CURS PRACTIC DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

VERBUL

1. CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE 2. LECŢIA 1 - TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 3. LECŢIA 2 - CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR 4. LECŢIA 3 - MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE 5. LECŢIA 4 - VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ 6. LECŢIA 5 - DIATEZA PASIVĂ 7. LECŢIA 6 - VERBELE MODALE 8. LECŢIA 7 - MODUL SUBJONCTIV 9. LECŢIA 8 - MODURILE NEPERSONALE ŞI CONSTRUCŢIILE VERBALE 10. LECŢIA 9 - CHEIA EXERCIŢIILOR 10.1 Timpurile modului 10.2. Exerciţii cu concordanţa timpurilor 10.3. Exerciţii cu fraze condiţionale 10.4. Exerciţii cu vorbirea directă şi indirectă 10.5. Exerciţii cu diateza pasivă 10.6. Exerciţii cu verbe modale 10.7. Exerciţii cu modul subjonctiv 10.8. Exerciţii cu construcţii verbale 11. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE
Verbul constituie coloana vertebrală a unei limbi. Cartea „Curs practic de limba engleză – verbul” (cu exerciţii şi cheie) cuprinde o parte teoretică – prezentarea clară şi sistematică a modurilor, timpurilor, concordanţei timpurilor, verbelor modale şi a altor probleme legate de verbul englez (cu exemple şi traducere), precum şi o parte practică cu exerciţii la fiecare capitol şi la sfârşitul cărţii au fost incluse cheia exerciţiilor şi lista verbelor neregulate întâlnite în cadrul exemplelor şi exerciţiilor. Prezentarea teoretică a problemelor este făcută în limba română.

LECŢIA 1
TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV
Există două aspecte în limba engleză: simplu şi continuu. În general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe acţiunea propriu-zisă, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata acţiunii, pe perioada de timp în care aceasta are loc. În explicarea întrebuinţării timpurilor continue se va întâlni formularea „acţiune în plină desfăşurare”. Aceasta înseamnă că acţiunea a început înainte de momentul la care se face referire şi va continua după acel moment. Există un număr de verbe în limba engleză care nu se folosesc la forma continuă, deoarece ideea de durată e inclusă în conţinutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know.

A. Present Tense Simple
Afirmativ I work. You work. He/she/it works. We work. You work. They work. I You He/she/it We You They Negativ do not (don’t) do not (don’t) does not (doesn’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) do not (don’t) work. work. work. work. work. work.

Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work?

Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune regulată, obişnuită, în perioada prezentă. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?)

Negativ I am not working. You are working. poate arăta o acţiune care se desfăşoară pe timp limitat în perioada prezentă. există o conotaţie afectivă (nemulţumire) sau acţiunea respectivă este caracteristică pentru acea persoană. You are always losing your things. He/she/it is working. Afirmativ I am working. We are not (aren’t) working. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous Se conjugă verbul „to be” la timpul prezent şi se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. . They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are we working? Are you working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune în plină desfăşurare în momentul prezent. You are working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. My father is taking me in his car. You are not (aren’t) working. I go to school by bus this week.I am a student. They are working. De asemenea. pentru a arăta o acţiune repetată. În acest caz. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Where are you going? I am going to school. We are working.

5. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 2. 6. to have a party). What you (do) on Sundays? 3. 2. 4. He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) tea. 7. formează negativul şi interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do”. 6. They are swimming in the river. She talks too much. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. He has a hot bath every day. In England it often (rain). 8. 9. You are typing a letter. We are studying English. 7. I (not like) that boy. atunci când nu înseamnă „a avea. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 10. I trust my friend. 6. My friend is wearing a new dress. 9. 11. 2. 4. He remembers my phone number. You (write) to John now? Yes. You (like) this book? 8. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Simple) la interogativ şi negativ: 1. 3. to have a shower. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. I always (write) to him on his birthday. 12. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). 8. You (dream) at night? Yes. 3.EXERCIŢII cu Present Simple şi Present Continuous: 1. 5. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. 10. He is telling the truth. I understand you. I always believe you. 9. 4. I have lunch at one o’clock. a poseda”. You play the piano very well. I love my brother. ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast. 5. Ann is knitting. I am having a walk. . I (not go) shopping because it (rain). 10. I (be). It is raining. 2. They live in Bucharest. The child is learning to play the piano. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii (Present Continuous) la negativ şi interogativ: 1. Notă: Verbul „to have”. My mother is resting. 3. 7. I (dream) every night.

B. 15. 19. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15.You (know) what time is it? 4.13. Clientul tocmai îşi alege o pereche de pantofi. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Past Tense trebuie învăţat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indică cele trei forme de bază ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Cui îi telefonezi? 13. of course. 14. La ce oră se scoală John dimineaţa? 11. as I (not want) to miss the first act. 6.Paste Tense. Eu nu studiez seara. 7. Ce faci? Citeşti sau priveşti la televizor? 5. forma III – participiul trecut to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ . Când merg la mare îmi place să înot mult. Adesea citesc cărţi englezeşti. Duminica el nu se scoală devreme. Ea îşi face bagajul. 8. merge pe jos. as usual. Iarna ninge. but he is late. 19. Dacă verbul este neregulat. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 2. I always (have) a rest after lunch. 16. El nu merge la şcoală cu metroul. You (go) to work every day? Yes. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Cât de des le scrii părinţilor tăi? 18. Acum îmi fac temele la engleză. Ea merge la cumpărături sâmbăta. 18. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 17. forma II . 16. Ce carte citeşti? 10. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. 3. Secretara tocmai bate la maşină un referat. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formează prin adăugarea terminaţiei – ed în cazul verbelor regulate: to work – worked. 9. except Saturdays and Sundays. 14. 20. 4. Ce faci tu în zilele libere? 12. Why you (smoke) so much? 17.

work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtată a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). Past Tense Simple arată o acţiune trecută, terminată, efectuată într-o perioadă de timp trecută, terminată. Este timpul de naraţiune. Se traduce, de obicei, cu perfectul compus. Yesterday I went for a walk. (Ieri am mers la plimbare.) Last year I travelled to England. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.) Past Tense Continuous Se formează prin conjugarea verbului „to be” la trecut (Past Tense) şi adăugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I was working. You were working. He/she/it was working. We were working. You were working. They were working. Negativ I was not working. You were not working. He/she/it was not working. We were not working. You were not working. They were not working. Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. Interogativ Was I working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were we working? Were you working? Were they working?

Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment din trecut. Se traduce, de obicei, cu imperfectul. This time yesterday, I was watching TV. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor.) Adesea, în aceeaşi frază, este posibil să apară un verb folosit la Past Continuous şi un verb folosit la Past Simple. În acest caz, verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul), reprezintă fundalul de timp pe care se petrece acţiunea exprimată de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). While I was crossing the street, I met John. Este, de asemenea, posibil să apară într-o frază timpul Past Continuous în mod repetat. În această situaţie, ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul, ele arătând acţiuni paralele, în plină desfăşurare, într-un moment trecut. While John was reading, his sister was watching TV. (În timp ce John citea, sora lui privea la televizor.)

EXERCIŢII cu Past Tense Simple şi Continuous:
1. Puneţi verbele din urmatoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple: 1. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 2. He meets John on Sundays. 3. You speak English well. 4. You drink too much. 5. You ask too many questions. 6. I play football. 7. I own two umbrellas. 8. I like to have a coffee in the morning. 9. That sounds interesting. 10.I always make cakes on Sundays. 2. Puneţi verbele din următoarele propoziţii la negativ şi interogativ: 1. He thought about you. 2. They drank all the wine. 3. I hated him. 4. He changed his library book every day. 5. I sold my car. 6. We worked very hard. 7. He came home late. 8. I enjoyed travelling. 9. He translated the text. 10. He forbade her to do this. 3. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. When you (come in), I talk on the phone. 2. When I first (meet) him, he (work) in a bank.

3. While he (learn) to drive, he (have) an accident. 4. As I (write), someone (ring up). 5. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. When I (enter) the classroom, the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 8. When I (arrive), she (have) dinner. 9. This time last Sunday, I (watch) a film on TV. 10.He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 4. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseară. 2. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecută? 3. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de înot. 4. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineaţă. 5. Duminica trecută prietenii mei au jucat şah. 6. Ieri pe vremea asta plouă. 7. Ce făceai marţea trecută la ora 7 dimineaţa? 8. Mă pregăteam să merg la facultate. 9. În timp ce îmi căutam paşaportul am găsit această fotografie veche. 10. Băieţii jucau cărţi când l-au auzit pe tatăl lor intrând în casă. 11. Ei au ascuns imediat cărţile şi şi-au scos manualele de şcoală. 12. Când te-ai întors de la munte? 13. Când ai cumpărat acest televizor? 14. Ieri mi-am pierdut mănuşile. 15. Bătea un vânt puternic când am ieşit din casă. 16. Unde ţi-ai petrecut concediul vara trecută? 17. Ieri m-am sculat devreme, mi-am luat micul dejun şi apoi am plecat la şcoală. 18. Acum două zile am căzut şi mi-am rupt piciorul. 19. Săptămâna trecută am fost bolnav şi nu am mers la şcoală. 20. El a dat primul examen săptămâna trecută. 21. Cine a câştigat meciul alaltăieri? 22. În timp ce ploua, eu conduceam maşina spre Sinaia.

C. Present Perfect Simple
Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent, la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have worked. You have worked. He/she/it has worked. We have worked. You have worked. They have worked.

I must buy a new one. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat în trecut. Se foloseşte cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leagă trecutul de prezent. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relaţie. folosirea timpului verbal este condiţionată de momentul în care se face afirmaţia. dacă se menţionează momentul trecut în care a avut loc acţiunea care interesează în prezent sau care are rezultate în prezent. (Nu l-am văzut pe John de două luni.Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked.) I have known John for two years. I must buy a new one. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. În acest caz. (Nu l-am văzut pe John din septembrie. efectuată într-o perioadă de timp neterminată. începând din) şi for (de. care are rezultate în prezent sau care. I haven’t seen John for two months. • . (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. folosirea lui este însoţită de adverbe precum: today. (Îl cunosc pe John din 1990. terminată. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked.) Trebuie precizat faptul că. timp de).) I didn’t get up early this morning. interesează în prezent. I have seen two films this week. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. dacă aceasta este în cursul dimineţii (până la ora 12) sau după amiază. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepoziţiile since (din.) • Dacă adverbul de timp este „this morning”. dintr-un motiv sau altul. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai văzut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella.) Traducerea celor două propoziţii în limba română este identică.) I have known John since 1990. întrucât „when” reprezintă un moment precizat în trecut. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. this month. dacă se pune o întrebare referitoare la trecut care începe cu „when”. this week. se foloseşte Past Simple. El arată o legătură între trecut şi momentul prezent. this year.) I haven’t seen John since September. arată o acţiune trecută. I haven’t got up early this morning. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseşte în următoarele situaţii: arată o acţiune începută în trecut care continuă până în prezent. (Îl cunosc pe John de doi ani. (Am văzut două filme săptămâna aceasta. (Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineaţă. De asemenea.) • arată o acţiune trecută. În acest caz. I lost my umbrella yesterday. Trebuie să-mi cumpăr una nouă.

just. (Plouă de 3 ore. I have never been to England. He hasn’t returned home yet. Dacă nu se opreşte în curând.) Ca şi Present Perfect Simple. He has not (hasn’t) been working. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba română. în funcţie de context. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. They have been working.) De asemenea. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare.) După cum se poate observa. poate arăta probabilitatea ca acţiunea începută în trecut. You have been working. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce în româneşte fie cu prezentul. (El nu s-a întors încă acasă. între un moment trecut şi prezent. never. fie cu perfectul compus. Afirmativ I have been working. (Sunt obosit pentru că am muncit toată ziua. Present Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. we shall have floods. yet (în propoziţii negative). Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. I am tired because I have been working all day. You have been working. If it doesn’t stop soon.) I haven’t seen him lately. He/she/it has been working. . ever. always. It has been raining for three hours. We have been working. already. cu accent pe durată. care continuă în prezent. seldom. I have often been to England. să continue şi în viitor. (Nu l-am văzut în ultimul timp. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârşitul propoziţiei: lately. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodată în Anglia?) No.Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aşează între auxiliar şi verb: often. vom avea inundaţii. Yes.

You must come and see it. You (water) the flowers? 3. When are you going to do it? 12. I (lend) him some money today. Ever since that woman came to work here.You ever (eat) caviar? 14.You ever (drive) a car? 17. 2. 6. 16. 11. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. We (know) each other for several years. 5.I (live) here for one year.He always (rely on) his friend. thank you. I just (have) one. He (not come) home yet. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. I (cook) all the morning. 2. 12.m.You (visit) the Village Museum? 13.I (not be) to the seaside this year. 4. When you (use) it last? . 18. 4.EXERCIŢII cu Present Perfect Simple şi Continuous: 1. 21. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous în locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1.He (sleep) for 10 hours now. I’m tired of it. You (not see) it anywhere? No. 10. I (water) the flowers. 7. The radio (play) since 7 a.He (not go) to bed yet. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. How long you (wear) glasses? 6.I (not write) to my friend for three months. 10. she (try) to make trouble. I (lose) my pen. 2. 5. 11. No. I (buy) a new house. I already (see) this film. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 3. It’s time we woke him up. Folosiţi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple în locul infinitivelor: 1. 9. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. 15. 8. I haven’t. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now.It (not rain) since December. Would you like a cake? 7. 3. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market.You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. He just (leave) home.How long you (live) here? 22.

9. Un copil a spart geamul. Trebuie să-l înlocuim. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 6. El a scris numai două scrisori de când a plecat în străinătate. I (get) a job last month. la care se adaugă forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. A plecat John? 20.Da. Afirmativ I had worked. acum doi ani. De cât timp înveţi engleza? 5. I am not out of work now. 18. 11. Ei lucrează la această casă de un an şi nu au terminat-o încă. Nu am mers la vot. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1.La ce te-ai uitat? 15. 16. 21. 7. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. Vremea s-a încălzit în ultimul timp. El este ministru de doi ani. 8. D. I (try) last year but I (not 3. Unde ţi-ai petrecut vacanţa anul acesta? 3. 23. 9. Cine te-a învăţat să vorbeşti engleza atât de bine? 2. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. You (be) out of work long? 5. a plecat acum o oră. 4. You (see) your mother this week? No. Past Perfect Simple Se formează cu verbul „to have” la Past Tense Simple.It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. am petrecut o lună aici. 12. 25. . 4. Ninge de două ore. Am mers pe jos 10 km până acum. 10. De când mi-am cumpărat maşina. Da.succeed). 6. 2. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. M-am gândit adesea să-mi iau carnet de conducere. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 11. l-am luat la ora 8. Am stat acasă şi nu am regretat nici o clipă. 4. Ai văzut ziarul de azi? 19. am mers arareori pe jos la slujbă. Da.A fost un accident. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 7. 8. 14. Traduc un text de două ore şi nu l-am terminat încă. 10. Ţi-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Ai mai fost în acest oraş? 24. 13.Mergem pe jos de la ora 3.

Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. (Când mi-ai telefonat. terminasem de scris temele. Este. în acest caz. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Interogativ Had I been working? Aceste forme se păstrează la toate persoanele. Arată o acţiune trecută care a avut loc înaintea unei alte acţiuni sau a unui moment din trecut.) He said it had been raining for three days. De asemenea. (După ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. este vorba de o relaţie între două momente trecute.) When you rang me up.) Ca sens. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente trecute. (El a spus că plouă de 3 zile. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working.) . Past Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be”. he got bored. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeaşi formă la toate persoanele. ca şi Present Perfect. (Când el a intrat în cameră. când în aceeaşi frază în propoziţia principală se află un verb la Past Tense. s-a plictisit. dar. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua funcţiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous în propoziţia secundară. un verb de relaţie. When he entered the room.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. she had been typing for one hour. I had finished writing my homework. echivalentul în limba română al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. ea bătea la maşină de o oră. Afirmativ I had been working.

she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. EXERCIŢII cu Past Simple şi Continuous: 1. 10. it (rain) for one hour. 8. 5. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. she felt chilly. 2. she (write) letters for one hour. When we met them. 3. 3. 2. we (realize) we (lose) our way. She said she already (be) to England. she (study) the subject for a week. 8. When I called on her unexpectedly. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam.După cum se observă. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall.When I (find out) he (get married). Puneţi verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1.Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. 6. we (climb) for 7 hours. 5. When she decided to have a rest. 4. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. they drank some coffee. 9. 3. 6. When I arrived home. 7. 4. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. Mi-a părut rău că îl jignisem. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. When I left home. 4. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. At 3 o’clock on Friday. I (return) from school. After we (walked) for an hour. 7. When she sat for the exam.When we arrived at Sinaia. 8. El mi-a mulţumit pentru ceea ce făcusem pentru el. 10. I realized she (have) a party. 9. 10. 4. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. 9. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). 2. 2. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. 2. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 6. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time.The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 7. . When we reached the top. mother (cook) for two hours. 5. 3. After they (finish) dinner. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. After John (leave). Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba română. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. When I rang her up.

am mers la culcare. se foloseşte numai „shall”. E. a înmânat-o profesorului. Interogativ Shall I go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul că la interogativ persoana I. 6. They will go. They will not go. We (shall) will not go. We (shall) will go. 4. Ei mi-au spus că locuiau în Franţa din 1980. El nu făcuse nimic înainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. Forma scurtă pentru „shall not” este shan’t.) Future Continuous . Când am ajuns la staţia de autobuz. Future Tense Simple Se formează cu shall sau will la persoana I. You will go. De îndată ce au plecat musafirii. mi-am dat seama că îmi lăsasem poşeta 7. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumătate de oră. He/she/it will not go. Afirmativ I (shall) will go. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. iar pentru „will not” este won’t. Nu ţi-am telefonat pentru că am crezut că plecaseşi în străinătate. I (shall) will meet him next week. Ei au călătorit în multe ţări după ce s-au căsătorit. acasă. Acest timp arată o acţiune viitoare obişnuită. You will not go. De îndată ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. 9. You will not go. 8. (Îl voi întâlni săptămâna viitoare.3. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Negativ I (shall) will not go. He/she/it will go. will la persoana II şi III. You will go. 5. 10.

You will not be going. You will be going. He/she/it will not be going. Future Perfect Simple Se formează cu shall sau will. Negativ I (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. We (shall) will not be going. They will have gone. He/she/it will have gone. He/she/it will be going. You will have gone.Se formează cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be”. . la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. You will not be going. (have + forma III). (Mâine la ora 3 voi călători spre Anglia. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. We (shall) will be going. They will be going. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. They will not be going. You will have gone. I will be travelling to England. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. At three o’clock. Interogativ Shall I be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare într-un moment viitor. You will be going.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba română. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going.

When you come home. Negativ I (should) would not go. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba română. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. You would go. He/she/it would go. (Mâine până la ora 3 voi fi ajuns la Predeal. Afirmativ I (should) would go. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arată o acţiune anterioară unei alte acţiuni sau unui moment viitor. Când vei veni tu acasă. By three o’clock tomorrow. I will have reached Predeal. We (should) would not go. We (should) would go. They would go. You would not go. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formează cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). He/she/it will not have gone. We (shall) will not have gone. Arată o acţiune în plină desfăşurare între două momente viitoare. I (shall) will have been going. He/she/it would not go.) Future Perfect Continuous Se formează cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be”. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba română. You would not go. . I will have been studying for three hours. They will not have gone. la care se adaugă infinitivul verbului de conjugat. You would go.You will not have gone. Este un timp rar folosit. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de 3 ore. You will not have gone.

the next day. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formează cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be”. I am meeting John this morning.) Întrucât nu poate fi întâlnit decât în propoziţii secundare (după un verb la timpul trecut în propoziţia principală). Preia funcţiile lui Future Tense Continuous într-o propoziţie secundară. 8. la ora 3. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. 3. (El a spus că va întârzia. (El a spus că în ziua următoare. 7. Arată de asemenea o intenţie sau o probabilitate. iar cea de la „would not” este wouldn’t.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. la care se adaugă forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I (know) the results in three days’ time.) • Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. I (remember) this day all my life. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1.) It is going to rain. 10. You (be) in London tomorrow. I hope I (pass) the exam. I leave for London tomorrow. . He (be) pleased if you invite him. 2. I am going to read this book.They would not go. 6. he would be travelling to England. 5. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. bine stabilit. va călători spre Anglia. I am sure you (like) this book. Într-un astfel de context. Acest timp este folosit în concordanţa timpurilor pentru a arăta o acţiune posterioară unui moment sau unei acţiuni din trecut. arată un program precis. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. Forma scurtă de la „should not” este shouldn’t. (Voi citi/am de gând să citesc această carte. Arată o intenţie. atunci când în principală se află un verb la trecut. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât în întrebări disjunctive. Este un timp destul de rar folosit. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. I should (would) be going. (Îl întâlnesc/îl voi întâlni pe John în dimineaţa aceasta. • EXERCIŢII cu timpurile „Future”: 1. I am sure I (succeed). He said he would be late.) • Expresia „to be going to” + infinitiv. He said that at 3 o’clock.

8. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. între orele 12 şi 1. Uite ce am cumpărat la o licitaţie! 12. This time next day. 5. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. Ce faci mâine dimineaţă la ora 11? 3. In a week’s time. 9. 10. By 5 o’clock. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. Până la ora 1. 7. 4.m. voi fi economisit 5 milioane. 3. Trenul va fi plecat înainte de a ajunge noi la gară. 3. 10. Până la sfârşitul lunii. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 9. 3. Traduceţi în limba engleză folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. we (climb) the mountain. it probably (rain). If we don’t hurry. 6. 4. Din cauza grevei şoferilor de autobuze multă lume va merge pe jos la slujbă. . I (work) at the office till late at night. By the time you come home. 6. ea va fi terminat curăţenia în casă. the baby (cry). you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. Let’s hurry to the beach. voi fi văzut acest film de 5 ori. When I take the exam. Am cumpărat o maşină de scris şi voi învăţa să bat. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 11. 7. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock.By the end of the month. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. 7. 9. I (cook) for two hours. 10. Next year. 2. Până anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. She (watch) TV. El va studia în bibliotecă luni de la ora 1 la 5.Don’t expect me home for dinner. By the end of the season. 5. When you reach Sinaia. He (study) all day tomorrow. I (have) breakfast. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. they (be married) for 25 years. I (swim) in the sea. I (work) on this paper for a month. 6. ei vor avea ultima oră de engleză. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. Vineri. 2. I am sure when I arrive home. 4. This time next month. Unde îl vei pune? mâine. we (take) our exam.2. 4. 8. 2. 8. Voi vizita târgul internaţional. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. By the beginning of next week. I (pay off) all my debts. E un obiect frumos.

(Am ajuns acasă după ce încetase ploaia.) She promised her mother she would help her. Ce înseamnă „un timp adecvat” se va vedea în continuare. desigur. nu în propoziţii. Past Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Orice alt timp „past”. Past Perfect Simple. Propoziţia principală 1.) Nota 2: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii secundare cu acţiune posterioară celei din principală. un timp „present” Present Tense Simple. Present Perfect Continuous Propoziţia secundară Propoziţia principală Orice timp cerut de sens. (Ea a spus că uitase unde şi-a pus ochelarii. ci în fraze. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale că o va ajuta. secundara cu acţiunea anterioară celei din principală. (El a spus că merge la şcoală.) Nota 1: Dacă într-o frază există două propoziţii. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses. un timp „past” Past Tense Simple. (El a spus că este bolnav. se poate folosi Past Perfect în mod repetat. Present Perfect Simple. 2.) He said he was going to school. a) Past Tense – acţiune simultană – Past Tense He said he was ill. Ea constă în aceea că folosirea unui anumit timp în propoziţia principală obligă la folosirea unui timp adecvat în propoziţia secundară. după care (în temporală sau condiţională) se întrebuinţează Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). Past Tense Continuous.) b) Past Tense – acţiune anterioară – Past Perfect He said he had returned home a week before. Futurein-the-Past se poate folosi numai o singură dată. Present Tense Continuous.LECŢIA 2 CONCORDANŢA TIMPURILOR Concordanţa timpurilor se aplică. . (El a spus că va pleca a doua zi. dintre care una este temporală sau condiţională.) c) Past Tense – acţiunea posterioară – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. (El a spus că se întorsese acasă cu o săptămână înainte.

) Notă: În limba engleză contemporană. (Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. Când propoziţia secundară este atributivă. Când propoziţia secundară exprimă un adevăr general valabil. Future – acţiune simultană – Present I will read this book when I have time. (El a spus că va cumpăra o maşină dacă va avea bani. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă după ce va termina lucrul. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinţă.) I will have finished studying when you come home. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. EXERCIŢII cu concordanţa timpurilor: . cu excepţia propoziţiilor temporale sau condiţionale. Pentru moment însă.) He said he would buy a car if he had money.) 3. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me”. Se poate întâlni.) 3. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinţă de a nu se respecta concordanţa timpurilor atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Când propoziţia secundară este comparativă. să ajungă regulă. (Voi citi această carte când voi avea timp. (Voi merge în Anglia după ce voi obţine viza. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasă.) 2. sfătuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleză să respecte regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor aşa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. (Profesorul le-a spus elevilor că apa fierbe la 100 oC. (Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost dată de fratele meu.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Situaţiile cel mai des întâlnite sunt următoarele: a.He said he would come to see me when he had time. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (El a spus că va veni să mă vadă când va avea timp. cu timpul.) b. Future – acţiune anterioară – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa.) Excepţii de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. de exemplu.

10. She told me his name after he (leave). I believed you (be) at the seaside. 3. I understood you (be) a painter. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. 8. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. we supposed prices (go up). 7. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. ţinând seama de relaţia de anterioritate exprimată de verbul din propoziţia principală sau din cea secundară: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-in-the-Past. 2. 7. After I (hear) the news. 2. 6. Looking out of the window. When it started to rain. 5. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. too. . având în vedere simultaneitatea acţiunilor din propoziţia principală şi cea secundară: 1. 6.1. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 3. When I arrived. When I heard the main actor was ill. 5. 8. the concert already (begin). Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 5. He promised he (drive) me home. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 4. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. When he finally reached London. 2. 3. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. 10. 2. 8. 4. 9. It was clear they (talk) business again. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 7. 9. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. 3. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 10. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. We all believed he (win) the competition. He just (leave) home when he came across John. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). I congratulated him. They didn’t know that I (play) football. 6. 4. As wages had gone up. 9. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. având în vedere faptul că propoziţia secundară exprimă o acţiune posterioară celei din principală: 1. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her.

4. 10. 2. 3. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). 6. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. precum şi excepţiile: 1. 3. 5. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. 10. 16. respectând toate regulile de concordanţă a timpurilor. 2. After you (drink) a coffee. this beach will become very crowded. After she (learn) to type. 14. they will have been married for five years. 7. 9. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 8. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. As soon as the holidays (begin). 6. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. . 4. 2. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. By the time you (finish) translating the text. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. 13. 4. 11. 8. 12. I shall have typed all the letters. she will take a job as a secretary. 7. he will drive to Sinaia. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. ţinând seama de excepţiile de la concordanţa timpurilor: 1. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. In 1998. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 6. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 18. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. 5. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 19. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. When I (finish) the book. When their first baby (be born). Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. After he (repair) the car. 9. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. you will feel better. 5. 5. He told me he never (see) the sea. 3. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 17. 4. I will lend it to you. 15. 20. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be).

10. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. A week ago. 11. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 7. la care se adaugă infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. 12. Secretara mi-a spus că directorul este ocupat. 6. LECŢIA 3 MODUL CONDIŢIONAL ŞI FRAZELE CONDIŢIONALE Present Conditional (condiţional prezent) Se formează cu should şi would la persoana I şi would la persoanele II şi III. 9. I (not decide) yet. 8. 19. He was very upset because I (be) late. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 8. You will never know how much I (suffer). Tata îmi va da un cadou după ce voi lua examenul. I-am promis că îi voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. 3. they were listening to music. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. I will do it when I (want) to. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. M-a întrebat câte litere sunt în alfabetul chinez şi nu am putut să-i răspund. 20. Hoţul nu şi-a dat seama că poliţia îl urmărea de o săptămână. 5. 13. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. Poliţistul mă va întreba ce am văzut în timpul accidentul. After having visited Italy. Era foarte supărat că îşi pierduse dicţionarul şi nu era sigur că va găsi unul nou în librării. not before. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. 4. 16. 10. 7. 11. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. Nu mi-am amintit că ne cunoscusem cu un an înainte. When I finally arrived home. 15. After we have finished dinner. he decided he (change) his job. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 14. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. 17. Nu am stat acasă să te aştept pentru că nu ştiam când vei veni. Ştiam că eşti în Bucureşti. Îţi voi spune adevărul după ce îl voi afla eu însămi. Maşina pe care o voi cumpăra va fi importată din Germania. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 18. . 7. 2. 9. 12. When we (go) to see them last night. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen.6. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise.

Afirmativ I should/would go. . He/she/it would not go.). They would not go. They would not go. You would go. We should/would have gone. Interogativ Should I go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Should we go? Would you go? Would they go? Se traduce cu condiţionalul prezent din limba română (aş merge. You would have gone. Past Conditional (condiţional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adaugă infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). ar merge etc. Negativ I should/would not go. You would go. You would have gone. You would not go. We should/would not have gone. You would not go. You would not have gone. Negativ I should/would not have gone. You would not have gone. Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. He/she/it would go. wouldn’t. He/she/it would not have gone. ai merge. We should/would go. We should/would not go. They would have gone. Afirmativ I should/would have gone. He/she/it would have gone.

Tipul 3: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine.) I would stay at home if it rained. (Aş fi mers la mare dacă vremea ar fi fost bună. (Voi merge la mare dacă vremea va fi bună. Interogativ Should I have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu condiţionalul trecut din limba română (aş fi mers. ar fi mers etc.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.They would not have gone. cu excepţia verbului „to be”. (Aş merge la mare dacă vremea ar fi bună. What shall we do. suppose. (Aş fi stat acasă dacă ar fi plouat. (Voi sta acasă dacă va ploua.) I will stay at home if it rains.). Frazele condiţionale (If-Clauses) Există trei tipuri de fraze condiţionale: Tipul 1: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. in case. (Aş sta acasă dacă ar ploua. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând că el întârzie?) . supposing.) Nota 1: Trebuie să se ţină seama că subjonctivul folosit în propoziţia secundară are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. providing. ai fi mers.) Tipul 2: Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. unde se întâlneşte forma „were” la toate persoanele.) Nota 2: – if poate fi înlocuit de provided (that).

8. I would be nervous. should se traduce cu: în caz că. Unless you come at 6. 7. 10. If it (go on) raining. noi am fi amendaţi.. (În caz că telefonează. If I like the dress. If I tell you something. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. we shall have floods. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 2: 1. If I (know) his phone-number. If I (give up) smoking. you (not pass) the exam. Unless you study more. este posibilă omiterea lui if. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. dar improbabilă. you will have to look after it. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. 2. If she finds out what has happened. Should he have a headache. şi în acest caz se inversează ordinea subiect – auxiliar. I (buy) it. you (not find) me at home.) De asemenea. în loc de Present Simple. 4. we would be fined. she (be) very angry. Acest tip de secundară este adesea combinat cu imperativul. 8. 5. 2. 7.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. If I won the lottery. If I see him.if not poate fi înlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. 9. If you don’t hurry. I would ring him up. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. would you visit me? 3. 3. 2. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. he (take) a pill. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come EXERCIŢII cu fraze condiţionale: 1. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. had. În acest caz. If the police should find out the truth. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 1: 1. 5. were. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. should). spune-i că nu sunt acasă. If he were more careful. dacă s-ar întâmpla ca. he (not make) so many mistakes. atunci când acţiunea din secundară este posibilă. If you (take) a dog. (În caz că poliţia ar afla adevărul/Dacă s-ar întâmpla ca poliţia să afle adevărul. you (be) late. . I (greet) him. If she should ring up. should poate fi folosit în secundară la tipul 2 de fraza condiţională. tell her I am out. If I (move) to the country-side. I (buy) a car.

Ce vei face dacă îl vei întâlni pe John? 11. Ce-ai fi făcut dacă l-ai fi întâlnit pe John? 6. . 3.9. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Dacă ar fi plouat. 10. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. If you (drive) more carefully. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 3. Te vei supăra dacă îţi voi lua creionul? 8. You (be) sick if you eat so much. If you had taken my advice. 7. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. he would have gone home. străzile ar fi fost ude. 2. 8. 4. If he had written a letter to me. Ai prinde trenul dacă ai lua un taxi. If I (be) you. 2. If I (not tell) him. If I (know) you had no driving licence. you (not get) into trouble. I (not do) this. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. Îl vei vedea dacă îl vei aştepta. If I (see) him. Were I in your place. I would go home immediately. If I (work) harder. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 7. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. Te-ai fi supărat dacă ţi-aş fi luat creionul? 10. If you had known English. Dacă va ploua. I (answer) your question if I can. If the child is good. străzile vor fi ude. Had I learned English grammar. 8. 10. Te-ai supăra dacă ţi-aş lua creionul? 9. I (answer) it. 4. 4. ţinând seama de faptul că fraza condiţională este de tipul 3: 1. 9. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. 2. ţinând seama că se poate întâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze condiţionale: 1. I would speak to him. He (tell) you if you had asked him. străzile ar fi ude. 3. 3. 4. 6. Ai fi prins trenul dacă ai fi luat un taxi. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 5. If he (realize) it was so late. 10. It (be) better if you had waited. 5. 5. 5. Had I been at home. Vei prinde trenul dacă vei lua un taxi. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. Ce-ai face dacă l-ai întâlni pe John? 12. 6. he (get) a bar of chocolate. he would never have known. you wouldn’t have an accident. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. I would have succeeded. I (answer) the phone. Dacă ar ploua. 9. 6. 7.

He said „I will do the exercise”. He said he had been working hard. mi-ar fi fost frig. 7. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. He said he had been ill. Atunci când verbul din propoziţia principală este la trecut. Dacă cina nu va fi gata la timp. 9. 1. în funcţie de sens. Mi-ar plăcea mai mult piesa dacă ar fi mai scurtă. Se schimbă pronumele. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time next week the next/the following week . 1. LECŢIA 4 VORBIREA DIRECTĂ ŞI INDIRECTĂ Vorbirea directă: John said: „She is not at home”. He said „I have been working hard. He said: „She gave me a book”. voi mânca la un restaurant. 4. 5. Vorbirea indirectă: John said she was not at home. 6. ceea ce se întâmplă în majoritatea cazurilor. 3. Dacă n-ai fi închis fereastra. 2. Se schimbă o serie de cuvinte în funcţie de sens. acolo. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanţă dacă n-ar fi atât de mulţi oameni 10. He said he was ill. în propoziţia secundară se schimbă timpurile după cum urmează: Present past Present perfect past perfect Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past He said „I am ill”. i-ai da? Ce s-ar fi întâmplat dacă ai fi condus cu viteză mare? Nu vom merge la plimbare dacă nu va sta ploaia. Voi fi dezamăgit dacă nu voi afla adevărul. Pentru a trece o propoziţie de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă. He said he would do the exercise. He said she had given him a book. 8. Aş mai croşeta un pulover dacă aş mai avea lână. Dacă un cerşetor ţi-ar cere bani.2. He said „I was ill”.

3. ought to. ceea ce este o greşeală. În cazul întrebărilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirectă. I would stay at home. Întrebările generale sunt cele care încep cu un verb. o tipurile 2 şi 3 nu se schimbă: „If it rained. He asked me where I had been. Afirmaţii: cu that (care se poate omite) He said: „I am ill”.” He said if it rained he would stay at home. Întrucât această propoziţie începe cu un cuvânt interogativ. Întrebările speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. există tentaţia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propoziţiile interogative. should. could. Frazele condiţionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirectă în modul următor: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: „If it rains. . He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow”. „If it had rained. iar răspunsul poate fi da sau nu. He said: „I might be late”. He said „Don’t go out”.He said he might be late. He asked me: „What is the time?” Corect: He asked me what the time was. I will stay at home.” He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. Verbele modale would. 2. trebuie acordată atenţie ordinei cuvintelor din propoziţia secundară.” He said if itrained he would stay at home.two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there He said: „I’ll be at home today”. He told me not to go out. Where have you been? I’ve been away. He said (that) he was ill. on holiday. 3. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Întrebările generale se introduc cu if sau whether (dacă). He asked me if I liked music. He said he would be at home on that day. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) He said „Go out”. He told me to go out. Modalităţi de introducere a propoziţiilor secundare în vorbirea indirectă: 1. I would have stayed at home. Întrebări: există două tipuri de întrebări: generale şi speciale. might rămân neschimbate la vorbirea indirectă.

Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 6. Treceţi următoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „Come in!” He told (asked. 5. Be careful with my books! 7. The weather was fine yesterday. I saw this film a week ago. please? 2. Do you live in London for a long time? . I will buy a car next year. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 11. Were you at the library yesterday? 9. Write me a letter when you get to England! 5. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. please! 4. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 9. 7. Did you buy this book yesterday? 7. Don’t smoke so much! 8. Don’t cross the street on a red light! 6. Has the train left? 4. 1. Treceţi următoarele afirmaţii de la vorbirea directă la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow”. Can you come to tea this afternoon? 3. Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! 10. Was your mother at home? 6. 1. I went to England two years ago. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Take this pill! 9. 1.EXERCIŢII cu vorbirea directă şi vorbirea indirectă: 1. Read the text.I am going to have a nap this afternoon. 10. 3. Did you drink coffee every day? 8. Treceţi următoarele întrebări generale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?” He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 2. please! 3. 12. If I had been at home. I am very busy today. 8. 4. 2. I will go shopping right now. ordered) me to come in. I would have answered the phone. Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. Don’t drive so fast! 2. Will you help me. If I have enough money. Open the door. Do you know what this word means? 5.

iar complementul indirect este him. Treceţi următoarele întrebări speciale la vorbirea indirectă (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?” He asked me when I had come back. trecerea de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă se face prin transformarea complementului direct în subiect. please? 4. există trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect în transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. Would you like a cake? 12. I will be asked. Which of these cakes do you prefer? 10. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director.Can you speak English? 11. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Activ: I gave him a book. Why is it so dark in this room? 8. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. Unde complementul direct este a book. I have been asked. În limba engleză. 1. complementul prepoziţional. Who is this man? 7. la care se adaugă forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. I am asked. I had been asked. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. When did the rain stop? 9. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. Desigur. How long have you been learning English? 2. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte în cazul trecerii la pasiv. When will you be back? 5.Could you lend me a book. În limba română.10. What are you going to do tomorrow? 3. complementul indirect şi. How long does it take you to reach your office? 4. (by me) . Where will you spend your weekend? 6. în unele cazuri. I was asked.How did you travel? LECŢIA 5 Pasivul se formează conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens.

3. A specialist will repair my TV set. 3. Notă: Se poate folosi aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense şi Past Tense. 9. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă în două feluri. se omite formularea by. 7. 10. 10. 6. I teach them English. 9. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. de la sfârşitul propoziţiei. 2. 5. 2. While I am in hospital. Treceţi la pasiv următoarele propoziţii care cuprind combinaţii verb + prepoziţie: . 7. În multe cazuri. They will finish the work today. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. pasivul se foloseşte atunci când nu este important cine face acţiunea. 6. The teacher asked me a difficult question. de asemenea.În propoziţia: In this office they insist on punctuality. 3. He has found your bag. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. EXERCIŢII cu diateza pasivă: 1. Un alt exemplu de complement prepoziţional care poate deveni subiect. care. The noise frightened me. 4. They are building a new house round the corner. People play football all over the world. While I was in hospital. 5. His coworkers must do something for him. my flat was being painted. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 8. my flat is being painted. 8. 2. In this office punctuality is insisted on. when I passed by. I will invite my friend to a party. They have given me a nice present. The policeman will show us the way. Someone has found the missing child. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. They will give me a reward. punctuality este un complement prepoziţional. transformând atât complementul direct cât şi cel indirect în subiecte: 1. În aceste situaţii. poate deveni subiect în cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). Activ: She looked after the child. I have lent John two of my books. 4.

Will you write the letter in ink? 3. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie căutate în dicţionar.1. 8. Ni s-a cerut să arătăm paşapoartele. Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. We laughed at John. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la diateza pasivă: 1. Did they tell you about the meeting? 9. 9. 5. 2. . 10. 7. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii de la diateza pasivă la diateza activă. He hasn’t slept in his bed. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 3. 6. 6. În acest hotel se vorbesc limbi străine. Have you fed the dog? 7. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. They set fire to the shed. Această informaţie treuie tratată confidenţial. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toţi studenţii. 8. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinţă. Will someone tell him the details? 6. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. Did the sight of the accident shock him? 8. 6. We called for the doctor. Do you think they will turn down your request? 10. 9. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Găsiţi subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. 4. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 5. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. They didn’t look after the children properly. 7. We objected to his proposal. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 3. 5. 7. 6. A reception was held in his honour. The pupils will be told where to sit. Has someone repaired the TV set? 2. English is spoken all over the world. 9. 3. Did the tornado frighten you? 5. 4. Scrisoarea va fi pusă la poştă cât mai curând posibil. 10.He hates being made fun of. 4. I was recommended a very good doctor. 2. 8. Când a ajuns acasă şi-a dat seama că i se furase portofelul. 4. 2. This book will soon be forgotten. Traduceţi în limba engleză: 1. Burglars broke into the house. These books mustn’t be taken away. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanţa.

need. will. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc.) În vorbirea familiară. Se folosesc înlocuitori. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense şi condiţionalul prezent. Arată o anumită abilitate fizică sau intelectuală. Se traduce cu a şti să. should. ought to. 12. (N-am putut să-ţi telefonez săptămâna aceasta. He can speak English.) Could you help me? (Ai putea să mă ajuţi?) Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseşte could + infinitivul trecut He could have been here in time. America a fost descoperită la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea. Ni se vor da instrucţiuni detaliate în privinţa referatului. Muzeul a fost închis pentru reparaţii. may. could. must. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Nu formează negativul şi interogativul cu „to do”.) 2. (Voi putea veni la tine mâine. Can 1. Are sensul de a putea.11. prezent Negativ: cannot. (Voi şti să conduc maşina după ce voi lua câteva lecţii. LECŢIA 6 VERBELE MODALE can.) Cu acest sens. (Pot să fac aceasta. 13. (Vreau să fac aceasta. 15. înlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri.) Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseşte înlocuitorul to be able to.) I can speak English. prezent. (Ar fi putut să fie aici în timp. I can do this. a fi în stare: I can make this traslation. Nu au toate timpurile. (Ştiu să vorbesc engleza. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi în cartierul nostru. I can swim.) I haven’t been able to ring you up this week.) Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. (N-am putut să vin la tine ieri. might. Can you make this translation? Could Past Tense. (Ştiu să înot. shall.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. 14.Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. Can = infinitiv. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea”. would Caracteristici generale • • • • Nu primesc to înaintea lor şi după ele: Can is a model verb.) I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. condiţional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I? Could you? etc. . can’t I cannot (can’t) make this translation.

Se foloseşte înlocuitorul to have to. s-ar putea să plouă. He may/might be at home now. (Telefonează-i lui John. (Voi putea/mi se va permite să fumez în camera aceea.) Must 1. (Ia-ţi umbrela. Trebuie să plec acasă. You may/might help me when I am in need.) May 1. (De ce nu ţi-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut să răceşti. to be permitted to. ideea de trecut este redată prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut.) Cu acest sens. I must go home. you may. poţi. mayn’t Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. (Am putut/mi s-a permis să fumez în cameră aceea. May/Might – s-ar putea să: Take your umbrella. May/might pot exprima un reproş. dar se foloseşte numai după un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirectă). (S-a făcut târziu. Are sensul de a putea. (Ai putea să mă ajuţi când sunt la nevoie.Father. (Da. nu e posibil să. se foloseşte infinitivul trecut. prezent Cu acest sens există timpul might care redă ideea de trecut. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock.) Negativ: may not.) I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. He said I might smoke in that room. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. It may/might rain. a avea permisiunea: May I smoke in this room? (Pot/am permisiunea să fumez în această cameră?) Yes.) 2.) Ring up John. El e în străinătate. pot/am permisiunea să iau maşina ta?) 3. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc înlocuitorii: to be allowed to. The sun hasn’t set yet. . You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. Soarele nu a apus încă. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. He is abroad.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate să. S-ar putea să fie acasă acum.) Negativ: must not. can I take your car? (Tată.) 3.) Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. (Nu se poate să-l fi văzut pe John pe stradă. (Ai fi putut să îmi scrii o scrisoare când erai în Anglia. (Nu se poate să fie ora 9. A trebui: It’s got late.

cu sensul de a fi nevoie: Ca verb modal. avem destul timp. există 2 posibilităţi: • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară. dar a fost făcută.) John must be at home now. (Va trebui să termin traducerea mâine.) Trebuie menţionat faptul că înlocuitorul lui must. (Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseară. you needn’t. Probabil că era târziu. (Nu e nevoie să conduci atât de repede.) I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. se foloseşte verbul must.) Pentru a răspunde afirmativ la întrebarea de mai sus. poate avea sensul probabil că: It must be late. (Probabil că John e acasă acum. to have to formează interogativul şi negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Se traduc cu: ar trebui să. need se foloseşte numai la interogativ şi negativ. (Probabil că e târziu. Hai să mergem acasă. cu sensul de a avea nevoie: He doesn’t need this book. It must have been late. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday. there is a speed limit here. (El nu are nevoie de această carte. Hai să-l vizităm. ar fi bine să. . trebuie!) Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need.) You mustn’t drive so fast. ar fi cazul să. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes. nu e nevoie. N-ai văzut că urma să plouă? • Dacă acţiunea nu era necesară şi nu a fost făcută.) • Need: verb modal. se foloseşte needn’t + infinitivul trecut. se foloseşte didn’t need + infinitivul We didn’t need to do this exercise. Nu a fost nevoie să facem acest exerciţiu. Let’s call on him. (Nu trebuie să conduci atât de repede. De asemenea. 2. o obligaţie morală. You needn’t drive so fast. (A trebuit să termin traducerea ieri. Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie”. Let’s go home. aici e limita de viteză. Need I be here at one o’clock? (E nevoie să fiu aici la ora 1?) No. you must! (Da. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. Ought to Ambele verbe indică o acţiune corectă. (Nu.) Should. ideea de trecut se redă prin adăugarea infinitivului trecut. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie”. The teacher told us it was too easy for us.I had to finish the traslation yesterday. Notă: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. we have enough time. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie să uzi florile. Profesorul ne-a spus că e prea uşor pentru noi.) Need Există două verbe: • To need: verb obişnuit. o recomandare.) Cu acest sens. You needn’t have watered the flowers. noţional.

) Shall Folosit cu persoana I. (O fi ajuns la Paris până acum. (Acest copil nu vrea să facă ce-i spun. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicletă dacă vei lua examenul. o ofertă sau o sugestie. interogativ. • Acţiune repetată: . please? • A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte): This child will/would not do what I say. shall indică viitorul.) Notă: În afară de „would”. shall poate arăta o promisiune. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar dacă nu vei lua examenul.în trecut When I was a child. Will. poate indica.în perioada prezentă My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. de asemenea. care are numai formă de trecut. o obligaţie sau o ameninţare care provin de la cel care vorbeşte. mama obişnuia să-mi citească poveşti. Would • Formula de politeţe. (Această fată seamănă foarte bine cu Jane. (O fi sora ei. my mother used to read me fairy tales.You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Which dress shall I buy? (Ce rochie să cumpăr?) Shall I wait for you? (Să te aştept?) Shall we meet at one o’clock? (Să ne întâlnim la ora 1?) Folosit cu persoanele II şi III. my mother would read me fairy tales. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. When I was a child.) This radio won’t work. (Când eram copil. Folosit cu persoana I. se adaugă infinitivul trecut. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. (Mama mea obişnuieşte să stea ore întregi privind la televizor.) . . ideea de acţiune repetată în trecut se poate exprima cu „used to”.) • Presupunere: se traduce în limba română cu o fi. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. solicitarea unui sfat.) She will be her sister. cerere politicoasă: Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation. (Ar trebui să o ajuţi pe mama ta la treburile casei.) Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. (Nu ar fi trebuit să fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. în timp ce la interogativ şi negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obişnuit cât şi ca modal.) Pentru a reda ideea de trecut. This girl looks very much like Jane. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a îndrăzni) care se conjugă la afirmativ ca un verb obişnuit.

2. He ought to tell me the truth. there is plenty in the fridge. 10. 13. 14. You mustn’t do this . He needn’t buy milk. You might change your mind about that. 7. 3. He must be delayed at the office. 7. May I walk on the grass? 11. It can’t be too late. 16. 14. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. She can read and write at the age of five. You might write to me more often. . 2. She can play the piano very well. 10. 8.EXERCIŢII cu verbe modale: 1. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. It might rain. 15. Must you be so rude? 20. Can you speak Chinese? 18. 3. Treceţi următoarele propoziţii la Past Tense Simple şi Future Tense Simple. 9. You might pay more attention to your work. He may be at home. I cannot translate ten pages a day. 4. 5. I must learn English. folosind înlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. This child may have another cake. 11. I must look up the words in the dictionary. 16. 12. acolo unde este necesar: 1. You may not speak to your mother like that. 8. Can you help me? 9. 13. 12. You may not smoke in this room. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 6. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 5. 4. 19. 15. He may not come in wearing dirty boots. He can swim very well. 2. I must go soon. Everybody may borrow books from this library. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. John must be ill. 6. You may leave earlier. Redaţi ideea de trecut în următoarele propoziţii folosind infinitivul trecut în loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. He should go to school everyday. You needn’t do this. She can lend you that book. Can Jane type very quickly? 17. 17.

It may/might have snowed in the mountains. 7. It may/might snow in the mountains. I have bought his latest book. He must speak English well. 10. perhaps it will rain. Man …travel through space now. It is possible that I come home early. He is probably older than he looks. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 1. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. Don’t wait. 4. He …even drive on its surface. 19. 3. else. She is probably a very good doctor. 3. holidays will be very different. 5. He was probably late. 2. 20. 4. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: He probably speaks English well. 1. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 5. I think she was angry with you. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 8. 8. 2. You must have forgotten to lock the door. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 6. 4. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. 7. It must be difficult to climb this mountain.John could be a winner.You have probably forgotten his address. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. He probably thinks I am wrong. 6. 5. perhaps it is a good one. 5. You probably forgot to lock the door. but I doubt it.18. 3. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 9. 9. 3. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. It is possible for her to be very late. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. He probably came home very early. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 4. Take your umbrella. 2. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone . Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains.

…you be so kind and pass me the salt. 1. 2. You …not expect everybody to obey you. I’ll give you as much as you want. I 3. People … speak during the concert. I 8. You…water the flowers. believe she has married that awful man. 4. they are addictive. believe she has learnt English in two months. When I was a teenager. believe she has got so fat. When I was young. 10. 7. please? 7. 8. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. think he is at the office so late at night. I 2. 2. believe that he has passed the exam. I don’t believe you were right. You …not go to bed so late at night. I 6. 5. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. You … take an umbrella. 6. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. You … take sleeping pills too often. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 4. I 10. 10. Reformulaţi următoarele propoziţii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. I …wear my hair long. believe it was his fault. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. think the weather will change. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 6. You … worry about money. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. You can’t be right. think you will miss the train if you hurry. I …read one book a day. 9. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. The sky is clear. 9. I 4. think this is a true story. You can’t have been right. 8. I 7. 9. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t: 1. 3. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. I don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t don’t believe it is his fault. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu should sau would: 1. … you help me solve this problem? 3. .10. 6. 8. I 5. I … return the books before the 1st of September. 5. it will soon start raining. He …read for hours on end. 7. I 9.

can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul 1. for once? 3. The child … (leave) home. I …(answer) the questions. 4. 2. 7. 5. you …re-type it. If you win the contest. He …(swim) across the Danube. 9. We …(wait) too long. Încercaţi să gasiţi un sens următorului dialog: „Do you think he will?” „I think he might. Go to sleep. . It …(rain) here. 2. The light was on in his room. 11. I …(see) him for that. 2. He …(be) at home. he will never read them all.” „His family consider he should. folosind verbe modale sau înlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 3. 10. You …(buy) so much bread. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu must. You …do this whether you like it or not.” 13. 10. 9. I …(get up) so early today. 8. 10.2. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. please? 10. 5. I am sorry you wasted your time. This door … not unlock. he is a nice boy. 8. 8. 6. 4. trecut: 12. Completaţi spaţiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. Va trebui să mă ajuţi mai mult astăzi. which would have saved me a lot of work. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. I locked the door and took the key with me. but he himself believes he needn’t. I …(leave) it on the bus. He has one of his own. I promise you not …be disturbed. Toţi studenţii pot şi trebuie să scrie această lucrare. 3. The student …(write) such a long composition. John …(do) such a thing. She is away. You…(lend) him your text – book. I …(be) in the garden. Traduceţi în limba engleză.” „Yes. This letter is full of mistakes. You …(lend) him so many books. This …be John’s house. but I forgot it was Sunday. I didn’t hear the phone. It’ll get stale. which was very convenient. You …(see) Anna yesterday. I …(answer) the questions. …you tell me the truth. you…get a nice present. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. he was back soon. I wrote him a letter. 7. 5. 7. the road is dry. 4. 9. 6. She …write an article for this magazine every week. he is a very poor swimmer. You …(wait) for me. I haven’t got my bag with me. 6. … you correct my exercise.

Ar trebui ca toţi copiii să facă treburi în casă. Mâine va trebui să pun scrisoarea la poştă. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 1. 20. 10. Ţi-am telefonat şi nu a răspuns nimeni. . 18. exprimând o lozincă. o urare. Nu se poate să fi găsit uşa deschisă. Sunt sigur că voi putea găsi timp să te ajut. 8. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. Nu. o încuiasem chiar eu. 23. 21. De asemenea. Nu ştiu să croşetez. 9. Nu se poate ca profesorul să fi fost mulţumit de acest răspuns. Nu aveţi voie să vorbiţi în timpul examenului. Nu a fost nevoie să-i telefonez lui Jane ca să vorbesc cu ea pentru că urma să vină la mine peste o jumătate de oră. 17. Ştiam să cânt la pian când eram copil.Unde mergem acum? 28. Come what may. Trebuie să-mi schimb pantofii când intru în casă pentru că sunt plini de 14. Vreţi. Probabil că eram încă la facultate. 3. Nu a fost nevoie să spun „mulţumesc” când am aflat ora exactă formând 958 întrucât ştiam că informaţia e înregistrată pe bandă. 11. would + infinitiv. Nu e nevoie să-ţi cari singură bagajul în gară. might. 4. may. 6. Nu se poate să fi fost acasă aseară. 16. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv: a. vă rog. 22. Toată lumea să fie prezentă la şedinţă. 12. Nu era nevoie să-mi faci cafea. 19. 26. 13. Ar fi trebuit să insişti. o dorinţă sau un blestem. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. Ar fi trebuit să citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. 27. există echivalenţi de subjonctiv care constau în verbele should. Profesorul mi-a spus că pot să lipsesc de la ora următoare. LECŢIA 7 MODUL SUBJONCTIV În engleza contemporană. Ai putea să-mi telefonezi mai des când ştii că sunt bolnav. 7. Long live the king! Trăiască regele. să aştepţi câteva minute? 30.noroi. Va trebui să plec curând.De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. am băut deja două astăzi. 29. Am cerut să vorbesc cu directorul. dar el nu a vrut să vină la telefon. Fie ce-o fi. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. de Past Tense şi de Past Perfect. 5. E nevoie să urcăm la cabană pe jos? 15. Îţi promit că vei avea cartea mâine. 24. Apare în propoziţii exclamative.

I wish I were in England now. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a.God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul să te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemată fie această ceaţă! b. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! . It is desirable that we finish the translation first. se foloseste would. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. to order. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. to suggest. E necesar ca tu să fii prezent. to insist. Cineva să-mi aducă un pahar cu apă. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui să fie acceptată. d. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. It is impossible that he do this. Ex. to recommend. în engleza contemporană. 1. I wish it would stop raining. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is c. Este imposibil ca el să facă aceasta. I wish I had been born in England. • Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine: Everybody leave the hall. it is likely that. ar fi înlocuit cu prezentul. it is necessary that. apare ca were la toate persoanele. Este de dorit ca noi să terminăm întâi traducerea. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. în situaţii în care. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. to demand. Doctorul a insistat ca eu să stau acasă. După verbe ca: to propose. bine ar fi sa) • Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. to urge. Ex. Poate fi întâlnit în poezia clasică. I wish (mi-as dori. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. Toată lumea să părăsească sala. It is necessary that you be present. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. Ex. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. e. Somebody bring me a glass of water. it is desirable that. După construcţii de tipul: it is impossible that.

to insist. 1. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. Ex. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. Ex. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. Ex. You speak English as if you had lived in England.) It is high time. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. Ex. should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Dupa cum se observa. to urge. It is necessary that you should be present. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. a. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. • De asemenea. it is necessary that.if/though (ca si cum. d)It is time. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. to recommend. It is impossible that he should do this. It is time the child went to bed. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. (E timpul. It is impossible that he should have done this. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. Echivalenti de subjonctiv a. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. c) As . In exemplul de mai sus.) Ex. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. It is high time you began to study seriously. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. (Era de mult timpul. I would sooner stay at home tonight. to demand. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to suggest.

echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. to be afraid Ex. Wherever I may/might be. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. • Dupa it is possible. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. may. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. • Dupa whoever. whenever. wherever. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. fie in vorbirea direca. • Intrebari introduse prin how. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. iti voi telefona. • Dupa so that. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. a. where.Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. fie in vorbirea indirecta. I hope that he may pass the exam. iar in aceste cazuri. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. Ex. Hurry up lest you miss the train. why.when. Ex. you have no right to do this. might Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. in order that Ex. No matter who you may/might be. in secundara se foloseste may. no matter when. Ex. It is possible that he may be here in time. it was possible Ex. I wish I could speak English. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. you have no right to do this. It was possible that he might be here in time. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. . Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. Whoever you may/might be. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. however. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. whichever. Oriunde as fi. I will ring you up. etc. in secundara se foloseste might. • Dupa to hope. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. Oricine ai fi. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. Ex.

3. 2. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. 10. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. 7. 3. I regret you didn’t win the competition. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 10. I regret I am not a student. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. 1. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I wish he would take my advice. 6. 5. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking.I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry you live so far away. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. 1. 4. I was sorry you were out when I called. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I regret I can’t go to the concert. 9. 8. I regret I have only one child. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. 5. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 3. 2. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. 4. 5. I was sorry you had got a fine. . 1. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 7. I wish the weather were fine. 9. 8. 1. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 9. 1. I am sorry books are so expensive. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. I am sorry I was late for the party. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv 1. 2. I am sorry my friend is ill. 7. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I regret I have no children. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. I am sorry you had an accident. 4. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 6. 8. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. I am sorry it rains so often. 6. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me.

10. . I would rather he (tell) me the truth. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. I would rather you (close) that window. am putea merge la plaja! 6. If only I (be) in Italy now! 9. 16. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 18. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 20. 13.Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. If only I (become) a millionaire. You behave as if you (own) the place. 1. I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 16. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. It’s time we (go) home. 7. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 5. If only my telephone (work)! 11. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 9. la tara. 11. 6. 14. 13. 12. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 10. 2. 14. 2. He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. I am cold. As prefera sa merg la teatru. I would rather you (not waste) your time! 4. 4. 20. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 17. 12. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. 3. 10. I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 3. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 15. 8. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 19. 5. 17. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul.

3. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 2.6. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora 8. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 5. 8. Orice mi-ai spune. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. I wish my car (not break down) last week. Oricând te vei intoarce. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 5. nu te pot crede. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. 7. 10. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. 4. 8. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 4. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. you should remember your own phone number. 1. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 7. 6. 2. 8. 8. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 6. . El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 10. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 5. 9. 4. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 7. 5. Oricare ar fi motivul. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 3. 6. 9. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 2. 3. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 1. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. Oricât te-ai stradui. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 2. 9. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 3. 7. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 8. 6.

13. to like. 17. 12. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o to call – called – called o to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. I want you to go now. to hate. in cazul verbelor neregulate. to wish. Infinitivul poate avea aspect.11. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. 14. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. I wish I (find) another. 15. I have such a boring job. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 16. 19. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. Ex. All success (attend) you! 18. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. . to dislike. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Diateza activa o nedefinit: calling o perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o nedefinit: being called o perfect: having been called Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. diateza si timpuri. The road is wet. I wish I (be) there when it happened. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. Diateza activa o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called o infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling).

to watch. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. to order. to make. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. to suppose. He is said to be a good writer. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. Ex. Ex. Ex. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to believe. . He admitted the news to be false.) e.) f.) They declared him to be the man of the year. to understand. to admit. verbe declarative: to state. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.Ex. (Consider ca el este un bun student. a. I made him study English. to expect. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. to hear. to feel. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to suppose. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).) c. Ex.) 1. to consider. to hear. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) I want John to do this.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. to believe. He considered the news to be false. to expect. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta.) He ordered the door to be locked. He was made to study English. I made him study English. to allow. I rely on you to do this.) I let him go out and play. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. Ex. to consider. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on.) b. to know. I consider him to be a good student. I saw him leave the room. He is considered to be a good student. I consider him to be a good student. to know.) I expected him to come in time. to cause.) d. verbe exprimând un ordin. Ex. to count upon/on . Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. I’d like him to come with me. to declare. to say.

) It is necessary for me to go there. Constructii cu participiul prezent 1. He proved to be a good journalist. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.The news was considered to be false. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. to watch. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". to smell. Ex. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. (Am auzit-o cântând. b. She is sure to come in time. to turn out. cu verbele: to happen. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuEx. 1. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. de obicei.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. He was declared to be the man of the year. Ex.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. It is necessary that I (should) go there. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) I left / found her crying. (E usor fac asta. I will tell him where you are.) I happened to meet him in the street.) I heard her singing. precum si cu verbele to find. ii voi spune unde esti. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. do this. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând.) If I happen to meet him. to prove.) It is impossible for him to come. It is impossible that I (should) come. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. It is easy for sa me to . a. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. to seem. They declared him to be the man of the year. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. to hear. to leave.) This remains for him to decide.

El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. 5. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. 2. Nominativ cu Este pasivul constructiei Ex: He was (El a fost She was (Ea a fost Participiu Acuzativ cu Participiu: seen leaving. She had two sons killed in the war. 12. 10. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat.) 3. I had my bedroom window broken. am mers acasa. I-am privit jucând fotbal.) I will have my hair done. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. . we shall go to the beach. 13. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. Ex: The classes being over. vazut plecând. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de subiect. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. Ex. (Orele fiind terminate. 8. 2. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. (Voi merge sa ma coafez.) Weather permitting. 7. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Cred ca el e un sot bun.zisa. 3. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 4. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. 6. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. (Daca vremea va permite. auzita cântând. vom merge la plaja. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1.) heard singing. 9. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. 11. we went home. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui.

1. 10. It is sure they have had an argument. This is the main thing. 8. It is necessary that he be present. I don’t want you to catch a cold. This is a strange thing. 5. 4. They said she was ill. 15. 7. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. We should do it now. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 8. This translation is easy for me to make. 4. 10. 10. The match was about to begin. We should have a heart to heart talk. I can’t solve it. 2. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. You should bear it in mind. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. 6. 4. This is a valuable piece of advice. 9. 3. It is recommendable that you should read this book. You should take it. 1. She was thought to be a gifted child. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. The people were impatient. 6. 4. This problem is too difficult. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 3. I thought she was unable to win the contest. This is a good book. It’s time we met again. 2. This fact is important. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. 2. . El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „forphrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 7. I ordered a taxi. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. 5. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. It is important to know the truth.14. It is important that you should come to the office. 3. It is possible that I might buy a car. I can’t believe she said that. 9. I cam make it. 8. The time has come. It was proved that she was a liar. 6. at once. I have closed the window. Expected that he would resign. 5. Everybody. It is impossible that he should have said that. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. 1. They heard him repeat it several times. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 9. It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. It is advisable that you should resign. You should read it. 7. 3. 2.

4. 3. The child isn’t learning. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. 2. Are you writing. do you do? 3. The river having risen in the night. CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. . She heard the hunters shooting. Ann isn’t knitting. Do you usually get. The dog was heard barking. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 6. Do you dream? I dream 9. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. 12. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. Is it raining? 2. I saw the peasants working in the field. The letter being written. The decision being taken in my favour. 11. 5. don’t understand. Do I love? 2. You don’t play. Is Ann knitting? 10. I am not going. Do they live? 8. Are you typing? 5. Do you like? 8. 6. The rain having stopped. 3. Everybody being at home. 7. I saw her fainting. l. Does he have? 9. I could hear her typing. the audience left the hali. go. She doesn’t talk. You aren’t typing. I am not having. we were seared about having floods. 9. I don’t love. 5. Do I trust? 10. it often rains. Does he remember? 7. I went to post it. Does she talk? 3. he is having. Am I having? 3. 1 don’t like. I went home relaxed. They aren’t swimming. The sun having risen. 9. 8. Is he telling? 4. 8. He doesn’t remember. My mother isn’t resting. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. speaks. 7. Do I understand? 4. He isn’t telling. Do you play? 5. I don’t have. Are they swimming? 6. I found her digging in the garden. it is raining. The plane having taken off. The concert being over. I found the boy breaking the window.5. 10. He doesn’t have. 4. am. Weather permitting. Is my mother resting? 8. I went shopping. I stopped smoking. I don’t trust. 2. is drinking. 7. Do I always believe? 6. 2. My friend isn’t wearing. I saw the plane landing. I don’t understand. We aren’t studying. I don’t always believe. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. 6. 6. 10. 5. Is my friend wearing? 7. It isn’t raining. I heard the child breaking the vase. am taking. we hurried to the beach. I saw her lying on the beach. 4. She heard the baby crying. The mud having ruined my shoes. They don’t live. I had to change them. 1 am cooking. 10. we sat down to dinner. Are we studying? 9. drinks.

At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. Did he come? 8. he was working. he was-learning. Last night. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. I was talking. Did I sell? 6. I like to swim a lot. He didn’t forbid. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I have bought. I entered. What do you do on your free days? 12. 6. you came in. 17. 11 . Have you watered? 3. she was having. 14. 19. Do you smoke? 17. Did I hate? 4. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 15. were you going. 8. When I go to the seaside.write. Did he translate? 10. Did I enjoy? 9. Did he think? 2. 7. 10. Have you been? I have been. 13. When did you buy this TV set? 12. I have just had. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. I was writing. She is packing her luggage. I owned. 9. 18. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 14. 10. 7. Do you go? 16. He met. 2. 6. I don’t like coffee. 3. 9. 5. While it was raining. the engine – drivers have gone. 3. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. I didn’t enjoy. I was watching. he walks. I do not study in the evening. someone rang up. I found this old photo. 2. 8. 3. I had breakfast and then I left for school. Why are you opening the window? I5. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. I slept. I played. the teacher was writing. He sat for his first exam last week. Yesterday I got up early. I met. he wasn’t wearing. 16. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. It snows in winter. 5. I got up late yesterday morning. are you hurrying? I don’t want. 10. 8. I have already seen. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. Did they drink? 3. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. he had. were you doing? 7. While I was looking for my passport. They didn’t drink. 19. 4. 9. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. 16. 2. 6. Did he change? 5. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. Exercitiul 2: 1. 10. That sounded. 4. I often read English books. You spoke. 1 liked. I always made. 20. 17. 6. This time yesterday it was raining. Did you sleep well last night? 3. When did you return from the mountains? 11. I didn’t hate. 20. 2. He hasn’t come. We didn’t work. Last Sunday. he realized. he doesn’t get up early. Did we work? 7. are you waiting? I am waiting. 2. 13. On Sundays. Yesterday. She goes shopping on Saturdays. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. He didn’t come. Have you visited? 12. He didn’t think. I was driving to Sinaia. 4. I didn’t sell. 6. What were you doing last Tuesday. He didn’t change. You drank. 7. 1 first met. I have lent. The secretary is just typing a report. 5. He has just left. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. Exercitiul 4: 1. I haven’t been. 4. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 18. I arrived. 8. my friends played chess. Yesterday I lost my gloves. are you thinking? I am thinking. remembers. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. always borrow/is always borrowing. He didn’t translate. 7. I always have. 9. 9. 5. 14. Now I am doing my homework in English. 8. You asked. 4. Have you . 19. What book are you reading? 10. Whom are you ringing up? 13.

had spread. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 7. I have lost. 15. I got up. Exercitiul 3: I. 5. he had thought. I got. I have seldom walked to my office. she has been trying. had been swimming. 10. 3. 6. 5. 4. We have known. I had returned. He has been fishing. 7. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 6. 4. 4. 9. 3. they had been. he had got married. 5. She has changed. 7. I have been doing. she had been studying. It has been snowing for two hours. 17. He has been sleeping. Have you paid? 19. I didn’t succeed. we had lost. it had been raining. had listened. I realized I had left my bag at home. 4. she had already been. A child has broken the window. The radio has been playing. two years ago. have you been wearing? 6. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 10. had not told. he left an hour ago. 6. 9. had left. he has caught. Exercitiul 2: l. congratulated. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. I have been watering. What did you look at? It was an accident. it had been raining. 7. 19. 9. 8. The . 10. Exercitiul 4: 1. they had been waiting. He hasn’t gone. When I arrived at the bus stop. 7. I saw. 9. had been speaking. 5. 2. 9. he had learned/he had been learning. 4. she had not passed. 6. 5. 7. I was. 20. We have been walking since 3 o clock. The weather has got warmer lately. he had visited. I entered. I have been asking. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. Since I bought a car. 20. 5. had been cooking. we had been walking. Have you seen? she left. 3. we realized. 18. she had been writing. 10. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. 2. have you been. 8. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. The child has been playing. she told. Have you lived? I have lived. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. 4. It has been raining. began. 2. he handed it to the teacher. Have you been to this town before? Yes. 14. We must replace it.ever eaten? 13. I rang him up. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. As soon as the guests had left. she had been cleaning and dusting. Exercitiul 2: 1. I had it at 8 o’clock. I found out. 8. I went to bed. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. we left. He has been a Minister for two years. I have been cooking. He has always relied. 1t hasn’t rained. I have’ been shopping. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. they had finished. had been climbing. Have you been. 8. Exercitiul 3: 1. Has John left? Yes. 10. 8. We have walked 10 km so far. 2. 6. 9. he had been. How long have you been learning English? 5. I had met. have you cooked? 7. he had caught. He has been. I have been wearing. 14. I haven’t written. 4. I called. Have you ever driven? 16. Have you read? 18. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. he went. 10. I was sorry I had hurt him. 3. he went. She had just gone out. I returned. I spent a month here. had been having. I5. he told. it had been raining. 11. Have you ever tried? I tried. 3. 13. we asked. Exercitiul 4: 1. 12. 3. 8. 6. had eaten. 2.

We shall/will have taken. she has changed. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. will have risen. he had stolen. Exercitiul 3: 1. 8. Exercitiul 3: 1. between twelve and one o’clock. 13. 6. 9. 3. Will you recognize? 4. we had been digging. he would pass. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. He will be studying. You will have seen. 3. I shall/will be working. we reach. 7. 4. 8. 7. I had read. you see. 8. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 5. 10. 11. 19. had already begun. they were talking. 10. By this time next year. I shall/will have paid off. he has arrived. 6. they would remain. she looks. I have received. he tells. 2. he would give. will be crying. He will be. 17. 6. Will you be needing? 5. they have been. Because of the strike of the bus – drivers. 4. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. he had left. I have. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. you would soon have. he wanted. you see. I had done. 6. I shall/will pass. 8.secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 3. 15. 10. you have read. would end. it will probably be raining. 3. 10. arrive. 20. he would finish. you finish. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. I shall/will have read 8. he would win. begin. 5. 6. 2. they will have been married. She will be watching. he has repaired. 7. wilt be rising. you spoke. 10. You will be. 4. 4. I played/I was playing. I had heard. . 4. I finish. 10. 5. 4. 10. 8. 5. 2. 5. 10. 8. 14. 7. I shall/will succeed. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. 12. 3. 10. 3. 2. 7. You will like. I shall/will be swimming. 16. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. she notices you have broken. 7. 2. 5. I shall/will have finished. 5. 9. 9. 3. I shall/will have been working. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 9. prices would go up. You had to type. I shall/will be having. Exercitiul 4: 1. I shall/will have saved five million lei. 18. 4. was shining. I shall/will remember. he would drive. Wil1 you remember? 9. you see. he had been travelling. 8. I would remain. 2. you were. 9. she has learnt. 9. 8. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. he had just left. I had lost. you have just told. will/shall will be climbing. On Friday. did not remember. is born. will have spent. I had not enjoyed. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. they will be having their last English class. 7. You will not/won’t find. would be cancelled. you were. Exercitiut 2: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. 3. 6. I shall/will have been cooking. I usually read. you have drunk. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. I shall/will know. 9. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. 2. 6. 2.

Would you buy? 4. is. 10. 4. the streets would have been wet. Exercitiul 7: l. you will not find. he would change. 12. it goes on. 4. 9. I was. 10. What would you do if you meet John? 12. I have suffered. the streets would be wet. is. will soon move. you do. he had not expected. we went. I knew you were in Bucharest. 3. I want. 18. 7. 6. 6. he had to write. 2. he had realized. 2. I read. we will drink. 3. 6. 6. 2. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. he would not remember. I will buy. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I would have answered. 2. I had not decided. I knew. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 11. it would not be raining when I arrived. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 7. he would not make. he hoped. 8. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 7. do not eat. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: . 9. I would spend. he had never seen. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. had failed. I would not have made. you had invited. 15. I had known. 5. 10. she will be. will you promise? 6. 7. 6. 8. I would buy. I moved. 6. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. Exercitiul 6: 1. 4. he would take. 10. 5. you were. melts. 13. I will lend. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. you are reading. 5. 8. 5. 8. he had eaten. 9. he would have. you take. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. 5. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. 7. 8. 5. 5. 10. 3. I work/I worked. I will greet 2. I saw. 17. is. 2. 9. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. I had not told. they have done. I were. If it had rained. 19. you had driven. he had tried. Exercitiul 4: l. 4. I finish. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 6. 2. 3. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. they had been listening. I will answer. 4. I had not eaten. there are. 14. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 9. 4. he will get. you had been wearing. 8. I would have answered. you would have read. 3. 4. 5. he would have told. If it rained. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. I gave up. 7. Exercitiul 5: 1. 20. I had worked. 2. he trusted. 16. the streets will be wet. I wouldn’t do. you will be. 12. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 10. 7. 3. you wouldn’t have got. 9. 8. 10. 11. would not go. you will not pass. 3. It would have been.Exercitiul 5: 1. I was. I will earn/will be earning. he leaves. they had known. I have been reading. 7. Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. you will be. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. 3. If it rains.

8. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 3. 7. 7. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He asked me if the train had left. 8. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 2. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. 7. 6. He asked me how long I had been learning . 12. 3. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He told me to be careful with his books. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. He said she would go shopping right then. 5. He asked me how I had travelled. He asked me when the rain had stopped. 6. 3. 5. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. 2. I will eat at a restaurant. 4. If dinner is not ready in time. 9. 2. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 2. He asked me when I would be back. 12. He said he had gone to England two years before.English. 10. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. If a beggar asked you for money. He said he was very busy on that day. He said the weather had been fine the day before. I was frightened by the . Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. 10. would you give him some? 3. 11. He told me to read that text. He asked me who that man was. 9. Your bag has been found (by him). 9. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. 10. He told me to open the door. 9. 4. 11. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. The missing child has been found (by someone). 3. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 2. 6. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 8. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 6. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. 7. LECTIA IV Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. He said he had seen that film a week before. 5. 5. 6. I would like the play more if it were shorter. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 8. 9.l. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 8. 5. 10. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). 4. He told me not to smoke so much. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. You will see him if you wait. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. 4. 3. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. 5. Exercitiul 4: 1. He asked me if I would like a cake. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. 6. The work will be finished today (by them). 8. He asked me if I would help him. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. 2. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He told me to take that pill. 4. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. Football is played all over the world.

Exercitiul 2: 1. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 8. His proposal was objected to (by us). 11. 7. Exercitiul 4: 1. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. 5. 2. 14. The doctor was called for (by us). 9. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). 5. 2. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 10. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). A new house is being built round the corner (by them). Fire was set to the shed (by them). 2. 3. The house was broken into (by burglars). The event was commented on by all the newspapers. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 7. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. People mustn’t take away these books. They are taught English (by me). 10. 4. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). 7. A nice present has been given to me (by them). Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. He hates people making fun of him. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. John was laughed at (by us). I will be given a reward (by them). The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. We were told very interesting things at the conference. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. We will be shown the way by the policeman. 9. We were asked to show our passports. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 12. 13. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). English is taught to them (by me). His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). 3. 8. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. 6. 9. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. The museum was closed for repairs. Exercitiul 6: l. Has the dog been fed? 7. 6. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Were you told about the meeting? 9. 10. 7. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). John has been lent two of my books (by me). Detailed instructions will be given to us about the paper. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. People will soon forget this book. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). Many new blocks are being built in our district. 9. when I passed by. 5. 6.: 3. . The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 6. 10. 4. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. 8. 8.noise. 2. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. A reward will be given to me (by them). The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. People speak English all over the world. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 15. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. 4. 5. 9. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 3. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). I have been given a nice present (by them). This piece of information must be treated confidentially. They held a reception in his honour. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4.

He can’t have passed. 6. 3. 7. He must have been delayed. 7. 7. She may/might be very late. 7. 6. You needn’t have done. It can’t be his fault. He must have been. Exercitiul 4: l. needn’t. S. Exercitiul 6: 1. 16. 6. You might have written. 9. You didn’t have to do. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 8. You might have paid. He could swim. 5. Exercitiul 8: . I couldn’t translate. John must have been. 8. She can’t have married. 15. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 4. Exercitiul 5: 1. It may/might rain. 6. I had to learn. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 10. 10. 8. needn’t. John could have been.LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 2. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 19. He must have come home. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. You shouldn’t have gone. 13. It must have taken a long time. 10. needn’t. 12. It can’t have been his fault. 3. 2. He will be able to swim. can. He needn’t have bought. It can’t have been. can’t. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. You might have changed. She will be able to play. It can t have been. She may/might have been angry. He ought to have told. 5. 15. I had to go. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 18. You won’t have to do. It must have been. mustn’t. 14. 14. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. I will have to go. 3. He may have been. mustn’t. She can’t have got. He should have gone. 13. She could lend. 2. can. 9. 5. You should have visited. mustn’t. The child was allowed/permitted to have. 8. needn’t. 19. 17. 10. 2. You must have left your umbrella. You can’t have seen. 3 It might have rained. 5. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. 6. I will have to look up. 10. 6. She may/might have returned. mustn’t. He may/might have been right. Exercitiul 7: 1. 4. 9. 3. He was not allowed/permitted to come. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. 3. He must have been late. 12. 4. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 2. I had to look up. 11. 20. can. Exercitiul 2: 1. It may/might be a good one. I may/might come home. 7. 5. 5. 7. 4. mustn’t. He must think. 2. He may/might have done. She will be able to lend. He can’t be at the office. needn’t. You can’t miss the train. She will be able to read and write. This must be the best. 3. You must have forgotten. I will have to learn. She may/might have been out. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. He must be older. I won t be able to translate. 8. You must have known the lesson. 6. 9. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 16. Exercitiul 3: 1. She can’t have learned English. can. This can’t be a true story. 2. 10. He could read and write. 9. 4. 5. can’t. The weather can’t change. 4. You can’t have been. She could play.

6. 7. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. didn’t need to see. 2. can’t have done. 8. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. You may not speak during the exam. 5. will. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 9. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 4. 4. 2. 8. 8. needn’t have bought. 6. 2. 21. shall. today. can’t have seen. 6. 4. I wish my friend weren’t ill. 9. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. must have been. 9. you shall have the book tomorrow. must have taken. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 8. would. I wish you didn’t live so far away. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 25. didn’t need to buy. 4. You needn’t have made coffee for me. 9. Exercitiul 11: 1. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 13. 5. didn’t need to wait. 29. should. 6. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". a porter could help you. 18. 3. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. Will you. 24. 22. would. needn’t have got up. 8.l. needn’t have lent. 2. shall. 10. Exercitiul 2: l. can’t have swum. Exercitiul 10: 1. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. 6. 9. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 16. will. must have been. 23. 17. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. Where shall we go now? 28. should. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. will. 4. You ought to/should have insisted. I could play the piano when I was a child. will. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. please. 3. 2. I wish I could pay the piano. 3. No. Exercitiul 9: 1. I promise you. I had locked it myself 27. You will have to help me more today. didn’t need to answer. I must have been still at the faculty. 26. 14. should. needn’t have waited. 3. 5. I can’t knit. 9. All the students can and must write this paper. would. I wish I didn’t have only one child. 10. would. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. would. needn’t have answered. 10. needn’t have lent. I rang you up and nobody answered. 10. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. I wished you had been . 19. 10. 6. needn’t have written. 20. would. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. shall. 2. will. I wish I could go to the concert. can’t have rained. 7. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. Exercitiul 12: 1. 10. 11. Exercitiul 13: 1. I wish it didn’t rain so often. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 3. 7. shall. should. 3. wait for a few minutes? 30. 5. I will have to leave soon. must have left. 4. 5. 7. will. can’t have left. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wish I lived in Bucharest. You can’t have found the door open. I have already drunk two. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 7. 7. 4. 8. I wish I were a student. 1 wish I had children. 12. 3. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. 2. 5.

I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I wish they would sign the contract. I were. 5. 13. 2. we went. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 18. 3. I wish you had won the competition. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 19. Exercitiul 5: l. stopped. I stayed. he would have. 2. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. 11. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. you were. He suggested that we . 10. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. I would become. I were. 16. you owned. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in Brasov? 10. I would rather you got up earlier. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. 17. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 6. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I would rather you went to the theatre. 9. 6. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 20. 4. 6. 6. 5. 19. 2. 7. S. we could go to the beach. S. 6. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. watched. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. I hadn’t forgotten. 8. 5. 10. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 9. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 9. 11. 12. 2. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 8. 4. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. I had entered. 7. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. 12. 8. you started. 3. 4. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. I wish I had won the Great Prize. his daughter didn’t get married. 15. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the test-paper! 2. 20. 18. 14. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. I wish he would accept my proposal. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. hadn’t caught a cold. you didn’t waste. 3. I wish you would take a driving licence. 3. 13. It is important that you (should) know English well. 4. 16. my telephone worked. he took. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 10. I got.able to come to me yesterday. 4. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. She looks as if she were a model. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. 7. 6. Exercitiul 3: 1. 10. you closed. he told. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 7. 17. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. Exercitiul 6: 1. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. 14. 8. 9. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. his book would become. I wish you would come on holiday with me. too. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. I wish I had money to buy that painting. You speak as if you were angry with me.

I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 6. 19. . She was thought to be unable to win the contest. 2. I understand her to be a very good teacher. 7. 14. John admitted the fault to be his. we should take. 8.(should) buy this house. I would find. 5. The people were impatient for the match to begin. It is possible that she might be away. Whenever you may/might return. 10. 18. I saw him speaking to his friend. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. (should) have. I had been. 3. 7. he were. No matter how hard you may/might try. 6. 12. you retired. 6. 9. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 8. 13. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 10. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. I can’t believe you. 8. This is the main thing for us to do. 14. 3. She was said to be ill. 8. He was heard to repeat it several times. 9. 5. 4. Whatever you may/might tell me. might prosper. she should have left. 9. This is a strange thing for her to have said. I will be at home waiting for you. 8. She made me understand what had happened. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 7. you should have. 9. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. it might not get. I watched them playing football. 4. 3. you shouldn’t lie to me. Exercitiul 2: 1. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 2. 4. 8. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 4. It is necessary for him to be present. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. It is possible for me to buy a car. 7. you can’t win such a competition. I saw some children playing in the park. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. hadn’t broken down. 13. 9. you may/might understand. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 15. This is a good book for you to read. 7. 10. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. She seemed to be satisfied with me. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. He was expected to resign. 10. I heard her scold/scolding her child. it should get. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 5. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 6. 11. 6. we (should) leave. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 11. 3. 5. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 1. 15. 2. 10. you shouldn’t have believed it. She (was) proved to be a liar. 10. 8. I rely on you to lend me some money. It is advisable for you to resign. they (should) divorce. 5. 17. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 5. may attend. 2. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 7. 20. 2. he were. Exercitiul 4: 1. Exercitiul 8: 1. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. It is impossible for him to have said that. Mother would like me to become a doctor. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 3. 7. He wanted me to help him. should have told. I think him to be a good husband. 16. It’s time for us to meet again. 4. 2. 12. He made me miss the train. Whatever the reason may/might be. I had. 3. Exercitiul 9: 1. Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. I expected you to come earlier. 6. 4. you may/might be. They are sure to have had an argument.

Daca vremea va permite. Intrucât ploaia incetase. The hunters were heard shooting. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. The peasants were seen working in the field. . 3. The plane was seen landing. 9. 5. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. She was seen lying on the beach. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. The child was heard breaking the vase. 2. am mers sa o pun la posta. Intrucât soarele rasarise. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 8. 4. am plecat acasa linistit. 7. 8. 6. publicul a parasit sala.Exercitiul 5: 1. 5. The baby was heard crying. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. 10. She was found digging in the garden. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. ne-am grabit spre plaja. Concertul fiind terminat. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 7. 10. She was seen fainting. She could be heard typing. The boy was found breaking the window. 6. 2. am plecat la cumparaturi. 3. a trebuit sa-i schimb. Exercitiul 6: 1. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 4. 9. ne-am asezat la cina.

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