# Physics Formulas and Symbols

Physics I Quantity
% Error % Uncertainty Distance (Linear displacement) Elapsed Time Instantaneous Speed Average Speed Acceleration Final Speed Original Speed Elapsed Time ∆x ∆t V Vavg a V2 V1 ∆t

Symbol

Formula
% Error = ( |A-M| ) x 100 /A % Uncertainty = (Uncertainty x 100) / Measurement ∆x = xf - xo ∆t = t2 - t1 V = ∆d / ∆t (with t approaching zero seconds)
Vavg = (total distance traveled)/(total elapsed time)

a = ∆V/∆t = (V2 - V1) / (t2 - t1) V2 = V1 + a∆t V1 = V2 - a∆t ∆t = (V2 - V1) / a

Kinematic Equations:
Final Velocity Displacement Final Velocity Displacement Elapsed Time

====>
V2 ∆x V2 ∆x ∆t

(Uniform Acceleration)
V2 = V1 + a∆t ∆x = V1∆t + 0.5(a∆t2) V22 = V12 + 2a∆x ∆x = 0.5(V2 + V1)∆t ∆t = (V2 -V1) / a

Fg = Fw Fn µ F = ma Ff = µFn FAB = -FBA Fg = Fw = mg Fn = FwCos θ µ= Ff / Fn Atwood Machine Net Force Acceleration Net Force Mass 1 Mass 2 Total Mass Mass Difference Fnet a Fnet M1 M2 Mtot ∆M Fnet = (M1. root of (2∆x/g) Dynamics Force (Newton's 2nd Law) Friction Newton's Third Law Weight Normal Force Coefficient of Friction Equations F = Force Ff .0 m/s V2 ∆x V2 ∆x ∆t ∆t g = -9.5(g∆t2) V22 = 2g∆x ∆x = 0.Free Fall from Rest Final Velocity Displacement Final Velocity Displacement Elapsed Time Elapsed Time V1 = 0.5(V2 )∆t ∆t = (V2) / g ∆t = Sq.M2)g = ∆Mg a = (Fnet ) / (M1+ M2) Fnet = (M1+ M2)a .M2 Force and Acceleration on an incline .8 m/s2 V2 = g∆t ∆x = 0. Mtot = M1+ M2 ∆M = M1. .

Angle of Incline Acceleration (net) Accelerating Force Normal Force Vertical Acceleration Horizontal Acceleration θ a Fa FN ay ax θ = Sin-1(Opp/adj) a = gsin θ Fa = Fw (Sin θ) FN = Fw (Cos θ) ay = gsinθsinθ ax = gsinθcosθ Projectile Motion (No Air Resistance!) ax = 0. ay = 9.x1) / t = Vx2 Vx2 = Vx1 = (x2.0 m/s2 V2y2 = V2y1 .8 m/s2 x = horizontal.x1) / t .0 m/s2.x1 = Vx1t x1 = x2 .2g∆y y2 = y1 + Vy1t . y = vertical Down vectors are negative in Value! Up vectors are positive in value! Horizontal Motion (Acceleration is in the vertical direction only!) Subscript "o" means time is 0.Vx1t Vx1 = (x2 .gt ax = 0.8 m/s2.0.5gt2 Projectile Terms and Units: x2 x1 Vx1 Vx2 Final Horizontal Position (meters) Initial Horizontal Position (meters) Initial Horizontal Velocity (m/s) Final Horizontal Velocity (m/s) ∆x = x2 . (The negative value has already been entered into the formulas for acceleration!) x2 = x1 + Vx1t Vertical Motion Vx2 = Vx1 Vy2 = Vy1 .0 seconds Formulas require ay to be positive 9.

..0...y1) ay = g = -9.m/s P = mV J = F.y1= Vy1t .5ayt2 y1 = y2 .. = m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + .ax y2 y1 Vy1 Vy2 ∆y ay t Horizontal Acceleration (m/s2) Final Vertical Position (m) Initial Vertical Position (m) Initial Vertical Velocity (m/s) Final Vertical Velocity (m/s) Change in Vertical Position (m) Earth's Gravitational Acceleration (m/s2) Time of "flight" (s) ax = 0. m1V1 + m2V2 + m3V3 + ..Vy1t + 0..s . Sin θ R = (V21 Sin 2θ) / g Units: P = kg. Momentum P J ∆P J = ∆P Ptot = ΣmnVn P'tot =ΣmnV'n Ptot =P'tot (Linear) Momentum Impulse Change in Momentum Impulse = Change in Momentum Total Initial Momentum Total Final Momentum Conservation of Momentum J = N........ y2 = y1) at angle θ Angle of Launch from the horizontal (degrees) Resultant Launch Velocity Horizontal Launch Velocity (Component) Vertical Launch Velocity (Component) Maximum Horizontal Distance traveled (or Range) in meters from the horizontal θ = tan -1 (Vy1 / Vx1) V21 = V2y1 + V2x1 Vx2 = V1 . m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + .5ayt2 Vy1 = Vy2 + ayt Vy2 = Vy1 .t = ∆(mV) m1V1 + m2V2 + m3V3 + .t ∆(mV) = m(Vf .8 m/s2 t = (Vy2 .0 m/s2 ∆y = y2 .Vo) F.ayt ∆y = (y2 .. Cos θ Vy1 = V1 ..Vy1) / ay Projectile Launched θ V1 Vx2 Vy1 R (if.

d Cos θ Ep = Fw(h) = mgh Ek = (0..Explosions and Collisions: Type: Elastic Collision Inelastic Collision Explosion Momentum Formulas m1V1 + m2V2 = m1V'1 + m2V'2 m1V1 + m2V2 = (m1 + m2)V'f 0 = m1V'1 + m2V'2 + m3V'3 + ...5)mv2 W = ∆Ek + ∆Ep W = ∆Ek + ∆Ep = (0.5mv2 + mgh)f (0.5mv2 + mgh)i ΣE = Ek + Ep + heat (ΣE)i = (ΣE)f or (Ek + Ep + heat)i = (Ek + Ep + heat)f Conservation of Energy Final Total Energy = (ΣE)f . Work and Energy Work Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Work Work Total Energy (system) Conservation of Energy (Linear Mechanical System) W Ep Ek W W ΣE Initial Total Energy = (Σ E)i W = F..