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PART 2 PREPARED BY: JCM

Alternator On Load

• As the load on an alternator is varied, its terminal voltage is also found to vary as in dc generators. This variation in terminal voltage is due to the following reasons:

– Voltage drop due to armature resistance, Ra – Voltage drop due to armature leakage reactance, XL – Voltage drop due to armature reaction

Alternator On Load

Armature Resistance

– The armature resistance/phase causes a voltage drop/phase of IRa which is in phase with the armature current. However, this voltage drop is practically negligible. Armature Leakage Reactance – When current flows through the armature conductors, fluxes are set up which do not cross the air-gap but take different paths. Such fluxes are known as leakage fluxes.

Alternator On Load

Armature Leakage Reactance (cont...)

– The leakage flux is practically independent of saturation but is dependent on I and its phase angle with terminal voltage V. – This leakage flux sets up an emf of self inductance which is known as reactance emf which is ahead of I by 900. – Hence, armature winding is assumed to possess leakage reactance, XL (also known as Potier reactance) such that the voltage drop due to this equal IXL.

Alternator On Load Armature Reaction – As in dc generators. the power factor of the load has a considerable effect on the armature reaction. – In a 3-phase machine the combined mmf wave is sinusoidal which moves synchronously. its amplitude is proportional to the load current. armature reaction is the effect of armature flux on the main field flux. . but its position depends on the pf of the load. This mmf wave is fixed relative to the poles. – In the case of alternators.

Alternator On Load Armature Reaction (cont. It is 900 space degrees with respect to the poles.. • Armature reaction for unity power factor is distortional. these two effects nearly offset each other leaving the average field strength constant. ..) – Unity Power Factor • The armature flux is cross magnetizing. • The result is that the flux at the leading tips of the poles is reduced while it is increased at the trailing tips. However.

Alternator On Load .

. with the result that due to the weakening of the main flux. the main flux is decreased.. . Hence.Alternator On Load Armature Reaction (cont. • To keep the value of the generated emf the same. field excitation will have to be increased to compensate for this weakening.) – Zero Power factor Lagging • The armature flux whose wave has moved backward by 900 is in direct opposition to the main flux. • The armature reaction in this case is wholly demagnetizing. less emf is generated.

Alternator On Load .

Alternator On Load Armature Reaction (cont.) – Zero Power factor Leading • Armature flux wave has moved forward by 900 so that it is in phase with the main flux wave.. . which results in greater emf. • In this case. armature reaction is wholly magnetising. • To keep the value of generated emf the same.. This results in added main flux. field excitation will have to be reduced somewhat.

Alternator On Load .

) – Intermediate Power Factor • For lagging power factor.. . • For leading power factor. the effect is partly distortional and partly demagnetizing. the effect is partly distortional and partly magnetizing..Alternator On Load Armature Reaction (cont.

IXL – Drop due armature reaction . IRa – Drop due to leakage reactance.Synchronous Reactance • From the above discussion. terminal voltage is decreased or increased from its no-load value Eg to V. This is because of: – Drop due to armature resistance. it is clear that for the same field excitation.

. • The leakage reactance XL and the armature reactance may be combined to give synchronous reactance XS. The value of Xar is such that I Xar represents the voltage drop due to armature reaction.Synchronous Reactance • The drop in voltage due to armature reaction may be accounted for by assuming the presence of a fictitious reactance Xar in the armature winding.

the total voltage drop in an alternator under load is: Vdrop = IR a + jIX S = I (Ra + jX S ) = IZ S where : Z S is called the synchronous impedance .Synchronous Reactance X S = X L + X ar • Therefore.

Vector Diagrams of Loaded Alternator .

Calculate the line value of emf generated.Vector Diagrams of Loaded Alternator Example: A 3-phase.85 pf lagging at 11 kV.66 ohm. . Its resistance is 0.1 ohm per phase and synchronous reactance of 0. star-connected alternator supplies a load of 10 MW at 0.

f .line) . lagging 11 kV (line .85 p.Vector Diagrams of Loaded Alternator Solution: 10 MW 0.

71540 kV .3509 ∠00 kV 3 10 MW ∠ − 31.487∠ − 31.6255∠2. EGLL = ( ) kV ( 3 )(6.6255kV ) = 11.487∠ − 31.85 IL = IA = = 3VL*LL 3 11∠00 kV ( )( ) = 617.7880 S* 0.4757 kV .1 + j 0.3509∠00 = 6.Vector Diagrams of Loaded Alternator VLφ = 11 ∠00 = 6.7880 A (0. EGφ = 617.7880 A.66Ω ) + 6.

788 0 + 407.7487 V (6.4757 kV .7487 sin 31.3509 kV + 61.7487 cos 31.6255kV ) = 11.66 ) = 407.5414 sin 58.5414 cos 58.6255 kV ( 3 )(6.487 )(0.Vector Diagrams of Loaded Alternator Alternative Solution: I L X S = (617.212 ) 2 ) 2 = 6.1) = 61.788 + 407.212 0 + (− 61.487 )(0.5414 V EGφ = EGLL = I L RA = (617.

The magnitude of this change depends not only on the load but also on the load power factor.Voltage Regulation • It is clear that with change in load.” . there is a change in terminal voltage of an alternator. • The voltage regulation of an alternator is defined as “the rise in voltage when full-load is removed (field excitation and speed remaining the same) divided by the rated terminal voltage.

Voltage Regulation %VR = V L − VFL × 100% VFL Note: • VNL – VFL is the arithmetical differenece and not the vectorial one. . • In the case of leading load pf terminal voltage will fall on removing the full-load. regulation is negative in that case. • The rise in voltage when full-load is thrown off is not the same as the fall in voltage when full-load is applied. Hence.

Determination of Voltage Regulation • In the case of small machines. the regulation may be found by direct loading. – The load is varied until the wattmeter and ammeter (connected for the purpose) indicate the rated values at desired pf. . The procedure is as follows: – The alternator is driven at synchronous speed and the terminal voltage is adjusted to its rated value.

Determination of Voltage Regulation – Then the entire load is thrown off while the speed and excitation are kept constant. – The regulation can be found from: %VR = V L − VFL ×100% VFL . – The open-circuit or no-load voltage is read.

. Hence.Determination of Voltage Regulation • In the case of large machines. other indirect methods are used. • It will be found that all these methods differ chiefly in the way the no-load voltage is found in each case. the cost of finding the regulation by direct loading becomes prohibitive.

– The Ampere-Turn or MMF Method. It is due to Behn Eschenberg. – Zero Power Factor or Potier Method • All these methods require : – Armature Resistance. RA – Open Circuit/No-Load Characteristics – Short-Circuit Characteristics (but zero power factor lagging characteristic for Potier Method .Determination of Voltage Regulation • Indirect Methods – Synchronous Impedance or EMF Method. This method is due to Rothert.

a value 1. the effective value of RA is increased due to “skin effect”. – Generally. However.6 times the dc value is taken. The value of RA so obtained is increased by 60% or so to allow for this effect. under working conditions.Determination of Voltage Regulation • Value of RA – Armature resistance per phase can be measured directly by voltmeter-ammeter method or by using Wheatstone bridge. .

• Short-Circuit (SC) Characteristic – It is obtained by short-circuiting the armature windings through a low resistance ammeter. The excitation is adjusted as to give 1. the speed which is not necessarily synchronous is kept constant. . this is plotted by running the machine on no-load and by noting the values of the induced voltage and field excitation current.Determination of Voltage Regulation • Open-Circuit (OC) Characteristic – As in dc machines. During this test.5 to 2 times the value of the full-load current.

On short circuit. 50 Hz. a field current of 40 A gives the full-load current of 200 A. The emf on open circuits with the same field excitation is 1160 V. Calculate the synchronous impedance and reactance.5 ohm. 1-phase alternator is 0. . 440 kV.Determination of Voltage Regulation Example: The effective resistance of a 2200 V.

8Ω I SC 200 X S = Z − R = 5.5 = 5.78Ω 2 S 2 2 2 .Determination of Voltage Regulation Solution : VOC 1160 ZS = = = 5.8 − 0.

3000-V. 3-phase. 50-Hz. The fieldcurrent of 40 A produces a short-circuit current of 200 A and an open-circuit emf of 1040 V (line value). . star-connected alternator has effective armature resistance of 0. Calculate the generated line emf at rated load and 0.2 ohm.8 pf lagging.Determination of Voltage Regulation Example: A 100-kVA.

00Ω 200 2 2 X Sφ = Z Sφ − Rφ = 32 − 0.196) = 3066.4150 V EGLL = ( 3 )(1770.99Ω 3000 0 EG φ = 19.068 V .2 2 = 2.Determination of Voltage Regulation Solution : Z Sφ = VOCφ I SC 1040 = 3 = 3.196∠1.245∠ − 36.87 0 (0.99) + ∠0 3 = 1770.2 + j 2.

Both these curves are drawn on a common field current base. – SCC is plotted from the given data by the shortcircuit test. – XS is obtained from XS = Z − R 2 S 2 .Synchronous Impedance Method • Following procedural steps are involved in this method: – OCC is plotted from the given data.

Synchronous Impedance Method • Knowing RA and XS. . a vector diagram can drawn for any load and any power factor.

. That is why it is called a pessimistic method. • The value of ZS usually taken is that obtained from full-load in the short-circuit test.Synchronous Impedance Method • This method is not accurate because the value of ZS so found is always more than its value under normal voltage conditions and saturation. Hence. the value of regulation so obtained is always more than that found from an actual test.

Synchronous Impedance Method • Here. 2-pole. the open-circuit voltage is 8kV at the rated speed. Example: The following test results are obtained from a 3-phase. 6000-kVA. with the same field current and rated speed. the shortcircuit current is 800 A. At rated full-load.6kV. the XAR has not been treated separately but along with leakage reactance XL. the resistance drop is 3%. 6. star connected. Find the regulation of the alternator on full-load and at a pf of 0. .8 lagging. 50 Hz turbo-alternator: With a field current of 125 A.

**Synchronous Impedance Method
**

Solution : 8000 Z Sφ = 800 3 = 5.774Ω

6.6kV I L RAφ = (0.03) = 114.315V 3 114.315 RAφ = = 0.218Ω 524.864 X Sφ = 5.774 2 − 0.2182 = 5.770Ω

**Synchronous Impedance Method
**

Solution (cont...) : EGφ = 524.864∠ − 36.8690 (0.218 + j 5.77 ) + = 6184.66∠22.3730 V 6184.66 − 3464.102 %VR = ×100% = 78.536% 3464.102

(

)

6.6kV ∠00 3

**Synchronous Impedance Method
**

Example: A 3-phase 50-Hz star-connected 2000 kVA, 2300 V alternator gives a short-circuit current of 600 A for a certain field excitation. With the same excitation, the open circuit voltage was 900 V. The resistance between a pair of terminals was 0.12 . Find full-load regulation at 0.8 pf leading.

**Synchronous Impedance Method
**

Solution : 900 3 = 0.866Ω Z Sφ = 600 0.12 RAφ = 1.6 = 0.096Ω 2 X Sφ = 0.866 − 0.096 = 0.861Ω

2 2

811 − 1327.7 0 V 1168.811∠18...) : EGφ = 502.096 + j 0.906 %VR = × 100% = −11.3kV ∠00 3 .906 ( ) 2.044∠36.8690 (0.981% 1327.861) + = 1168.Synchronous Impedance Method Solution (cont.

8 leading power factor. Calculate the % regulation for a load of 1280 kW at 0. The armature resistance and synchronous reactance are 1.5 and 30 respectively per phase.Synchronous Impedance Method Example: A 3-phase. star-connected alternator is rated at 1600 kVA. . 13500 kV.

87 (1.99% %VR = 13500 3 IL = 1280kW ( ) ( ) .427∠36.5 + j 30 ) + ∠0 3 = 6859.87 0 = 68.624∠14.87 0 A 3 (13500) 13500 0 0 EGφ = 68.Synchronous Impedance Method Solution : 0.624 − 3 ×100% = −11.3820 V 13500 6859.8 ∠36.427∠36.

50-Hz.1 kV on open circuit.3 kV.25 per phase.8 pf lagging is thrown off. . A field current of 35 A produces a current of 200 A on short-circuit and 1.Synchronous Impedance Method Example: The effective resistance of a 1200-kVA. Y-connected alternator is 0.u change in magnitude of the terminal voltage when the full load of 1200 kVA at 0. 3. Draw the corresponding phasor diagram. 3-phase. Calculate the power angle and p.

87 0 A. 3 (3300 ) ( ) .946∠ − 36.175Ω Z Sφ = 200 X Sφ = 3.1752 − 0.Synchronous Impedance Method Solution : 1100 3 = 3.87 0 = 209.165Ω 1200kVA IL = ∠ − 36.252 = 3.

256 δ = 12.Synchronous Impedance Method Solution (cont.3kV ∠00 3 .259 1905.87 0 (0.0340 ( ) 3.644∠12.256 = 0.644 − 1905.946∠ − 36.034 0 V p..25 + j 3.) : EGφ = 209.165) + = 2398.u = 2398..

Synchronous Impedance Method .

in most cases. it is assumed that the change in terminal voltage on load is due entirely to armature reaction (and due to the ohmic resistance drop which. • Therefore. but is the converse of the Synchronous Impedance (EMF) method in the sense that the armature leakage reactance is treated as an additional armature reaction.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) • This method also utilizes OC and SC data. is negligible). .

use is made of a vector diagram of magneto motive forces. . The theory upon which this method is developed is based on the assumption that for every voltage vector of the alternator diagram there is a corresponding magneto motive force.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) • In the MMF method.

MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) .

– Lay off the armature IARA drop in phase with the current.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) • Calculation procedure for MMF method – Terminal voltage per phase (V) is used as the reference phasor. at the pf angle for which the regulation is desired. Determine the field current If ’ required to produce the voltage E1 using the OC curve. . – It is assumed that on short-circuit all the excitation is opposed by the mmf of armature reaction and armature reactance.

. – The excitation If required to produce terminal voltage at no load is then the vector sum of If ’ and A. It is the field current required to overcome the IAXS drop and it is constructed opposite to the current IA .. EO is obtained from the OC curve.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) • Calculation procedure for MMF method (cont..) – Hence A represents the mmf (or field current) required to produce rated current on short circuit.

.) .MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) • Calculation procedure for MMF method (cont..

5-MVA. V 50 1620 100 3150 150 4160 200 250 300 350 5550 400 5650 450 5750 4750 5130 5370 A field current of 200 A is found necessary to circulate full-load on short-circuit of the alternator. Calculate the full-load regulation at 0.8 pf lagging. . A EMF. Y-connected alternator rated at 4160 V at 50-Hz has the OC characteristic given by the following data: Field Current.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Example: A 3.

.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution: • Neglect RA • It is seen from the given data that for normal voltage of 4160 V. the field current needed is 150 A. • The field current necessary to circulate FL current is 200 A.

.): ..MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont.

87 ) = 313...85 A.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont. The generated emf EO corresponding to this excitation as found from OCC if drawn is 5440 V.8 = 36. .): θ = cos − 0.870 If = (200) + (150) 2 2 − 2(200 )(150 )cos(90 + 36.

.): 5440 − 4160 %VR = × 100% 4160 = 30.78% .MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont..

2000 V. Estimate the full-load %VR at 0. 50-Hz.2 ohm per phase. synchronous generator are: Field Current. A OC terminal V SC current A 10 800 ____ 20 1500 200 25 1760 250 30 40 50 2000 2350 2600 300 ____ ____ The armature effective resistance is 0. .MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Example: The open-circuit and short-circuit test readings for a 3-phase.8 pf leading. star-connected. 1000-kVA.

MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution: The OCC and SCC curves are plotted: .

7 + 288.7 A 3 (2000 ) Full ..7 × 0.load current = = 288.7 × 0.): 2000 = 1154.4V .70V 3 1000kVA Full .2 × 0.6) 2 2 = 1201..8) + (288.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont.load phase voltage = ( ) E= (1154.2 × 0.

.): • From OCC curve.. • From SCC curve.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont. the field excitation necessary to produce full-load current is 29 A. the field excitation necessary to produce E is 32 A. .

. The generated emf EO corresponding to this excitation as found from OCC if drawn is 1080 V per phase or 1870..19 A.78) = 28.): φ = 54.780 If = (32) + (29) 2 2 − 2(32 )(29)cos(54.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont.61 V line-to-line. .

.61 − 2000 %VR = × 100% 2000 = −6.MMF or Ampere-Turns Method (Rothert’s Method) Solution (cont.47% .): 1870..

it gives more accurate results. • The experimental data required is: – No-load curve – Full-load zero pf curve (not the SCC) also called wattless load characteristic. It is the curve of terminal voltage against excitation when armature is delivering FL current at zero pf. Hence. .Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) • This method is based on the separation of armature-leakage reactance drop and the armature reaction effects.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) • The zero pf curve can be obtained: – If a similar machine is available which may be driven at no-load as a synchronous motor at practically zero pf – By loading the alternator with pure reactors – By connecting the alternator to a 3-phase line with ammeters and wattmeters and so adjusting the field current that we get full-load current with zero wattmeter reading. .

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) .

we get voltage E. Let this be If1. – We will next find from OC curve. – We will be given or else we calculate armature leakage reactance XL and hence can calculate IXL. . field excitation for voltage E.the terminal voltage per phase.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) • Procedural Steps for Potier Method – Suppose we are given V. – Adding IXL (and IRA if given) vectorially to V.

Hence.. . – Combine If1 and If2 vectorially to get If.) – Further.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) • Procedural Steps for Potier Method (cont. This gives us EO.. field current If2 necessary for balancing armature reaction is found from Potier triangle. regulation can be found. – Read from OC curve the emf corresponding to If.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Example: A 3-phase . . the field current is 42. A Terminal volts.5 A and terminal voltage is 6000 V. Determine the field current required when the machine is supplying the full-load at 0. V 14 4000 18 5000 23 6000 30 43 7000 8000 With armature short-circuited and FL current flowing the field current is 17 A and when the machine is supplying FL of 2000kVA at zero pf. 6000-V alternator has the following OCC at normal speed: Field Current.8 pf lagging.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution: .

E = 3464. it is found that the field amperes required for this voltage = 26.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution (cont. Field amperes required for balancing armature reaction = BE = 14... line DE represents the leakage reactance drop (IXL) and is (by measurement) equal to 450 V.87 0 = 3751.41 V.5 A.102 + 4502 − 2(450)(3464. From OCC curve.10 )cos126.): In the Potier Triangle BDH.5 A (by measurement from Potier triangle BDH) .

): φ = 132.5)(14.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution (cont.5) 2 2 − 2(26.5)cos(132.5) + (14.82 A..380 If = (26.38) = 37. ..

V 4000 5000 7000 1000 2850 3400 3850 4400 There are 200 conductors in series per phase. 8-pole.8 pf lagging having given that the inductive voltage drop at full load is 7% and that the equivalent armature reaction in amp-turns per pole = 1. 3300-V. Find the full-load voltage regulation at 0. . 3-phase alternator has the following characteristics: AmpTurns per pole Terminal volts.06 X ampere-conductors per phase per pole.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Example: A 600-kVA .

OC terminal voltages are first converted into phase voltages and plotted against field amp-turns.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution: . .

07 )(1905.97 A 3 × 3300 Demagnetizing Amp .4 V (1.26) = 133.06 )(104.load at zero pf 8 3300 ormal phase voltage = = 1905.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) 600kVA Full .97 )(200) = 2781.26 V 3 Leakage reactance drop = (0.71 AT = .turns per pole per phase for full .load current = = 104.

26)cos126.17 V corresponds to 5100 AT.26 + 133.4 − 2(133. we find that 1988.17 V.4)(1905. .87 2 2 0 = 1988.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) E = 1905. From OCC curve.

950 mmfO = (5100) + (2781.67% . 2242 − 1905. it is found that this corresponds to an OC voltage of 2242 V per phase.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) φ = 129.95) = 7208. From OCC curve.82 AT.71) 2 2 − 2(5100 )(2781.26 %VR = × 100% 1905.26 = 17.71)cos(129.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Example: The following figures give the open-circuit and full-load zero pf saturation curves for a 15000 kVA.8 pf lagging.2 13. kV Zero pf fullload line kV 10 18 24 30 40 45 50 4.4 0 10. Deduce the regulation for full-load at 0.5 ____ 12. 50-Hz star-connected turbo-alternator: Field Ampturns in 103 OC terminal. . 11000 V.9 ____ 8.1 ____ 11.3 10.65 ____ Find the armature reaction. the armature reactance and the synchronous reactance.8 ____ 13. 3-phase.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution: . i.First OCC is drawn between phase voltages and field ampere-turns. 5890). Other points on this curve by transferring the Potier triangle. ..0) and C(45.Full-load zero pf curve can be drawn because two points are known. . A(18.e.

Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) .

.. – Field ampere-turns required for balancing armature reaction = CF = 15700 AT (by measurement from Potier triangle CDE). line EF = GH represents the leakage reactance drop (IXL) and is (by measurement) equal to 640 V. – Short-circuit ampere-turns required = OA = 18000 AT.): – In the Potier Triangle CDE. .Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) Solution (cont.

3 (11000) 640 XL = = 0.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method) 15000kVA Full .3 As RA is negligible X Sφ ≅ Z Sφ .813 Ω 787.3 8400 3 = 6. ( ) .16 Ω Z Sφ = 787.load current = = 787.3 A.

87 2 2 0 = 6754. From OCC curve.28 V corresponds to 30800 AT.85 + 640 − 2(640)(6350.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method E = 6350. .28 V. we find that 6754.85)cos126.

22 ) = 42806.72% .85 = 18. 7540 − 6350.85 %VR = × 100% 6350. it is found that this corresponds to an OC voltage of 7540 V per phase.Zero Power Factor Method (Potier Method φ = 131.220 mmfO = (30800) + (15700) 2 2 − 2(15700 )(30800)cos(131. From OCC curve.73 AT.

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