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Moneerah Bint-Usman

INTRODUCTION

Mathematics learning involves the

acquisition of knowledge and skills

especially problem solving skills. In

real life, problem solving becomes the

focus while knowledge is only the

accessory. This is because, not a

single day passes without having to

solve problems. So, there is the need

for the problem solving approach in

teaching mathematics.

WHAT IS A PROBLEM?

A problem is a statement or a

situation where there is an obstacle

between us and what we want.

routine and non-routine.

WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING?

Problem solving is the ability to

overcome or remove the obstacle

so that we can get what we want.

It is a process. It requires critical

thinking, ability to make decisions,

use the correct strategy to find the

solution and check the result.

MODEL FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

The most commonly used model is that of

George Polya (1973), who proposed 4

stages in problem solving, namely :

1. Understand the problem

2. Devise a strategy

3. Carry out the strategy

4. Check the result/ Look back

First Principle: Understand the Problem

Do you understand all the words used in

stating the problem?

What are you asked to find or show?

Can you restate the problem in your own

words?

Can you think of a picture or a diagram

that might help you understand the

problem?

Is there enough information to enable

you to find a solution?

Second Principle: Devise a strategy

Recall: A partial list of strategies:

Guess and check

Make and orderly Look for a pattern

list Draw a picture

Eliminate Solve a simpler

possibilities problem

Use symmetry Use a model

Consider special Work backward

cases Use a formula

Third Principle: Carry out the strategy

solution, check each step. Can you see

clearly that the step is correct? Can you

prove that

Fourth it is correct?

Principle: Look back

problems.

•Adopting the inverse method.

•Can you use the result, or the method, for

some other problem?

What is…

Routine problem

Non-routine

problem

Routine problem

defined as a problem in

mathematic lesson that involves

easy and simple problem solving.

It present a question to be

answered with out need certain

strategies. It means, the routine

problem can be solved by direct

application of previously learned

algorithms.

Example for routine problem:

Jella eat 2 piece of cakes. 5 minutes

later, she eat 1 more piece of cake.

How many piece of cakes that Jella

eat?

Solution:

2 piece of cakes + 1 pieces

of cakes = 3 piece of cakes

Non-routine

Non-routine problems tends to encourage

logical thinking, expand students’

understanding of concepts, develop

mathematical reasoning power, develop

students’ abilities to think in more

abstract ways and allow for a transfer of

mathematical skills to unfamiliar

situations.

QUESTION 1

Solve the following problems using

Polya’s model in 2 different

strategies.

A police station has 25 vehicles

consisting of motorcycles and

cars. The total number of tires of

both motorcycles and cars equal

to 70. Find the number of

motorcycles and cars the station

First Strategy

Drawing or Sketches’s strategy.

Step 1: FIND OUT

First, we must draw the vehicles with

two tires. Then, we must add the tires

until the number of tires equal to 70.

After that, we can see how many

motorcycles and cars.

Step 2: CHOOSE A STRATEGY

How should we approach this problem?

We can make skatches.

Step 3: SOLVE IT

Before we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become

70:

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

After we add 2 more tires to make the number of tires become 70:

OOOO OOOO OOOO OOOO OOOO

OOOO OOOO OOOO OOOO OOOO

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

OO OO OO OO OO

Step 4: LOOK BACK

Did we answer the correct

question, and does our answer

seem reasonable? Yes. (If you

want to know our answer is

correct or not, you must count the

number of vehicle’s tires).

Second strategy

Make a Chart’s strategy

Step 1: FIND OUT

What is the question we have to answer?

How many motorcycles and cars in the

police station.

How many vehicles in the police station?

25 vehicles.

How many number of vehicle’s tires in

police station? 70 tires.

How many tires that motorcycles have? 2

tires.

How many tires that cars have? 4 tires.

Step 2: CHOOSE A STRATEGY

What strategy will help here? We could

also use equations. But, let’s make a

table.

Step 3: SOLVE IT

Firstly, we make a table with 5 rows and

3 columns. Then, we choose our target.

For example, in the police station have 6

cars and 19 motorcycles. So we can see

the total of vehicles in the police station

is 62 vehicles.

Then, we try and error with the same ratio

until we get the answer which are 15

motorcycles and 10 cars:

CARS MOTORCYCLES TOTAL OF VEHICLES

( 4 TIRES) (2 TIRES) (70 TIRES)

6 19 (6x4)+(19x2)=62

7 18 (7x4)+(18x2)=64

8 17 (8x4)+(17x2)=66

9 16 (9x4)+(16x2)=68

10 15 (10x4)+(15x2)=70

Calculation:

10 x 4 = 40 and 15 x 2 = 30. The total of

vehicles are 70 (40 + 30). The answer is

correct.

Did we answer the question asked? Yes.

Does our answer seem reasonable? Yes.

Example 2:

Theday before yesterday I was

16 and the next year I will be 19.

This is true only one day in a year.

What day is my birthday?

Example 3:

Divide 30 by half and add ten.

What do you get?

Example 4:

Sallyinvited 17 guests to a

Christmas hoedown. She

assigned each guest a number

from 2 to 18, keeping 1 for herself.

While everyone was dancing,

Sally noticed that the sum of each

couple's numbers was a perfect

square. What was the number of

Sally's partner?

Quiz

Noah’s Hardware has a number

of bikes and tricycles for sale.

There are 27 seats and 60

wheels all together. Determine

how many bikes there are and

how many tricycles there are.

Apply the George Polya’s

Model.

On your book, page 343,

answer Letter A number 1,

3, and 5.

Resources:

www.slideshare.net/.../problem-solving-of-

mathematics - Estados Unidos

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_to_Solve_It

http://www.mathgym.com.au/htdocs/polyab.htm

www.pleacher.com/mp/probweek/p2007/a1207a.htm

l

brainden.com/forum/index.php?/topic/115-birthday/

www.blurtit.com/q503246.html -

http://www.scribd.com/doc/17099989/Polya-Model-

strategic-problem-solving

www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/educationalpractice

sseriespdf/prac04e.pdf

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