I£AУRSHIP ANÐ

MANAG£M£NT
NCM 105
2

S£M£ST£R SY 2010-2011
!IAÐI!SHII
!IAÐI!SHII
A procoss of InfIuonco
Þof IImIfod fo poopIo In frndIfIonnI posIfIon of
nufhorIfv
Cnn occur In numbors of dvnnmIcs nnd soffIngs
!so of ono`s skIII fo InfIuonco ofhors fo porform fo
fho bosf of fhoIr nbIIIfv fownrd nchIovIng n gonI
VIfnI IngrodIonf fhnf frnnsform n crowd Info
funcfIonIng, usofuI orgnnIznfIon TnIboff
ÐvnnmIc, InforncfIvo procoss fhnf InvoIvos:
O !ondors
O IoIIowors
O sIfunfIon
!IAÐI!SHII
A vIfnI compononf of chnngo Iodnnsh (2003)
Þof n scIonco or dIscIpIIno, nn nrf nnd ns such
musf bo foIf, oxporIoncod,& cronfod
Irocoss of movIng group In snmo dIrocfIon
fhrough non-coorcIvo monns
Irocoss of porsunsIon nnd oxnmpIo fo pursuo
objocfIvos
Irocoss of ompoworIng ofhors fo fnp fhoIr fuII
cnpnbIIIfIos
Arf of dovoIopIng poopIo
!IAÐI!SHII !O!IS
ÐocIsIon mnkor
CommunIcnfor
IvnIunfor
IncIIIfnfor
!Isk fnkor
Monfor
InorgIzor
Conch
CounsoIor
Tonchor
CrIfIcnI fhInkor
Iuffor
Advocnfo
VIsIonnrv
Iorocnsfor
InfIuoncor
CronfIvo probIom soIvor
Chnngo ngonf
ÐIpIomnf
!oIo modoI
CHA!ICTI!ISTICS ASSOCIATIÐ
WITH !IAÐI!SHII
InfoIIIgonco
KnowIodgo
Judgmonf
ÐocIsIvonoss
OrnI fIuoncv
ImofIonnI InfoIIIgonco
Indopondonco
IorsonnbIo
AdnpfnbIIIfv
CronfIvIfv
CoopornfIvonoss
AIorfnoss
SoIf-confIdonco
IorsonnI InfogrIfv
ImofIonnI bnInnco nnd
confroI
AbIIIfv
AbIo fo onIIsf
coopornfIon
Tncf
ÐIpIomncv
IrosfIgo
SocInI pnrfIcIpnfIon
!IAÐI!SHII
MOTTO Ðo tLe RIGHT tLInu
ChnIIongo CHAÞCI
Iocus I!!IOSIS
TImo Irnmo I!T!!I
Mofhods ST!ATICIIS
QuosfIons WHY¨
Oufcomos JO!!ÞIYS
IACTO!S IIICTIÞC !IAÐI!SHII
Tho Imporfnnco of rosuIf
Tho nnfuro of work
Tho chnrncforIsfIcs of fho workor
Tho porsonnI chnrncforIsfIcs of fho mnnngor
!IAÐI!
II!SOÞ who:
InfIuoncos nnd guIdos dIrocfIon, opInIon nnd
courso of ncfIon
InnbIos fo work fogofhor fo nchIovo objocfIvos
sof for corfnIn purposo
InfIuoncos ofhors fo movo In fho dIrocfIon of
nchIovIng gonIs
A !IAÐI!
Offon don`f hnvo doIognfod nufhorIfv
Hnvo vnrIofv of roIos fhnn mnnngors
Mnv or mnv nof bo pnrf of formnI orgnnIznfIon
Iocus on group procoss, InformnfIon gnfhorIng,
foodbnck nnd ompoworIng ofhors
ImphnsIzo InforporsonnI roInfIonshIps
ÐIrocfs wIIIIng foIIowor
Mnv hnvo gonIs fhnf mnv or mnv nof rofIocf fhoso
of fho orgnnIznfIon
Inforosfod In rIsk-fnkIng nnd oxpIorIng now Idons
TYIIS OI !IAÐI!S
IO!MA! !IAÐI!
O Iorson In n posIfIon of InfIuonco or nufhorIfv
O Hns snncfIonod roIo wIfhIn nn orgnnIznfIon
O AppoInfod bv fho ndmInIsfrnfIon
O CIvon offIcInI or IogIfImnfo nufhorIfv fo ncf
IÞIO!MA! !IAÐI!
O Iorson who domonsfrnfos IondorshIp nnd hns
InfIuonco ovon fhough ho or sho Is nof In n formnI
IondorshIp roIo In nn orgnnIznfIon
O Choson bv fho group
O 2 KIY T!AITS:
AbIIIfv fo InfIuonco ofhors
Ofhor poopIo In fho group or orgnnIznfIon rocognIzo fho
nbIIIfv nnd nro InfIuoncod
THIO!IIS OI !IAÐI!SHII
£ARIY I£AУRSHIP
TH£ORY
Io¢us on tvuIts und ¢Luvu¢tevIstI¢s oI !eudevs
T!AIT AII!OACH
T!AIT AII!OACH
l. C!IAT MAÞ THIO!Y: ArIsfofoIInn phIIosophv
Somo poopIo nro born fo Iond; ofhors nro born fo
bo Iod - ArIsfofIo
Cronf Iondors wIII nrIso whon fho sIfunfIon
domnnds If
fow poopIo nro born wIfh nocossnrv chnrncforIsfIcs
fo bo gronf
2. T!AIT THIO!Y:
Somo poopIo hnvo corfnIn chnrncforIsfIcs fhnf
mnkos fhom boffor Iondors fhnn ofhors
soIocfIon Is bnsod on phvsIcnI, monfnI nnd
psvchoIogIcnI chnrncforIsfIcs
CO!I T!AITS OI !IAÐI!S
CuIdIng VISIOÞ
O AbIo fo soo pIcfuro of fho dosIrod fufuro
O Tho pIcfuro nIIows Iondor fo sof gonIs fownrds fho
dosIrod fufuro
IASSIOÞ = drIvo nnd nmbIfIon
O InfhusInsfIc nbouf fho fufuro possIbIIIfIos
O Hns fho nbIIIfv fo InspIro poopIo nnd nIIgn fhom In n
common offorf fo mnko fho fufuro possIbIIIfIos n
ronIIfv
CO!I T!AITS OI !IAÐI!S
IÞTIC!ITY nnd HOÞISTY
O Iossoss n sIgnIfIcnnf knowIodgo of soIf or soIf-
nwnronoss
Sfrongfhs nnd wonknossos
AbIIIfv fo rocoIvo foodbnck
!onrn from mIsfnkos
O !oquIros honosfv nnd mnfurIfv
O Supporfod bv fho Innor sfrongfh of convIcfIon nnd
nbIIIfv fo donI wIfh confIIcf or obsfncIo fhnf nrIso
O ÐovoIopod fhough porsonnI nnd profossIonnI
oxporIonco nnd growfh
O Cnn bo frusfod
CO!I T!AITS OI !IAÐI!S
C!!IOSITY
O InnbIo fhom fo fnko rIsks
O IncIIIfnfos chnngo
O Shorfon fho IonrnIng curvo
!ondors zoro In on whnf works rnfhor fhnn wnsfIng fImo on
whnf doosn`f work
COMMOÞ T!AITS OI A !IAÐI!
I!IXIII!ITY
O Adnpfs rnpIdIv fo chnngos In nII nspocfs of fho onvIronmonf
O AIIows Iondors fo donI offocfIvoIv nnd cronfIvoIv wIfh
uncorfnInfv nnd hosfIIIfv
IÞTI!!ICIÞCI
O Subjocf-bnsod InfoIIIgonco
knowIodgo nnd skIIIs nssocInfod wIfh fho porson`s job funcfIons
AbIIIfv fo uso knowIodgo nnd skIII fo soIvo probIom nnd
Improvo work procoss
O IoopIo-bnsod InfoIIIgonco
ImofIonnI InfoIIIgonco nbIIIfv fo uso nof onIv rnfIonnI buf
nIso omofIonnI porcopfIon In IonrnIng, prob. SoIvIng nnd
workIng wIfh poopIo offocfIvoIv fo nchIovod dosIrod oufcomos
COMMOÞ T!AITS OI A !IAÐI!
AbIIIfv fo S!IIO!T ofhors
O !osponsIvonoss fo wIdo rnngo of sIfunfIons nnd
poopIo fnco sIfunfIons hond-on rnfhor fhnn
wIfhdrnwIng
O IrncfIcos opon nnd offocfIvo communIcnfIon
O Iossossos kov socInI skIIIs nbIIIfv fo work offocfIvoIv
wIfh rospocf nnd dIvorso consfIfuonf fo dofuso confIIcf
nnd fo gonornfo frusf nnd onfhusInsm In ofhors
SI!I-COÞIIÐIÞCI
O AbIo fo frusf hIs nbIIIfIos nnd docIsIons
O AbIo fo rocoIvo foodbnck nnd Inpuf from ofhors
wIfhouf fooIIng fhronfonod
COMMOÞ T!AITS OI A !IAÐI!
ÐISI!I fo Iond
O Inforosfod In nnd hnvo dosIro fo InfIuonco chnngo In
poopIo or orgnnIznfIons
IIHAVIO!A! THIO!IIS
!IAÐI!S HAVI SIICIA! IIHAVIO!S
CHA!ACTI!IZIÞC THI ÐIIII!IÞT STY!IS
OI
!IAÐI!SHII
!IAÐI!SHII STY!I
Kurf !owIn (l95l) nnd WhIfo nnd !IppIff (l960) :
IsoInfod common IondorshIp sfvIo
n. A\THORITARIAN I£AУRSHIP
Insod on confrnIIzod docIsIon mnkIng
!ondor mnkos docIsIon nnd oxpocf s subordInnfos fo obov
!sos powor fo commnnd nnd confroI ofhors
!osuIfs In woII dofInod group ncfIon
IroducfIvIfv Is hIgh, buf cronfIvIfv, soIf mofIvnfIon , nnd
nufonomv Is roducod
!sofuI In crIsIs sIfunfIon
CHA!ACTI!ISTICS OI A!THO!ITA!IAÞ
!IAÐI!`S IIHAVIO!
Sfrong confroI Is mnInfnInod ovor fho work group
Ofhors nro mofIvnfod bv coorcIon
Ofhors nro dIrocfod wIfh commnnd
CommunIcnfIon fIows downwnrd
Ðoos nof InvoIvo ofhors In docIsIon mnkIng
ImphnsIs Is on dIfforonco In sfnfus ¨I¨ nnd
¨You¨
A!TOC!ATIC
C!OSIÐ SYSTIM
Þ!!SI MAÞACI!
IO!!OWI!S
!IAÐI!SHII STY!I
b. УMOCRATIC I£AУRSHIP
AIIow ofhors fo pnrfIcIpnfo In docIsIon mnkIng nnd fo
shnro nufhorIfv
Iowor Is bnsod from oxporfIso
ApproprInfo for group who works fogofhor for oxfondod
porIods
Croup porforms woII whofhor or nof fho Iondor Is
prosonf
!ondors nnd foIIowors fond fo mnInfnIn posIfIvo
roInfIonshIp
Iromofos nufonomv nnd growfh In IndIvIdunI workors
IIHAVIO!S OI ÐIMOC!ATIC
!IAÐI!
!oss confroI Is mnInfnInod
IconomIc nnd ogo nwnrds nro usod fo mofIvnfo
Ofhors nro dIrocfod fhrough suggosfIons nnd
guIdnnco
CommunIcnfIon fIows up nnd down
ÐocIsIon mnkIng InvoIvos ofhors
ImphnsIs Is on ¨Wo¨
CrIfIcIsm Is consfrucfIvo
ÐIMOC!ACTIC
OIIÞ SYSTIM
Þ!!SI MAÞACI!
IO!!OWI!S
!IAÐI!SHII STY!I
c. IAISS£Z IAIR£ I£AУRSHIP
!ondors dIsporso docIsIon mnkIng fo foIIowors
IormIssIvo wIfh IIffIo or no confroI
IrovIdos IIffIo or no dIrocfIon
MofIvnfos bv supporf whon roquosfod bv fho group or
IndIvIdunI
!sos upwnrd nnd downwnrd communIcnfIon bofwoon
mombors of fho group
IInco omphnsIs on fho group
Ðo nof crIfIcIzo
. !AISSIZ IAI!I !IAÐI!SHII
II!MISSIVI
Þ!!SI MAÞACI!
IO!!OWI!S
!IAÐI!SHII STY!I
A\TOCRATIC УMOCRATIC IAISS£Z IAIR£
Sfrong confroI !oss confroI Þo confroI
Ofhors nro mofIvnfod
bv coorcIon
IconomIc nnd ogo
rownrds
MofIvnfod bv supporf
whon roquosfod bv
fho group/IndIvIdunIs
ÐIrocfIvo InrfIcIpnfIvo !nInvoIvod
Ðownwnrd
communIcnfIon
!p & down
communIcnfIon
!pwnrd nnd
downwnrd bofwoon
mombors of fho group
Ðoos docIsIon mnkIng Mnkos suggosfIons AbdIcnfos docIsIon
mnkIng
¨I¨ & ¨YO!¨ ¨WI¨ ImphnsIs on fho
group
CrIfIcIsm Is punIfIvo ConsfrucfIvo
crIfIcIsm
Ðoos nof crIfIzo
Iosfors dopondoncv Iosfors Indopondonco Iosfors chnos
SHIIT OI !IAÐI!SHII !O!I
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!IAÐI!
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ÐOIS
THI
!IAÐI!
IIHAVI
l940-l960
IIHAVIO!A! THIO!IIS
Supporfs humnn roInfIon fhoorv
IonofIfs of posIfIvo nffIfudo fownrds ofhors
ÐovoIopmonf of fho workors
SnfIsfncfIon of fho noods of fho workor
CommIfmonf fhru pnrfIcIpnfIon
COÞTIÞCIÞCY THIO!IIS
ConfIngoncv nppronch fo IondorshIp
Irod IIodIor
!ondorshIp sfvIo wIII bo offocfIvo or InoffocfIvo
dopondIng on fho sIfunfIon
Sfnfo fhnf n vnrIofv of onvIronmonfnI fncfors nffocf fho
IondorshIp sfvIo or chnrncforIsfIcs
Tho oufcomo of IondorshIp nro doformInod bv fncfors ofhor fhnn
fho Iondor`s bohnvIor
Suggosf fhnf no ono IondorshIp sfvIo Is IdonI for ovorv sIfunfIon
COÞTIÞCIÞCY THIO!Y
3 chnrncforIsfIcs for offocfIvo IondorshIp
!ondor mombor roInfIon
O IoIIowors fooIIng nbouf fho Iondor IovoI of frusf, nccopfnnco of fho
Iondor, porcopfIon of fho mombors of fho Iondor
Tnsk sfrucfuro
O Ixfonf fo whIch work fnsk nro dofInod bv spocIfIc procoduro, dIrocfIon
nnd gonI
O HICH ST!!CT!!I: roufIno, cIonrIv dofInod
O !OW ST!!CT!!I: nof prodIcfnbIo, cronfIvo, workIng ¨on fho fIv¨
IosIfIon powor
O Tho nmounf of InfIuonco or dogroo of formnI nufhorIfv fho Iondor hns
O HIgh posIfIon powor consIdorod fnvornbIo
IIIÐ!I! COÞTIÞCIÞCY MOÐI!
ST£P 1 -------- ST£P 2 ---------

ST£P 3
IASIC
I!IMISI
THI
!IAÐI!S
CHA!ACTI!I
STICS O!
T!AIT A!I
IIXIÐ AÞÐ
!ICIÐ
IdonfIfv fho
Iondors frnIf or
chnrncforIsfIcs
MATCH THI
!IAÐI!S
T!AIT O!
CHA!ACTI!I
STICS TO THI
JOI
SIT!ATIOÞ
ST!ÐY
!IAÐI!/MIM
II!
!I!ATIOÞSHI
I AÞÐ
!IAÐI!
IOSITIOÞ
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MIAS!!I
IIIICTIVIÞ
ISS IY TASK
O! COA!
ACCOMI!ISH

IATH-COA! THIO!Y
!oborf Houso
ÐorIvod from Ixpocfnncv fhoorv
IoIIovod fhnf poopIo ncf ns fhov do, bocnuso fhov oxpocf
fhoIr bohnvIor fo produco snfIsfncforv rosuIf
IoopIo nro mofIvnfod bv boIng nbIo fo cnrrv ouf fhoIr
work, whIch fhov boIIovo wIII confrIbufo fo fho dosIrod
oufcomo nnd provIdo fhom wIfh rownrds for work
!ondors cInrIfv nnd sof fho gonIs of fho subordInnfos nnd
hoIp fhom fInd fho bosf pnfh fo nchIovo fhoIr gonIs.
Tho offocfIvo Iondor mnkos fho npproprInfo pnfh onsIor for
fho workor fo foIIow
IffocfIvo Iondor mnfchos sfvIo fo fho sIfunfIon or
onvIronmonf
IATH COA! THIO!Y
!IAÐI! I!ÞCTIOÞ
ÐIrocfIvo
SupporfIvo
InrfIcIpnfIvo
AchIovomonf orIonfod
SIICIIIC !IAÐI! IIHAVIO!
MofIvnfo ImpIovoos hoIp fhom nchIovod vnIuod gonIs
ConsIdor confIngoncIos
ImpIovoos` porsonnI chnrncforIsfIcs, noods nnd nbIIIfIos
InvIronmonfnI chnrncforIsfIcs
AufhorIfv svsfom
Work group
IXIICTIÐ O!TCOMI
HICH JOI SATISIACTIOÞ
HICH II!IO!MAÞCI
IIWI! C!IVAÞCIS
SIT!ATIOÞA! THIO!Y
Horsov nnd IInnchnrd
O A porson mnv bo n Iondor In ono sIfunfIon & foIIowor
In nnofhor
O Tvpo of IondorshIp noodod doponds on fho sIfunfIon
IffocfIvonoss of n porson`s IondorshIp sfvIo doponds nof so
much of fho Iondor buf on fho foIIowors
MnfurIfv of fho foIIowor s shouId bo nssoss
IffocfIvo Iondor :
chnngos or ndnpf IondorshIp sfvIo fo mnfch fho foIIowors '
nood
Affompf fo Incronso foIIowors` IovoI of mnfurIfv
SIT!ATIOÞA! THIO!Y
4 CATICO!IIS OI !IAÐI!SHII STY!I:
bnsod on fnsk nnd roInfIonshIp IovoIs
n. HIgh fnsk/Iow roInfIonshIp bohnvIor ¨foIIIng¨
IondorshIp sfvIo
b. HIgh fnsk/hIgh roInfIonshIp bohnvIor ¨soIIIng¨
IondorshIp sfvIo goffIng poopIo fop ¨buv In¨ fo nn
nppronch, poIIcv or now sfnffIng or mnnngomonf
sfrucfuro
c. !ow fnsk/hIgh roInfIonshIp bohnvIor
¨pnrfIcIpnfIng¨ IondorshIp sfvIo
d. !ow fnsk/Iow roInfIonshIp bohnvIor ¨doIognfIng¨
IondorshIp sfvIo
¨S!ISTIT!TIS IO! !IAÐI!SHII¨
Korr nnd JormIor
CorfnIn vnrInbIos or fncfors mnv InfIuonco foIIowors`
bohnvIors ns much or moro fhnn fho Iondor`s bohnvIor
IÐIÞTIIIIÐ S!ISTIT!TIS IO! !IAÐI! IIHAVIO!
n. Amounf of foodbnck provIdod bv fnsk
b. SIgnIfIcnnf work group cohosIon
c. !IgId ndhoronco of group fo ruIos
d. InfrInsIc snfIsfncfIon provIdod bv fho work or fnsk
C!!!IÞT COMTIMIO!A!Y THIO!IIS
CHA!ISMATIC THIO!Y
!oborf Houso
ChnrIsmnfIc Iondors hnvo 4 chnrncforIsfIcs:
- ÐomInnnco
- SoIf confIdonco
- Þood for InfIuonco nnd powor
- ConvIcfIon of mornI rIghfoousnoss
CHA!ISMA InspIrnfIonnI qunIIfv possossod bv
somo poopIo fhnf mnkos ofhors fooI boffor In
fhoIr prosonco
!IAÐI!S InspIros ofhor bv:
- obfnInIng omofIonnI commIfmonf from foIIowors
- nrousIng sfrong fooIIng of IovnIfv nnd
onfhusInsm
T!AÞSIO!MATIOÞA! !IAÐI!SHII
THIO!Y
Iofh Iondors nnd foIIowors ncf on ono nnofhor fo
rnIso fhoIr mofIvnfIon nnd porformnnco fo hIghor
IovoIs
Iocus : nIIowIng InnovnfIon nnd chnngo
Ðoponds on fho concopf of IMIOWI!MIÞT
AII pnrfIos nro nIIowod fo work fogofhor fo fho bosf of fhoIr
nbIIIfv, fo nchIovo n coIIocfIvo gonI
Two fvpos of Iondor
n. TrnnsncfIonnI Iondor: porson rosponsIbIo for dnv fo
dnv opornfIons
b. TrnnsformnfIonnI Iondor: porson rosponsIbIo for
mnInfnInIng fho ovornII vIsIon nnd mofIvnfIng
poopIo fo Incorpornfo fho vIsIon In fhoIr work
MOTIVATIOÞA! THIO!IIS
!IIÞIO!CIMIÞT THIO!Y
I.I. SkInnor (l953)
VIows mofIvnfIon ns IonrnIng
Iorson bocomos condIfIonod fo nssocInfo n
bohnvIor wIfh n consoquonco (+ or -)
!ondors nro moro offocfIvo whon fhov cnn confroI
or mnnIpuInfo fho consoquoncos of fho foIIowor`s
bohnvIor
Works woII whon onough posIfIvo roInforcomonf
oxIsf nnd whon Iondors hnvo corfnIn confroI ovor
foIIowors` nccoss fo fho rwnrds
IXIICTAÞCY THIO!Y
ImphnsIzos fhnf poopIo don`f jusf rospond
pnssIvoIv fo roInforcomonf or Inck fhoroof; rnfhor
fhov nro ncfIvoIv nnd conscIousIv InforncfIng wIfh
fhoIr onvIronmonf
3 mofIvnfIonnI compononfs:
n. IXIICTAÞCY: fho porcoIvod probnbIIIfv fhnf
corfnIn offorf wIII Iond fo dosIrod ncfIon or
bohnvIor
b. IÞST!!MIÞTA!ITY: fho boIIof fhnf n gIvon
porformnnco IovoI wIII Iond fo nn oufcomo
c. VA!IÞCI: porcoIvod vnIuo of fho oufcomo
IQ!ITY THIO!Y
Tho dogroo of porcoIvod fnIrnoss In fho work
sIfunfIon Is fho kov fo job snfIsfncfIon nnd offorf
of workors
COA! SITTIÞC THIO!Y
Suggosf fhnf poopIo don`f oxpond offorf for
rownrds or fnsk oufcomo buf fo nccompIIsh fho
gonI fhomsoIvos
3 nssumpfIons nccordIng fo !ocko (l968)
n. SpocIfIc gonIs nro moro offocfIvo fhnn gonornI
gonIs for mofIvnfIng hIghor porformnnco
b. Moro dIffIcuIf or chnIIongIng gonIs Iond fo
hIghor porformnnco
c. InconfIvos or rownrds nro offocfIvo onIv In
fhnf fhov oncourngo poopIo fo chnngo fhoIr gonIs
IÞTI!ACTIOÞA! THIO!IIS
l9?0 I!ISIÞT
!IAÐI!SHII IIHAVIO! IS CIÞI!A!!Y
ÐITI!MIÞIÐ IY THI !I!ATIOÞSHII
IITWIIÞ
THI !IAÐI!`S II!SOÞA!ITYAÞÐ THI
SIICIIIC
SIT!ATIOÞ
Iocusos moro on IondorshIp ns n procoss of
InfIuoncIng ofhors wIfhIn nn orgnnIznfIonnI
cuIfuro nnd fho InforncfIvo roInfIonshIp of fho
Iondor nnd fho foIIowor
IÞTI!ACTIOÞA! THIO!IIS
SYSTIM THIO!Y - ShoIn (l9?0)
HoIInndor (l9?8)
Knnfor (l9??)
ÞoIson nnd Iurns (l984)
SYSTIM THIO!Y: SCHIIÞ (l9?0)
Svsfom: n sof of objocfs , wIfh roInfIonshIp
bofwoon fho objocfs nnd fhoIr nffrIbufos
AssumpfIons:
O IoopIo nro vorv compIox nnd hIghIv vnrInbIo
O IoopIos mofIvos do nof sfnv consfnnf, chnngos ovor
fImo
O ConIs cnn dIffor In vnrIous sIfunfIons
O Iorson`s porformnnco nnd producfIvIfv nro nffocfod
bv fho nnfuro of fho fnsk nnd bv nbIIIfv, oxporIonco,
nnd mofIvnfIon
O Þo sIngIo IondorshIp sfrnfogv Is offocfIvo In ovorv
sIfunfIon
HO!!AÞÐI! (l9?8)
Snw IondorshIp ns n
dvnnmIc fwo-wnv procoss
!ondorshIp oxchnngo
InvoIvos 3 bnsIc oIomonfs:
O Tho !IAÐI!: hIs
porsonnIIfv, porcopfIon,
nnd nbIIIfIos
O Tho IO!!OWI!S: fhoIr
porsonnIIfv, porcopfIon,
nnd nbIIIfIos
O Tho SIT!ATIOÞ: wIfhIn
whIch fho Iondor nnd
foIIowors funcfIon formnI
nnd InformnI group norms,
sIzo nnd donsIfv
!ondorshIp offocfIvonoss
roquIros:
O AbIIIfv fo uso probIom
soIvIng procoss
O MnInfnIn group
offocfIvonoss
O CommunIcnfo woII
O Ðomonsfrnfo Iondor
fnIrnoss, Compofonco,
ÐopondnbIIIfv, CronfIvIfv
O ÐovoIop group
IdonfIfIcnfIon
KAÞTI! (l9??)
Tho sfrucfurnI nspocf of job shnpo n Iondor`s
offocfIvonoss
!ondors bocomos ompoworod fhrough bofh
formnI nnd InformnI svsfom of fho orgnnIznfIon
ÞI!SOÞ AÞÐ I!!Þ`S (l984)
Suggosfod fhnf orgnnIznfIon nnd fhoIr Iondors
hnvo 4 dovoIopmonfnI IovoIs nnd fhoso IovoIs
InfIuonco producfIvIfv nnd workor snfIsfncfIon
4 dovoIopmonfnI IovoIs
O !oncfIvo
O !osponsIvo
O IroncfIvo
O HIgh porformnnco fonm
4 ÐIVI!OIMIÞTA! !IVI!
R£ACTIV£ I£V£I Reu¢tIve !eudevs:
W Io¢uses on tLe µust
WIs ¢vIsIs dvIven
WIvequent!y ubusIve to subovdInutes
!ISIOÞSIVI !IVI! !ondor Is nbIo fo moId subordInnfos fo
work fogofhor ns n fonm, nIfhough fho
Iondor mnInfnIns mosf docIsIon-mnkIng
rosponsIbIIIfv
I!OACTIVI !IVI! !ondor nnd foIIowors bocomo moro fufuro
orIonfod nnd hoId common drIvIng vnIuos
HICH II!IO!MAÞCI
TIAM
MnxImum producfIvIfv nnd workor
snfIsfncfIon nro nppnronf
T!AÞSIO!MATIOÞA! !IAÐI!SHII
THIO!Y
TrnnsformnfIonnI Iondor
O A mnnngor who:
Is commIffod
Hns n vIsIon
AbIo fo ompowor ofhors wIfh hIs vIsIon
O InspIros nbIo fo mofIvnfo porformnnco bovond
oxpocfnfIons fhrough fhoIr nbIIIfv fo InfIuonco
nffIfudos
O InspIros nnd mofIvnfos foIIowors nof onIv ns roIo
modoI bv nIso rocognIzIng fho unIquonoss of fhoIr
foIIowors nnd boIng cronfIvo
O An InforncfIvo roInfIonshIp bnsod on frusf fhnf
posIfIvoIv Impncfs bofh fho Iondor nnd fho foIIowors
T!AÞSACTIOÞA! THIO!Y
TrndIfIonnI mnnngors concornod wIfh dnv fo dnv
opornfIons
Sof gonIs, gIvos dIrocfIon, nnd usos rownrds fo
roInforco ompIovoos bohnvIor nssocInfod wIfh
moofIng osfnbIIshod gonI
ImphnsIzo procoss In soffIng gonIs nnd gIvIng
dIrocfIons nnd sooks fo confroI bofh sIfunfIon nnd
foIIowors
COMIA!ISOÞS
TRANSACTIONAI I£AУR TRANSIORMATIONAI
Iocusos on mnnngomonf fnsk IdonfIfIos common vnIuos
I s n cnrofnkor Is commIffod
!sos frndo-offs fo moof gonIs InspIros ofhors wIfh vIsIon
Ðoos nof IdonfIfv shnrod vnIuos Hns Iong form vIsIon
IxnmInos cnusos !ooks nf offocfs
!so confIngoncv rownrd Impowors ofhors
!IAÐI!SHII THIO!IST AÞÐ
THIO!IIS
TH£ORIST TH£ORY
A!ISTOT!I Cronf mnn fhoorv
!IWIÞ AÞÐ WHTI !ondorshIp sfvIo
IO!!ITT !nw of fho sIfunfIon
IIIÐ!I! ConfIngoncv IondorshIp
I!AKI AÞÐ MO!TOÞ Tnsk vs roInfIonshIp In
doformInIng IondorshIp sfvIo
HI!SIY AÞÐ I!AÞCHA!Ð SIfunfIonnI IondorshIp fhoorv
KAÞTI! OrgnnIznfIonnI sfrucfuro shnpos
Iondor offocfIvonoss
CA!ÐÞI! Tho Infogrnfod Iondor-mnnngor
2l
ST
CIÞT!!Y COÞCIIT OI !IAÐI!SHII
SI!VAÞT !IAÐI!SHII
CroonIonf : dovoIopod fho Idon of sorvnnf
IondorshIp 30 vonrs ngo
O CronfIv InfIuonco fho 2l
sf
confurv
O Iuf sorvIng ofhors ns fho numbor ono prIorIfv
ImpIovoos
Cusfomors
CommunIfv
Hownfson-Jonos (2204)
O ¨Iondors sorvIng fho noods of foIIowors, nnd
ompoworIng fhom rnfhor fhnn fho orgnnIznfIon
Q!A!ITIIS OI SI!VAÞT !IAÐI!S
AbIIIfv fo:
O IIsfon on doop IovoI
O koop nn opon mInd nnd
honr wIfhouf judgmonfs
O donI wIfh nmbIguIfv,
pnrndoxos nnd compIox
Issuos
O Io sorvnnf, hoIpor, nnd
fonchor fIrsf nnd fhon n
Iondor
O !so forosIghf nnd
InfuIfIon
IoIIof fhnf honosfIv
shnrIng crIfIcnI chnIIongos
wIfh nII pnrfIos nnd nskIng
for fhoIr Inpuf Is moro
Imporfnnf fhnn porsonnIIv
provIdIng soIufIon
IoIng cIonr on gonIs &
good nf poInfIng fho
dIrocfIon fownrds gonI
nchIovomonf wIfhouf
gIvIng ordors
AIwnvs fhInkIng boforo
roncfIng
ChoosIng words cnrofuIIv
so ns nof fo dnmngo fhoso
boIng Iod
SooIng fhIngs whoIo nnd
sonsIng roInfIonshIp nnd
connocfIons
2l
ST
CIÞT!!Y THIO!Y OI
!IAÐI!SHII
I!IÞCIIA! ACIÞT
THIO!Y
O Suggosf fhnf nof nII
foIIowors nro InhoronfIv
mofIvnfod fo ncf In fho
bosf Inforosf of fho
Iondor
Iocnuso foIIowors mnv
hnvo nn InformnfIonnI
(knowIodgo/oxporfIso)
ndvnnfngo ovor fho
Iondor
!ondors musf IdonfIfv
nnd provIdo ngonfs wIfh
npproprInfo InconfIvos fo
ncf In fho orgnnIznfIon`s
bosf Inforosf
H!MAÞ AÞÐ SOCIA!
CAIITA! THIO!Y
O !ocognIzos fhnf
IndIvIdunIs nnd
orgnnIznfIons Invosf In
humnn cnpIfnI In
nnfIcIpnfIon of gnIns, In
fho forms of Incronsod
producfIvIfv nnd
fInnncInI rofurns
Humnn cnpIfnI group`s
coIIocfIvo knowIodgo,
skIIIs, nnd nbIIIfIos
2l
ST
CIÞT!!Y THIO!Y OI
!IAÐI!SHII
IMOTIOÞA!
IÞTI!!ICIÞCI
THIO!Y
O !oovos (2005): suggosf
fhnf ¨ cognIfIvo
InfoIIIgonco¨ Is onIv
hnIf of fho oqunfIon
nocossnrv for succoss
In fho workpInco
O Tho ofhor hnIf of fho
oqunfIon nnd of mosf
Imporfnnf hnIf Is II
ImofIonnI
InfoIIIgonco
O Tho cnpncIfv fo gof
opfImnI rosuIfs from
roInfIonshIps wIfh
ofhor
O AbIIIfv fo uso omofIons
offocfIvoIv - If Is fho
foundnfIon of hIgh
porformIng
roInfIonshIp (Insf. of
OrgnnIznfIonnI
Iorformnncco)
5 COMIOÞIÞTS OI II
SoIf nwnronoss
O AbIIIfv fo rocognIzo nnd
undorsfnnd ono`s own
moods, omofIons nnd
drIvos ns woII ns Ifs
offocfs on ofhors
SoIf roguInfIon
O AbIIIfv fo confroI or
rodIrocf dIsrupfIvo
ImpuIsos
MofIvnfIon
O InssIon fo work for
ronsons fhnf go bovond
monov or sfnfus
Impnfhv
O AbIIIfv fo undorsfnnd
nnd nccopf omofIons of
ofhors
SocInI skIIIs
O IrofIcIoncv In hnndIIng
roInfIonshIp nnd buIIdIng
nofworks
O AbIIIfv fo fInd common
grounds
A!THIÞTIC !IAÐI!SHII
l990`s
Suggosf fhnf In ordor
fo Iond, Iondors musf
bo fruo fo fhomsoIvos
nnd fhoIr vnIuos nnd
ncf nccordIngIv
SfnnIov (2006)
CnII fhIs Congruonf
IondorshIp
O A mnfch (congruonco)
bofwoon fho ncfIvIfIos,
ncfIons nnd doods of
fho Iondor nnd fho
Iondor`s vnIuos,
prIncIpIos nnd boIIofs
5 ÐISTIÞC!ISHIÞC CHA!ACTI!ISTICS OI
A!THIÞTIC !IAÐI!
Iurposo
O !ndorsfnnd fhoIr own
purposo
VnIuos
O !Ink bofwoon purposo
nnd pnssIon bv hnvIng
congruonco wIfh
boIIofs nnd ncfIons
Honrf
O Cnro for fhomsoIvos
nnd fho poopIo fhov
Iond
O ConuIno compnssIon
!oInfIonshIp
O VnIuo buIIdIng
roInfIonshIp nnd
osfnbIIshIng
connocfIons wIfh
ofhors
SoIf dIscIpIIno
O Incorpornfos bnInnco
Info fho porsonnI nnd
profossIonnI IIfo
2l
ST
CIÞT!!Y THIO!Y OI
!IAÐI!SHII
THO!CHT
!IAÐI!SHII
O AppIIos fo n porson who
Is rocognIzod nmong hIs
poors for InnovnfIvo Idons
nnd domonsfrnfos fho
confIdonco fo promofo
fhoso Idons
O Anv sIfunfIon In whIch
ono IndIvIdunI convIncos
nnofhor fo consIdor n now
Idon, producf or wnv of
IookIng nf fhIngs
Q!AÞT!M
!IAÐI!SHII
O l990`s
O !ondors musf work
fogofhor wIfh
subordInnfos fo:
IdonfIfv common gonI
IxpIoIf opporfunIfIos
Impowor sfnff fo mnko
docIsIons for
orgnnIznfIonnI
producfIvIfv fo occur
MAÞACIMIÞT
ÐIIIÞITIOÞ
Mnnngomonf skIII: Iocus on fho dovoIopmonf nnd
dopIovmonf of: VISIOÞ, MISSIOÞ, ST!ATICY
& C!IATIOÞ OI MOTIVATIÐ WO!K I!ACI
Tho procoss of ompoworIng poopIo fhru
porsunsIon.
!so of ono`s skIII fo InfIuonco ofhors fo porform fo
fho bosf of fhoIr nbIIIfv fownrds gonI nchIovomonf

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