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SNUBBING OPERATIONS

INDUSTRY RECOMMENDED

PRACTICE (IRP)

VOLUME 15 2007

2 ND EDITION

SANCTIONED JUNE 2007

PUBLISHED JULY 2007

R ECOMMENDED P RACTICE (IRP) V OLUME 15 – 2007 2 N D E DITION S
R ECOMMENDED P RACTICE (IRP) V OLUME 15 – 2007 2 N D E DITION S

Copyright/Right to Reproduce

Copyright for this Industry Recommended Practice is held by Enform, 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this IRP may be reproduced, republished, redistributed, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted unless the user references the copyright ownership of Enform.

Disclaimer

This IRP is a set of best practices and guidelines compiled by knowledgeable and experienced industry and government personnel. It is intended to provide the operator with advice regarding the specific topic. It was developed under the auspices of the Drilling and Completions Committee (DACC).

The recommendations set out in this IRP are meant to allow flexibility and must be used in conjunction with competent technical judgment. It remains the responsibility of the user of the IRP to judge its suitability for a particular application.

If there is any inconsistency or conflict between any of the recommended practices contained in the IRP and the applicable legislative requirement, the legislative requirement shall prevail.

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data and recommendations contained in the IRP. However, DACC, its subcommittees, and individual contributors make no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with the publication of the contents of any IRP recommendation, and hereby disclaim liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from the use of this IRP, or for any violation of any legislative requirements.

Availability

This document, as well as future revisions and additions, is available from

Enform Canada 1538 - 25 Avenue NE Calgary, AB T2E 8Y3 Phone: (403) 250-9606 Fax: (403) 291-9408 Website: www.enform.ca

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Snubbing Operations

Preface

iv

Purpose

iv

Audience

iv

Scope and Limitations

iv

Revision Process

iv

Revision

History

v

Sanction

v

Acknowledgements

vi

2003

IRP Development Committee

vi

2005

IRP Review Committee

vii

Other Acknowledgments

vii

Copyright Permissions

viii

Background

ix

15.1. Snubbing Program

1

15.1.1. Determining Work Goals

1

15.1.2. Reviewing Well History

1

15.1.3. Determining Well Designation

2

15.1.4. Conducting Risk Assessment

3

Hazard Register

4

15.1.5. Preparing Emergency Response Plan (ERP)

6

15.1.6. Identifying Surface Equipment Specifications

7

15.1.7. Selecting Downhole Equipment

7

15.1.8. Specifying Bottomhole Equipment Configuration

8

15.1.9. Performing Engineering Calculations

9

15.1.10. Mitigating Explosive Potential

10

15.1.11. Specifying Snubbing Procedures

13

15.1.12. Selecting Snubbing Vendor

13

15.1.13. Specifying Supervisory Control

13

15.2. Downhole Equipment Specifications

15

15.2.1. Recommended Wireline Practices and Procedures

15

15.2.2. Downhole Equipment Engineering Specifications

17

15.2.3. Downhole

Equipment

Certification

18

Snubbing Operations

15.3. Surface Equipment Specifications

19

15.3.1. Surface Equipment Requirements

19

15.3.2. Surface Equipment Configuration

24

15.3.3. Surface Equipment Engineering and Design Specifications

26

15.3.4. Surface Equipment Certification

26

Table 1: Snubbing Unit Equipment Recertification Schedule

28

Table 3: Unit Structure Recertification Schedule

30

15.4. Personnel Requirements

31

15.4.1. Snubbing Worker Competencies

31

15.4.2. Training Requirements for Multiple Contractors

32

15.4.3. Crew Management Requirements

32

15.4.4. Supervision Requirements for New Workers

33

15.5. Hazard Assessments

35

15.6. Joint Safety Meetings

37

15.6.1. Scheduling of Meetings

37

15.6.2. Topics for Meetings

37

15.6.3. Guidelines for Effective Meetings

38

15.7. Operational Practices and Procedures

39

15.7.1. Verifying Well Designation

39

15.7.2. Verifying Engineering Calculations

39

15.7.3. Specifying Escape Procedures

39

15.7.4. Conducting Pressure Testing

40

15.7.5. Conducting Typical Operational Practices and Procedures

40

15.7.6. Conducting Contingency Practices and Procedures

59

15.7.7. Specifying Requirements for Snubbing in the Dark

61

15.7.8. Identifying Weather Restrictions

61

15.7.9. Restrictions for Equipment

61

15.7.10. Protection for Personnel

62

Snubbing Operations

Glossary

63

Appendix A: Information Sources

75

Appendix B: Sample Job Information/Dispatch Sheet

77

Appendix C: Snubbing Services: Map 1 Occupation Ladder and Typical Work Environments

79

Appendix D: Sample Weekly (Seven-Day) Snubbing Equipment Inspection Checklist

81

Appendix E: Sample Semi-Annual Snubbing Equipment Inspection Checklist

83

Table 4: Inspection Checklist Safety

83

Table 5: Inspection Checklist Truck

84

Table 6: Inspection Checklist Snubbing Jack Components

85

Table 7: Inspection Checklist Hydraulic System

86

Table

8: Inspection

Checklist

Certifications

87

Appendix F: Electrical Grounding and Bonding for Service Rigs CAODC

Appendix G: Lighting Level Decision Matrix and Lease Lighting Task

89

Matrix from IRP 23 (Under Development as of 2007)

95

Appendix H: Heat Stress Quick Card

97

Appendix I: Cold Weather Exposure Chart ACGIH

99

Appendix J: Allowable Tensile Loads Petro-Canada

101

Appendix

K: Pipe Buckling Forces Petro-Canada

117

Snubbing Operations

PREFACE

PURPOSE

The purpose of this document is to ensure that guidelines for snubbing operations are in place and readily available for all personnel involved in the development, planning, and completion of the snubbing program.

IRP 15 is intended to supplement existing standards and regulations. It is also intended to establish guidelines in areas where none existed previously.

AUDIENCE

The intended audience of this document includes oil and gas company engineers, field consultants, snubbing personnel, service rig personnel, and regulatory bodies.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

This IRP includes pertinent information about snubbing, including the following:

Snubbing program requirementsinformation about snubbing, including the following: Downhole and surface equipment specifications Personnel

Downhole and surface equipment specificationsincluding the following: Snubbing program requirements Personnel requirements Hazard assessment and joint safety

Personnel requirementsrequirements Downhole and surface equipment specifications Hazard assessment and joint safety meeting requirements

Hazard assessment and joint safety meeting requirementsand surface equipment specifications Personnel requirements Operational procedures IRP 15 supplements existing standards

Operational proceduresHazard assessment and joint safety meeting requirements IRP 15 supplements existing standards and regulations, and

IRP 15 supplements existing standards and regulations, and provides guidelines and recommendations where none existed previously. It also refers to other pertinent standards where appropriate, and provides information on how to access them. A full list of the documents referred to in this IRP plus other useful reference material is provided in

APPENDIX A.

REVISION PROCESS

Industry recommended practices (IRPs) are developed by Enform with the involvement of both the upstream petroleum industry and relevant regulators. IRPs provide a unique resource outside of direct regulatory intervention.

This is the first revision to IRP 15. Those who have been familiar with the first edition of IRP 15 (November 2003) should take the time to review this second edition thoroughly, as it has been completely redeveloped to address issues brought forward since the first edition by industry and government stakeholders.

Snubbing Operations

Technical issues brought forward to the Drilling and Completions Committee (DACC) as well as scheduled review dates can trigger a re-evaluation and review of this IRP, in whole or in part. For details on the specific process for the creation and revision of IRPs, visit the Enform website at www.enform.ca/.

Revision History

Edition

Sanction

Scheduled

Remarks/Changes

Date

Review Date

1

Nov. 2003

2008

IRP 15 was initially sanctioned and published in November

 

2003.

2

Jun. 2007

2012

A

review of IRP 15 began in April 2005, when industry

stakeholders expressed interest in addressing how snubbing activities or equipment may have had a role in a number of recent upstream petroleum workplace incidents.

This second edition of IRP 15 takes into account the content

of

the original document, but has been redeveloped

completely.

SANCTION

The following organizations have sanctioned this document:

Alberta Energy and Utilities BoardThe following organizations have sanctioned this document: Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry British

Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industrysanctioned this document: Alberta Energy and Utilities Board British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission British Columbia

British Columbia Oil and Gas CommissionUtilities Board Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry British Columbia Workers Compensation Board (WorkSafeBC)

British Columbia Workers Compensation Board (WorkSafeBC)and Industry British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors

Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling ContractorsBritish Columbia Workers Compensation Board (WorkSafeBC) Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers International

Canadian Association of Petroleum ProducersCanadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors International Intervention and Coil Tubing Association

International Intervention and Coil Tubing Association (Canada)Contractors Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Manitoba Science, Technology, Energy and Mines National

Manitoba Science, Technology, Energy and MinesIntervention and Coil Tubing Association (Canada) National Energy Board Petroleum Services Association of

National Energy Board(Canada) Manitoba Science, Technology, Energy and Mines Petroleum Services Association of Canada Saskatchewan

Petroleum Services Association of CanadaScience, Technology, Energy and Mines National Energy Board Saskatchewan Industry and Resources Saskatchewan Labour

Saskatchewan Industry and ResourcesEnergy Board Petroleum Services Association of Canada Saskatchewan Labour Small Explorers and Producers

Saskatchewan LabourAssociation of Canada Saskatchewan Industry and Resources Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada June

Small Explorers and Producers Association of CanadaBoard Petroleum Services Association of Canada Saskatchewan Industry and Resources Saskatchewan Labour June 2007 Page v

Snubbing Operations

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The following individuals helped develop this IRP through a subcommittee of DACC. They represent a wide cross-section of personnel and provided forward-thinking views, as well as insightful recommendations to address the challenges and needs of snubbing. We are grateful for each participant‘s efforts. We also wish to acknowledge the support of the employers of individual committee members.

2003 IRP Development Committee

Name

Company

Organization

Represented

Larry MacPherson, Chair

Live Well Service

PSAC

Al MacDonald/Al Vallet

Snubco Pressure Control Ltd.

PSAC

Elizabeth Aquin

Petroleum Services Association of Canada

PSAC

Harold Wells/John Butala

BP Canada Energy Ltd.

CAPP

Jim Peta

Devon Canada Corporation

CAPP

John Mayall

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

AEUB

Kyle Makofka

High Arctic Well Control

PSAC

Rick Long

Canadian Natural Resources Ltd.

CAPP

Robert Ross

Saskatchewan Labour

SK Labour

Rod Loewen

British Columbia Workers‘ Compensation Board

BC WCB

Tom Follett

Special Services Inc.

PSAC

Tom Murphy

Shell Canada

CAPP

2005 IRP Review Committee

Snubbing Operations

Name

Company

Organization

Represented

Jim Harrigan, Chair

Piston Well Services Inc.

PSAC

Matt MacLean, Chair

Live Well Service

PSAC

Al MacDonald

Snubco Pressure Control Ltd.

PSAC

Art Congdon

Petro-Canada

CAPP

Budd Phillips

WorkSafeBC

WorkSafeBC

Craig Goodall

Talisman Energy

CAPP

Darrell McIntyre

Nabors Production Services

CAODC

Dave Samuelson

Alberta Energy and Utilities Board

AEUB

Elizabeth Aquin

Petroleum Services Association of Canada

PSAC

Gurdip Sanghera

Alberta Workplace Health and Safety

AB WH&S

Ken Jacobs

Canadian Natural Resources Ltd.

CAPP

Lyle Aubin

Rockwell Servicing Partnership

CAODC

Murray Sunstrum

Enform

Enform

Nicole Axelson

Petroleum Services Association of Canada

PSAC

Norm Caron

Concord Well Servicing

CAODC

Robert Ross

Saskatchewan Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division

SK Labour, OH&S

Tim Dewald

Powerstroke Well Control Ltd.

PSAC

OTHER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The committee would like to recognize the contribution of Mr. Grant Duncan, Petro Canada for providing Appendix J: Allowable Tensile Loads and Appendix K: Pipe Buckling Forces

Snubbing Operations

COPYRIGHT PERMISSIONS

This IRP includes documents or excerpts of documents as follows, for which permission to reproduce has been obtained:

Copyrighted Information

Used in

Permission from

Snubbing Services: Map 1 Occupation Ladder and Typical Work Environments

Appendix C

PHRCC

Technical Information Bulletin T-02-08

Appendix F

CAODC

Heat Stress Quick Card

Appendix H

OSHA

Table 1: Cooling Power of Wind on Exposed Flesh Expressed as Equivalent Temperature, 1998 Threshold Limit Values

Appendix I

ACGIH

Table 2: TLVs Work Warm-Up Schedule for Four Hour Shift (Under Discretion of Supervisor on Site) 1998 TLVs

Appendix I

ACGIH

Allowable Tensile Loads

Appendix J

Petro-Canada

Pipe Buckling Forces

Appendix K

Petro-Canada

Some Glossary

Glossary

API, Schlumberger

Snubbing Operations

BACKGROUND

Snubbing is an upstream petroleum industry operation using specialized equipment and qualified personnel to control well pressure and the movement of jointed tubulars and tools in or out of a wellbore using snubbing equipment. Snubbing applications include, but are not limited to the following:

Completionsapplications include, but are not limited to the following: Workovers and recompletions Stripping Fishing and other

Workovers and recompletionsinclude, but are not limited to the following: Completions Stripping Fishing and other remedial operations Stimulation

Strippingto the following: Completions Workovers and recompletions Fishing and other remedial operations Stimulation

Fishing and other remedial operationsfollowing: Completions Workovers and recompletions Stripping Stimulation Underbalanced drilling Snubbing equipment,

StimulationStripping Fishing and other remedial operations Underbalanced drilling Snubbing equipment, whether

Underbalanced drillingStripping Fishing and other remedial operations Stimulation Snubbing equipment, whether rig-assist or rigless, is

Snubbing equipment, whether rig-assist or rigless, is designed and required to perform two functions:

1. Well control of annular pressure, maintained by the use of stripping components or working blowout preventer stacks (the configuration of which will vary as per well or job requirements), and

2. Movement of tubulars in and out of a well controlled by mechanical means with enough advantage to overcome the force the well pressure exerts.

The following crews or personnel may be involved during snubbing operations:

Coiled tubing crewsor personnel may be involved during snubbing operations: Downhole tool specialists Drilling rig crews Electric line

Downhole tool specialistsbe involved during snubbing operations: Coiled tubing crews Drilling rig crews Electric line and slick line

Drilling rig crewsoperations: Coiled tubing crews Downhole tool specialists Electric line and slick line crews Oil company

Electric line and slick line crewstubing crews Downhole tool specialists Drilling rig crews Oil company representatives Pumping services personnel

Oil company representativesDrilling rig crews Electric line and slick line crews Pumping services personnel Safety supervisors Service rig

Pumping services personnelline and slick line crews Oil company representatives Safety supervisors Service rig crews Snubbing personnel Well

Safety supervisorscrews Oil company representatives Pumping services personnel Service rig crews Snubbing personnel Well fracturing and

Service rig crewsPumping services personnel Safety supervisors Snubbing personnel Well fracturing and stimulation crews

Snubbing personnelservices personnel Safety supervisors Service rig crews Well fracturing and stimulation crews Well testing crews

Well fracturing and stimulation crewsPumping services personnel Safety supervisors Service rig crews Snubbing personnel Well testing crews June 2007 Page

Well testing crewsSafety supervisors Service rig crews Snubbing personnel Well fracturing and stimulation crews June 2007 Page ix

Snubbing Operations

15.1. SNUBBING PROGRAM

After reviewing the 13 program components below, the prime contractor must prepare a written snubbing programeither job-specific or part of the total well programof the operations to be followed at the well site during snubbing.

15.1.1. DETERMINING WORK GOALS

All snubbing programs must begin with job objectives and a brief summary of the work to be done. This could be compiled using a checklist such as the sample job information/dispatch checklist provided in APPENDIX B.

15.1.2. REVIEWING WELL HISTORY

Well history must be reviewed next. The prime contractor must identify previous and potential problems, which helps for deciding on the viability of snubbing as a part of the work to be done.

The history review must be concisely summarized in the program as background information for well site personnel.

All relevant well data must be recorded in an easy-to-use format, including but not limited to the following items:

Spud and rig release datesformat, including but not limited to the following items: Well location Directions to the lease Well

Well locationlimited to the following items: Spud and rig release dates Directions to the lease Well type

Directions to the leasefollowing items: Spud and rig release dates Well location Well type (gas, oil, etc.) KB, CF,

Well type (gas, oil, etc.)and rig release dates Well location Directions to the lease KB, CF, and GL elevations PBTD

KB, CF, and GL elevationslocation Directions to the lease Well type (gas, oil, etc.) PBTD and TD depths Sweet or

PBTD and TD depthslease Well type (gas, oil, etc.) KB, CF, and GL elevations Sweet or sour with hydrogen

Sweet or sour with hydrogen sulphide concentrations and release rates providedoil, etc.) KB, CF, and GL elevations PBTD and TD depths Wellhead and rig blowout preventer

Wellhead and rig blowout preventer (BOP) data (size, type, working pressure, compressive load rating)hydrogen sulphide concentrations and release rates provided Casing and tubing specifications and condition Bottomhole

Casing and tubing specifications and conditiondata (size, type, working pressure, compressive load rating) Bottomhole assembly (BHA) description and specifications

Bottomhole assembly (BHA) description and specificationsload rating) Casing and tubing specifications and condition Cementing information Stimulation information on each zone

Cementing informationBottomhole assembly (BHA) description and specifications Stimulation information on each zone Depths of perforations

Stimulation information on each zone(BHA) description and specifications Cementing information Depths of perforations Pressure and flow rate information of

Depths of perforationsCementing information Stimulation information on each zone Pressure and flow rate information of each associated

Pressure and flow rate information of each associated formationand specifications Cementing information Stimulation information on each zone Depths of perforations June 2007 Page 1

Snubbing Operations

Reservoir temperatureSnubbing Operations Sand face and sand production Wellhead AOF Hydrate potential Hydrocarbon production in a condensate

Sand face and sand productionSnubbing Operations Reservoir temperature Wellhead AOF Hydrate potential Hydrocarbon production in a condensate type

Wellhead AOFReservoir temperature Sand face and sand production Hydrate potential Hydrocarbon production in a condensate

Hydrate potentialtemperature Sand face and sand production Wellhead AOF Hydrocarbon production in a condensate type reservoirs

Hydrocarbon production in a condensate type reservoirsSand face and sand production Wellhead AOF Hydrate potential Surface casing vent flow- if present, the

Surface casing vent flow- if present, the gas need to be piped away from the wellHydrocarbon production in a condensate type reservoirs 15.1.3. D ETERMINING W ELL D ESIGNATION 15.1.3.1 Industry

15.1.3. DETERMINING WELL DESIGNATION

15.1.3.1 Industry Well Classifications

Industry and regulatory bodies use the terms ―sweet‖ and ―sour‖ for administrative purposes. However, for technical purposes, specific concentrations and the potential release rate of hydrogen sulphide dictate equipment required to do tasks safely, maintain worker health and safety, and ensure equipment integrity.

15.1.3.2 Snubbing IRP Well Divisions

The well divisions in this IRP identify the parameters affecting the safety and procedures of snubbing operations.

In this IRP, the well designations from the Petroleum Competency Program (PCP) Standards of Competence for Snubbing Services are used throughout in addition to industry well classifications as the PCP designations include additional considerations not part of industry classifications, such as certain snubbing tasks. These designations are termed Division 1 (sweet), Division 2 (sour or sweet), and Division 3 (critical sour or sweet) and are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

Division 1 (sweet),sour or sweet) and are illustrated in Figure 1 below. Division 2 (sour or sweet), and

Division 2 (sour or sweet), andand are illustrated in Figure 1 below. Division 1 (sweet), Division 3 (critical sour or sweet)

Division 3 (critical sour or sweet) and are illustrated in Figure 1 below.1 below. Division 1 (sweet), Division 2 (sour or sweet), and Note: Critical Sour as used

Note: Critical Sour as used here corresponds with the applicable jurisdictional definition. The level of competence of snubbing employees required on Critical Sour wells as outlined here is meant to supplement IRP 2 Completing and Servicing Critical Sour Wells.

Division 2 wells include sweet or sour wells where the work to be performed falls inside the quoted ―Shut In Surface‖ pressure range. Division 2 wells become Division 3 wells when the operations itemized for Division 2 are performed at Division 3 ―Shut In Surface‖ pressures or any Critical Sour operation(s).

Figure 1: Snubbing Well Division Diagram

Snubbing

Well Division

Shut-in

Well Pressure

Well

Designation

Types

of Jobs

DIVISION 1

Low: Less than 10,000 kPa (1,450 psi)

Sweet

Single and Dual Zone Workovers and CompletionsNon-Staging of Tubing Couplings or Tool Joints

Non-Staging of Tubing Couplings or Tool JointsSingle and Dual Zone Workovers and Completions

DIVISION 2

Medium: 10,000 to 21,000 kPa (1,450 to 3,000 psi)

Sour or Sweet

Sand CleanoutsLubricating Fishing Multi-Zone Completions Stripping On/Off Dual String Completions Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool

LubricatingSand Cleanouts Fishing Multi-Zone Completions Stripping On/Off Dual String Completions Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool

FishingSand Cleanouts Lubricating Multi-Zone Completions Stripping On/Off Dual String Completions Staging of Tubing Coupling or

Multi-Zone CompletionsSand Cleanouts Lubricating Fishing Stripping On/Off Dual String Completions Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool Joints

Stripping On/OffSand Cleanouts Lubricating Fishing Multi-Zone Completions Dual String Completions Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool Joints

Dual String CompletionsSand Cleanouts Lubricating Fishing Multi-Zone Completions Stripping On/Off Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool Joints

Staging of Tubing Coupling or Tool JointsSand Cleanouts Lubricating Fishing Multi-Zone Completions Stripping On/Off Dual String Completions

15.1.4. CONDUCTING RISK ASSESSMENT

Snubbing Operations

DIVISION 3

High: Greater than 21,000 kPa (3,000 psi)

Critical Sour or Sweet

Drilling OperationsAll jobs from previous divisions at these working pressures

All jobs from previous divisions at theseDrilling Operations working pressures

working pressures

Written in the snubbing program must be a review of each snubbing operation to evaluate the risk that operation would present and to assess the need for snubbing. Each situation will present its own unique circumstances.

Hazard control and mitigation processes can significantly reduce operational risks to personnel, to the environment and to assets. The hazards and associated risks to personnel while conducting live well operations have been tabulated in a Hazard Register outlined below. This hazard register is to be considered non-exhaustive and therefore site-specific conditions may present additional hazards that will require additional control/mitigation. It must be noted that hazards and associated risks introduced by a live well/snubbing operation to a worker positioned in the derrick or on the tubing board exist on the majority of live well operations (i.e., inclusive of a self contained snubbing workover unit, as well as underbalanced and managed drilling operations - see IRP 22.)

New technology, approaches, procedures, and engineering may be effective in reducing the identified hazards and risks to acceptable levels and therefore industry is encouraged to continuously seek risk reducing solutions (i.e., increase worker safety). Any deviations to this hazard register‘s technological safeguard considerations for risk control / mitigation to any worker while conducting snubbing operations, requires formal written dispensation and approval by the PSAC Snubbing Committee, prior to implementation. A methodical and step-wise process for evaluating the effectiveness of any new measures implemented to control/mitigate risks to a worker positioned in the derrick or on the tubing board must be demonstrable, prior to industry acceptance. (i.e., an IRP 15 revision).

Snubbing Operations

Some of the industry recognized hazards that present considerable risks to workers during live well operations and that shall be controlled / mitigated are as per the following:

Hazard Register

   

Risk

Required Safeguards and Considerations for Control / Mitigation

Hazard Scenario

Consequence

Likelihood

Ranking

1.

Inability of worker

Harm to

Moderate

High

1.

All tubulars shall not be racked

to safety egress from above the rig/work floor in emergency situations (see IRP 15 Section 15.7.5.4 Snubbing with

personnel

in the derrick if a worker is required at the monkey board

2.

Employment of an auto-

mechanical pipe handler / pipe racking system.

3.

No personnel will be allowed in

the derrick during rig assist

Personnel in the Derrick or on the Tubular Racking Board).

snubbing operations on a service rig.

4.

Any work requiring personnel

positioned in the derrick or on

 

the tubing board must be conducted with a tested double barrier in place.

2.

Uncontrolled flow

Harm to

Moderate

High

See IRP 15 Section 15.2.1

up the tubing/work string due to loss of

personnel

integrity of a plug and/or tubing/work string.

3.

Uncontrolled flow

Harm to

Moderate

High

1.

Ram saver with:

up the annulus through the BOP stack due to loss of stripping element/device integrity:

Pulling into closed pipe rams Pulling into closed snubbing slips Exceeding tensile or compressive (buckling) loading of the tubing/work string Excessive wear to and/or fluid compatibility deterioration of stripping element(s). Reference CADOC bulletin and EUB Bulletin 95.

personnel

audible alarm visual alarms and throttle interrupt connected to the rig throttle that interrupts the rig throttle when the snubbing rams are closed.

Note: This system must also be “fail safe” so any malfunction activates the alarms and throttle interrupt.

Environmental

damage

Asset damage

2. Ram saver on primary rams.

3. Slip lockout for snubbing slips

when tripping out pipe heavy that does not interfere with the operator‘s ability to close all slips in an emergency.

4.

Jack pressure adjust in the

basket

5.

Documented snub force

calculations

6.

Follow IRP 15 Appendix K: Pipe

Snubbing Operations

       

Buckling Forces

7.

Implementation of a stripping

element/device servicing procedure with an enforced ―no leak‖ policy.

8.

Conduct fluid compatibility tests

with stripping elements and primary BOP elements prior to well site operations.

4.

Uncontrolled

Harm to

Moderate

High

1.

Slip interlock device which

release of projectiles up tubing / work string and annulus. Projectiles including:

personnel

prevents one set of slips from opening until the other has been

closed.

2. See IRP 15 Section 15.2.1

Launched tubing Plug and/or prong release Hydrates

5.

Fire and explosion

Harm to

Unlikely

High

1. Consider displacement of well

of well

personnel

over to an inert gas or fluid.

hydrocarbons.

Environmental

2.

damage

Asset damage

6.

Inadequate

Harm to

Almost

High

1.

Familiarization trials shall be

communication between service rig driller and snubbing unit operator.

personnel

Certain

conducted to verify adequate

communication protocols and competencies.

2.

Written rig floor work

 

instructions and procedures

required.

7.

Pressure release

Harm to

Almost

High

1.

Live well operations inherently

from wellbore

personnel

Certain

have positive pressure at surface in the wellbore, thus all equipment pressure ratings must be in accordance with this IRP.

Environmental

damage

Asset damage

2.

Consider flowing of the well to

relieve pressures to a more manageable / controllable level and/or to eliminate pipe light

scenarios.

Likelihood Definitions:

Almost Certain - Event is expected to occur if no controls / mitigations in place

Likely - Event will probably occur if no controls / mitigations in place

Moderate - Event should occur if no controls / mitigations in place

Unlikely - Event could occur at some time if no controls / mitigations in place

Snubbing Operations

Below are some additional identifiable hazards to consider during risk assessment:

Damaged or corroded tubing, profiles, or other BHAsidentifiable hazards to consider during risk assessment: Severe hydrate problems Sand production Presence of scales

Severe hydrate problemsDamaged or corroded tubing, profiles, or other BHAs Sand production Presence of scales such as iron

Sand productiontubing, profiles, or other BHAs Severe hydrate problems Presence of scales such as iron sulphides Extreme

Presence of scales such as iron sulphidesor other BHAs Severe hydrate problems Sand production Extreme hydrogen sulphide concentrations Volatile or

Extreme hydrogen sulphide concentrationsSand production Presence of scales such as iron sulphides Volatile or corrosive reservoir fluids Extreme pressure

Volatile or corrosive reservoir fluidsas iron sulphides Extreme hydrogen sulphide concentrations Extreme pressure Explosive mixtures in downhole and surface

Extreme pressureconcentrations Volatile or corrosive reservoir fluids Explosive mixtures in downhole and surface equipment

Explosive mixtures in downhole and surface equipmentVolatile or corrosive reservoir fluids Extreme pressure Incomplete lockout of adjacent surface equipment including

Incomplete lockout of adjacent surface equipment including cathodic protection, flow line, electrical supplies, pilot lights, engines without kill switches, etc.Explosive mixtures in downhole and surface equipment Complex BHAs that cannot be snubbed safely due to

Complex BHAs that cannot be snubbed safely due to varying diameters or excessive lengthssupplies, pilot lights, engines without kill switches, etc. Extreme weather conditions Reasons to snub include the

Extreme weather conditionssnubbed safely due to varying diameters or excessive lengths Reasons to snub include the following: Productivity

Reasons to snub include the following:

Productivity loss from reservoir sensitivity to kill fluidsweather conditions Reasons to snub include the following: Zone so depleted it does not have enough

Zone so depleted it does not have enough pressure to flow back kill fluids from the reservoirProductivity loss from reservoir sensitivity to kill fluids Zone so permeable, fractured, or overpressured, it is

Zone so permeable, fractured, or overpressured, it is very difficult to keep the well killedenough pressure to flow back kill fluids from the reservoir Significant loss of production from time

Significant loss of production from time required to kill the well or surrounding wellsoverpressured, it is very difficult to keep the well killed 15.1.5. P REPARING E MERGENCY R

15.1.5. PREPARING EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP)

For an ERP, the prime contractor‘s generic or corporate plan must be used along with any site-specific plans developed in the well program. This is to control well-specific hazards identified during the history review and risk assessment (see Sections 15.1.2 and 15.1.4) or pre-job meetings.

Regulatory requirements must be consulted for ERP content.

Snubbing Operations

15.1.6. IDENTIFYING SURFACE EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

After well history has been reviewed and specifications and Section 15.3 Surface Equipment Specifications of this IRP have been consulted, surface equipment needs must be identified in the snubbing program based on the following:

Well classificationidentified in the snubbing program based on the following: Tubing and casing sizes and working pressures

Tubing and casing sizes and working pressuressnubbing program based on the following: Well classification Well pressure Hydrogen sulphide content of the gas

Well pressureclassification Tubing and casing sizes and working pressures Hydrogen sulphide content of the gas Type of

Hydrogen sulphide content of the gasTubing and casing sizes and working pressures Well pressure Type of well fluids and any impact

Type of well fluids and any impact they could have on steel or elastomerspressures Well pressure Hydrogen sulphide content of the gas Sizes and configuration of the BHAs to

Sizes and configuration of the BHAs to be snubbedfluids and any impact they could have on steel or elastomers Wellhead and rig BOP size

Wellhead and rig BOP size and pressure ratingelastomers Sizes and configuration of the BHAs to be snubbed Bleed-off/flare systems Kill systems Monitoring systems

Bleed-off/flare systemsto be snubbed Wellhead and rig BOP size and pressure rating Kill systems Monitoring systems (such

Kill systemsand rig BOP size and pressure rating Bleed-off/flare systems Monitoring systems (such as ram savers or

Monitoring systems (such as ram savers or indicator lights)and pressure rating Bleed-off/flare systems Kill systems Rig derrick layout and compatibility Egress routing

Rig derrick layout and compatibilityMonitoring systems (such as ram savers or indicator lights) Egress routing Equipment spacing General lease layout

Egress routingor indicator lights) Rig derrick layout and compatibility Equipment spacing General lease layout 15.1.7. S ELECTING

Equipment spacinglights) Rig derrick layout and compatibility Egress routing General lease layout 15.1.7. S ELECTING D OWNHOLE

General lease layoutlayout and compatibility Egress routing Equipment spacing 15.1.7. S ELECTING D OWNHOLE E QUIPMENT The next

15.1.7. SELECTING DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT

The next step in a snubbing program is selecting required and appropriate downhole equipment, which should be done after consulting the detailed information on downhole equipment specifications in Section 15.2 Downhole Equipment Specifications of this IRP.

There are two main areas of concern for downhole equipment:

1. The blanking mechanism installed in the tubing string to prevent flow up the tubing during snubbing in or out of the well (Section 15.2.1), and

2. The BHA to be snubbed in or out of the well as part of the tubing string.

Snubbing Operations

15.1.8. SPECIFYING BOTTOMHOLE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION

The bottomhole equipment configuration must be specified in the snubbing program so it is compatible with the surface equipment in terms of lengths and diameters and allows ease of operation for staging the BHA in or out of the well.

The following guidelines must be considered during the program stage when the configuration is being specified:

When equipment is being selected for a BHA, the design must focus on maintaining lengths

When equipment is being selected for a BHA, the design must focus on maintaining lengths and configurations that are ―snubbing friendly.‖ This means that tools (such as packers, sliding sleeves, profile nipples, jars, collars, expansion joints, etc.) are short enough that they can be easily staged through the snubbing stack and spaced out with pup joints of sufficient length to provide areas for slips and rams to close and hold on. It also means maintaining ID to allow plug removal or installation.

A simple design should be used and maintained to aid in release and removal of

A

simple design should be used and maintained to aid in release and removal of the

BHA, particularly if the well is prone to issues such as sand production, scale deposition, corrosion, or hydrates. Packers that are one-quarter-turn to set in

compression and pick up to release are preferred.

The metallurgy, elastomers, pressure ratings, and type of packing materials selected must be compatible with

The metallurgy, elastomers, pressure ratings, and type of packing materials selected must be compatible with the well pressure, gas, fluids, and pressures.

Any tubing string to be snubbed in a well must have at least one plug

Any tubing string to be snubbed in a well must have at least one plug seating profile

in

the string located at the bottom (or one pup joint up) with a pup joint installed

above the profile. This connection must never be broken until pressure below the plug is bled off. Another pup joint (to act as a marker joint) should be placed in the string one joint above the profile nipple/pup assembly that will have the snubbing

plug installed. The illustration below (Figure 2) shows the typical recommended bottomhole equipment configuration.

A no-go profile must be installed below selective profiles of the same profile size.

A

no-go profile must be installed below selective profiles of the same profile size.

Profiles of increasing ID must be installed in ascending order.

Profiles of increasing ID must be installed in ascending order.

Snubbing Operations

Figure 2: Typical Recommended Bottomhole Equipment Configuration

Tubing, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.994kg/m, J-55, T&C Upset, 1,977.6 mKB

Tubing Pup Joint, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.99kg/m, J-55, T&C Upset, 1,987.2 mKB

Tubing, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.99kg/m, J-55, T&C Upset, 1,988.1 mKB

Tubing Pup Joint, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.994kg/m, J-55, T&C Upset, 1,999.8 mKB

XN No-Go Nipple (60.3X47.63X45.49), 60.3mm, Otis, XN, 1,999.8 mKB

Tubing Pup Joint, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.99kg/m, J-55, T&C Upset, 1,999.8 mKB

Wireline Guide, 60.3mm, 48.3mm, 6.99kg/m, j-55, 1,999.8 mKB

15.1.9. PERFORMING ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

15.1.9.1 Forces Acting on String

The vertical forces acting on a snubbing tubing or work string must be analyzed to determine the force needed to run the string into the well.

Generally, there are five forces acting on the string:

1. Pressure-area force resulting from well pressure acting on the maximum cross- section of the tubing string,

2. Gravitational force (weight) of the string,

3. Frictional force for passing through BOPs,

4. Force applied by the snubbing unit (snubbing force), and

5. Force from pipe drag on the casing in directional, slant, or dog-legged wells.

Snubbing Operations

15.1.9.2 Calculations Required

Snubbing engineering calculations must be performed and recorded in the snubbing program to ensure that all equipment selected is suitable for the service to which it will be exposed.

These calculations include the following:

1. Maximum snubbing force required,

2. depth of neutral point,

3. critical buckling load of the tubing string for the support conditions provided by the snubbing unit, and

4. collapse point of the tubing.

For wells with a history of corrosion, the reduced wall thickness must be estimated or measured, and reduced mechanical properties applied to snubbing pressure and load conditions.

These calculations will need to be verified again on site by field personnel, who will be able to refer to information on pressure, volume, and pipe-buckling calculations included in APPENDICES J and K of this IRP.

15.1.10. MITIGATING EXPLOSIVE POTENTIAL

The snubbing program must also include an evaluation of possible situations with potential for fire or explosion and must provide instructions to eliminate or reduce the risk.

There are two primary causes of fires and explosions:

1. Practices where air contacts well gas or flammable liquids at a concentration that forms an explosive wellbore mixture, and

2. situations where gas or flammable fluids are bought to surface or escape to atmosphere.

15.1.10.1 Explosive Mixtures

There are two main areas where air can be mixed with gas at explosive concentrations during snubbing: in the casing and in the tubing. The following are recommendations and guidelines to be considered during the program stage for mitigating explosive potential in these areas.

In the Casing

An explosive mixture can accumulate in the casing if it is swabbed dry before it is perforated in an underbalanced condition and the zone flows gas into the air-filled casing. This is aggravated if the well has been shut in after perforating, which allows the pressure to increase. Snubbing tubing into or out of this environment could detonate an explosion.

Snubbing Operations

Before the well is shut in and snubbing starts, it must be flowed at a controlled rate to flare until the air is displaced from the casing.

In the Tubing

Air will usually be present in the tubing after it has been snubbed into the hole and before the snubbing plug is pulled. Explosive mixtures can be created if well gas from the annulus

is introduced into the tubing to equalize the pressure above and below the snubbing plug

before removal.

A fluid spacer must be pumped into the tubing before the annular gas is equalized into the

tubing. This spacer will keep the air under the fluid from contacting the gas above during wireline plug removal. The volume required will vary with well pressure, but very generally, one half to one cubic metre of fluid such as methanol, glycol or a water mixture will suffice.

An alternative to the spacer would be to equalize the pressure with an inert gas such as nitrogen. There may be situations where the annulus has been displaced to nitrogen, which makes the equalization process simple.

For hydrate-prone wells, a methanol spacer must be placed in the wireline lubricator before gas or nitrogen pressure is equalized into the lubricator.

Oxygen must be purged from the lubricator with nitrogen or sweet annular gas to prevent creation of an explosive mixture. An oxygen monitor must be used to ensure that the sweet annular gas used for purging or pressuring is oxygen-free. This can be done by slowly feeding the gas into the top of the lubricator through a purge sub and flowing the oxygen out the bleed-off valve at the bottom of the lubricator. Oxygen level must be checked at the bleed-off to determine completion of purge. The lubricator must then be pressured to the equivalent of the wellhead pressure before an attempt is made to open the wellhead working valve or BOP rams.

Iron sulphides, produced by deteriorating metal in hydrogen sulphide environments, can also spontaneously ignite on contact with oxygen. In this case, steps must be taken to purge the BOP stack of any explosive gases. Water can be used to purge and keep tools wet.

15.1.10.2 Surface Fires and Explosions

The following recommendations and guidelines on surface fires and explosions must be considered during the program stage for mitigating explosive potential:

To minimize the risk of gas flowing to surface from the tubing due to snubbing plug failure, follow the plug selection and setting recommendations in Sections 15.1.7 and 15.2 of this IRP. 15.1.7 and 15.2 of this IRP.

To mitigate the possibility of causing the tubing to fail in compression or tension from pulling or pushing into a closed ram or slip at surface, follow procedures in Section 15.7 of this IRP, and use all available monitoring technology. Section 15.7 of this IRP, and use all available monitoring technology.

To minimize the risk of surface fires and explosions caused by gas flows from the annulus, where possible the annulus of a well with the pressure criteria of a Division 3 well should be displaced to nitrogen before snubbing. This will help reducesurface, follow procedures in Section 15.7 of this IRP, and use all available monitoring technology. June

Snubbing Operations

deterioration of the ram elements and seal elastomers from prolonged exposure to well gas and fluids at elevated pressures. Besides providing an inert buffer to enhance the reliability of the equipment, the nitrogen is also non-flammable. In circumstances where Division 1 and 2 wells would similarly reduce the life of the elastomers, those wells may require the same treatment.

To avoid surface explosions and fires caused by gas or liquid hydrocarbons being brought to surface inside a tubing string being snubbed out, the tubing must be properly purged either before or during the snubbing operation.the elastomers, those wells may require the same treatment. Four possible options and considerations for purging

Four possible options and considerations for purging procedures are listed below:

1. Swab the tubing as dry as possible and pump some fresh water down the tubing. Allow sufficient time lapse for the inversion of the water and hazardous fluids. Normally, the time to trip the tubing until reaching ―wet‖ pipe, or depending on timing, shutting down overnight, is sufficient. When wet pipe is reached, swab it dry again. Use a mud can to wet trip water only that cannot be swabbed or recovered with other acceptable methods.

2. Use a pump-through type wireline plug such as an Otis TKXN, TKX, TXN, or TX to enable tubing displacement by pumping water or nitrogen. If the full displacement of the tubing is not practical, then swab the tubing as dry as possible and when reaching wet pipe at the end of the tubing string, purge with water or nitrogen.

3. Pump in a methanol cushion and equalize the shut-in casing pressure (SICP) into the tubing. Flow annulus until the shut-in tubing pressure (SITP) drops. The higher tubing pressure will be great enough to displace the liquids from the tubing through the pump-through type plug.

4. Fluid from the tubing may be displaced using coiled tubing and air or nitrogen. However, air must not be used if liquid hydrocarbons are present.

15.1.10.3 Other Reference Material

The potential for explosive mixtures in the wellbore is not unique to snubbing. Other operations such as swabbing, testing, wireline, and coiled tubing may be exposed to the same risk.

For more information, refer to the following documents:

IRP 4: Well Testing and Fluid Handling includes information on air entrainment and explosive mixtures IRP 4: Well Testing and Fluid Handling includes information on air entrainment and explosive mixtures and direction on the effective use of LEL detection equipment (for detecting explosive mixtures) and also discusses purge procedures (of value when developing snubbing programs). It is available by calling Enform at (403) 250-9606 or by visiting their website at www.enform.ca.

IRP 18: Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion and Hazard Management a vailable by calling Enform IRP 18: Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion and Hazard Management available by calling Enform at (403) 250-9606 or by visiting their website at www.enform.ca.

CAPP Flammable Environments Guideline includes information on explosive atmospheres and is available by calling the Canadian Flammable Environments Guideline includes information on explosive atmospheres and is available by calling the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) at (403) 267-1100 or by visiting their website at www.capp.ca.

Snubbing Operations

15.1.11. SPECIFYING SNUBBING PROCEDURES

The snubbing program must include a written description of what operations are to be performed and what will be accomplished. Snubbing procedures appropriate for the tasks to be done must be specified.

These procedures may be drawn from any or all of the following sources:

Section 7 Operational Practices and Procedures of this IRP Operational Practices and Procedures of this IRP

The snubbing contractor‘s corporate specificationsSection 7 Operational Practices and Procedures of this IRP The prime contractor‘s internal specifications 15.1.12. S

The prime contractor‘s internal specificationsIRP The snubbing contractor‘s corporate specifications 15.1.12. S ELECTING S NUBBING V ENDOR When a snubbing

15.1.12. SELECTING SNUBBING VENDOR

When a snubbing vendor is being selected, a review of the equipment specifications, operating procedures, and personnel qualifications for the job must be done.

The following items must also be assessed during the snubbing program for the prospective vendor:

Policy and operational proceduresduring the snubbing program for the prospective vendor: Training and competency certification Safety record

Training and competency certificationthe prospective vendor: Policy and operational procedures Safety record Certificate of recognition (COR) WCB clearance

Safety recordoperational procedures Training and competency certification Certificate of recognition (COR) WCB clearance Regulatory

Certificate of recognition (COR)Training and competency certification Safety record WCB clearance Regulatory compliance Ability to provide

WCB clearancecertification Safety record Certificate of recognition (COR) Regulatory compliance Ability to provide technical and

Regulatory complianceSafety record Certificate of recognition (COR) WCB clearance Ability to provide technical and operational support Proof

Ability to provide technical and operational supportof recognition (COR) WCB clearance Regulatory compliance Proof of insurance 15.1.13. S PECIFYING S UPERVISORY C

Proof of insuranceAbility to provide technical and operational support 15.1.13. S PECIFYING S UPERVISORY C ONTROL The final

15.1.13. SPECIFYING SUPERVISORY CONTROL

The final step in a snubbing program is to specify details about supervisory control.

15.1.13.1 General Supervisory Control of Wellbore

The well belongs to the well owner as prime contractor, but there is often uncertainty as to who takes direction from whom during snubbing operations. It always remains the responsibility of the prime contractor‘s onsite supervisor to maintain supervisory control of the wellbore.

Snubbing Operations

15.1.13.2 Specific Well Control Issues

During rig-assist snubbing operations, the snubbing operator and the service rig driller have to work closely together to complete tasks safely and efficiently. Since they both have responsibilities in maintaining well control and coordinating tubing string movement, all work to be performed must involve both of them.

Before any operator moves the tubing string or functions any wellhead or support equipment, that individual must communicate their intentions with all other related services‘ personnel to ensure that all wellhead equipment is open or closed appropriately.

During any snubbing operation, when tubing or tools are being moved through the BOP stack, the primary BOP's must be under the direct supervision and operation of a worker who can competently initiate a response in the event of a well control emergency.

Minimum components of this competence include:

The worker should be an employee of the contractor which owns the primary BOP stackemergency. Minimum components of this competence include: The worker must hold a valid Enform Well Service

The worker must hold a valid Enform Well Service Blow Out Prevention certificateemployee of the contractor which owns the primary BOP stack 15.1.13.3 Supportive Practices The following two

15.1.13.3 Supportive Practices

The following two practices support effective supervisory control and well control:

1. Before beginning any task, all supervisors and workers on location involved in the snubbing operation must review and agree on procedures, which will provide a routine for work to be done safely and efficiently in that environment. If the scope of work changes, another meeting involving the new task, must be held and documented. For more information on joint safety meetings, see Section 15.6 of this IRP.

2. Any safety devices available to preserve the safety of workers on site must be installed, operational, and necessary personnel must be trained in their use. Examples of such devices include but are not limited to the following:

Ram indicator systems, which provide not only a visual aid but mechanically limit the ability to function rig hoisting equipment while primary or secondary pipe rams are closedsuch devices include but are not limited to the following: Snub and lift force pressure adjustment

Snub and lift force pressure adjustment equipment, which mechanically limits the ability to part, bend, or buckle tubing during jackingequipment while primary or secondary pipe rams are closed Crown savers, which mechanically limit the ability

Crown savers, which mechanically limit the ability of the driller to strike the rig crown with the block assemblythe ability to part, bend, or buckle tubing during jacking Escape equipment, which allows all workers

Escape equipment, which allows all workers on location a safe, efficient egress in case of an incident or unplanned releasethe driller to strike the rig crown with the block assembly Floor saver on stiff mast

Floor saver on stiff mast snubbing units which mechanically prevents the travelling plate from striking the work floorallows all workers on location a safe, efficient egress in case of an incident or unplanned

Snubbing Operations

15.2. DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT

SPECIFICATIONS

The information in this section is for use during program development and on site at the pre-job stage for field personnel to verify that what was specified in the snubbing program (see Section 15.1.8) has been accurately provided as specified and remains appropriate.

15.2.1. RECOMMENDED WIRELINE PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES

1.

Run a tubing-drift gauge ring to establish tubing drift and tag the profile.

2.

Run a brush through the profile if sand or scale is present to clean it before plug installation. Ensure the brush is made of a material that will not score the polished bore of the profile.

3.

Set a profile-locking plug such as an Otis TKXN, TXN, TKX, TX, PXN, PX, PR, or PRN.

4.

To ensure the plug is set properly, verify the plug integrity before setting the slip stop.

5.

Bleed down the tubing pressure in stages to ensure plug integrity and monitor for 10 minutes per stage.

6.

If

pressure does not bleed off, pull the assembly and assess the problem. Take

corrective action such as re-brushing the profile or trying a second profile and

rerunning the plug.

7.

If the profile plug will not hold, evaluate the installation of a non-profile plug such as

a permanent tubing bridge plug.

If pressure does not bleed off the assembly must be pulled, the problem assessed, and corrective action taken. This may include:

re-cleaning and rerunning,assessed, and corrective action taken. This may include : trying another profile, or evaluating the installation

trying another profile, oraction taken. This may include : re-cleaning and rerunning, evaluating the installation of a non-profile plug

evaluating the installation of a non-profile plug such as a permanent bridge plug.: re-cleaning and rerunning, trying another profile, or Hook-wall plugs, G pack-offs, and similar plugs must

Hook-wall plugs, G pack-offs, and similar plugs must not be used for snubbing, except for wells and conditions where they can be used with a surface valve.

Additional guidelines:

All wire line plugs and tools must be installed and removed by qualified wire line personnel as per instructions in the snubbing program.can be used with a surface valve. Additional guidelines: When plugs are being installed in profiles

When plugs are being installed in profiles at surface, the plugs must be installed by qualified wire line personnel and be pressure tested from below to 1.3 times the bottomhole pressure. The pressure test must be documented.be installed and removed by qualified wire line personnel as per instructions in the snubbing program.

Snubbing Operations

Profile plugs:

Care must be taken to match the plug specified correctly to the profiles installed in the tubing string. If the profiles no longer works or are not there, a permanent tubing bridge plug should be set. A leaking plug must be removed before a bridge plug is set. The condition of the tubing ID will affect the seal of the bridge plug element when it is set. If seal effectiveness is in doubt, a second plug must be installed.Snubbing Operations Profile plugs: Acceptable single barriers used with slip stops are wireline set selective plugs

Acceptable single barriers used with slip stops are wireline set selective plugs such as an Otis-style TKX, TX, PX or PR or a no-go locking plug such as an Otis TKXN, TXN, PXN, or PRN, interference-style locks. A downhole shut-off valve, permanent bridge plug, or tubing end plug can be used without a slip stop. Additional guidelines are as follows:effectiveness is in doubt, a second plug must be installed. o If the plug has an

o

If the plug has an equalizing prong, the prong should preferably be a locking style or be pinned in place.

o

Use of a pump-through type wire line plug such as an Otis TKXN, TKX, TXN, or TX enables tubing displacement by pumping water or nitrogen, or to utilize wellbore gas and differential pressure. (between tubing and casing pressure by equalizing tubing and then flowing the casing.)

To reduce the effects of increased differential pressure across a single plug, a fluid column in the tubing may be used. Avoid the use of highly flammable or hydrocarbon based fluidspressure by equalizing tubing and then flowing the casing.) Non-profile plugs: Tubing end plugs are suitable

Non-profile plugs:

Tubing end plugs are suitable for snubbing in final tubing installations and downhole shut-off valves have application where the tubing is to be round-tripped.flammable or hydrocarbon based fluids Non-profile plugs: Hook-wall plugs, G pack-offs, and similar plugs must not

Hook-wall plugs, G pack-offs, and similar plugs must not be used for snubbing, except for wells and conditions where they can be used with a surface valve.have application where the tubing is to be round-tripped. Tubing end plugs are an acceptable alternative

Tubing end plugs are an acceptable alternative when dual barriers are required and are recommended for final tubing string installations where no equipment is below the tubing end.and conditions where they can be used with a surface valve. Slip stops: A slip stop

Slip stops:

A slip stop must be installed immediately above the fish-neck of the equalizing prong as a second measure to prevent upward movement and subsequent dislodging.where no equipment is below the tubing end. Slip stops: The slip stop must be set

The slip stop must be set immediately above injection or pump-through style plugs such as the TKXN, TKX, TXN, or TX to help hold them in place.to prevent upward movement and subsequent dislodging. For Otis-style plugs, the inside diameter (ID) of the

For Otis-style plugs, the inside diameter (ID) of the slip carrier must be restricted enough to prevent the fish-neck of the prong from entering and tagging the slip stop body, which could cause a release of the slip stop.injection or pump-through style plugs such as the TKXN, TKX, TXN, or TX to help hold

Snubbing Operations

For Baker-style plugs, the slip stop must have an extension fastened to the bottom of the body that is of sufficient ID and length to pass over the fish-neck of the plug and exert downward force to the lock mandrel. Downward force applied to the fish- neck of a Baker-style plug may cause a release.Snubbing Operations Dual barriers: When a dual barrier is being installed, high pressure gas must not

Dual barriers:

When a dual barrier is being installed, high pressure gas must not be trapped between the plugs and snubbed to surface. Additional guidelines are as follows:of a Baker-style plug may cause a release. Dual barriers: o When snubbing out, the lower

o

When snubbing out, the lower plug installed should be an injection or pump-through style and the upper plug should be a blanking style. This will allow the pressure to bleed continuously through the injection or pump-through style plug into the wellbore as the tubing is withdrawn from the well. The lower plug can be negative pressure tested after installation by bleeding off the tubing pressure. The upper plug‘s pressure integrity can be determined by filling the tubing with fluid, pressure testing, and swabbing the tubing dry after. Nitrogen can be used, if the tubing cannot be easily swabbed or hydrates are a concern.

o

When snubbing in, reverse the order of the plugs described above.

Industry Recommended Practice 13 Slick line Operations is currently being written and will investigate and Industry Recommended Practice 13 Slick line Operations is currently being written and will investigate and report on the validity of dual barriers as they apply to snubbing operations.

Downhole ¼ turn valves

Downhole shut-off valves may be used, if rotating the tubing to manipulate the valve can be performed effectively.they apply to snubbing operations. Downhole ¼ turn valves After being serviced, and before each use,

After being serviced, and before each use, the downhole ¼ turn valve must be pressure tested and charted equal to the requirements for a plug set in a profile at surface.tubing to manipulate the valve can be performed effectively. 15.2.2. D OWNHOLE E QUIPMENT E NGINEERING

15.2.2. DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS

Wireline companies and well owners have several downhole equipment supply options. Downhole equipment performance is influenced by quality control during manufacturing and the condition of the equipment at the time of plug installation. The failure of a plug to hold pressure may be related to the plug being manufactured or repaired to a condition that is ―out of spec‖ or set in a profile that is out of spec. It is as important to ensure that the downhole equipment being installed is within manufacturer tolerances as it is to install the equipment properly.

Snubbing Operations

15.2.3. DOWNHOLE EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION

All downhole equipment, such as tubing plugs and profiles, must be certified by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) as being suitable for the environment that the equipment will be exposed to (pressure rating, wellbore fluids, etc.).

Equipment not from an OEM may be substituted if it is accompanied by a letter of conformance or compliance or is approved by a certifying professional engineer as being suitable for the application.

The certifying professional engineer must have the following:

Previous experience or training with pressure control equipmentcertifying professional engineer must have the following: Practical working knowledge of downhole completion equipment

Practical working knowledge of downhole completion equipmentexperience or training with pressure control equipment Experience with general quality control standards

Experience with general quality control standardsPractical working knowledge of downhole completion equipment Professional engineering status in the jurisdiction of

Professional engineering status in the jurisdiction of practiceequipment Experience with general quality control standards The end user is responsible for selecting appropriate

The end user is responsible for selecting appropriate materials for the well environment or accepting manufacturer recommendations. The product manufacturer must be able to certify the materials used and comply with the end user requirements.

Snubbing Operations

15.3. SURFACE EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

The information in this section is for use during program development and on site at the pre-job stage for field personnel to verify that what was specified in the snubbing program (see Section 15.1.6) has been accurately provided as specified and remains appropriate.

Surface equipment specifications refer to the following:

All wellbore pressure-containing components of the snubbing unitSurface equipment specifications refer to the following: All BOPs, bleed-offs, equalizing spools, spacer spools, plug

All BOPs, bleed-offs, equalizing spools, spacer spools, plug valves, and equalizing lineswellbore pressure-containing components of the snubbing unit Hydraulic systems incorporated to facilitate pipe-tripping

Hydraulic systems incorporated to facilitate pipe-tripping operationsspools, spacer spools, plug valves, and equalizing lines The design requirements for functioning the well containment

The design requirements for functioning the well containment systems on the snubbing unit (which will always be working with a BOP stack that meets jurisdictional requirements)systems incorporated to facilitate pipe-tripping operations 15.3.1. S URFACE E QUIPMENT R EQUIREMENTS 15.3.1.1 Primary

15.3.1. SURFACE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

15.3.1.1 Primary BOP Equipment

For primary BOP equipment, regulatory requirements for the applicable jurisdiction must be followed.

On wells with greater than or equal to 1% H 2 S and/or greater than 21,000 kPa, either:

A shear ram must be installed as the lowermost primary BOPto 1% H 2 S and/or greater than 21,000 kPa, either: A pump and tank must

A pump and tank must be connected to the wellbore with a minimum of one hole volume of fluid on locationA shear ram must be installed as the lowermost primary BOP The use of aromatic frac

The use of aromatic frac oil will contribute to annular seal failures, which have the potential to compromise equipment performance. This can be mitigated by limiting the use of primary annular preventers previously exposed to aromatic frac oil. Once exposed, the annular seals and element must undergo a thorough inspection by a BOP technician before being returned to use. Further study is needed to evaluate the possibility of increasing the performance and reliability of these seals by re-engineering the design. This may include developing a different material, designing a different seal, or modifying the existing seal.

15.3.1.2 Auxiliary Wellhead Equipment

For the following situations, a full-opening valve can be installed below the primary BOPs as a safe alternative to snubbing in a tubing hanger:

When company policy dictates that the tubing hanger be landed for dual barrier securement overnightbelow the primary BOPs as a safe alternative to snubbing in a tubing hanger: For rigless

For rigless operationsWhen company policy dictates that the tubing hanger be landed for dual barrier securement overnight June

Snubbing Operations

When there is no tubingSnubbing Operations When multiple tubing sizes necessitate ram changes and pressure testing of the BOP equipment

When multiple tubing sizes necessitate ram changes and pressure testing of the BOPSnubbing Operations When there is no tubing equipment For well conditions with high pressure aromatic-rich gas

equipment

For well conditions with high pressure aromatic-rich gas that can cause premature elastomer failureram changes and pressure testing of the BOP equipment For well conditions with highly sour corrosive

For well conditions with highly sour corrosive well fluids that can cause premature metal failurearomatic-rich gas that can cause premature elastomer failure 15.3.1.3 Snubbing Equipment (Rig-Assist and Rigless) For the

15.3.1.3 Snubbing Equipment (Rig-Assist and Rigless)

For the purposes of this IRP, a rig assist or rigless snubbing unit is defined as having the following components:

Two BOPs, usually one stripping ram and one annular — for high-pressure applications (>21,000 kPa),

Two BOPs, usually one stripping ram and one annularfor high-pressure applications (>21,000 kPa), an extra stripping ram must be used and self-contained snubbing units will also include primary BOPs

One or more working spools with ports for bleeding off and equalizing wellbore pressure between

One or more working spools with ports for bleeding off and equalizing wellbore pressure between BOPs

A slip assembly made up of one or two sets of snubbing slips to control

A

slip assembly made up of one or two sets of snubbing slips to control upward

movement of the tubing string, as well as one or two conventional (heavy) slips to

aid in transition to and in pipe heavy stripping

A mechanical system to move tubulars or pipe in or out of a well —

A

mechanical system to move tubulars or pipe in or out of a wellexamples include

cable, cylinders, and rack-and-pinion systems

A power pack that supplies power to the hydraulic system — on mobile units the

A

power pack that supplies power to the hydraulic systemon mobile units the truck

motor may supply power to the hydraulic system when the truck is stationary

The following requirements apply to surface snubbing equipment:

The unit must be able to control tubulars at wellbore pressure.following requirements apply to surface snubbing equipment: Snubbing BOPs should be rated equal to or greater

Snubbing BOPs should be rated equal to or greater than the maximum shut-in surface pressure (calculated by bottomhole pressure minus the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the gas column). However, if the maximum surface pressure is greater than the working pressure of the snubbing stack, this pressure must be reduced, to below 80% of the rated working pressure of the snubbing stack, using control measures such as a column of fluid or flowing the well. This may also be done to take stress off the snubbing stack.unit must be able to control tubulars at wellbore pressure. The mechanical system must be strong

The mechanical system must be strong enough to overcome the maximum hydraulic lift force on tools and tubing at surface (see Section 15.1.9 for information on pressure-area calculations). Section 15.1.9 for information on pressure-area calculations).

The maximum surface pressure must be used for pressure-area calculations.15.1.9 for information on pressure-area calculations). All components of the snubbing unit hydraulic system,

All components of the snubbing unit hydraulic system, including hose, fittings, directional valves, and piping, must have a working pressure rating equal to orpressure-area calculations). The maximum surface pressure must be used for pressure-area calculations. Page 20 June 2007

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greater than the working pressure rating of the hydraulic system. The hydraulic tank design must include sufficient venting to allow escape of gas in the event of a BOP wellbore seal failure. The accumulator and jack circuits must not use silver solder fittings.

The unit must have gauges, visible from the operator‘s position and labeled, which accurately indicate the following: accurately indicate the following:

o

Wellbore pressure

o

Push/pull force

o

Accumulator pressures

o

Operating pressure

o

Annular closing pressure

o

Slip pressure

The panel in the snubbing basket must house all the controls for the operation of the slips, BOPs, and jack, which are manually operated. There must be a lockout system for these controls (see Section 15.3.1.4 for more about lockout equipment). Section 15.3.1.4 for more about lockout equipment).

To ensure that one set of the appropriate slips is closed at all times during snubbing, the following must be in place:(see Section 15.3.1.4 for more about lockout equipment). - Interlock systems - Training and procedures on

- Interlock systems

- Training and procedures on slip operation

Primary BOPs must be equipped with ram-savers that prevent or limit pipe movement when the pipe rams are closed.systems - Training and procedures on slip operation Snubbing BOPs must be equipped with ram-savers that

Snubbing BOPs must be equipped with ram-savers that when the snubbing rams are closedor limit pipe movement when the pipe rams are closed. - Mechanically limit the ability of

- Mechanically limit the ability of the service rig to pull pipe

- Provide visual indicators that clearly indicate the snubbing pipe ram position to the snubbing operator and the driller

- Provide an audible alarm alerting pipe ram position change

Accumulator design for snubbing equipment must have a fluid volume that, with the annular preventer closed, allows two functions of a single gate preventer, and two functions of the actuators for the bleed-off/equalizing plug valves. After these functions, a minimum pressure of 8,400 kPa must remain on the accumulator circuit. The accumulator for snubbing equipment must be able to maintain closure of the annular preventer for a minimum of ten minutes and maintain a minimum of 8,400 kPa with no power to the recharge pump. The snubbing unit accumulator must have a low-pressure warning system.Provide an audible alarm alerting pipe ram position change All primary well control BOPs must be

All primary well control BOPs must be connected to an accumulator that meets the requirements of the regulations of the applicable jurisdiction and must be isolated from the snubbing accumulator system. The primary BOP accumulator system must have a low-pressure warning system.no power to the recharge pump. The snubbing unit accumulator must have a low-pressure warning system.

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15.3.1.4 Lockout Equipment

A

lockout system must be in place to prevent equipment from becoming energized if there

is

potential for workers to be injured while they are inside the range of motion of that

equipment. In addition, companies must have lockout procedures on site for workers to follow.

Snubbing unit components where lockouts must be in place include but are not limited to the following:

Power tongs:

‗Open faced tongs‘ must be fitted with a gate to be closed during operationinclude but are not limited to the following: Power tongs: All tongs must have a device

All tongs must have a device that eliminates hydraulic flow through the tong motor when locked outmust be fitted with a gate to be closed during operation The lockout device must be

The lockout device must be used during die changes and other maintenance or repairhydraulic flow through the tong motor when locked out Slip controls This includes a panel lockout

Slip controls

This includes a panel lockout for use when:

The operator leaves the basketSlip controls This includes a panel lockout for use when: Other services are in the basket

Other services are in the basket and the tubing string will not be movinga panel lockout for use when: The operator leaves the basket Maintenance is being performed where

Maintenance is being performed where workers could be injuredare in the basket and the tubing string will not be moving Other safety devices available

Other safety devices available for slip control lockout equipment include:

Hydraulic assemblies that prevent one set of snubbing slips from being opened before the other set is closed, and prevent snubbing slips from being functioned during pipe heavy tripping.available for slip control lockout equipment include: Snubbing BOP controls A panel lockout for use when:

Snubbing BOP controls

A panel lockout for use when:

The operator leaves the basketSnubbing BOP controls A panel lockout for use when: Other services are in the basket and

Other services are in the basket and the tubing string will not be movingA panel lockout for use when: The operator leaves the basket Maintenance is being performed where

Maintenance is being performed where workers could be injuredare in the basket and the tubing string will not be moving Jack control: This includes

Jack control:

This includes a jack handle lockout that must disable the control from moving the traveling plate while workers are on or under the jack plate.string will not be moving Maintenance is being performed where workers could be injured Jack control:

Annular:

Snubbing Operations

This includes a lockout that must be in place to prevent the annular control from being opened unintentionally or by mistake.Annular: Snubbing Operations This lockout must provide a step before the control can be opened. 15.3.1.5

This lockout must provide a step before the control can be opened.control from being opened unintentionally or by mistake. 15.3.1.5 Reverse Circulation Sand Cleanout Equipment Flow

15.3.1.5 Reverse Circulation Sand Cleanout Equipment

Flow back lines from the tubing and the snubbing unit bleed off line must be rigged in, in such a way that if the upper snubbing BOP needs to be opened at any time, the snubbing stack can be bled off to zero before opening the upper snubbing BOP.opened. 15.3.1.5 Reverse Circulation Sand Cleanout Equipment o Sources of pressure include back pressure from the

o

Sources of pressure include back pressure from the test vessel, or line pressure from the flowing tubing.

o

The lines must terminate according to oil company policy or applicable jurisdictional regulation.

Typical surface sand cleanout equipment consists of the following equipment, which must have a working pressure equal to or greater than the bottomhole pressure:

A 15 m by 50 mm double- or triple-braided hose

A

15 m by 50 mm double- or triple-braided hose

An emergency shutdown (ESD) valve

An emergency shutdown (ESD) valve

Several slim hole valves

Several slim hole valves

A tubing swivel

A tubing swivel

A Chiksan or heavy-walled elbow

A Chiksan or heavy-walled elbow

All the surface equipment used for sand cleanouts must be dedicated solely for that purpose. This equipment must be an addition to normal rig inventory. The valves must be lubricated and pressure tested after each use. When leaks are detected, they must be sent for repair and recertification to OEM specifications. Hose ends must be integral crimped unit style

To help predict when repair or replacement will be needed, the equipment owner must maintain a logbook detailing the following:

Each valve‘s serial numberowner must maintain a logbook detailing the following: Date of use Volume of sand flowed through

Date of usedetailing the following: Each valve‘s serial number Volume of sand flowed through the valve body The

Volume of sand flowed through the valve bodythe following: Each valve‘s serial number Date of use The working pressure it was exposed to

The working pressure it was exposed toDate of use Volume of sand flowed through the valve body Hoses will typically bubble before

Hoses will typically bubble before failing and must be replaced, not repaired, when this is noticed. The swivel and Chiksan must be monitored for erosion wear after each use and repaired as needed.

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All components of the sand cleanout system must be hydraulically pressure tested to at least 10% above the maximum anticipated operating pressure.

For reverse sand cleanouts, a remote-activated fail-close shut-off must be installed on a valve upstream of all flow back equipment at the top of the tubing string. This device must be function tested before useleast 10% above the maximum anticipated operating pressure. 15.3.1.6 Egress Equipment Poles are used as the

15.3.1.6 Egress Equipment

Poles are used as the industry standard for emergency escape from the snubbing basket. The following are essential components of an egress system using two escape poles:

The poles must be installed within safe reaching distance of the basket.components of an egress system using two escape poles: There must be a pole accessible to

There must be a pole accessible to a worker on either side of the snubbing basketbe installed within safe reaching distance of the basket. The poles must be kept clean and

The poles must be kept clean and in good working order.accessible to a worker on either side of the snubbing basket The landing area and the

The landing area and the route away from the wellhead must be clear of all obstruction including debris and other equipment.The poles must be kept clean and in good working order. Employees who are depending on

Employees who are depending on the escape pole as an emergency egress system must be trained in its use. In situations where the escape pole is not a viable egress system, such as unusually high wellhead configurations, other options must be discussed and implemented.

At this time, the PSAC snubbing committee is researching a replacement system for the escape pole that:

Provides an equally quick deploymentresearching a replacement system for the escape pole that: Is equally mobile Is adaptable for rig

Is equally mobilethe escape pole that: Provides an equally quick deployment Is adaptable for rig in/out in the

Is adaptable for rig in/out in the variety of environments in which rig assist snubbing units are usedthat: Provides an equally quick deployment Is equally mobile The CAODC is also addressing the issue

The CAODC is also addressing the issue of egress from drilling and service rigs. Contact them at (403) 264-4311 or visit their website at www.caodc.ca to find out more.

15.3.2. SURFACE EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION

Although each well and snubbing operation will be unique, depicted below (Figure 3) is a typical configuration for a snubbing unit, with the components labeled for reference.

Figure 3: Typical Snubbing Configuration

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Figure 3: Typical Snubbing Configuration Snubbing Operations T HE FOLLOWING ARE GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR

THE FOLLOWING ARE GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONFIGURATION OF SURFACE EQUIPMENT:

All snubbing units must be equipped with engineered climbing devices as per applicable occupational health and safety regulations. Risk assessment, training, and procedure development are required in the use of egress systems.AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONFIGURATION OF SURFACE EQUIPMENT : Careful consideration is needed when assemblies are being

Careful consideration is needed when assemblies are being designed for snubbing operations. In case there are odd-shaped items to be run or pulled, a spool must be placed in the snubbing BOP assembly with sufficient length to cover the item. This spool then becomes a lubricator.development are required in the use of egress systems. On sour wells, all components exposed to

On sour wells, all components exposed to the wellbore environment must meet NACE standards.to cover the item. This spool then becomes a lubricator. On critical sour wells, double valves

On critical sour wells, double valves must be used on the snubbing unit and bleed-off and equalize loops. On any well deemed critical sour or high risk, shear rams with sufficient accumulator and nitrogen back-up must be installed in the lowest ram inOn sour wells, all components exposed to the wellbore environment must meet NACE standards. June 2007

Snubbing Operations

the primary BOP stack (for more information on this topic, refer to IRP 2: Completing and Servicing Critical Sour Wells, available by calling Enform at (403) 250-9606 or by visiting their website at www.enform.ca).

15.3.3. SURFACE EQUIPMENT ENGINEERING AND DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS

All snubbing equipment in use must be certified by a certified professional engineer using the appropriate standards from the following:

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)engineer using the appropriate standards from the following: American Petroleum Institute (API) American Society of

American Petroleum Institute (API)the following: American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Canadian

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)Institute (ANSI) American Petroleum Institute (API) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) National Association of

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)(API) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) The

National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)Engineers (ASME) Canadian Standards Association (CSA) The certifying professional engineer must have the

The certifying professional engineer must have the following:

Previous experience or training with pressure control equipmentcertifying professional engineer must have the following: Practical working knowledge of surface equipment Experience

Practical working knowledge of surface equipmentexperience or training with pressure control equipment Experience with general quality control standards

Experience with general quality control standardsequipment Practical working knowledge of surface equipment Professional engineering status in the jurisdiction of

Professional engineering status in the jurisdiction of practiceequipment Experience with general quality control standards 15.3.4. S URFACE E QUIPMENT C ERTIFICATION Certificates

15.3.4. SURFACE EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION

Certificates are part of due diligence and help field personnel know the type and condition of the equipment they are using. A document with an engineer‘s stamp constitutes certification for equipment and a copy of it must be on site and up to date.

15.3.4.1

Certifications Identified in CAODC Recommended Practices

(RP’s)

Equipment as identified in CAODC RP‘s 3, 3A, 4, 6, and 7 listed below must have certifications:

RP 3.0 – Inspection and Certification of Masts Inspection and Certification of Masts

RP 3.0A – Inspection and Certification of Substructures, Drawworks,and Carriers Inspection and Certification of Substructures, Drawworks,and Carriers

RP 4.0 – Overhead Equipment Inspection and Certification Overhead Equipment Inspection and Certification

RP 6.0 – Drilling Rig Blowout Preventer Inspection and Certification Drilling Rig Blowout Preventer Inspection and Certification

RP 7.0 – Well Servicing Blowout Preventer Inspection and Certification Well Servicing Blowout Preventer Inspection and Certification

Snubbing Operations

To obtain these documents, contact the CAODC at (403) 264-4311 or visit their website at www.caodc.ca.

The certification schedules in these RPs and detailed below in this section are the minimum required intervals for recertification of surface equipment and should be done more frequently than these minimums if recommended by the OEM. All equipment must be maintained in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

Components where the RPs above apply include, but are not limited to, the following:

Pipe ramsabove apply include, but are not limited to, the following: Annular Slip bowls Jack structure Overhead

Annularinclude, but are not limited to, the following: Pipe rams Slip bowls Jack structure Overhead equipment

Slip bowlsbut are not limited to, the following: Pipe rams Annular Jack structure Overhead equipment including o

Jack structurenot limited to, the following: Pipe rams Annular Slip bowls Overhead equipment including o Pick-up elevators

Overhead equipment includingthe following: Pipe rams Annular Slip bowls Jack structure o Pick-up elevators o Short bails o

o

Pick-up elevators

o

Short bails

o

Slings

o

Pick-up nubbin

o

Spreader bar

o

Winch line weight, if equipped

Equalize lineo Spreader bar o Winch line weight, if equipped Chokes Pancake flanges Hose and piping Equalize

Chokesbar o Winch line weight, if equipped Equalize line Pancake flanges Hose and piping Equalize hose,

Pancake flangeso Winch line weight, if equipped Equalize line Chokes Hose and piping Equalize hose, if equipped

Hose and pipingweight, if equipped Equalize line Chokes Pancake flanges Equalize hose, if equipped Fall arrest equipment Ram

Equalize hose, if equippedEqualize line Chokes Pancake flanges Hose and piping Fall arrest equipment Ram blocks Accumulator bottles Tubing

Fall arrest equipmentPancake flanges Hose and piping Equalize hose, if equipped Ram blocks Accumulator bottles Tubing winch, if

Ram blocksand piping Equalize hose, if equipped Fall arrest equipment Accumulator bottles Tubing winch, if equipped Spool

Accumulator bottlesEqualize hose, if equipped Fall arrest equipment Ram blocks Tubing winch, if equipped Spool lifting bracket,

Tubing winch, if equippedFall arrest equipment Ram blocks Accumulator bottles Spool lifting bracket, if equipped Spools, including working

Spool lifting bracket, if equippedRam blocks Accumulator bottles Tubing winch, if equipped Spools, including working spool between BOPs June 2007

Spools, including working spool between BOPsequipment Ram blocks Accumulator bottles Tubing winch, if equipped Spool lifting bracket, if equipped June 2007

Snubbing Operations

Spools equalize and bleed-off loops, and all other wellbore pressure containing equipment must be hydrostatically tested to the maximum working pressure of the components every three years. Documentation must be maintained on the unit and at the base of operations.

Snubbing jack certification must include maximum push/pull ratings and be clearly visible on the jack itself (such as a rating plate or label affixed to the unit).

15.3.4.2 Snubbing Unit Pressure Containment Certification

Snubbing unit equipment certification must include but is not limited to the equipment and recertification intervals in the following table:

Table 1: Snubbing Unit Equipment Recertification Schedule

Equipment

Recertification Interval

Equalize line (steel or hose)

 

1 Year

Calibration Interval for Critical Gauges

3

Years

Annular

3

Years

Bleed-off valves

3

Years

Equalize valves

3

Years

Load plate

3

Years

Ram blocks

3

Years

Rams

3

Years

Spacer spools

3

Years

Stripping heads

3

Years

T-block and/or flow cross

3

Years

Tubing safety valves

3

Years

Work spool

3

Years

15.3.4.3 Hoisting Equipment Certification

Hoisting equipment certification requirements include but are not limited to the following:

All components of the hoisting equipment must have an engineered rating sufficient for the overhead lift.requirements include but are not limited to the following: All welded components of the hoisting equipment

All welded components of the hoisting equipment must have an engineered rating and be non-destructive (ND) tested at the time of manufacture and at six-year intervals thereafter.have an engineered rating sufficient for the overhead lift. Wire rope equipment must follow all wire

Wire rope equipment must follow all wire rope manufacturer rejection criteria.and be non-destructive (ND) tested at the time of manufacture and at six-year intervals thereafter. Page

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Tubing transfer elevators must have an engineered rating, be certified every three years, and incorporate a double latch or secondary safety lock to prevent opening unintentionally or by mistake.Snubbing Operations Hoisting equipment certification must include but is not limited to the equipment and recertification

Hoisting equipment certification must include but is not limited to the equipment and recertification intervals in the following table:

Table 2: Hoisting Equipment Recertification Schedule

Equipment

Recertification Interval

Slings

 

1 Year

Pick-up elevators

3

Years

Shackles

3

Years

Sheaves

3

Years

Elevator links

6

Years

Pick-up subs

6

Years

Rack and pinion

6

Years

Spreader bar

6

Years

Stand-up hoists

6

Years

Tong raising ram assembly

6

Years

15.3.4.4 Unit Structure Certification

Unit structure certification requirements include but are not limited to the following:

The unit structure must have an engineered rating and all welds of load-bearing components must have an engineered weld procedure.requirements include but are not limited to the following: All load-bearing components of the unit must

All load-bearing components of the unit must be ND tested at least every six years.components must have an engineered weld procedure. Unit structure certification must include but is not limited

Unit structure certification must include but is not limited to the equipment and recertification intervals in the following table:

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Table 3: Unit Structure Recertification Schedule

Equipment

Recertification Interval

Fall arrest support

6

Years

Jack cylinder

6

Years

Load plate (not part of BOP system)

6

Years

Rotary bearing assembly

6

Years

Slip bowls

6

Years

Slip windows

6

Years

Support legs and/or angle iron

6

Years

Traveling plate

6

Years

Window plate

6

Years

Load bolts and nuts

as per engineered requirement

Snubbing Operations

15.4. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

15.4.1. SNUBBING WORKER COMPETENCIES

Snubbing personnel must be certified under the Petroleum Competency Program (PCP) Standards of Competence for Snubbing Services. These standards were revised, effective January 1, 2006. During their implementation period, snubbing companies will begin implementing these revised standards, and oil and gas companies are advised to use personnel certified under these standards to ensure competent snubbing personnel. Definitions related to the PCP program are listed below:

Petroleum Competency Program: The Petroleum Human Resources Council of Canada (PHRCC) oversees the PCP. This program identifies : The Petroleum Human Resources Council of Canada (PHRCC) oversees the PCP. This program identifies standards of competence for specific petroleum-related occupations and supports assessment of those standards. Visit the PHRCC website at www.petrohrsc.ca for up-to-date information about the PCP.

Standard of Competence: A standard of competence is a written specification of the knowledge and skills required : A standard of competence is a written specification of the knowledge and skills required by a worker to be applied over the range of circumstances demanded by a job.

Snubbing Services Career Ladder and Standards of Competence: Within the context of the PCP, the snubbing industry has identified a ladder of : Within the context of the PCP, the snubbing industry has identified a ladder of six occupations for snubbing services:

1. Assistant Operator

2. Operator 1

3. Operator 2

4. Operator 3

5. Supervisor 1

6. Supervisor 2

Note: The snubbing industry has identified the standards of competence for each occupation identified above. : The snubbing industry has identified the standards of competence for each occupation identified above.

Note: Refer to A PPENDIX C for a chart illustrating this career ladder. For full : Refer to APPENDIX C for a chart illustrating this career ladder. For full details and copies of these standards, visit PHRCC website at www.petrohrsc.ca.

Worker Competencies: The occupation ladder and standards of competence for the snubbing services sector provide a : The occupation ladder and standards of competence for the snubbing services sector provide a framework for assessing and certifying a worker‘s competence. In addition to these defined standards, companies will most likely have their own performance criteria and qualifications based on their particular corporate culture and strategic objectives. Companies may use different equipment and operating procedures, and workers are certified in that context.

Snubbing Operations

Snubbing Operations Assessment and Certification : Individuals are certified competent in an occupation when they fulfill

Assessment and Certification: Individuals are certified competent in an occupation when they fulfill the requirements of the Standards of Competence for Snubbing Services combined with the ability and desire to apply those skills at an acceptable level of performance over the range of circumstances demanded by each job. Worker competence is assessed by snubbing assessors trained through the PCP. Snubbing assessors assess competence using a systematic approach for determining the skill levels of employees. A certificate of competence is issued only when there is clear evidence that a worker meets the Standard of Competence.

15.4.2. TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR MULTIPLE CONTRACTORS

Because not only snubbing personnel are involved in snubbing operations, key criteria are listed below for training requirements (apart from other applicable legislation and regulations) of well site supervisors and rig and other onsite service personnel who may be involved:

1. The well site supervisor must understand the following:

o

Snubbing calculations

o

Snubbing procedures

o

Equipment and personnel requirements

o

IRPs and be compliant with IRP 7: Standards for Wellsite Supervision of Drilling, Completions, and Workovers (available by calling Enform at (403) 250-9606 or by visiting their website at www.enform.ca )

o

Hazards specific to snubbing

Further, he must have thorough knowledge about the snubbing program and ensure all services that come on location have all required training and related equipment.

2. Rig personnel and all other onsite service personnel must be trained to all applicable IRP and industry standards and be made aware of the following:

o

Hazards specific to snubbing

o

Job scope

o

Snubbing procedures

Further, they must be involved in development of the ERP and be aware of their roles in it.

15.4.3. CREW MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS

Job scope will dictate the number and type of snubbing personnel required on location and is left to the discretion of the snubbing contractor.

The snubbing supervisor is responsible for crew fatigue management and must ensure work shifts are either scheduled within the parameters of applicable legislation or scheduled such that a shift does not extend to more than 15 hours including crew travel with an 8-hour rest period in between shiftswhichever is less.

Snubbing Operations

15.4.4. SUPERVISION REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW WORKERS

Employees who have little or no snubbing experience must be closely supervised during all work activities. Any new workers on location must be identified in the pre-job safety meeting, and any expectation of them must be outlined to all other workers on location. Supervision must be present and instructive until workers understand and can use all information required of them, as outlined in the common core and assistant operator occupations of the Snubbing Standards of Competence.

Snubbing Operations

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15.5. HAZARD ASSESSMENTS

For hazard assessments, snubbing contractors must refer to their task analyses or job procedures (also known as JSAs), use the PSAC Snubbing Pre-job Safety Meeting Report and Snubbing Hazard Assessment (available by contacting PSAC at (403) 264-4195 or by visiting their website at www.psac.ca), and take the following actions:

Discuss the job scope with all personnel on siteat www.psac.ca ) , and take the following actions: Identify hazards Assign risk factors Discuss hazard

Identify hazardsactions: Discuss the job scope with all personnel on site Assign risk factors Discuss hazard control

Assign risk factorsthe job scope with all personnel on site Identify hazards Discuss hazard control measures For any

Discuss hazard control measuresall personnel on site Identify hazards Assign risk factors For any deviation from the job scope,

For any deviation from the job scope, operations must be stopped, a new hazard assessment completed, and personnel requirements re-evaluated.

The well site supervisor must ensure that all the personnel on location participate in (and document their involvement in) the same hazard assessment, as applicable to the job scope and their role.

Snubbing Operations

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15.6. JOINT SAFETY MEETINGS

15.6.1. SCHEDULING OF MEETINGS

Before starting a job, joint safety meetings must be held and documented to familiarize all involved with snubbing operations and express the importance of teamwork and communication. The well site supervisor must coordinate multiple contractors on location.

Additional meetings must be held and documented in the following four situations:

1. When new services arrive on location to perform work

2. When the scope of work or program changes

3. When there is a change in well conditions (e.g., hydrates, pressure fluctuations, etc.)

4. When there is a near miss or a hazard identified

During extended-hour operations, the contractor shift change is considered a change in operations, and a joint safety meeting is required. The agenda must include a complete debriefing of the previous shift and communication of hazards.

15.6.2. TOPICS FOR MEETINGS

Safety meeting topics must include but are not limited to the following:

Procedure review and risk assessment, discussed between the snubbing contractor, well site supervisor, and all other services on locationtopics must include but are not limited to the following: Specific safety and operational requirements Personnel

Specific safety and operational requirementswell site supervisor, and all other services on location Personnel and equipment evaluation and selection Supervisory

Personnel and equipment evaluation and selectionon location Specific safety and operational requirements Supervisory control of the well pertaining to pipe movement

Supervisory control of the well pertaining to pipe movement and functioning of surface equipment (see Section 15.1.13 for details) Section 15.1.13 for details)

Well shut-in procedures, responsibilities, and egressof surface equipment (see Section 15.1.13 for details) Communication procedures for operations (e.g. hand signals,

Communication procedures for operations (e.g. hand signals, radios, etc.)Well shut-in procedures, responsibilities, and egress Supervision of inexperienced personnel during operations The

Supervision of inexperienced personnel during operationsprocedures for operations (e.g. hand signals, radios, etc.) The PSAC Snubbing Pre-job Safety Meeting Report and

The PSAC Snubbing Pre-job Safety Meeting Report and Snubbing Hazard Assessment (available by contacting PSAC at (403) 264-4195 or via their website at www.psac.ca) provides an extensive topic list that must be used as a guide for safety meetings.

Snubbing Operations

15.6.3. GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE MEETINGS

The following are guidelines for holding effective joint safety meetings:

All personnel must be involved to ensure active participation personnel must be involved to ensure active participation

The chairperson duty should be rotated among competent supervisorspersonnel must be involved to ensure active participation Clear communication must be ensured among meeting

Clear communication must be ensured among meeting participantsduty should be rotated among competent supervisors Feedback should be requested or testing done to evaluate

Feedback should be requested or testing done to evaluate understandingcommunication must be ensured among meeting participants Each service supervisor must ensure his personnel understand

Each service supervisor must ensure his personnel understand the scope of the job and what was discussed at the joint safety meetingamong meeting participants Feedback should be requested or testing done to evaluate understanding Page 38 June

Snubbing Operations

15.7. OPERATIONAL PRACTICES AND

PROCEDURES

Incident reviews have led to the following practices and procedures being recommended as outlines for creating safe operating procedures.

Each snubbing contractor must have a customized version of these basic practices and procedures specific to their equipment and the job at hand for review in the pre-job safety meeting.

15.7.1. VERIFYING WELL DESIGNATION

Once the crew arrives on location, the well designation must be verified to determine if it is the same as the original program (job scope). Refer to Section 15.1.3.2 for well designation definitions as they apply to this IRP. If on location, the designations differ from what was specified in the original program, appropriate changes for equipment and personnel must be made (see Sections 1 to 4 of this IRP for details on equipment and personnel).

15.7.2. VERIFYING ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS

Before starting operations, the pressure, volume, and pipe-buckling calculations must be verified to be appropriate for the job scope. The information in APPENDICES J and K can be used for this purpose. If the results of the verified calculations differ from the original program, the well site supervisor must be consulted to confirm or reassess operations.

15.7.3. SPECIFYING ESCAPE PROCEDURES

The following escape procedures or measures must be in place:

A plan for emergency response and rescue (e.g. STARS registry)following escape procedures or measures must be in place: Procedures for transporting injured workers posted before

Procedures for transporting injured workers posted before work begins (refer to applicable regulations for further information)plan for emergency response and rescue (e.g. STARS registry) A risk assessment for rescue and evacuation

A risk assessment for rescue and evacuation(refer to applicable regulations for further information) Unobstructed exits for all workers Training for rescuers

Unobstructed exits for all workersinformation) A risk assessment for rescue and evacuation Training for rescuers Basket-escape drills to ensure

Training for rescuersfor rescue and evacuation Unobstructed exits for all workers Basket-escape drills to ensure competency (documented on

Basket-escape drills to ensure competency (documented on tour sheets) before starting and then weekly thereafter for extended duration in conjunction with BOP drillsA risk assessment for rescue and evacuation Unobstructed exits for all workers Training for rescuers June

Snubbing Operations

15.7.4. CONDUCTING PRESSURE TESTING

All primary well control equipment must be pressure tested as per regulations in the applicable jurisdiction.

A safe means of pressure testing snubbing equipment must also be in place. For Division 1, 2, or 3 wells (see Section 15.1.3.2 for information on these well designations), if there is a tubing hanger landed and/or a full-opening valve installed, perform a 10-minute low pressure test to 1,400 kPa and a 10-minute high pressure test to the bottomhole pressure or the wellhead pressure ratingwhichever is less. If there is no tubing hanger landed and/or no full opening valve is installed, a 10-minute leak test to the wellbore shut-in pressure at the time will suffice. See IRP 2: Completing and Servicing Critical Sour Wells (available by calling Enform at (403) 250-9606 or by visiting their website at www.enform.ca) for detailed guidance on pressure testing on critical sour wells.

15.7.5. CONDUCTING TYPICAL OPERATIONAL PRACTICES AND

PROCEDURES

15.7.5.1 Arriving on Location and Rigging Up

1. Park the unit off location

2. Change into proper PPE

3. Introduce crews to company representatives and the rig manager. Verify snubbing qualifications

4. Review the well program, including hazard assessment, and the timing to move the unit on location and rig up. Ensure proper lockouts have been done on equipment that could affect the operation

5. Confirm that a snubbing equipment inspection has been completed within the last seven days. For a sample weekly snubbing equipment inspection checklist, see APPENDIX D. In addition, a sample semi-annual one is included as APPENDIX E.

6. Hold a pre-job safety meeting (as per the PSAC Snubbing Pre-job Safety Meeting Report and Snubbing Hazard Assessment, available by contacting PSAC at (403) 264-4195 or via their website at www.psac.ca) with all onsite personnel.

7. Ensure one person is responsible for coordinating rigging up and rigging out of equipment

8. Ensure that all conflicting tasks are suspended during the rigging up/out of the snubbing unit

9. Back the unit up to the wellhead using a guide. Guides must be competent snubbing operators or supervisors. For information on guiding, refer to IRP 12: Hand Signals for Directing Vehicles, available by contacting Enform at (403) 250-9606 or visiting their website at www.enform.ca

10. Ensure emergency (maxi) brakes are applied and wheels are chock blocked

Snubbing Operations

11. Ensure equipment is grounded as per applicable jurisdiction regulations (see CAODC Technical Information Bulletin T-02-08 in APPENDIX F)

12. Engage the unit to hydraulic mode

13. Prepare to hoist

14. Clean and inspect BOP ring grooves and install correct ring gasket

15. Clear area of all non-essential personnel

16. Pick up the unit and lower it onto the primary BOP

17. Tighten flange bolts

18. Ensure equipment is spaced according to regulations

19. Rig in auxiliary equipment

20. Use extreme caution if snubbing power tongs must be rigged up using the winch line or sand line. One person must be assigned the task of operating controls

15.7.5.2 Setting Jack Pressure

1. Calculate the snub force versus buckling calculation for use in Step 8 (see Section

15.1.9 and APPENDICES J and K, DO NOT EXCEED THESE SNUB FORCE CALCULATIONS IN STEP EIGHT (8) BELOW

2. Lower the BHA into the snubbing stack

3. Close both sets of snubbing slips and pull into stationary snubbing slips with traveling heavy slips

4. Close the annular and equalize the stack

5. Unlock and open blind rams

6. Lubricate the annular element, reposition the traveling plate for a short stroke, and close the traveling snubbing slips

7. Dial the jack pressure to zero and increase throttle to full capacity

8. Push the jack controller to full ―DOWN‖ and increase jack pressure until the pipe begins to snub

9. Snub using short strokes until the complete BHA is below the casing bowl

10. Increase jack pressure as required to allow tubing couplings to be snubbed through the snubbing annular

11. Decrease jack pressure as string weight increases and less snub force is required

Snubbing Operations

15.7.5.3 Purging Snubbing Stack

Each snubbing company has a responsibility to ensure that an effective plan is in place to purge their specific configuration of snubbing stack. More specific direction will be available in IRP 18: Upstream Petroleum Fire and Explosion Hazard Management, available by contacting Enform at (403) 250-9606 or visiting their website at www.enform.ca. Below is a sample procedure:

1. Secure the BHA in the snubbing stack with slips and annular

2. Close the equalize and bleed-off valves

3. Open the casing valve to the equalize valve

4. Check for leaks

5. Equalize the stack slowly to 500 kPa

6. Check for leaks

7. Close the equalize valve

8. Bleed off the stack slowly through the bleed-off valve

9. Re-equalize the stack slowly to 500 kPa

10. Close the equalize valve

11. Bleed off the stack slowly through the bleed-off valve

12. Equalize the stack slowly to full working pressure

13. Check for leaks

14. Remove the winch line from the BHA

15. Unlock and open the blind rams or CSO valve

16. Begin snubbing-in operation

15.7.5.4 Snubbing with Personnel in the Derrick or on the Tubular

Racking Board

This IRP has identified the risk as being unacceptable high to personnel positioned in the derrick or on the tubular racking board while conducting rig assist snubbing operations. As such, the current standard is there shall be no personnel positioned in the derrick or on the tubular racking board during rig assist snubbing operations. See Section 15.1.4 for hazard scenarios and associated risks.

15.7.5.5

Tripping

Snubbing Operations

The following practices for tripping must be followed:

Procedures must be developed to outline clearly the responsibilities for work done by employees of two different service companies.The following practices for tripping must be followed: Intrinsically safe communications technology must be used to

Intrinsically safe communications technology must be used to compensate for visual obstructions and noise.work done by employees of two different service companies. ―Confirmation repeat back‖ communication methods must be

―Confirmation repeat back‖ communication methods must be used between key operators (first confirming hand signals between operators). operators (first confirming hand signals between operators).

To prevent potential incidents, movement of the tubing string or BHAs must be stopped beforeoperators (first confirming hand signals between operators). o Any worker climbs up or down the snubbing

o

Any worker climbs up or down the snubbing unit ladder

o

Any worker enters or exits the snubbing work floor

o

Any service rig/drilling rig workers climb up or down the derrick ladder

A safe trip speed must be discussed with the driller before the tubing is tripped in or out of the well.rig/drilling rig workers climb up or down the derrick ladder The ram saver, throttle control, and

The ram saver, throttle control, and ram position indicator lights must be function tested before all tripping operations. If the system does not function properly, all tripping operations must be stopped until the system is fixed.driller before the tubing is tripped in or out of the well. Well pressures will determine

Well pressures will determine if the collars have to be staged in or out using the snubbing unit pipe rams and annular, or two sets of snubbing rams for higher pressure wells. Most snubbing work is done with external upset end (EUE) tubing and guidelines for staging couplings through the stack using an annular as the upper BOP are as follows:operations must be stopped until the system is fixed. o 60.3 mm EUE at more than

o

60.3 mm EUE at more than 13,800 kPa and less than 21,000 kPa

o

73.0 mm EUE at more than 12,250 kPa and less than 21,000 kPa

o

88.9 mm EUE at more than 4,000 kPa and less than 21,000 kPa

o

For the above tubing, a stripping pipe ram must be used as the upper BOP at pressures above 21,000 kPa

The first collar must be pulled or lowered slowly through the annular at the start of the trip and after any breaks.must be used as the upper BOP at pressures above 21,000 kPa The driller must have

The driller must have a good visual of the snubbing unit heavy slips. Tarps must be positioned so they do not interfere with the driller‘s line of sight. positioned so they do not interfere with the driller‘s line of sight.

Picking up tubing over the snubbing operator‘s panel must be avoided.heavy slips. Tarps must be positioned so they do not interfere with the driller‘s line of

Snubbing Operations

The following procedure for tripping must be followed:

1. Effective communications must be maintained at all times

2. Read and record well pressures

3. Conduct safety meeting and hazard assessment with all personnel on location and discuss methods for handling tubing (e.g. picking up tubing, etc.) and required procedure in case of plug loss/leaking

4. Calculate lift on tubing string and set jack pressure as per pre-job calculations.

5. Purge the snubbing stack (see Section 15.7.6.3)

6. Make up the BHA the to be run with closed stabbing valve and place in the stack

7. Close and set the snubbing slips

8. Equalize with wellbore pressure

9. Add oil to the top of the annular element to reduce friction

10. Set annular closing pressure to ensure ease of pipe movement as well as wellbore pressure control. Annular surge bottle pressure should be at 2,500 kPa (350 psi)

11. Snub the BHA in slowly through the BOP stack and wellhead, making sure to use the proper length of stroke to protect tubing from buckling (for more information on pipe buckling calculations, see APPENDIX K)

12. With the BHA snubbed in, pick up the next joint of tubing and make the connection. Snub in slowly. Continue to snub in at a safe and steady pace until the number of joints is close to pipe neutral. Refer to lift calculations performed at the beginning of the job. Test for pipe heavy frequently

Tripping with the rig blocks

13

Once the tubing string is pipe heavy, adjust jack pressure for pushing collars through the annular

14.

The driller will now control movement of pipe. Work at a safe and steady speed

15.

The driller must run the tubing at a safe and steady speed that will allow the snubbing operator sufficient time to open and close the slips and will not put the snubbing crew in danger due to the blocks entering the snubbing basket

15.7.5.6 Landing Tubing Hanger

Note: The snubbing supervisor and company representative must ensure tubing hanger lock-down screws are fully engaged and a pull test done before bleeding off pressure above.

Snubbing Operations

For snubbing the tubing hanger into the well with no tailpipe, these practices must be followed:

Before a tubing hanger is landed in the pipe light stage, a call must be

Before a tubing hanger is landed in the pipe light stage, a call must be made to on- call personnel to inform them of the situation and obtain advice on possible safer procedures

If the tubing hanger is to be snubbed in or out of the well when

If

the tubing hanger is to be snubbed in or out of the well when pipe light,

measurements and care must be taken to position the seal(s) of the hanger in a ram

cavity or fluted spool when equalizing or bleeding off the stack

Practice for Snubbing in the Tubing Hanger while Pipe Light

A procedure must be followed that minimizes the chance of the hanger sealing off

A

procedure must be followed that minimizes the chance of the hanger sealing off

and the ―SNUB FORCE‖ and ―LIFT FORCE‖ gauges must be monitored very closely

while bleeding off or equalizing slowly

If the tubing hanger is to be snubbed into the well with no tailpipe, well

If

the tubing hanger is to be snubbed into the well with no tailpipe, well pressure

must be contained with a plug at or below the hanger, not with a closed valve on top

of the landing joint

The snubbing supervisor and company representative must ensure tubing hanger

The snubbing supervisor and company representative must ensure tubing hanger

lock-down screws are fully engaged and a pull test done before bleeding off pressure

in

the BOP stack

When equalizing and/or bleeding off the snubbing stack with the tubing hanger (or any tool

When equalizing and/or bleeding off the snubbing stack with the tubing hanger (or any tool which could seal in the stack) contained between preventers, take the following actions:

o

Position the jack plate as low as possible and set the jack brake

o

Ensure that the traveling snubbing and heavy slips are closed and the stationary snubbing slips are open

o

Monitor the ―SNUB FORCE‖ and ―LIFT FORCE‖ gauges, as pressure in the stack is slowly equalized or bled off

o

If the tubing hanger (or any tool which could seal in the stack) has no tailpipe and the blind rams are closed and locked, do not open the annular once the stack has been bled off if either the ―Snub Force‖ or ―Lift Force‖ gauges do not read zero

Typical PIPE HEAVY Method

1. Break the coupling off the last joint to be run below the tubing hanger

2. Measure the distance from the lag screws on the casing bowl to the top of the slips on the snubbing unit. On higher pressure or square seal hangers, measure from the centre of the snubbing pipe ram cavity to slip top as well

3. Screw and snug the stabbing valve into the top of the landing joint with pipe wrenches. Leave open

4. Apply pipe dope to the pin end of the landing joint and screw into the top of the hanger

Snubbing Operations

5. Tighten landing joint with a pipe wrench.

6. Pick out of the slips with the blocks and stop

7. Raise the jack plate over top of the tubing hanger

8. Lower the hangar and stop just above the stationary slips

9. Lower the jack plate and stop just above the top of the hanger

10. Close the traveling snubbing slips to guide the hanger through the stationary slips and stop before tagging the annular top

Low Pressure Method (less than 10 MPa surface)

1. Close the snubbing pipe rams, bleed off the stack, and open the annular

2. Lower the hanger through the annular and close the annular to centre it as it is lowering into the stack. Read and record the string weight so it can be referred to later on

3. Method (a): Raise the string until the hanger tags the bottom of the annular element and drop down approximately 15 cm. Stop

OR Method (b): Lower the string until the bottom of hanger is sitting with approximately 1 daN of weight on top of the snubbing pipe rams. Stop

4. Confirm the string weight. Close the traveling snubbing slips and ask the driller to monitor the weight indicator and let the snubbing operator know immediately if anything changes

5. Open the equalize valve just enough to allow the stack to be equalized very slowly. Watch the ―SNUB FORCE‖ gauge in case of increase

6. Method (a): Open the snubbing pipe rams and land the hanger

OR Method (b): Tell the driller to pick up to string weight. Open the snubbing pipe rams and land the hanger, leaving the equalize valve in ―OPEN‖ position

7. Push down with approximately 4,545 daN (10,000 lb force) on the landing joint with the jack

8. Have the rig crew tighten in the lag screws as per manufacturer specifications and when finished, close in the casing valve to the equalize line

9. Bleed off the stack slowly. Stop halfway and monitor for two minutes for build up. If pressure remains constant, bleed off to zero

10. Before opening the annular, have the rig crew check the working spool to ensure the hanger seals are holding

11. If pressure remains zero, open the annular and traveling snubbing slips, and break out/lay down the landing joint. Close and lock the blind rams

Snubbing Operations

High Pressure or Wellbore Full of Fluid Method (greater than 10 MPa surface)

1. Close the rig annular and bleed off the stack

2. Open the annular and lower tubing string to position the hanger element in the snubbing pipe ram cavity

3. Confirm the string weight. Close the traveling snubbing slips and ask the driller to monitor the weight indicator and let the snubbing operator know immediately if anything changes

4. Equalize in 3,500 kPa increments and maintain good communication with the driller about the status of the string weight

5. Watch the ―SNUB FORCE‖ and ―LIFT FORCE‖ gauges for increase. In case of increase, reposition the tubing hanger: lower the tubing string if there is an increase in snub force and raise the tubing string if an increase in lift force

6. Once equalized, open the rig annular and land the hanger, leaving the equalize valve in ―OPEN‖ position

7. Push down with approximately 4,545 daN (10,000 lb force) on the landing joint with the jack

8. Have the rig crew tighten in the lag screws as per manufacturer specifications and when finished, close in the casing valve to the equalize line

9. Bleed off the stack in 3,500 kPa increments. At increments, monitor for two minutes for build up

10. Before opening the annular, have the rig crew check the working spool to ensure the hanger seals are holding

11. If pressure remains zero, open the annular and traveling snubbing slips, and break out/lay down the landing joint. Close and lock the blind rams

15.7.5.7 Removing Tubing Hanger

1. Install the landing joint, close and load the traveling snubbing slips, and pressure test

2. Mark the landing joint at the top of the stationary slips (because they never move and when doing Step 3, the mark at the traveling snubbing slips will not be visible). Measure from the lag screws to the centre of the snubbing pipe ram cavity