distanced between two conductors with a potential difference of V12 is Ε av = V12 d In field configurations of non-uniform fields.

or on complete equipment must involve high voltage testing. The response of a power apparatus to the impulse or surge voltage depends on the capacitances between the coils of windings and between the different phase windings of the multi-phase machines. Since the design of an electrical apparatus is based on the dielectric strength. In the actual design of an apparatus. the windings as a whole are generally very nonuniform and are complicated by traveling wave voltage oscillations set up within the windings. on samples of basic materials. A survey of typical power apparatus designs suggests that factors ranging from 2 to 5 can occur in practice. when this factor is high. by shaping the conductors to reduce stress concentrations. THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL The design of power apparatus particularly at high voltages is governed by their transient behavior. The effect of the surge voltages is severe in all power apparatuses. Such an ideal condition is impossible to achieve in practice. and complete full-scale prototype apparatus (called development testing). High voltage testing is done by generating the voltages and measuring them in a laboratory. the design cannot be completely relied upon. elaborate insulation assemblies. considerable quantities of insulation must be used. A different approach to the problem is the exact calculation of dielectric strength of any insulation arrangement. for dielectrics of different electrical strengths. it is. The transient voltage distribution in. of course. in each region. Nevertheless it provides information on stress concentration factors the ratios of maximum local voltage gradients to the mean value in the adjacent regions of relatively uniform stress. However. An experimental assessment of the dielectric strength of insulation against the power frequency voltages and surge voltages. The transient high voltages or surge voltages originate in power systems due to lightning and Switching operations.SURGE VOLTAGES. on less complex assemblies. due to the practical limitations of construction. Generally. and to take into account their durations especially when they are less than one microsecond. unless experimentally tested. In an ideal design each part of the dielectric would be uniformly stressed at the maximum value which it will safely withstand. although expensive. such data can be very useful. When high voltage testing is done on component parts. such data can never really be complete to cover all future designs and necessitates use of large factors of safety. it is possible to build up a considerable stock of design information. at any instant of time after the application of an impulse. 383 . necessary to consider the maximum voltage differences occurring. Improvements can be effected in the following ways: 1.

Transmission line pulse formers. and by selection of materials of appropriate permittivity to obtain more uniform voltage gradients.). or a HV power supply and a large series resistor to limit the charging current. A standard waveform for lightning impulse testing would be a 2/50. The most common way to describe the waveform is by it's rise and fall times. either parasitic or added for pulse shape control R2 . etc. Often. Practical considerations usually dictate that more sophisticated means be used (like Marx generators. the discharge of the storage and load capacitance. Capacitor Discharge Impulse Generators This is the simplest means of generating a high voltage impulse in a load. where the load voltage reaches its peak in 2 microseconds.A Switch to apply the energy to the load R1 and L Series resistance and/or inductance. either a current limited HV power supply and a Switch to connect it to the capacitor. The circuit above has all the essential components: Echg . 384 .A capacitor to store the energy. reflecting the charging of the load capacitance and then. this is not a valid assumption). and the decay to half the peak voltage takes 50 microseconds. Cs . Impulse Transformers.Load resistance Cload . by insertion of higher dielectric strength insulation at high stress points. the output of a capacitive impulse generator can be represented by a pair of exponentials. but the basic capacitor discharge circuit is a good place to start.2.Load capacitance Waveforms and the effect of resistances and inductances Assuming the parasitic inductances are small (often. S .A means of charging the capacitor.

the capacitor is used to store the energy to be used for the impulse. stored energy) are marked on the label. The generally high (tens of kHz) Switching frequency reduces the stored energy in the supply. Some form of current limiting is necessary because the capacitor looks like a dead short when fully discharged. The manufacturer then tests them. and the stored energy. with the triggered spark gap being very popular. Fruengel recommends the use of a voltage multiplier (Cockroft-Walton type). A resistive current limiter is simple. Switching power supplies have become popular for capacitor charging. They can also detect faults and shut down the supply if an arc develops or a capacitor fails (shorted) during charging. consisting of contacts that are closed by some means such as a spring. reducing the power lost compared to a series resistor RC scheme. although in some applications. and their actual characteristics (capacitance. the capacitor should have low parasitic inductance. The current limiting is often in the form of a series impedance. which enhances safety and reduces the chances of a flashover arc developing. Switchers as capacitor chargers In recent years. air cylinder. solenoid. or other actuator. 385 . because it has a hyperbolic voltage/current characteristic that lends itself to capacitor charging. The first is those that are primarily mechanical in nature. in the form of leakage inductance in the Transformer). The impedance be either inductive or resistive and can either be in the primary side of the Transformer or the secondary (or be in sort of both. a logical outgrowth of this trend is the use of Switching power supplies. Resistive losses also result in lower efficiency and slower rise times. Since fast rise times are usually desired. Switches The Switches for an impulse generator fall into two general categories. HV power supply manufacturers such as Maxwell have power supplies designed specifically for charging capacitors. but are more susceptible to unwanted resonance effects.Energy Discharge Capacitors In these systems. although raising the input frequency reduces the size of capacitor required. A resonant charging scheme using a diode and an inductor is very popular for capacitor discharge circuits that are fired repeatedly. Inductive current limiters don't have the power dissipation problem of a resistor. The disadvantage is that there is significant stored energy in the capacitor stack of the multiplier. Capacitor Charging considerations The rectified output of a high voltage Transformer is probably the simplest system used for charging the capacitor. In fact. They can provide a constant charging current. particularly with parasitic reactance's. devices such as SCR's are used. Commercial energy storage capacitors are designed to a specific capacitance. being equal to the stored energy in the capacitor. The second is those that have no moving parts. but the energy dissipated in the resistor is signficant.

and so. The Fitch circuit is becoming popular where very good control over impulse voltage is required. as described below). Furthermore. the charging resistors should be about 20-40 kohms (corresponding to an arc current of 5 to 10 Amps). The discharge through the charging resistors sets an upper bound on the impulse fall time. although usually. <figure here> Marx Generators A Marx Generator is a clever way of charging a number of capacitors in parallel. For example. The stage capacitors charge through the charging resistors (Rc). A typical charging current would be in the 50-100 mA range.e. and so forth. the impulse fall time is set by external resistors in parallel with the load (or integrated into the generator. Marx generators are probably the most common way of generating high voltage impulses for testing when the voltage level required is higher than available charging supply voltages. which then puts the bottom three capacitors in series. either the lowest gap is allowed to breakdown from over voltage or it is triggered by an external source (if the gap spacing is set greater than the charging voltage breakdown spacing). 10 stages). This effectively puts the bottom two capacitors in series. a desired output voltage of 1 MV (i. When fully charged. the diodes in the bridge will be forward biased in parallel with the capacitor. If the capacitors were 1 uF. then the discharge time constant 386 . How it works The charging voltage is applied to the system. above about 200 kV. However. This process is referred to as "erecting". and the resulting high peak currents will most likely destroy the diodes. Marx in 1924. then discharging them in series. The charging resistors are chosen to provide a typical charging time constant of several seconds. A common specification is the erected capacitance of the bank. which overvoltages the next gap. The resistors are sometimes called "feed forward" resistors for this reason. a currrent limited HV Transformer feeding a bridge rectifier is a convenient way to charge a capacitor. should be chosen to provide a current of 5-10 amps through the gap. equal to the stage capacitance divided by the number of stages. the discharge capacitor becomes very expensive and bulky. For instance. Originally described by E.Watch out for voltage reversals during discharge The system for charging should take into account the voltage reversal on the storage capacitor if any. with a stage voltage of 100 kV. over voltage the next gap up. The charging resistors also provide a current path to keep the arc in the spark gaps alive. if the capacitor discharge waveform has any voltage reversal.

Design enhancements and considerations Charging with a constant current source If the Marx generator is charged from a constant voltage source. A design from Maxwell labs uses a series of resistors to apply the trigger impulse to all the gaps. the energy dissipated in the charging resistors will be equal to that stored in the Marx capacitors. These delays also result in an overall longer rise time for the impulse. this energy loss can be substantially reduced.would be 20 milliseconds. equal to the stored energy in the capacitors. If a constant voltage charging source is used. reducing their jitter.. or using enclosed spark gaps. as illustrated in the following figure. As voltages get higher. At a charging current of 50 mA. much longer than the 50 microsecond time constant of the standard test impulse. Craggs and Meek also report the use of radioactive sources included within the gap electrodes to reduce the jitter. Tests reported in Craggs and Meek showed that obstructing the UV led to greatly increased jitter in the bank output. This allows the UV from bottom gap to irradiate the upper gaps. it gets harder to build practical resistors with low parasitic inductance that will also withstand the full impulse voltage. rather than relying on the over voltage of the upper gaps to fire them. The traditional Marx generator operating in air has all the gaps in a line with the electrodes operating horizontally opposed. If the jitter in the gaps is reduced. the overall performance is improved. 387 . the shape of the pulse is controlled by external impedances (usually resistors) at the "output" of the pulse generator. it would take at least 20 seconds to charge the entire stack. Reducing the jitter If the gaps in the Marx generator don't all fire at exactly the same time. If the bank is charged with a constant current source. significant energy is dissipated in the charging resistors. the leading edge of the impulse will have steps and glitches as the gaps fire. For a Marx generator which is immersed in oil. resistor or capacitor networks can be used to propagate the trigger pulse to all the gaps. Laser irradiation or triggering of the gaps could also be used. which they attribute to the lack of UV irradiation on the upper gaps. The usual remedy for this is to include the wave-shaping resistors in the Marx bank itself. This example generator would have a stored energy of 5 kJ/stage or 50 kJ for the total system. much. Integrating the wave shaping resistors into the generator In the classic capacitor discharge impulse generator.

The Fitch circuit Fitch Impulse Generators The Fitch circuit is used when better control of the impulse voltage is required than can be provided by the Marx circuit.Other Switching devices The Marx technique has been used to generate impulses of several kilovolts from a relatively low charging source using avalanche transistors as the Switching device instead of a spark gap. 388 . For the solid state Marx generator running at a few kV described above. this isn't as much of a problem as it would be for a megavolt range lightning impulse simulator. Inductors as the charging impedances The charging resistors can be replaced by inductors. The charging impedance has to withstand the full output voltage for the top stage. eliminating the power loss in the resistors. the resistors need to be chosen to keep the transistor turned on. In this case. the capacitors can be charged in parallel from a common source through a series resistor or inductor. Alternate charging schemes Particularly for lower output voltages.

High Voltage Safety Contents 1. Electrical Hazards, Fuses and Safety Switches 2. Burns 3. Induction Field Effects 4. Ozone, Nitrites, and Vapors 5. Ultraviolet Light and X-ray Production 6. Radio Frequency Interference 7. Fire Hazards 8. Chemical Hazards 9. Explosion Hazards 10. Noise Hazards 11. Neighbors, The Spouse, and Children 12. Other 1.0) Electrical Hazards, Fuses and Safety Switches The risk of death or injury is significant in many high voltage, and particularly high energy systems. The following general guidelines are suggested: 1. Turn off the power before touching part of high voltage system, or even getting close. A key Switch or lockout device 2. High voltage capacitors may hold a charge long after power is turned off. Always discharge capacitors and keep them shorted in storage or when working on them.. Even after being shorted, a capacitor can regain significant voltage when open circuited. Ideally, the system should be designed so that the capacitor shorting is failsafe. 3. Make sure the metal cases of Transformers, motors, control panels and other items should be properly grounded. 4. Keep a safe distance from energized, or potentially energized components. OSHA guidelines provide for the following distances. Don't move conductive objects too close to energized components 5. Use adequate fusing of the power and/or Circuit Breakers to limit the maximum current 6. Spend some time laying out your circuits. Hot glue, electrical tape and exposed wiring are quick and easy, but could be lethal. Information about electricity and humans Lightning kills about 300 people each year in the United States, and injures an additional three to four times this number. (Sorry, I have no data for the rest of the planet.) More than one thousand people are killed each year in the U.S. due to generated electric current, and several thousand more are injured. (This would include potential tesla coilers.) In the case of lightning, the voltage and current are extremely high, but the duration is short. The current tends to flow on the outside of the body and may cause burns, respiratory arrest and/or cardiac arrest. Many die from lightning due to respiratory arrest rather than cardiac arrest. (The portion of the brain controlling breathing is often severely affected in a lightning strike.) Power line 389

deaths usually involve lower voltages and currents, but the duration may be significant. Often the current flows inside the body, causing deep burns and cardiac arrest. Frequently, the individual cannot let go of the power source due to involuntary muscle contraction. The brain and heart are the most sensitive organs. The dose response for animal and human data suggest the following: for less than 10 mA hand to foot of 50-60 cycle line current, the person merely feels a "funny" sensation; for currents above 10 mA, the person freezes to the circuit and is unable to let go; For currents of 100 mA to one ampere, the likelihood of sudden death is greatest. Above one ampere, the heart is thrown into a single contraction, and internal heating becomes significant. The individual may be thrown free of the power source, but may go into respiratory and/or cardiac arrest. Six factors determine the outcome of human contact with electrical current: voltage, amperage, resistance, frequency, duration and pathway. I will discuss each individually. Voltage Low voltages generally do not cause sudden death unless the external resistance is low (so don't fire up your coil in wet areas). As the voltage is increased, more and more current passes through the body, possibly causing damage to the brain, heart, or causing involuntary muscle contractions. Perhaps 100-250 volts A. C. is the most lethal voltage, because it is high enough to cause significant current flow through the body, and may cause muscles to contract tightly, rendering the victim incapable of letting go. Lower voltages often are insufficient to cause enough current flow, and higher voltages may cause the victim to be thrown clear of the hazard due to the particularly fierce involuntary muscle contractions. Arcing may occur with high voltages, however. Naturally, burns become more severe as the voltage is increased. Amperage Greater amperage means greater damage, especially due to heating within tissues. As little as 10 micro amps of current passing directly through the heart can cause ventricular fibrillation (heart muscle fibers beat out of sync, so no blood is pumped) and cardiac arrest. Because of the air filled lungs, much of the current passing through the chest may potentially pass through the heart. The spinal cord may also be affected, altering respiration control. 100-1000 milliamperes is sufficient to induce respiratory arrest and/or cardiac arrest. Thermal heating of tissues increases with the square of the current (I2R), so high current levels can cause severe burns, which may be internal. Resistance A heavily callused dry palm may have a resistance of 1 megohm. A thin, wet palm may register 100 ohms of resistance. Resistance is lower in children. Different body tissues exhibit a range of resistances. Nerves, arteries and muscle are low in resistance. Bone, fat and tendon are relatively high in resistance. Across the chest of an average adult, the resistance is about 70-100 ohms. Thermal burns due to I2R losses in the body can be significant, resulting in the loss of life or limb long after the initial incident. A limb diameter determines the approximate "cross section" which the 390

current will flow through, (for moderate voltages and low frequencies). As a result, a current passing through the arm generates more temperature rise and causes more thermal damage than when passing through the abdomen. Frequency The "skin effect" also applies to a human conductor, and as the frequency gets above about 500 kHz or so, little energy passes through the internal organs. (I unfortunately have little data in the 50-250 kHz range, where we operate most tesla coils. I'll check another reference I have at home.) At a given voltage, 50-60 A.C. current has a much greater ability to cause ventricular fibrillation than D.C. current. In addition, at 50-60 Hz, involuntary muscle contractions may be so severe that the individual cannot let go of the power source. Higher frequencies are less able to cause these involuntary contractions. Duration Obviously, the longer the duration, the more severe the internal heating of tissues. Duration is particularly a problem when working with 110-240 volts A.C., which can render the individual incapable of letting go. Pathway If the current passes through the brain or heart, the likelihood of a lethal dose increases significantly. For example, hand to hand current flow carries a 60% mortality, whereas hand to foot current flow results in 20% overall mortality. Be aware that foot to foot conduction can also occur, if a high voltage lead is inadvertently stepped on or if grounding is inadequate. Electrical Precautions Obviously, the A.C. line voltage, the high voltage Transformer and the high voltage R.F. generated by a tesla coil are each potentially lethal in their own unique ways. One must always respect this extreme danger and use high voltage shielding, contactors, safety interlocks, careful R.F. and A.C. grounding, and safe operating procedures when working with coils. A safety key to prevent inexperienced operators from energizing a coil is essential. High voltage capacitors can also retain lethal energies (especially in the "equidrive" configuration) and should always be grounded before adjusting a primary. Whenever possible, have a buddy around to assist you. Place one hand in your pocket when near electrical components so the current won't pass through your chest, and use the back of your hand to touch any electrical components so you can let go if it happens to bite you. Remember that most deaths are caused by regular 110 A.C. power! Never perform coiling when overtired or under the influence of mind altering drugs. Watch a tesla video instead!


More Tesla coils electrical danger information The previous article mentioned some of them in a general electrical hazard context, while this article will attempt to discuss the dangers from a tesla coil point of view. Electrical Dangers Exposed wiring on Transformers. Most Transformers have exposed high voltage lugs. Most neon sign Transformers that I have seen used for tesla coil usage have exposed lugs. A 15000 volt Transformer has a turn ratio of 125:1 (assuming 120 volts in). If you haven't disconnected your input power from the source (unplugged your variac), you may be in for a surprise. A variac that is putting out two volts will give you a 250 volt shock if you touch the high voltage outputs of the neon sign Transformer! Pole pigs (also known as distribution Transformers, such as the one that is probably hanging on a utility pole near your home) have the same dangers as mentioned above, as well as having much more current available. At the output voltage of a pole pig, the current that can go through you is not really limited by anything other than the current regulation that you attached to the pig. Once I shocked myself with one end (7500 volts) of a 60 mA. neon sign Transformer. I just brushed against an exposed end, so I wasn't gripping anything. It was quite painful, much more so than touching a sparkplug wire. I felt the path of the current follow my arm, and go down my leg. Keep one hand in your pocket when working near or with charged items. (Capacitors, secondary coils, etc.) Richard Hull's "Tesla Coil Primer" tape has some excellent safety suggestions in it, is entertaining, informative, and well worth the money. One of his best suggestions is the one of holding the power plug to the power Transformer in your hand whenever you are putting your hands around the circuit. The transmission line between your high voltage Transformer and your tesla coil is another potential source of electrocution. This should be constructed using neon sign wiring (rated to 40 kV) or thick coaxial cable like RG-8A/U or RG-11A/U. If using coaxial cable, use the inner conductor for the high voltage, and strip back the outer braid about 6-12 inches from each end. Connect one end of the braid to your RF ground. Leave the other end unconnected so it does not form a current loop. Some coilers also place their high voltage cables inside a plastic conduit, which is laid on the floor. This also protects the cable somewhat from strikes. Charged capacitors. "Equidrive" systems will almost always have a residual charge remaining on the capacitor when the system is turned off. The "equidrive" system uses two capacitors in the primary coil circuit. The gap is across the Transformer, and the capacitors extend from the gap to each side of the primary coil. Even with the gap shorted, the capacitors can hold a lethal voltage. If you use this configuration, make yourself a shorting rod using a piece of copper tubing or wire with an insulating handle attached, and always short out each capacitor at the end of each run, and again each time you plan to touch the primary system.


Capacitors can also build up a residual charge from electrostatic sources. Capacitors have been known to accumulate a charge from various sources such as static electricity and electric fields. IF YOU STORE A CAPACITOR, STORE IT WITH A WIRE ACROSS THE TERMINALS. (MAKE SURE YOU DISCHARGE THE CAPACITOR BEFORE PUTTING THE WIRE ON!!!) Capacitors can "regain" charge from dielectric "memory". The dielectric in a capacitor is put under electrical stress during use. During operation, this stress may cause the molecules in the dielectric to orient themselves in such a manner that they store this charge in their structure. The charge remains after the capacitor has been discharged. Later the molecules return to their original states and the charge that they "captured" ends up on the plates of the capacitor. This charge is then available to shock you. Other sources of danger You are literally playing Russian Roulette when you stick a hand held metal rod into the output streamer of your coil running at 3kvA, while standing on a concrete floor!!! When you start running these kind of power levels (or even less) some coils have a tendency to form a corona or even send a streamer down to their own primaries every once in a while. A grounded strike ring is often added around the primary to try to prevent this self striking streamer from hitting the primary coil and thus introducing a high voltage pulse into the 'bottom end electronics' where it could do damage to components. These strike rails are not 100% effective. The streamer can still, and sometimes does strike a point downstairs that is part of the LETHAL high voltage 60 Hz circuitry. When such a contact is made, any person also connected to a corona/streamer link to the secondary at the same time will, via the ionized air path, become connected to lethal 60 Hz mains current. You could try the trick you described standing on the cement floor in your tennis shoes half a dozen times and live, or be killed the very next time you try it. The fact that the bottom of your secondary is tied to ground will not save you! If you isolate your own body well away from the floor and any other potentially conductive objects in the vicinity, such as sitting or standing on an elevated insulated platform (I would NOT consider a plastic milk crate adequate!), then you will probably survive if 60 Hz is introduced into the streamer you are in contact with by the mechanism described above. However, in setting up this insulated platform you must consider the path that may be taken from streamers that will re-emerge from your body and head off looking for other targets, which could result in direct contact with earth ground again. In a safety warning I have about the potential hazards of Tesla coils mention is made of a stage lecturer while demonstrating how he could cause long sparks to come out of his fingers (by standing on a specially constructed coil), was electrocuted when the discharge created an ionized path to grounded overhead pipes supporting stage back drops, and the lower voltage but far more deadly 60 cycle current passed through his body along that path. The name of this lecturer is believed to be Transtrom.


like test equipment. as any solid conducting metal objeCT's I cringe when I hear of some body contact stunts proposed by people on this list! The potential (no pun intended) for death is very real. Currents may be induced anywhere in the building. or before spark breakout.. and make sure it is properly connected before firing any coil of substantial size. The end result is generally bad. I felt an uncomfortable 60 Hz shock through my entire body. 394 . This can result in induced currents in other conductors.I was dinking around once with a vacuum tube coil drawing 15 inch streamers to a hand-held. Bear in mind that if a radio frequency arc starts from a place which also has 60 cycles on it (one side of a primary circuit. and metal structures in the facility. significant amounts of RF may be produced if the grounding is poor. Turn off computers and sensitive test equipment.. That could be deadly. Back to contents 2. Construct a dedicated RF ground. Remember.0) Induction Field Effects Tesla coils operate in a pulsed mode. the heating effects may be mostly internal. Had that resistor been a solid metal rod I would have experienced a very painful jolt or worse. I think the danger of electrocution is just as real by making contact with a hand held florescent lamp tube. 10 megohm metal film porcelain resistor about a foot long while standing on a carpeted. especially due to RF discharges from the secondary. If you foolishly choose to use your house electrical ground as your RF ground. use grounds and cages as appropriate. Fire from other induced currents. you are asking for trouble.. Stay out of the immediate vicinity of a tesla coil. if you do get zapped by a large coil system. 3. In addition. I'd probably be 'worm food'. elevated wooden floor in composition rubber soled dry shoes.0) Burns Tesla coils can cause burns. and had I been standing on a cement floor. Be EXTREMELY careful! Another viewpoint The 60 cycle side of things is where electrocution can happen. for example) there is the possibility of high-current 60 cycle conduction along the ionized path. and strong electric and magnetic fields are locally produced. and voltage standing waves along the wiring may destroy electronics far from the coil location. causing lasting damage! Also remember that spark gaps and rotaries get hot and are a potential source of burns. I inadvertently got the resistor too close to the primary tank coil (the top end directly connected to the 3 kilovolt output of the plate supply Transformer) and the high voltage RF closed a path to the primary. Keep well away from any 60 cycle leads. and move it away from the vicinity of your coils. nearby computers and electronics..

The strike caused the opener to attempt to open the already open door. Strikes to garage door opener rails. The door is connected to the opener track so the opener got zapped too. significant static charges can build up on the secondary. I was able to unplug the opener and keep the thing from smoking. Electric fields inducing currents and killing sensitive meters. My garage door got zapped by my coil. Consider what happens when your coil strikes the grounded strike rail. etc. More than one person on the list has replaced their opener as a result of their coiling activity. Notice that your stereo. If you need to move the secondary (say you are adjusting the coupling). Consider purchasing a cheap volt-ohmeter (VOM) with an analog meter movement.also goes to power(?) A tesla coil must be connected to a ground that is separate from the house ground or water pipes. a spark is a conducting path in the atmosphere. it causes sparks to jump between the running hardware of the door and the tracks. Before you touch the secondary. you open your electrical system up to connections among the 120/220v house system and ground. Since many people do their coiling in the garage. Beware of metal things that are connected to the same ground as a tesla coil. You can sometimes hear the crackling as you do so. It is likely grounded to the water pipes. The tracks are against the concrete floor. which has a wooden door on metal tracks. Besides the shock hazard. By creating this path. I run my coil in my garage. When the coil operates. You will likely drop the secondary or jump onto something that isn't soft. VCR. you may get a nasty zap right across your chest when you pick it up with both hands. An untested suggestion is to put a grounded wire underneath the rail and opener to draw the sparks to the wire. and near the strap that serves as a ground for my coil. For example. or an unexpectedly long spark that hits an electrical receptacle. Furthermore. computer. that allows you to disconnect the opener from the house power. there is the physical hazard caused by the shock. such as a Switch or plug and socket. the opener started binding. Solid state instruments are much more susceptible to damage from being near tesla coils than are vacuum tube items. you should put in a mechanism.Tesla coils are good at inducing currents. A used vacuum tube 395 . this topic deserves individual consideration. wipe it lightly with a grounded wire.sensitive. or are installing one. note where your telephone box is grounded.. Connecting your coil to either of these grounds is a recipe for disaster. have three prong plugs. Oddly enough sensitive meters and measuring equipment are just that -. Be warned of the dangers to the equipment. If will survive in places many digital units will not. Also. Hazards to electronics Strikes to house electrical ground -. That enormous voltage at high frequency will now be connected to the grounds of all your electronic goodies or your telephone. Static charges During the operation of the tesla coil. If you have a garage door opener. Since the door couldn't go any further.

X-ray Production A number of vacuum tubes work pretty well as X-ray tubes. There have been anecdotal references to people becoming ill due to ozone toxicity. people. use welder's glasses. nitrites. The human eye has no pain sensors within it. The arc is so bright that you couldn't make out any detail anyway. Make sure ventilation is adequate at all times. etc. Turn off and unplug computers in your house. 4. it does help out the ozone layer!) When constructing secondaries. The flux from solder is also potentially hazardous. The long term bioeffects are unknown. and probably a host of other potentially toxic substances. and other evacuated vessels are placed near a coil. 5. Good electrical practice Place your coil in a location that will prevent the strikes from hitting electrical outlets. The visible light is extremely bright.0) Ultraviolet Light and X-ray Production Ultraviolet light may be produced by the spark gap during operation of a tesla coil. and the ultraviolet light will damage your eyes. The source electrons are usually boiled off a heated filament (cathode). and can cause skin cancer. and accelerated toward an anode via some large potential difference. containing substantial amounts of hard ultraviolet light. especially if vacuum tubes. so the bioeffects are felt later. use adequate ventilation when coating coils with varnish. that will shield yourself and others. Although a number of coilers have tested their coils for x-ray radiation and found none present that is not to say that x-rays cannot be produced. X-rays are typically produced by slamming electrons into either the nuclei or inner shell electrons of atoms. animals. so why bother? If you must study your spark gap. any time the voltage gets above 10 kV. etc. As any professional arc welder will tell you "Don't Look At The Arc!" Spark gaps produce a large amount of UV and visible light.oscilloscope is also more likely to survive the tesla coil environment and can be obtained cheaply at hamfests. X-rays X-rays can be produced whenever there is a high voltage present. (Ever look at the sun for a while. light bulbs. Basically. typically 25-150 kV in the medical world. Some of these materials are also quite toxic. there is a significant risk of X-ray production. Do not operate a large coil in an enclosed area for long periods of time. 396 . Here is a little information about Xrays. Nitrites.0) Ozone. and Vapors A sparking tesla coil produces ozone. and several articles have appeared in Scientific American magazine in the distant past. and sensitive electrical equipment. cardboard. it is not too difficult to rig up a piece of plastic. when it is too late. and the risk increases with increasing voltages. (On the other hand. Generally. or watch a welder at work?) The light produced in a spark gap is essentially identical to that produced by an arc welder.

5 mm of aluminum equivalent material in the exit port. the percentage of radiation which will pass through 10 cm (about 4 inches) of water is 0. Hence. For the remainder of this discussion I will limit my comments to conventional X-ray tubes. whereby electrons escape a cold metal due to very high local electric fields (the Schottky effect).. although most of it applies to both forms. The low energy X-rays are filtered out of the spectrum before they enter the patient. and would contribute substantially to patient dose if allowed to reach the patient. Some of these low energy photons are absorbed by the tube housing.02% at 50 keV and 0. many more low energy X-rays are produced than high energy X-rays. housing and aluminum filter accounts for about 2.3. Concrete and steel also work pretty well.14% at 100 keV. Aluminum is a poor absorber of radiation. the tube. In a clinical X-ray machine. This effectively knocks out most of the low energy (<10 keV) radiation. This is to be avoided in general! Shielding The best materials are lead or depleted (nonradioactive) uranium. That is why we use 50-150 keV for many clinical procedures. There is an energy dependence here. unless the radiation is very low in energy. the tube is placed in a leaded shield with a window (hole) in it for the X-rays to escape through. usually through the use of an aluminum filter. 10% at 50 keV and 18% at 100 keV. Tungsten works well because of its high melting point (to absorb all that wasted heat energy). using a filament and anode. with 1-5% exiting the patient typically. X-ray Absorption High atomic number materials readily absorb x-ray radiation. which would be absorbed in the patient and could not contribute to producing an image anyway. which lets the high energy X-rays pass through with little attenuation (except possibly to give you enough contrast to see what you want). as high energy X-rays are more penetrating than low energy x-rays. Low energy X-rays (015 keV) are totally absorbed in human skin near the skin surface.C. Most plastics are similar to water in attenuating properties (quite poor). For example. so most of the energy is wasted as heat (typically about 99% with good X-ray tubes).04% at 20 keV. This was probably the type of emission obtained by an amateur described recently on the list. but becomes more transparent as the energy of the X-ray increases. The human body absorbs X-rays pretty readily (similar to water).You can also get some X-ray production via field emission. In conventional equipment. The graph of the number of X-rays produced (y-axis) versus X-ray energy (x-axis) has a negative slope with a Y=0 point at x = 100 keV. If the potential difference between the anode and cathode is +100 kV D. 397 . Compare this with 1 mm of lead (about 0. The target or anode is normally a high atomic number material like tungsten. a spectrum of X-rays will be produced with energies from zero to 100 keV. This window has a piece of aluminum over it to further attenuate the low energy X-rays. Most of the x-rays are absorbed in the patient.5 . X-ray production is relatively inefficient.04 inches). which transmits 0.

If you happen across an old Xray tube. humans have built in radiation repair mechanisms and can handle low doses of radiation quite well. Natural background radiation levels typically contribute 0. leukemia cataracts. etc. However. Bio-effects are not generally observed for doses of less than 25 rem. causing cancer. (Don't bother with the fire department if your apparatus is likely to upset them!) In addition. Regulations In the U. and is of limited value in the experimenters setting unless you can leave the equipment on for a long time to get adequate exposure. The standard method for monitoring radiation dose is via film badge and/or thermoluminescent dosimetry monitors.). They generally keep close tabs on clinical and industrial X-ray machines and aren't too impressed to see them in the hands of people without the appropriate licenses. In general. since many fire departments have radiation survey meters at their stations (in case we have a nearby nuclear explosion. The radiation source acts like a light bulb. please) so that it is inoperable. which means that the electrons can be stripped off of atoms when an x-ray is absorbed in a material. and a little safer to handle for show and tell (and much more acceptable to the regulators). Cloud chambers are great fun and can detect a variety of radiation particles.0. If you don't expect any radiation but still want to check. due to natural background radiation levels. This is generally bad in humans. use adequate shielding and minimize the exposure time. a cloud chamber can 398 .2 . Incidentally produced radiation from metal objects other than X-ray tubes will generally be at much lower production levels. Monitoring At this point I presume you are wondering how to tell if that great apparatus in your basement or garage is producing X-rays. film is quite insensitive to radiation. Most regulatory agencies recommend no more than 0. etc. but get easily overwhelmed by devices that put out even low radiation levels. Skin reddening occurs with doses of around 300 rem or so. This can be done by making a small hole in the glass envelope with a file. Hence. nearly every hospital has a radiation safety officer who is likely to be more than willing to take a look at your toys. The radiation from a well designed X-ray tube can be as high as 10-50 rem per minute of exposure. but should be avoided. at a distance of 1/2 meter.5 rem per year above background radiation levels for the general public. There are several ways to tell. (It goes without saying that you should always have your favorite towel handy anyway [for you Doug Adams fans]). and will bring a radiation survey meter along.5 rem per year. decreasing in intensity via the square law with distance. but these are not all that useful to the experimenter since they must be mailed back to the dosimetry lab for reading.S. nonetheless. First. and the direct disruption of chemical bonds.Hazards X-rays are capable of producing ionizations. This results in the production of chemically reactive free radicals. you might consider releasing the high vacuum inside (very carefully. Occupational radiation workers can get 5 rem per year above background. the individual states regulate X-ray machines. keeping the tube wrapped in a large quantity of towels for implosion protection during the process. go look for a surplus Geiger-Mueller counter at your local hamfest or make friends with someone in your local fire department. don't stand close to a possible radiation source.

Significant quantities of RF can also be produced if the RF grounding is inadequate. Make sure you operate your coil with a good RF ground. Finally. before spark breakout. RF transmitters are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission ( FCC). Obviously. My coils produce 3 to 5 foot sparks in magnifier and conventional forms using up to 15 kV input. Humans are not able to sense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation. always keep safety in mind with all of this equipment. Another possibility is to construct an electroscope and place it near your apparatus. causing them to swing apart due to repulsion of like charges. but can still produce a fair amount of RF. you can do anything you like.be used.5 kVA. he did say that modulation of the output is definitely illegal. If you think you are producing some. and other electronics. An electroscope measures the amount of charge using two thin metal foils which are charged up to a high potential. you don't want to get a survey meter too close to an operating tesla coil. These are relatively inexpensive and are very effective in keeping RF out of the house wiring. use an appropriate instrument to find out for sure. causing a loss of charge on the foils. Of course. Other Comments When I first got interested in tesla coils. and they generally aren't keen on any type of RF interference. X-rays and Tesla Coils I have monitored my various tesla coils using a number of different radiation instruments and have not seen measurable radiation levels. 6. Naturally. Buy a thorium doped lantern mantle at your local camping store to use as a radiation check source to make sure your chamber is working okay before you power up your equipment. dating back to the early days of radio. which should eliminate the interference. Legal dangers In the United States. Radiation ionizes the air in the electroscope chamber.0) Radio Frequency Interference Tesla coils are generally inefficient as antennas go. with power levels of no more than 1. This can cause interference with TV's. this type of equipment has limited utility in the direct vicinity of high voltage equipment if electric fields are significant. every tesla coil should be wired with a power line conditioner in series with the primary circuit. since that is likely where your problem is. especially if operated with a large top capacitance. 399 . I called the FCC to ask about the legal aspects of coiling. In addition. While the man that I talked to wasn't too sure about the potential interference. If interference still exists. if you shield your coil from emitting RF to the outside world. They have specific rules which prohibit the operation of spark gap type damped oscillators. construct a Faraday cage from chicken wire or similar material. If you note interference. radios. try to improve your ground first.

9.g.) Some forms of solder contain lead. Walls and ceilings can also be ignited. 7. corona discharge. take care to eliminate them if possible before they figure out who caused it. Depending on where they strike. and produce large quantities of toxic smoke. when operating your coil. In addition. etc. sawdust.0) Fire Hazards The danger of fires is substantial with tesla coils! Make sure you have a functional fire extinguisher designed for fighting electrical fires handy. Fires can be caused by an overheated spark gap.011 lb) 1/4-20 brass acorn nut used as an 400 . Remember that when you operate your coil. rotary gaps spin at high speeds. which is also generally bad for humans. to name a few causes. Gasoline on premises (mowers. A 5 gram (0. Fire starting from sparks to flammable points. most coilers use polyethylene and other plastics in constructing their coils.) Without a spark.) Be sure that when you run your coil. equipment failure (e. The sparks from a tesla coil are hot. ammunition. (This was due to a failed power line conditioner. Not a good combination for fighting a fire in your garage. varnish) may contain hazardous chemicals. these sparks can cause a fire. for a lawnmower). etc. Richard Hull has captured fires caused by sparks from his coils on video tape. but nearby flammables are also at risk. Use your favorite Web search engine with the key word MSDS'. This oil is a known carcinogen. that there are no flammable substances around. If you know about any. capacitors. The spinning rotor or disk is subjected to tremendous force.g. 8. the periphery of a 10" disk is subjected to a force of 1835 G's. what's a tesla coil? What's it take to ignite gasoline? Consider the location of gas cans. gas cans (e.0) Explosion Hazards Explosions can and do occur with tesla coils! The rotary gap and capacitors are the most frequent culprits. shorted Transformer). Rotary gaps During operation.. and other equipment. Consult a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for any materials you have questions about. (Many of these are available via Internet. so keep the fire extinguisher handy. lawnmowers.. etc.Try to be aware that your coil may cause various interference problems.0) Chemical Hazards Old capacitors and Transformers often used PCB oils for insulation. the materials used to coat coils (e. fireworks. These plastics ignite at relatively low temperatures.. it's usually in the dark with plenty of exposed high voltage wires. For example. At a modest 3600 RPM. induced currents.g. Similarly.

I prefer the roll up foam type myself. These pipes are used in the pyrotechnics industry as mortars because of their strength and the fact that they don't create shrapnel as steel or PVC pipes do. and large coils can damage one's hearing. often your neighbors will not see it that way. There are a wide variety of types of ear plugs and muffs. Just put them in a pants pocket (one that closes is best) and run the pants through the wash. The explosion danger in a capacitor occurs when it shorts out and suddenly produces a large volume of hot vaporized gas. so you will likely find one that works well and is comfortable. Be cognizant of your possibly unreasonable neighbors. Lexan (polycarbonate) is an excellent plastic for shielding.0) Noise Hazards Tesla coils produce a lot of noise. If you are on a tight budget (blew all the $$$'s on the pig). Hearing is important -. 401 . and Children While the beauty of a tesla coil firing outside is something to behold.electrode will exert a force of over 20 pounds. Since capacitors are usually in an airtight container.0) Neighbors. The shielding must be nearly bullet proof (literally). At 10000 RPM. Also. Attitudes are a lot different if a little common sense is used first. One recommended method of shielding capacitors is in an HDPE (High Density PolyEthylene) pipe. produces a loud noise. you will notice a dramatic increase in the noise level as it sparks. and do your work inside if possible. the volume of gas will cause the container to explode. The peripheral speed of the 10" disk is 107 MPH. and your local police will make a personal house call. Capacitors Capacitors are great at releasing energy very quickly.how will you tell if your teenager is mocking you behind your 11. strong. and tough. See the warnings in the previous paragraph. the air blast gap. you can wash the foam ear plugs. The best way to guard against this danger is to shield the rotor and build the entire system carefully and take pains to balance it. or invite them over and explain things before you start. Buy and use a set of ear muffs or ear plugs. sending pieces of solid cap guts and oil all over. One type of spark gap. Go to your local gun shop and buy ear protection if you operate large coils. Works great. avoid storing gasoline or other flammables near a tesla coil! 10. It is nonconductive. This noise is loud enough that it can damage hearing. Consult with your plastics dealer to determine what thickness you need. The Spouse. When a coil is in tune. the edge of the disk is running at about 300 MPH! All these numbers translate into one thing: Danger.

402 . innocent. which is inherently dangerous. watch a tesla video instead! Never operate a tesla coil while under the influence! Quaff the ales later during bragging hour. and assorted bits of plastic. and construct a safe high voltage transmission line to your coil. sleep is the most precious commodity that they have. Killing or injuring a child or pet. variac. Spend a little time to construct yourself a nice power cabinet with a safety Switch. (Note the similarity!) Their judgment isn't the greatest either. Also. ¨ Not everyone works 8am to 5pm. hot glue. be it yours or neighbors. Many coilers throw their systems together using electrical tape. have a buddy assist you. Drinking and coiling can be lethal! If you feel the need to consume some mind altering drugs. just to be safe. The layout of your apparatus is also a safety consideration. small pets Kids and small pets are quite curious. Remember the following: ¨ For new parents. not when you are actually working. install some sort of key lock on your power cabinet. and said neighbors could trace it to its source. ¨ Not everyone is tolerant or nice. ANY HOBBY!!!! Expect the wife to not understand! 11) Other Whenever possible. Most coilers prefer to operate their coils with the lights off. will most likely be the worst thing that will happen to you in your life.Coils are noisy Please consider your neighbor's sleep habits. and post your local emergency telephone numbers. The Spouse Another potential hazard is if the spouse thinks one is spending too much time on his or her hobby. A potential secondary hazard would be from enraged neighbors if radio or TV interference was generated often enough to be a nuisance. If things move around a bit during firing. the risk of something bad occurring is increased significantly. and ignorant. or whatever. Good citizenship will solve this problem (or a large building with a good RF ground and a batch of power line filters). Kids. If you have children and they have access to your coil. have your buddy learn CPR. This situation can be improved by having an assistant around to operate the lights and/or power Switch.

The easiest case to analyze is that of a sphere.87 0. as the charge will redistribute itself towards an adjacent conductor.72-0.67-0. it follows Paschen's law: the voltage is a function of pd.00 0.92 0. Double all the dimensions and halve the gas pressure.Corona Corona is caused by the electric field next to an object exceeding the breakdown value for air (or whatever it is immersed in). 403 .83-0. increasing the field.87-0. Put the sharp corner in something with a higher breakdown strength than air.88 1. unwashed Washed with grease solvent Scratch-brushed Buffed Dragged and dusty Weathered (5 months) Weathered at low humidity For general design 7 strand concentric lay cable 19.93 0.90 0.95 0. By making the high field occur within a substance with a higher breakdown than the surrounding air. Dust or water particles on the surface of the object reduce the corona starting voltage. corona can be reduced. Since the magnitude of the field is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature.74 0. and 61 strand concentric lay cable m0 0.91-0. The corona starting voltage is typically 30 kV/cm radius. Note that if the sphere is near another conductor. Since corona is fundamentally a breakdown phenomenon. Condition of Conductor New.85 Eliminating or reducing corona Smoothly radiusing the corners of objects at high voltages relative to nearby objects will reduce the local field strength. the field is no longer uniform.75 0. Corona Surface Factor The following table gives empirically determined correction factors for various surface conditions. sharper edges break down sooner. The trick here is to make sure that you have really got the replacement substance in contact with the conductor. probably by providing local areas of tighter curvature. 37.80-0. These factors are multiplied by the corona starting voltage (or field) to determine the corrected voltage. The magnitude of the electric field at the surface of a sphere in free space is simply the voltage/radius. and hence higher field stress. and the corona voltage will be pretty much the same.

and hence lowers the field strength. Furthermore to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the client that the foregoing work has been done and that the equipment functions as designed. Running the system in a tank at high pressure. A popular approach to reducing corona on wires is to surrounding the conductor by a semiconducting film or layer of greater radius. and Caton. a series of other conductors are interposed at intermediate voltages. You may not need a huge amount of copper to carry the required current (often micro or milliamps). All of the potting and immersion techniques depend on removing the air or gas bubbles to work. commissioning lists/methods. Commissioning The purpose of commissioning is to satisfy. Rather than rely the field that would exist in free space between two charged conductors. although the coating is quite thin. Commercial manufacturers pull a vacuum on the container while the assembly is being potted to facilitate the removal of the air bubbles. but you want the diameter of the conductor large enough to reduce the corona. silicone RTV is a more popular modern alternative) achieves the same result. supervision and direction of the commissioning teams and clients approval / acceptance.com The format of the commissioning teams will vary of course from contract to contract as the work content and demands change. Field grading rings are often used on high voltage equipment to control the electric field distribution. The intermediate voltages are derived from a capacitive or resistive divider. Experimenters building polyethylene and aluminum foil capacitors for tesla coils run them at low powers using the electrostatic forces between the plates to vibrate and pump the air bubbles out.sayedsaad. among others. The 'Commissioning Procedures' as detailed in this document will be carried out by 'Commissioning Teams' under the direction of the Principal Commissioning Engineer (PCE). Generically known as "corona dope". Immersing the assembly in oil or other insulating fluids will also work. this is an enamel or polystyrene paints or gels that you can apply. and clear nail polish has also been used. This effectively increases the radius of the object. or in an insulating gas. Clear acrylic spray paint is another alternative. drawings. The PCE will take overall responsibility for the documentation. Wire of this type is manufactured by Belden. Normally the PCE will be 404 . www. Rowe-Talley. Glyptal is one example. to pre-determined standards. Potting the entire assembly in an insulator (traditionally paraffin or sulfur were used. that all the equipment erection is correct and that all the equipment connections / cables have been installed in accordance with the approved erection drawings and diagrams. liaison with the client.Covering sharp corners with an insulating film increases the corona starting voltage at the points with high E-field stress. will increase the corona starting voltage. A capacitive divider may be a simple as the inter electrode capacitances of the grading rings themselves.

Inspection of the control and relay boards. To ensure that the commissioning procedures are carried out as effectively and efficiently as possible it is vital that co-operation and flexibility is paramount between the various personnel involved. Check the cooling fans operation. 7. Inspection of Circuit Breakers operating mechanism and its function particularly the ones operated by hydraulic or pneumatic system. www. 1. Circuit Breakers of the same rating shall be fully Interchangeable.sayedsaad. www.supported by one or more Senior Commissioning Engineers (SCE) who are authorized to deputies for the PCE in his absence.sayedsaad. www.com 2. The appropriate Factory Test Engineers (FTE) and any Subcontractor Commissioning Engineers (CE) will also form an essential part of the team. Inspection of the Circuit Breaker parts and its function. www. 5. Inspection of the operation & control circuits for the Circuit Breakers isolators and earthing Switches.com 3. It is not intended to cover the post-erection 'mechanical' checks that the (FTE's) carry out as part of their installation responsibility. Check the automatic tap changer operation. All Power Transformer kinds. 4. Check for the Transformer protection functions. viz erection engineers (factory and sub-contractor).sayedsaad.com To avoid any confusion in this respect this document covers all of the tests and checks that are genuinely considered part of the commissioning procedures to be carried out by the commissioning team and therefore under the direction of the PCE. 405 . commissioning engineers and clients' representatives. www. Check the Transformer oil level.sayedsaad. Commissioning High voltage equipment 1. 5. Circuit Breaker compartment. also SF6 gas pressure and other related works. factory test engineers. 2. 3.sayedsaad. Inspection of different compartments for every Switchgear bay including Bus-Bar compartment.com 6.com The 'Commissioning Procedures' document covers the normal operational and electrical pre-commissioning and commissioning test / checks. Check all valves of the Transformer are in the service position. Inspection of isolators & earthing Switches parts and its functions. Isolators & earthing Switches compartment and cable box compartment. 4.

alarms. either individual or parallel. Check the function of the Synchronizing equipment (if applicable) for closing or blocking the closing in case of not Synchronized system. Inspection of the LT board and ensure the function of Circuit Breakers and isolators. Check that the test / service Switches function and all the Switches are in the service position. 6.sayedsaad. 8. All wires should be provided with ferrules and coloring code. and GIS sectional drawing. 1. 6.com • Protection equipment. settings and related alarms & signals. Inspection of the batteries and its chargers function.sayedsaad. 5. instruction manuals and as built marked up drawings. Inspection of the local Transformers and ensure the related parts healthiness. 3. 406 1. Confirm the receipt of complete copies from test result sheets. Inspection of the pilot cable marshalling cabinets and confirm all wires connection with clear identifications 4. 6Inspection of the power cables tails (for feeders and Transformers) and its related oil gauges and to confirm its function. Inspection of substation main earthing system and connection of all equipment to the earth. Auxiliaries and other equipment. also to confirm its service settings. 7. fire resistant coating and all other related works.6. operation instruction (if necessary). Check that all alarms and signals of the substation are received and connected to control center. Check that the equipment healthiness & nothing abnormal to block its function and the relay service settings are adopted.com 5. 2. Check that the service settings are adopted for oil temperature & winding temperature instruments. Check the function of the tap changer automatic voltage regulator. Inspection of the fire fighting equipment and confirm 'its function. Check that each bay is provided with main and back up protection relays. www. 7. Checks the function of the auto reclosure equipment (if applicable) and the intertrip equipment. 2. Inspection of control center communication and telemetry equipment. also service tap position adjustment for manual tap changer. www. 3. 4. . Confirm the availability of nameplates & labels (for all panels & Transformers at different location of control & relay boards and equipment). General inspection of all Transformers parts to ensure its healthy condition. tank pits. Inspection of the air compressors and its function. settings. single line diagram. General note. 7.

com 407 . Internal Panel Wiring Compliance Visual Check Internal Panel Wiring/Devices Insulation Check D.C. which should be supplied with the equipment and are necessary for the equipment operation and testing. Standard earthing tests are carried out during the erection stage by the erection staff..C.Check the availability of special operating tools. a copy of the results obtained must be submitted to the PCE for his approval and retention. when they will be witnessed by the client. All devices shall be checked to see that they are clearly numbered/identified in accordance with the general arrangement drawings and that the phases are marked where appropriate. 2.Visual Check and Inspection of all Electrical Equipment A visual check will be carried out on all electrical equipment.com PRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS AND CHECKS 1. 2. Supply Checks Scheme Checks (Positive and Negative Rail Principle) All relays will be visually checked to see that there is no packing. 3. www. 5.sayedsaad. and to be located at suitable places. metal swarf. dirt. All control and relay panels. 4. local control panels. to determine that no transit/erection damage has occurred (or where this has happened that satisfactory rectification work has been done). On completion of these tests.sayedsaad. www. Check the availability of the keys for control & relay panels and different equipment padlocks. Switchgear and electrical devices will be internally checked for compliance with the approved drawings and approved connection wiring diagrams. present in the magnet gaps or on the contacts. etc. These are to be provided in keyboards with proper identification labels & Nos. Supply Checks A.Earthing An earth survey is carried out for each substation at the beginning of the contract in order to obtain a value for the site earth resistivity which is required as part of the Earthing design brief. This should be witnessed and signed by Owner. These tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage by the erection staff in liaison with a commissioning team member. The tests carried out in order to satisfy the above will be: 1. internally and externally. All connections will be checked for tightness on the relays and at all other wiring terminations including the terminal blocks.

The tests that are carried out at this stage will be to determine that the batteries and chargers are functioning correctly. Air and Gas Leakage Tests 6. miniature Circuit Breakers..Conductivity Tests 2. Mechanical and Local Electrical Operational Checks 5. Insulation checks will be made using a 500V Megger on each bus wire to earth and from each bus wire to all others. 5 . The responsibility for carrying out the above will be taken by a SCE. so that their performance can be relied upon during the commissioning of the rest of the substation equipment. Circuit Breaker . The tests conducted are: 1. open or removed at a) the source of supply and b) all incoming and outgoing circuit panels and Switchgear. Bus-Bar and Connections . including the time-consuming discharge tests. (These tests on the multi-core cables although done at the pre-commissioning stage to sort out any obvious problems will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage). links. within the recommended tolerances.com 6. www.Contact Timing Tests 4.com 4. www. These checks should be carried out with all individual fuses. The actual acceptance tests. SF6 Gas Pressure Switch Setting Check 7.sayedsaad. The insulation resistance will be measured using a 1000V megger after all the multi-core cables have been connected to the erected equipment.132kV GIS Site Tests These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report.Bus Wiring All inter-panel bus wiring will be tested and checked in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams.3. are carried out towards the end of the commissioning programme. etc. Compressed Air System Sequence Checks 408 . to be witnessed by the client.Contact Resistance Checks 3.Multi-Core Cables All multi-core cables will be tested and checked in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams. Circuit Breaker .Batteries and Chargers The batteries and chargers will be checked to see that they have been erected / assembled correctly in accordance with the manufacturers recommended procedures.sayedsaad.

Insulation test 2. Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to the protection in the same polarity. Resistance Test 4.com COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS 1.132/11. The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed. 409 . Flick Test 3.sayedsaad. 2. Oil Tests. All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary winding resistances measured.5kV 30 MVA Transformer Site Tests The Transformers are inspected and tested in accordance with the factory check sheets for Transformer installation.sayedsaad.2 2.275.sayedsaad. Insulation Test 2. As well as detailed inspection this also includes oil testing. Saturation Test Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit. Flick Test The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test. The flick test results should be compared with those expected from the schematic diagrams.132 and 66kV VT Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. 8.com Winding Insulation Level. www.132 and 66kV CT Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. www. 220. These tests will also be done on CT's mounted in Transformer bushings. The tests conducted are:(1) (2) (3) (4) Visual Checks.com Oil / Winding Temperature Gauge Calibration Fan Control Sequence Test.275.7. tests where practical will be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged overlap of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual inspection b) a continuity test. 220.Shunt Reactor These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report. www.

and the differential relay proved to operate for phase-phase. serial number. Bus zone protection. 4 . 3. 2. The group of CT's of each circuit shall be checked for correct ratio and polarity.275. transducers and meters are operating and measuring correctly. and its setting range shall be recorded. Reversal of the current polarity proves the stability of the protection. 410 . Each group of CT's should then be checked against the bus section/coupler CT's of the same zone of protection for out of zone stability by measuring spill currents.132 and 66kV Primary Injection Tests these tests carried out will be: 1. Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a. Earth fault relays shall be checked for spill Current when injecting phase to phase and minimum operation. Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting. All relays and instruments will be proved to be wired in the correct phases. The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which the primary injection checks were made on the CT's. The two groups of CTs. 4. When the Transformer is energies. CT shorting Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting contacts checked. (one on the 132 kV side and one on the 11kV side of the Transformer) should each be proved for ratio and polarity. and phaseearth fault injection on each side of the Transformer.3. on load tests will be used to prove stability.c. 5. 220. Transformer biased differential protection. Directional Over current Protection Operation of the protection will be tested by primary injection of current and voltage simulating the fault direction. 6. All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing.Secondary Injection Tests The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays.' injection into the relay coils to prove that the relay calibration is correct A record of the relay type. CT Ratio and Polarity Test Busbar Inter-Group CT Ratio and Polarity TestsRelay Operation Tests Busbar Protection Operation and Stability Tests Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests Directional Over current Operation and Stability Tests Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity with reference to other CTs in its group.

Tripping Tests Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams. For instantaneous relays the operating current or voltage and the drop off value shall be recorded. the minimum starting current for which the relay will close its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. five times and ten times setting current. Alarm Sequence Tests 7.132 and 66kV GIS Operational Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. 220. The resetting time of the disc shall be recorded. prove the directional feature of the relay. The results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the manufacturer.g.275. Electrical Interlocks of above 4. Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2 points (setting point + 1 other point). Distance protection relays will require current and voltage of varying magnitude injected into them to simulate different values of fault impedance and "on-load" checks will be required to. 5. Local and Remote Indications of above 3. The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip Switches from all positions. the flag should operate just before the contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with the operation of the relay. For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag. These results should be carried out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not known). The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at i scale and full scale by current and/or voltage injection with varying phase angle as required. and the time of operation for a current injection of twice. Local and Remote Operations of all Isolators. Differential Relays (e. Synchronizing Sequence Tests (including secondary injection of voltage selection scheme) 5. disconnecting Switches (line Switches). for all Circuit Breakers. Directional elements of inverse time O / C and E / F relays will require secondary injection of current and voltage of varying phase angle between them to determine the operation and stability zone. Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests 6. Earth Switches and Circuit Breakers 2. 411 . Transformer biased differential or pilot wire relays will require "on-load" checks to prove their stability) in addition to secondary injection tests.For inverse time relays.

ground Switches (earth Switches). isolator. The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the protective gear schematic diagrams. lock-out relay operation and any others. 132/11. Tripping initiated by each relay in a protection scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out to prove that the link is connected and labeled correctly. Synchronizing Sequence Tests will be made by secondary injection of voltage at the " VT test terminals" on the. The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact or initiating device at source and observing Circuit Breaker tripping. or otherwise by simulation. and Elec. Operation of each Circuit Breaker. Winding temperature tripping and alarms shall be proved by operating the appropriate initiating Switches.) Operation of Protective Devices Load drop compensation and winding temperature CTs mounted in the trans-former should be proved to be in the correct phase and have the correct ratio where practicable. The cooler control ON and OFF shall be proved when three phase 'A. Care must be taken to ensure that the VT secondary are isolated from the VT voltage circuits so that no high Voltage is developed at the VT primary circuits. 5. appropriate panels. if provided. at source. each alarm initiating relay. 6.C. or by shorting the appropriate terminals at the relay. where possible. 2. lights and any other means of alerting staff. The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell. 1. earthing Switch or other piece of equipment will be proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition shown on the schematic diagrams.5kV 30 MVA Operational Tests and Measurement of Audible Noise Level The following checks will be carried out. Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating. 4. Winding Insulation Level Ratio Test Vector Group Test Cooling System Control Sequence Test Local/Remote Tap Change Operations (Mech. 3. auxiliary relay operation. 6.' supplies are available by operating the ON/OFF Switch and the appropriate temperature indicating initiating 412 . Buchholz relays: the alarm and trip initiation shall be proved by means of the test button. and other devices in accordance with the schematic diagrams.

The direction of the fan rotation must be checked in accordance with the mark. Tap-changing shall be tested for every step ensuring stepping relay functions correctly. Measurement of audible noise level on site will be carried out under the following conditions using a sound level meter (IEC Pub 551 type 1 or equivalent): The background noise level at all measuring points shall not exceed 45dBA in accordance with ANSI standard. 413 .11/0.com c) Vector Group 8. Only the Transformer under test shall be energized and shall have been on soak for at least 24 hours prior to measurement. The audible sound level of each Transformer in turn will be measured at a number of points 30 meters from the substation. 11 KV 24 1 min 9. 1.Switches. The tests conducted are:a) Winding Insulation Level b) Ratio Test www. An opportunity to check VT calibration will be taken during these tests. 4. 7. 2.sayedsaad.433kV 250kVA Transformer Tests These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report. Tap-changer position indicator should be proved to indicate the correct tap position. Test Voltage Test Equipment KV Duration 132 GIS 115 10 min. The tests shall be carried out at rated voltage with all normal fans running at no load conditions. The limit Switch must function properly to prevent the tap-changer from further movement beyond the two extreme tap positions.Supervisory Interface Test The tests carried out will be: a) Initiation of the appropriate alarms or indications at source and checking that the correct logic signals are received at the telemetry terminal (TTB) cabinet. The average value of the noise measurements for each Transformer shall be taken and this value checked to ensure it does not exceed 50dBA. The magnitude and duration of the test voltage is given in Table below. 3.HV Pressure Tests (132kV Equipment) These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Works Site Test Reports.

11kV CT Tests The tests carried out will be: a) Insulation Test.com All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing.com The tests carried out will be: a) Insulation Test. www. tests where practical will be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged overlap of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual inspection b) a continuity test.com b) Flick Test. 10 . www.sayedsaad. All relays and instruments will be proved to be wired in the correct phases. www. 12.11kV Primary Injection Tests the tests carried out will be: a) CT Ratio and Polarity Test b) Relay Operation Tests c) Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity with reference to other CTs in its group. Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting.sayedsaad.com b) Flick Test. Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to the protection in the same polarity. www.b) Apply a 50V DC voltage to the (TTB) cabinet terminals and check that the correct Circuit Breaker or tap changer command is received and executed.sayedsaad. www.com The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test.11kV VT Tests. 11 .sayedsaad.com The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed. These tests will also be done on CT's mounted in Transformer bushings.www. The flick test results should be compared with those expected from the schematic diagrams.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. 414 .com c) Resistance Test d) Saturation Test Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit. www. CT shorting Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting contacts checked.sayedsaad. All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary winding resistances measured.

com Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams.Transformer biased differential protection. 13. Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a. and the differential relay proved to operate for phase-phase.c. Transformer Restricted Earth F a u l t Protections. 11kV Switchgear Operational Tests The tests carried out will be: a) Local and Remote Operations of all Circuit Breakers b) Local and Remote Indications of above c) Electrical Interlocks of above d) Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests e) Alarm Sequence Tests f) Tripping Tests including Arc Fault Tripping scheme www.' injection into the relay coils to prove that the relay calibration is correct A record of the relay type. 11kV Switchgear Contact Resistance Checks The contact resistance of all primary contacts will be checked by current injection and voltage drop measurement. The group of CTs should be proved for ratio and polarity. and the time of operation for a current injection of twice. The results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the manufacturer. 415 . serial number. The groups of CTs shall be proved for ratio and p o l a r i t y and stability by measuring spill currents. the minimum starting current for which the relay will close its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which the primary injection checks were made on the CTs. For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag. and its setting range shall be recorded. transducers and meters are operating a n d measuring correctly. five times and ten times setting current. For inverse time relays. The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at scale and full scale by current and/or voltage injection as appropriate. 14. and phase-earth fault injection.11kV Secondary Injection Tests The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays. 15.sayedsaad. These results should be carried out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not known). the flag should operate just before the contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with the operation of the relay. Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2 points (setting point +1 other point). The resetting time of the disc shall b_ recorded.

sayedsaad.sayedsaad. Operation of each Circuit Breaker disconnect Switch and earthing Switch will be proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition shown on the schematic diagrams. auxiliary relay operation. www.com The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell. www. These tests will be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers recommended testing procedures and will include the battery discharge tests. where possible. checked and put into service during the pre-commissioning stage by members of the commissioning team. The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact and observing Circuit Breaker tripping.The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip Switches from all positions. lights and any other means of alerting staff. each alarm initiating relay contact.sayedsaad. The commissioning tests for water spray system will be:www.HV Pressure Tests (11kV Equipment) These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Marugame Works Test Sheets. Tripping initiated by each relay in a protection scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out to prove that the link is connected and labeled correctly. The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the protective gear schematic diagrams. The magnitude and duration of the test voltages are given in Table 1 www.sayedsaad. Earthing Tests The erection staff will have originally conducted earthing tests but these will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage when they will be witnessed by the client.com 19. The insulation resistance tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage when they will be witnessed by the client.sayedsaad. i. www. www.com 17.sayedsaad. at source. mechanical checks including a pressure test on the main tank and air leakage tests on the air receiver. However certain further tests are now done and others repeated during the acceptance testing stage to be witnessed by the client. Fire Fighting Equipment Tests The Subcontractor will have already carried out limited post erection checks.sayedsaad.com 16.e. www. for all Circuit Breakers and other devices in accordance with the schematic diagrams.com a) Compressor Sequence Tests b) Alarm Sequence Tests 416 . lock-out relay operation and any others. Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating. Battery and Charger Tests The batteries and chargers will have already been assembled. Multi-Core Cable Tests All the multi-core cables will have already been checked to be in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams during the pre-commissioning stage.-or otherwise by simulation.com 18.com 20.

c) Indication Sequence Tests d) Deluge Valve Sequence Tests e) Discharge and Water Spray Tests f) Inter-tripping Tests www.com a) Detector Operation Tests b) Detector Line Supervision Tests c) Pushbutton Function Tests d) Tripping Tests e) Halon Discharge Test f) Dry Powder Discharge Test 417 .sayedsaad.sayedsaad.com The commissioning for the other systems will be: www.