This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
https://www.scribd.com/doc/49836661/flatslab113
11/11/2012
text
original
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FLAT SLABS USING
VARIOUS CODES
BY
M.ANITHA
B.Q.RAHMAN
JJ .VIJAY
Under the guidance of
Dr. Pradeep kumar Ramancharala
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
HYDERABAD
(Deemed University)
April 2007
2
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled “ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FLAT SLABS USING
VARIOUS CODES” submitted as partial fulfillment for the award of Masters of Technology
in Computer Aided Structural Engineering, IIITHyderabad is a bonafied work done by
M.Anitha, B.Q.Rahman, JJ.VIJAY
First year second semester students during the year 20062007.
Supervisor
Mr. Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar
PhD (University of Tokyo)
Assistant Professor
IIIT Hyderabad
3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We sincerely acknowledge and express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ramancharla
Pradeep Kumar (Assistant Professor) the guide of this project. As a guide he gave a
maximum help and coordination in finishi ng the project work. With his past years of
experience and teaching steered me to come out with success through the most difficult
problems faced by me. We would like to place on record our deep sense of gratitude to our
guides for their cooperation and unfailing courtesy to me at every stage.
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 05
Chapter I: Introduction…………………………………………………………... 06
Chapter II: Design of flat slabs by IS: 456 ……………………………... 07
Chapter III: Design of flat slabs as per NZS: 3101 ….………………………. 21
Chapter IV: Design of flat slabs as per EURO CODE….…………………... 30
Chapter V: Design of flat slabs using ACI318……………………………. 40
Chapter VI: Results………………………………………………………... 51
Chapter VII: conclusion …………………………………………………………… 52
Chapter VII: References………………………………………………………… 53
5
ABSTRACT
Flat slabs system of construction is one in which the beams used in t he conventional methods of
constructions are done away with. The slab directly rests on the column and load from the slab is directly
transferred to the columns and then to the foundation. To support heavy loads the thickness of slab near the
support with the column is increased and these are called drops, or columns are generally provided with
enlarged heads called column heads or capitals.
Absence of beam gives a plain ceiling, thus giving better architectural appearance and also less
vulnerability in case of fire than in usual cases where beams are used.
Plain ceiling diffuses light better, easier to construct and requires cheaper form work.
As per local conditions and availability of materials different countries have adopted different me thods for
design of flat slabs and given their guidelines in their respective codes.
The aim of this project is to try and illustrate the methods used for flat slab design using ACI318, NZ
3101, and Eurocode2 and IS: 456 design codes.
For carrying out this project an interior panel of a flat slab with dimensions 6.6 x 5.6 m and super imposed
load 7.75
2
/ KN m was designed using the codes given above.
6
Introduction
Basic definition of flat slab: In general normal frame construction utilizes columns, slabs &
Beams. However it may be possible to undertake construction with out providing beams, in
Such a case the frame system would consist of slab and column without beams. These types of
Slabs are called flat slab, since their behavior resembles the bending of flat plates.
Components of flat slabs:
Drops: To resist the punching shear which is predominant at the contact of slab and column
Support, the drop dimension should not be less than one third of panel length in t hat
Direction.
Column heads:
Certain amount of negative moment is transferred from the slab to the column at he support.
To resist this negative moment the area at the support needs to be increased .this is facilitated
by providing column capital/heads
Flat slab with drop panel & column head
7
Design of flat slabs by IS: 456
The term flat slab means a reinforced concrete slab with or without drops, supported generally without
beams, by columns with or without flared column heads (see Fig. 12). A flat slab may be solid slab or
may have recesses formed on the soffit so that the sof fit comprises a series of ribs in two directions.
The recesses may be formed by removable or permanent filler blocks.
Components of flat slab design:
a) Column strip :
Column strip means a design strip having a width of 0.25 I,, but not greater than 0.25 1, on each side
of the column centreline, where I, is the span in the direction moments are being determined,
measured centre to centre of supports and 1, is the span transverse to 1,, measured centre to centre of
supports.
b) Middle strip :
Middle strip means a design strip bounded on each of its opposite sides by the column strip.
c) Panel:
Panel means that part of a slab bounde d oneach of its four sides by the centre line of a
Column or centrelines of adjacentspans.
Division into column and middle strip along:
Longer span Shorter span
1
L =6.6 m ,
2
L =5.6 m
( i ) column strip
= 0.25
2
L = 1.4 m
But not greater than 0.25
1
L = 1.65 m
(ii) Middle strip
= 5.6 – (1.4+1.4) = 2.8 m
1
L =5.6 m ,
2
L =6.6 m
( i ) column strip
= 0.25
2
L = 1.65 m
But not greater than 0.25
1
L = 1.4 m
(ii) Middle strip
= 6.6 – (1.4+1.4) = 3.8 m
8
d) Drops :
The drops when provided shall be rectangular in plan, and have a length in each direction not less than
one third of the panel length in that direction. For exterior panels, the width of drops at right angles to
the non continuous edge and measured from the centre line of the columns shall be equal to one half
the width of drop for interior panels.
Since the span is large it is desirable to provide drop.
Drop dimensions along:
Longer span Shorter span
1
L =6.6 m ,
2
L =5.6 m
Not less than
1
L /3 = 2.2 m
1
L =5.6 m ,
2
L =6.6 m
Not less than
1
L /3 = 1.866 m
Hence provide a drop of size 2.2 x 2.2 m i.e. in column strip width.
e) column head :
Where column heads are provided, that portion of a column head which lies with in the largest right
circular cone or pyramid that has a vertex angle of 90”and can be included entirely within the outlines
of the column and the column head, shall be considered for design purposes (see Fig. 2).
5.6 m
3.8 m
M.S
1.4 m
C.S
1.4 m
C.S
6.6 m
2.8 m
M.S
1.4 m
C.S
1.4 m
C.S
Fig 1:
9
Fig 2:
Column head dimension along:
Longer span Shorter span
1
L =6.6 m ,
2
L =5.6 m
Not greater than
1
L /4 = 1.65 m
1
L =5.6 m ,
2
L =6.6 m
Not greater than
1
L /4 = 1.4 m
Adopting the diameter of column head = 1.30 m =1300 mm
f) Depth of flat slab:
The thickness of the flat slab up to spans of 10 m shall be generally controlled by considerations of span
( L ) to effective depth ( d ) ratios given as below:
Cantilever 7; simply supported 20; Continuous 26
For slabs with drops, span to effective depth ratios gi ven above shall be applied directly; otherwise the
span to effective depth ratios in accordance with above shall be multiplied by 0.9. For this purpose, the
longer span of the panel shall be considered. The minimum thickness of slab shall be 125 mm.
10
Depth of flat slab:
Considering the flat slab as a continuous slab over a span not exceeding 10 m
L
d
= 26 ¬
26
L
d =
Depth considering along:
Longer span Shorter span
1
L =6.6 m ,
2
L =5.6 m
6600
26 26
L
d = = =253.8 mm
Say 260 mm
1
L =5.6 m ,
2
L =6.6 m
5600
26 26
L
d = = =215.3 mm
Say 220 mm
Taking effective depth of 25mm
Overall depth D = 260 +25 = 285 mm > 125 mm (minimum slab thickness as per IS: 456)
It is safe to provide depth of 285 mm.
g) Estimation of load acting on the slab:
Dead load acting on the slab = 0.285 x 25 = 6.25
2
/ KN m =
1 d
w
Floor finishes etc. load on slab = 1.45
2
/ KN m =
2 d
w
Live load on slab = 7.75
2
/ KN m =
l
w
Total dead load =
1 d
w
+
2 d
w
=7.7
2
/ KN m =
d
w
11
The design live load shall not exceed three times the design dead load.
Check:
7 . 7 5
1 . 0 0 6 3
7 . 7
l
d
w
o k
w
= = ·
Total design load =
2
15.45 KN/m
d l
w w ÷ =
h) Total Design Moment for a Span
The absolute sum of the positive and average and is given by negative bending moments in each
direction shall be taken as:
0
8
n
W l
M =
0
M = total moment.
W = design load on an area
1 2
l l
n
l
= clear span extending from face to face of columns, capitals, brackets or walls, but not less than
0.65
1
l
1
l
= length of span in the direction of
0
M .
2
l
= length of span transverse to
1
l
.
Circular supports shall be treated as square supports havi ng the same area.
Equivalent side of the column head having the same area:
2 2
(1.3) 1.152
4 4
a d m
= = =
Clear span along long span =
n
l
=
1 1
6.6 (1.152) (1.152) 5.448 4.29
2 2
m ÷ ÷ = >
(Should not be less than 0.65
1
l )
ok
Clear span along long span =
n
l
=
1 1
5.6 (1.152) (1.152) 4.44 3.64
2 2
m m ÷ ÷ = >
(Should not be less than 0.65
1
l )
ok
12
Total design load along:
Longer span Shorter span
n
l =5.448 m ,
2
l =5.6 m
2 n
W w l l =
15.45 5.6 5.448 471.36 W KN = · · =
n
l =4.44 m ,
2
l =6.6 m
2 n
W w l l =
1 5 . 4 5 6 . 6 4 . 4 4 4 5 2 . 7 4 W K N = · · =
The absolute sum of –ve and +ve moment in a panel along:
Longer span Shorter span
n
l =5.448 m ,
2
l =5.6 m
0
4 7 1 . 3 6 5 . 4 4 8
8 8
n
W l
M
·
= =
0
3 2 0 . 9 9 M K N m =
n
l =4.44 m ,
2
l =6.6 m
0
4 5 2 . 7 4 4 . 4 4
8 8
n
W l
M
·
= =
0
2 5 1 . 2 M K N m =
(i) Negative and Positive Design Moments :
The negative design moment shall be at the fac e of rectangular supports, circular supports being
treated as square supports having the same 31.4.5.1 Columns built integrally with the slab system
area. Shall be designed toresist moments arising from loads .
In an interior span, the total design moment
0
M shall be distributed in the following proportions:
Negative design moment 0.65
Positive design moment 0.35
In an end span, the total design moment
0
M shall be distributed in the fol lowing proportions:
Interior negative design moment:
1
0.10
0.75
1
c
÷
÷
Positive design moment:
1
0.28
0.63
1
c
÷
÷
13
Exterior negative design moment:
1
0.65
1
c
÷
c
Is the ratio of flexural stiffness of the exterior columns to the flexural stiffness of the slab at a
joint taken in the direction moments are being determined and is given by:
c
c
s
K
K
X
=
c
K =sum of the flexural stiffness of the columns meeting at the joint.
s
K =flexural stiffness of the slab, expres sed as moment per unit rotation
It shall be permissible to modify these design moments by up to 10 percent, so lon g as the total
design moment
0
M for the panel in the direction considered is not less than that required by:
0
8
n
W l
M =
The negative moment section shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior negative
design moments determined for the spans framing into a common support unless an analysis is
made to distribute the unbalanced moment in accordance with the stiffness of the adjoining parts.
Column strip :
Negative moment at an interior support: At an interior support, the column strip shall be
designed to resist 75 percent of the total negative moment in the panel at that support.
Negative moment at an exterior support:
a) At an exterior support, the column strip shall be designed to resist the t otal negative moment in
the panel at that support.
b) Where the exterior support consists of a column or a wall extending for a distance equal to or
greater than threequarters of the value of
2
l
. The length of span transverse t o the direction
moments are being determined, the exterior negative moment shall be considered to be uniformly
distributed across the length
2
l
.
Positive moment for each span: For each span, the column strip shall be designed to r esist 60
percent of the total positive moment in the panel.
Moments in the middle strip:
a) That portion ofthe design moment not resisted by the column strip shall be assigned to the
adjacent middle strips.
14
b) Each middle strip shall be proportione d to resist the sum of the moments assigned to its two half
middle strips. cl The middle strip adjacent and parallel to an edge supported by a wall shall be
proportioned, to resist twice the moment assigned to half the middle strip corresponding to the fir st
row of interior columns.
Stiffness calculation:
let the height of the floor = 4.0 m
clear height of the column = height of floor –depth of drop – thickness of slab –thickness of head.
= 4000 – 140 – 285 – 300 = 3275 mm
Effective height of column = 0.8 x 3275 = 2620 mm
(Assuming one end hinged and other end fixed)
stiffness coefficient
sum of flexural stiffness of column acti ng at the joint
flexural stiffness of the slab
c
c
s
K
K
X
= =
Longer span
·
3
4
2 4 520 10
4 4 4 4 50
2 2
12 327.5
c
BOTTOM TOP
E
EI EI EI E
K
L L L L
· · ·

   
= ÷ = · = · · =
    
' ¹ ' ¹ ' ¹ ' ¹
' ¹
·
3
4 660 28.5
2 4 1587.73
1.39
12 560 4 2273.5
c
S C
s
E
K E
K
K E
· ·
X · ·
= = = =
· ·
From table 17 of IS: 4562000
2 L
1 D
, m i n
, m i n
W
0 . 8 4 8 & 1 . 0 0
W
0 . 7
c
c c
L
L
= =
=
>
Hence correction for pattern of loading in the direction of longer span is not required.
15
Shorter span
4
2 (50)
3975.8
12 262
c
K
·
= =
·
3
560 28.5
1421.4
12 760
3975.8
2.79
1421.4
c
c
K
·
= =
·
= =
From table 17 of IS: 4562000 for
2 L
1 D
, m i n
, m i n
W
1 . 1 7 & 1 . 0 0
W
0 . 7 5
o k
c
c c
L
L
= =
·
>
Hence the correction for pattern loading in the direction of short span is not required.
From table 17 of IS 4562000
Imposed load/dead load
Ratio
2
1
l
l
Value of
,min c
(1) (2) (3)
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
0.5 to 2.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.25
2.0
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.25
2.0
0.5
0:8
1.0
1.25
2.0
0
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.9
4.9
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.8
13.0
16
Distrubution of bending moment across the panel width
It is an exterior panel.
Longer span
column strip
ve B.M at exterior support = 0
0 . 6 5 0 . 6 5 3 2 0 . 9 9
1 . 0 1 . 0 1 2 1 . 3 4 K N m
1 1
1 1
1 . 3 9
c
M



 ÷ ÷ ·
 · = · = ÷


 ÷ ÷



+ve span BM =
0
0 . 2 8 0 . 2 8
0 . 6 3 0 . 6 0 0 . 6 3 3 2 0 . 9 9 0 . 6 0 9 0
1 1
1 1
1 . 3 9
c
M K N m




 ÷ · · = ÷ · · =


 ÷ ÷



ve span BM at interior support =
0
0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0
0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 3 2 0 . 9 9 0 . 7 5 1 6 6 . 5 0 K N m
1 1
1 1
c c
M
 
 
  ÷ ÷ · · = ÷ ÷ · · = ÷
 
÷ ÷
 
 
Middle strip
ve BM at exterior support = 0
0 . 6 5
0 . 0 0 . 0 K N m
1
1
c
M


÷
 · =

÷


+ve span BM =
0
0 . 2 8 0 . 2 8
0 . 6 3 0 . 4 0 0 . 6 3 3 2 0 . 9 9 0 . 4 0 5 9 . 9 6
1 1
1 1
1 . 3 9
c
M K N m




 ÷ · · = ÷ · · =


 ÷ ÷



ve BM at interior support =
0
0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0
0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 3 2 0 . 9 9 0 . 2 5 5 5 . 5 0 K N m
1 1
1 1
1 . 3 9
c
M




 ÷ ÷ · · = ÷ ÷ · · = ÷


 ÷ ÷



17
Short span
column strip
ve moment at exterior support = 0
0 . 6 5 0 . 6 5 2 5 1 . 2
1 . 0 1 . 0 1 2 0 . 1 9 K N m
1 1
1 1
2 . 7 9
c
M



 ÷ ÷ ·
 · = · = ÷


 ÷ ÷



+ve moment
0.28
0.63 251.2 0.60 63.88
1
1
2.79
KNm


¬ ÷ · · =

 ÷

ve moment at exterior support =
0
0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0
0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 2 5 1 . 2 0 . 7 5 1 2 7 . 4 3 K N m
1 1
1 1
2 . 7 9
c
M




 ÷ ÷ · · = ÷ ÷ · · = ÷


 ÷ ÷



Middle strip
ve moment at exterior support = 0
0 . 6 5
0 . 0 0 . 0 K N m
1
1
c
M


÷
 · =

÷


+ve midspan moment =
0
0 . 2 8 0 . 2 8
0 . 6 3 0 . 4 0 0 . 6 3 2 5 1 . 2 0 . 4 0 4 2 . 5 9
1 1
1 1
2 . 7 9
c
M K N m




 ÷ · · = ÷ · · =


 ÷ ÷



ve moment at interior span =
0
0 . 1 0 0 . 1 0
0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 5 2 5 1 . 2 0 . 2 5 4 2 . 4 4 K N m
1 1
1 1
2 . 7 9
c
M




 ÷ ÷ · · = ÷ ÷ · · = ÷


 ÷ ÷



j) Effective depth of the slab
Thickness of the slab, from consideration of maximum positive moment any where in the slab.
Maximum +ve BM occurs in the column strip (long span) = 90.91 KNm
factored moment = 1.50 x 90.91 = 136.36 KNm
18
2
0
6
0.138 ( 2800 mm)
136.36 10
d= (M20 grade concrete)
0.138 20 2800
d=132.83 mm 140 mm
ck
M f bd b = =
·
· ·
~
Using 12 mm
(diameter) main bars.
Overall thickness of slab =
12
140 15 161 mm 170 mm
2
÷ ÷ =
Depth (along longitudinal direction) =
12
170 15 150 mm
2
÷ ÷ =
Depth (along longitudinal direction) = 150 12 138 mm ÷ =
k) Thickness of drop from maximum –ve moment consideration
Thickness of drop from consideration of maximum –ve moment any where in the panel.
Max –ve BM occurs in the column strip = 166.6 KNm
2
6 2
0.138
1.5 166.6 10 0.138 20 1400
254.3 mm
u ck
M f bd
d
d
=
· · = · · ·
=
Say 260 mm. Use 12 mm bars
Over all thickness of flat slab:
12
260 15 281 mm
2
D = ÷ ÷ =
1300 mm
300 mm
300
mm
0
45
5.6 m
6.6 m
2340 mm
2200 mm
d/2
d/2
1.3 m
d/2
d/2
19
l) Shear in Flat Slab
The critical section for shear shall be at a distance d/2 from the periphery of the
column/capital/ drop panel, perpendicular to the plane of the slab where d is the effective
depth of the section (Fig. 2). The shape in plan is geometrically similar to the support
immediately below the slab.
check for shear stress developed in slab
The critical section for shear for the slab will be at a distance d/2 from the face of drop.
Perimeter of critical section = 4 x 2340 = 9340 mm
Total factored shear force:
0 1 2
1.5 15.45 [ (2.34)(2.34)]
= 1.5 15.45 [6.6 5.6(5.47)]
= 729.78 KN
V L L = · · · ÷
· · ·
Nominal shear stress =
3
2
729.78 10
0.55 N/mm
9340 140
u
v
V
bd
·
= = =
·
shear strength of concrete =
2
0.25 =0.25 20=1.11 N/mm
c ck
f =
Permissible shear stress =
v s c
k >
/
2
v
(0.5 ), 0.848
(0.5 0.848)
1.348 1 1
1 1.11
1.11 N/mm
safe design ok
if 1.5 then the slab should be redesign ed
s c c
s
s
v c
c
k
k
k
= ÷ =
= ÷
= ·/
= ·
=
·
>
m) check for shear in drop
0 0
2
( ) (1.3 0.26) 4.89 m
V=1.5 15.45[5.6 6.6 (1.3 0.26) ]
4
V 812.27 KN
b D d
= ÷ = ÷ =
· · ÷
=
Nominal shear stress :
3
2
2
812.27 10
0.683 N/mm
4890 260
0.25 1.11 N/mm
[safe in shear]
v
c ck
v c
f
·
= =
·
= =
·
20
n) Reinforcement details
Longer span
ve exterior reinforcement:
6
2
0.87 [ 0.42 ]
1.5 121.34 10 0.87 415 [150 0.42 0.48 150]
4209 mm
u y st u
st
st
M f A d x
A
A
= ÷
· · = · · ÷ · ·
=
Use 12 mm bars =
4209
38 No.s
113
=
1.4 1000
c/c spacing is = 36 mm c/c
38
·
=
+ve steel:
6
2
1.5 90 10 43239.3
3122 mm
3122
Use 12 mm bars = 28 .
113
3.8 1000
/ spacing = 135 mm c/c
28
st
st
A
A
No s
c c
· · = ·
=
=
·
=
Reinforcement along shorter span:
Column strip:
6
2
0.87 [ 0.42 ]
1.5 127.5 10 0.87 415 [140 0.42 0.48 140]
3768.9 mm
u y st u
st
st
M f A d x
A
A
= ÷
· · = · · ÷ · ·
=
Use 12 mm bars =
2
3768.9
33 No.s
(12)
4
=
1.4 1000
c/c spacing is = 42 mm c/c
33
·
=
Middle strip:
6
2
0.87 [ 0.42 ]
1.5 63.88 10 0.87 415 [281 0.42 0.48 281]
1182 mm
u y st u
st
st
M f A d x
A
A
= ÷
· · = · · ÷ · ·
=
Use 12 mm bars =
2
1182
10 No.s
(12)
4
=
2.8 1000
c/c spacing is = 280 mm c/c
10
·
=
21
Design of flat slabs as per NZS: 3101
DEFINITIONS:
 A flat slab is reinforced concrete slab directly supporting on column (without any
support of beams).
 Flat slabs is divided into column strips & middle strips.
Column strips is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centre line
equal to 0.25L1 or 0.25L2,whichever is less.
A middle strip is a design strip bounded by 2 column strips.
A panel is bounded by column, beams, or wall centre lines on all sides .
DESIGN METHOD:
 There must a minimum 3 continuous spans in each directions.
 Panels shall be rectangular with a ratio of longer to shorter spans ,centre to
centre of supports ,not greater than 2.
 Successive span lengths, centretocentre of supports, in each direction shall not
differ by more than 1/3 of the longer spans.
 Columns may be offsets a maximum of 10% of the span (in direction o offset)
from either axis between centre lines of successive columns.
 All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed over entire
panels. the live loads shall not exceeds 2 times the dead load.
DESIGN PROCEDURE:
 First analysis the column strips & middle strips using 0.25L1/0.25l2.
 Drop panel is used to reduce the amount of negative moment reinforcement
over the column of the flat slab, the size of drop panel shall be 1/6 of the span
length measured from centre–tocentre of support in that direction.
22
 Estimate the depth of flat slabs from clauses 14.2.5 & 3.3.2.2.(b)
Assume fy=300MPA.
Fy(MPA) Exteriors panels Interior panels
300 Ln/36 Ln/40
400 Ln/32 Ln/35
 The absolute sum for the span shall be determined in a strip bounded laterally by
the center line of the panel on each side of centre of the supports.
 The absolute sum of positive and average negative moments in each direction at
the ultimate limit state shall be not less than:
Mo=WuL2Ln²/8;
Negative & positive design moments:
In an interior spans
Negative moments—0.65
Positive moments0.35
In end spans
Exterior edge
unrestrained
Slab with
beams
between all
supports
Slabs without beams between
interior supports
Exterior edge
fully restrained
Without edge
beams
With edge
beams
Interior –
ve
moments
0.75 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.65
Positive
moments
0.63 0.57 0.52 0.50 0.35
Exterior –
ve
moments
0 0.16 0.26 0.30 0.65
23
SHEAR STRENGTH
Design of cross section of member subjected to shear shall be based on
v´<=¢Vn.
Where v´=shear force at that section .
Vn=nominal shear strength of the section.
¢ =strength reduction factor.
The nominal shear stress Vn shall not exceed 0.2fc,1.1 √fc or 9MPA.
Spacing limits for shear reinforcements shall be:
0.5d in nonprestressed member
0.75 h in prestressed member
600mm.
Design of slab for two way action shall be based on
Vn=Vn/bod
Where vn shall not be greater than Vc
Vc=0.17(1+2β c)√fc
β c=shorter side/long side of the concentrated load
 Design the interior panel of flat slabs 6.6 x 5.6 m in size for a super imposed l oad of
7.75 KN/m^2.provide two way reinforcement.
24
Design steps:
LONGER SPAN SHORTER SPAN
L1=6.6m, L2=5.6m
 Column strip
0.25L2=1.4 m
≤0.25L1=1.65m
 Middle strip
5.6(1.4+1.4)=2.8m
L2=6.6m, L1=5.6m
 Column strip
0.25L1=1.4 m
Adopt 1.4m
 Middle strip
6.6(1.4+1.4)=3.8m
Drop dimensions :
Longer span Shorter span
Shall not be less than L/3=6.6/3
2.2M
Shall not be less than L/3=5.6/3
1.86M
Hence provide a drop size of 2.2x2.2m
Estimate the depth of flat slabs: 
From clauses 14.2.5 & 3.3.2.2(b)
Fy(MPA) Exteriors panels Interior panels
300 Ln/36 Ln/40
400 Ln/32 Ln/35
25
Lets adopt fy=300Mpa
d=6600/36=183.3mm for exterior
d=6600/40=165mm
taking effective depth 25mm
overall depth D=185+25=210mm
load calculations:
nominal density of concrete (ρ =2400kg/m^3): clauses 3.3.2.3
(Wd) dead load on slab 0.210*24=5.04kN/M^2
(WL)live load on slab =7.75kN/M^2
12.79KN/M^2
Check Wl / Wd<2
7.75/5.04=1.53<2 O.K
Total static moments for the spans: 
Mo=Wu l2Ln^2/8
Longer span
Mo=389.99KNM
Shorter span
Mo=330KNM
26
Distribution of bending moments across the panel width: 
Interior span
ve moment=0.65
+ve moment=0.35
Column strip
ve B.M at exterior span=0.75xMo
=271.4 KNM
+ve B.M at interior span=0.63xMo
=245.64 KNM
ve B.M at interior span=0.65xMo
=253.4 KNM
1.0 0.65 271.4kNm 253.4KNm
+0.63 245.3kNm
Middle strip
ve B.M at exterior support =0KNM
+ve span BM =0.63*Mo=245.64KNM
ve span BM at interior support
=0.75xMo=292.40KNM
Column strip
ve B.M at exterior support =0.70xMo KNM
=231KNM
+ve span BM interior support =0.52*Mo=171.6KNM
ve span BM at exterior support
=0.26xMo=85.8KNM
27
Middle strip
ve B.M at exterior support =0.65xMoKNM
=214.5 KN_M
+ve span BM mid span =0.35*Mo=115KNM
ve span BM at interior support
=0.70xMo=231KNM
Moments in column strips: 
Interior negative moments
L2/L1 0.5 1.0 2.0
(α L2/L1)=0
(α L2/L1)>0
75 75 75
90 75 45
Positive moments
L2/L1 0.5 1.0 2.0
(α L2/L1)=0
(α L2/L1)>0
75 75 75
90 75 45
Longer span:
Column strip:
ve BM at exterior span=292.14KNM
+ve BM at mid span =147.37KNM
ve BM at inerior span =189.8KNM
Middle strip:
ve BM at exterior span=0 KNM
+ve BM at mid span =147.37KNM
ve BM at inerior span =219KNM
28
Shorter span:
Column strip:
ve BM at exterior span=231.14KNM
+ve BM at mid span =102.97KNM
ve BM at inerior span =64KNM
Middle strip:
ve BM at exterior span=214.5 KNM
+ve BM at mid span =69.3KNM
ve BM at inerior span =173.25KNM
Check for shear develop in slab
v´<=¢Vn.
Design of slab for two way action under clauses 9.3.15.2
V*=(Vn/bo*d)
Vn=nominal shear stress
Vn=1.5*12.79*[5.6*6.6(2.30)(2.30)]
Vn=607.KN
Vn*= 607.5X10^3/9200*165
Vn*=0.399 N/mm^2
Vc=0.17(1+α d/(2*bo))√fc
Vc=0.17(1+2β c) √fc
Β c=shorter side/long side
Vc=2.51 N/mm^2
Vn is not greater than Vc (safe)
Reinforcement:
Longer span
29
ve exterior reinforcement
Mu=As*fy(d0.59*(Ast*Fy/Fc*b))
Reinforcement ratio ρ =√Fc/(4*Fy)
Ρ =0.0045
P=As/b*d
As=9477.6 mm^2
Use 12 mm dia bars =83nos
c/c spacing 17 mm
+ve steel
As=3946 mm^2
Use 12 mm dia bars 34 nos
c/c spacing 111mm
Shorter span
Column strip
Mu=As*fy(d0.59*(Ast*Fy/Fc*b))
As=6798mm^2
Use 12 mm 60 nos
23 mm c/c spacing
Middle strip
As=2648 mm^2
c/c spacing 121mm
30
EURODODE
Introduction
This Eurocode gives all structural design irrespective of the material of construction.
It establishes principles and requirements for safety, ser viceability and durability of
structures The Eurocode uses a statistical approach to determine realistic values for actions
that occur in combination with each other. Partial fa ctors for actions are given in this
Eurocode, whilst partial factors for materials are prescribed in their relevant Eurocode. It is
again divided into different codes based on the materials. In this
Eurocode2 gives the design of concrete structures.
EUROCODE 2
1. Eurocode 2 is generally laid out to give advice on the basis of p henomena
(e.g. bending, shear etc) rather than by member types as in BS 8110
(e.g. beams, slabs, columns etc).
2. Design is based on characteristic cylinder strengths not cube strengths.
3. The Eurocode does not provide derived formulae (e.g. for bendi ng,
only the details of the stress block are expressed). This is the traditional European
approach, where the application of a Eurocode expected to be provided in a
textbook or similar publication.
4. Units for stress are mega pascals, MPa (1 MPa = 1 N/mm
2
).
5.Higher strengths of concrete are covered by Eurocode 2, up to
class C90/105. However, because the characteristics of higher
strength concrete are different, some Expressions in the Eurocode
are adjusted for classes above C50/60.
6. The partial factor for steel reinforcement is 1.15. However, the
characteristic yield strength of steel that meets the requirements
of BS 4449 will be 500 MPa; so overall the effect is negligible.
Eurocode 2 is applicable for ribbed reinforcement with characteristic
yield strengths of 400 to 600 MPa. There is no guidance on plain
bar or mild steel reinforcement in the Eurocode, but guidance is given in the background
paper to the UK National Annex10.
7. Minimum concrete cover is related to bond strength, durability and fire resistance. In
addition to the minimum cover an allowance for deviations due to variations in execution
(Construction) should be included. Eurocode 2 recommends that, for concrete cast against
formwork, this is taken as 10 mm, unless the construction i s subject to a quality assurance
systemic which case it could be reduced to 5 mm or even 0 mm whereon conforming
members are rejected (e.g. in a precast yard).
8. The punching shear checks are carried at 2 d from the face of the
column and for a rectangular column, the perimeter is rounded at
the corners.
31
Design of flat slabs as per EUROCODE 2
A procedure for carrying out the detailed design of flat slabs is given below.
1. Determine design life
2. Assess actions on the slab
3. Determine which combinations of actions apply
4. Determine loading arrangements
5. Assess durability requirements and determine concrete strength
6. Check cover requirements for appropriate fire resistance period
7. Calculate min. cover for durability, fire and bond requirements
8. Analyse structure to obtain critical moments and shear forces
9. Design flexural reinforcement
10 . Check for deflection
11 .Check punching shear capacity
12 .Check spacing of bars
Determine design life
Based on structural design and their usage the values are given in table
Design life(years) Examples
10 Temporary structures
1030 Replaceable structural parts
1525 Agricultural and simi lar structures
50 Buildings and other common structures
120 Monumental buildings, bridges and other civil
engineering structures
Assess actions on the slab
The load arrangements f or flat slabs met the following requirements
1. The ratio of the variable actions (Qk) to the permanent actions (Gk)
does not exceed 1.25.
2. The magnitude of the variable actions excluding partitions does not
exceed 5 kN/m
2
.
32
Procedure for determining flexural reinforcement
Carry out analysis of slab to determine design moments( M )
(Where appropriate use coefficients from the below Table).
End support/slab connection First
interior
support
Interior
spans
Interior
supports
Pinned continuous
End
support
End
span
End
Support
End
span
Moment 0 0.086Fl 0.04Fl 0.075Fl 0.086Fl 0.063Fl 0.063Fl
Where F is the total design ultimate load, l is the effective span
This analysis is only for concrete class<C5 0/60 only.
Determine K from the equation K=M/bd
2
f
ck
Determine K’ from the given Table or
K’ = 0.60 – 0.182
2
– 0.21 where ≤ 1.0
% redistribution d (redistribution ratio) K’
% redistribution (redistribution ratio) K’
0 1.00 0.205
5 0.95 0.193
10 0.90 0.180
15 0.85 0.166
20 0.80 0.151
0.75 0.136
If K< K’ , Provide compression reinforcement Otherwise
No compression reinforcement
Obtain lever arm z from the equation
z =d /2[13.53K] ≤ 0.95d
Calculate tension reinforcement required from As =M/fyd*z;
Check minimum reinforcement requirements
As,min = 0.26* fctm* bt* d/fyk
where fyk ≥ 25
Check maximum reinforcement requirements.
As,max = 0.04 Ac for tension or compression reinforcement outside lap locations .
33
Check for deflection
Eurocode 2 has two alternative methods of designing for deflection; either by limiting
spantodepth ratio or by assessing the theoretical deflection using the Expressions given in
the Eurocode. In this we have to find using span to depth ratio.
Procedure for finding deflection
1. Determine basic l/d from below fig
2. Determine Factor 1 (F1)
For ribbed or waffle slabs
F1 = 1 – 0.1 ((bf/bw) – 1) ≥ 0.8
Where bf = flange breadth and bw= rib breadth
Otherwise F1 = 1.0
3. Determine Factor 2 (F2)
Where the slab span exceeds 7 m and it supports brittle partitions, F2 = 7/ leff
Otherwise F2 = 1.0
4. Determine Factor 3 (F3)
F3 = 310/ss
Where ss = Stress in reinforcement at serviceability limit state or ss may be assumed to be
310 MPa (i.e. F3 = 1.0)
Check As,prov ≤ 1.5 As,req’d
Is basic l/d * F1 * F2 *F3 ≥ Actual l/d if this condition is satisfied it is safe from deflection
otherwise we have to increase As,prov.
34
Punching shear
The design value of the punching shear force, VEd, will usually be the
support reaction at the ultimate limit state .
1. The maximum value of shear at the column face is not limited to 5 MPa, and depends on
the concrete strength used.
2. The control perimeters for rectangular columns in this have rounded corners.
3. Where shear reinforcement is required the procedure is simpler; the point at which no
shear reinforcement is required can be calculated directly and then used to determine the
extent of the area over which shear reinforcement is required.
4. It is assumed that the reinforcement will be in a radial arrangement. However, the
reinforcement can be laid on a grid provided the spacing rules are followed.
Procedure for determining the punching shear
1. Determine value of factor β from the below fig
2. Determine value of vEd,max design shear stress at face of column from
vEd,max = β VEd /(ui deff)
where ui is perimeter of column
deff = (dy + dz)/2 (dy and dzare the effective depths in orthogonal dire ctions)
Determine value of vRd,max from Table 1
Check vEd,max ≤ vRd,max if not redesign the slab.
Determine value of vEd, (design shear stress)
vEd,max = β VEd /(ui deff)
where u1 is length of control perimeter
Determine concrete punching shear ca pacity
(without shear reinforcement), vRD,c from where rl = (rly rlz)0.5
(rly, rlz are the reinforcement ratios in two orthogonal directions for fully bonded tension
steel, taken over a width equal to column width plus 3 d each side.)
Is vEd > vRd,c if it satisfies Punching shear reinforcement not required
otherwise
35
Determine area of punching shear reinforcement per perimeter from:
Asw = (vEd – 0.75vRd,c)sr u1/(1.5 fywd,ef)
Where sr is the radial spacing of shear reinforcement
fywd,ef = 250 + 0.25 deff ≤ fywd
Determine the length of the outer perimeter where shear reinforcement not required from:
uout,ef = b VEd/(vRd,c d)
Check spacing of bars
Min area or reinforcement
1. The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement in the main direction
is As,min = 0.26 fctm bt d/fyk but not less than 0.0013b d.
2. The minimum area of a link leg for vertical punching shear
reinforcement is1.5Asw,min /(sr.st) ≥ 0.08fck½fyk.
which can be rearranged asAsw,min ≥ (sr.st)/F
where sr = the spacing of the links in the radial direction
st = the spacing of the links in the tangential direction
F can be obtained from Table 10
Max area of reinforcement
Outside lap locations, the maximum area of tension or compress
reinforcement should not exceed As,max = 0.4 Ac
Minimum spacing of reinforcement
The minimum spacing of bars should be the greater of:
Bar diameter
Aggregate size plus 5 mm
20 mm
Max spacing of main reinforcement
For slabs less than 200 mm thick the following maximum spacing rules apply:
1. for the principal reinforcement
3h but not more than 400 mm
2. for the secondary reinforcement:
3.5h but not more than 450 mm
The exception is in areas with concentrated loads or areas of maximum
moment where the following applies:
1. for the principal reinforcement
2h but not more than 250 mm
2. for the secondary reinforcement
3h but not more than 400 mm
Where h is the depth of the slab.
36
For slabs 200 mm thick or greater reference should be made to
Section 7.3.3 of the Eurocode.
Spacing of punching shear reinforcement
Where punching shear reinforcement is required the following rules
should be observed.
1. It should be provided between the face of the column and kdinside the outer perimeter
where shear reinforcement is no longer required. k is 1.5, unless the perimeter at which
reinforcement is no longer required is less than 3 d from the face of the column. In this
case the reinforcement should be placed in the zone 0.3 d to 1.5dfrom the face of the
column.
2. There should be at least two perimeters of shear links.
3. The radial spacing of the links should not exceed 0.75 d
4. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 1.5 d within2d
of the column face.
5. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 2d for any other perimeter.
6. The distance between the face of the column and the nearest shear reinforcement
should be less than 0.5d
37
Numerical example:
Longer span = 6.6 m
Shorter span = 5.6 m
Live load =7.75 kN/m
2
Assume grade of concret e as C20/25 i.e f
ck
= 20 MPa
Where C20/25 the cylinder strength as 25 MPa, whereas C20/25 the cube strength as
20 MPa,
Depth of the slab from deflection criteria = span/21
(this is based on longer span)
Effective depth = 314 mm
This depth also satisfies the fire resistance accordind to euro code(REI 120).
Total depth = 314+15 = 350 mm(Based on the axis distance from code)
D = 350 mm
Load calculations
Dead load acting on the slab = 0.35 x 25 = 8.75
2
/ KN m =
d
w
Live load on slab = 7.75
2
/ KN m =
l
w
The design live load shall not exceed 1.25 times the design dead load.
Check: wl/wd = 0.0885 < 1.25 (safe)
Total design load =
2
15.45 KN/m
d l
w w ÷ =
Values of secant modulus of elasticity for C20/25 = 29 KN/mm
2
Moments calculations
For longer span
Calculate M = 503.118 KNm
From this calculate K, K= M/bd
2
f
ck
= 0.0129
K’ = 0.60 – 0.182
2
– 0.21 where ≤ 1.0
= 0.1975 < K
(ok ) safe
No compression reinforcement required
Calculation of Z
Z=d /2[13.53K]
= 298
≤ 0.95
OK (safe)
Punching shear calculations
For internal columns take β= 1.15
vEd,max = β VEd /(ui deff)
38
where ui is perimeter of column = 2000mm
column size is 500x500 mm
vEd,max=(1.15*896)/(2000*314)
= 1.64 KN/mm
2
vRd,max=3.31( from code)
vEd,max ≤ vRd,max
OK (safe)
vEd,max = β VEd /(ui deff)
vEd = 1.16*896*10
3
/(1200*314)
= 2.73
vRd,c= 0.75 from code
vEd > vRd,c
ok
Area of punching shear reinforcement
Asw = (vEd – 0.75vRd,c)sr u1/(1.5 fywd,ef)
= 2334.4 mm
2
Min area or reinforcement
As, min = 0.26 fctm bt d/fyk
= 408.2 mm
2
< 0.0013*1000*314
= 424 mm
2
Ok
Max area of reinforcement
As, max = 0.4 Ac
=2415.5 mm
2
Minimum spacing of reinforcement
The minimum spacing of bars should be the greater of:
Bar diameter = 12 mm
Aggregate size plus 5 mm = 9.75 mm
20 mm
Min spacing = 20mm
Max spacing of main reinforcement
39
Use 12 mm bars =
4209
38 No.s
113
=
1.4 1000
c/c spacing is = 36 mm c/c
38
·
=
Max spacing = 36 mm
In this no punching shear reinforcement so no spacing for that.
40
Design of flat slabs using ACI 318:
Drop of flat slabs:
Where a drop panel is used to reduce amount of negative moment reinforcement over the
column of a flat slab, size of drop panel shall be in accordance with the following:
Drop panel shall extend in each direction from centerline of support a di stance not less than
onesixth the span length measured from center to center of supports in that direction.
Projection of drop panel below the slab shall be at least one quarter the slab thickness beyond
the drop.
In computing required slab reinforcement, thickness of drop panel below the slab shall not be
assumed greater than onequarter the distance from edge of drop panel to edge of column or
column capital.
Thickness of the slab :
For slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports an d having a ratio of long to
short span not greater than 2, the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the
provisions of Table below and shall not be less than the following values:
(a) Slabs without drop panels as ......................... 5 in.
(b) Slabs with drop panels as defined.................. 4 in.
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SLABS WITHOUT INTERIOR BEAMS
41
Design strips
Column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centerl ine equal to
0.25 l2 or
0.25 l1, whichever is less.
Middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips.
A panel is bounded by column, beam, or wall centerlines on all sides.
Column head
The upper supporting part of a column is enlarged to form the column head. The diameter or the
column head is made 0.20 to 0.25 of the span length.
Total factored static moment for a span
Total factored static moment for a span shall be determined in a strip bounded laterally by
centerline of panel on each side of centerline of supports.
Absolute sum of positive and average negative factored moments in each direction shall not be
less than.
2
2
0
8
u n
w l l
M =
u
w =load per unit area acting on the slab panel
n
l =Clear span
n
l shall extend from face to face of columns, capitals, brackets, or walls.
Value of ln
shall not be less than 0.65
1
l . Circular or regular polygon shaped supports shall be
treated as square supports with the same area.
2
l =When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered, the distance from
edge
to panel centerline shall be substituted for
2
l .
In an interior span, total static moment
0
M shall be distributed as follows:
Negative factored moment .................................0.65
Positive factored moment ...................................0.35
42
In an end span, total factored static moment
0
M shall be distributed as follows:
Negative moment sections shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior negative
factored moments determined for spans framing into a common support unless an a nalysis
is made to
distribute the unbalanced moment in accordance with stiff nesses of adjoining elements.
Edge beams or edges of slab shall be proportioned to resist in torsion their share of exterior
negative factored moments
Factored moments in middle strips:
That portion of negative and positive factored moments not resisted by column strips shall
be
proportionately assigned to corresponding half middle strips.
Each middle strip shall be proportioned to resist the sum of the moments assigned to its two
half middle strips.
A middle strip adjacent to and parallel with an edge supported by a wall shall be
proportioned to resist twice the moment assigned to the half middle strip corresponding to
the first row of interior supports.
43
Factored moments in column strips:
Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following portions in percent of exterior
negative
factored moments:
Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following portions in percent of exterior
negative
factored moments:
Modification of factored moment:
Modification of negative and positive factored moments by 10 percent shall be permitted
provided
the total static moment for a panel in the direction considered is not less than that required
by
2
2
0
8
u n
w l l
M =
Shear provision(punching shear):
Twoway action where each of the critical sections to be investigated shall be located so that
its perimeter
0
b is a minimum but need not approach closer than d / 2 to
(a) Edges or corners of columns, concentrated loads, or reaction areas, or
44
(b) Changes in slab thickness such as edges of capitals or drop panels.
Nominal shear strength of concrete:
for flat slabs
c
V =nominal shear strength of concrete
c
V Shall be smallest of the following:
[Where
c
is the ratio of long side to short side of the column, concentrated load or
reaction area
and where
s
is 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns,20 for corner columns]
(a)
!
0
4
2
c c
c
V f b d

= ÷

' ¹
(b)
!
0
0
2
s
c c
d
V f b d
b

= ÷

' ¹
(c)
!
0
4
c c
V f b d =
Numerical example:
consider the slab to be designed with drop’s
Depth of the slab from deflection criteria =
36
n
l
(for yield stress
2
60, 000 psi 415 N/mm
yi
f = ~ )
¬Minimum depth of slab
·
16.76 12 14.22 12
max ,
36 36
max 5.58 in , 4.74 in
5.58 6 in
· · 
=

' ¹
=
=
6 in > 4 in (for slabs with drop panels)
Providing a slab of thickness 6 in or 152.4 mm.
Density of concrete = 150
3
/ lb ft
Dead load on the slab =
2
6
(150) 75 psf 3.6 KN/m
12
· = =
Live load on the slab = 161.80 psf = 7.75
2
/ KN m
Design load on the slab = (1.2 x 7.5 + 1.6 x 161.80)
= 348.88 · 350 psf
= 16. 765
2
/ KN m
45
For short span direction, the total static design moment :
2
0
1 350
16.76 14.22 148.26 ftkips=201.04 KNm
8 1000
M ¬ = · · · =
This is distributed as follows :
Negative design moment = 148.06 x 0.65 = 96.24 ft kips = 130.50 KNm
Positive design moment = 148.06 x 0.35 = 51.891 ft kips = 70.36 KNm
The column strip has a width of 2 x
14.22
2 7.11 ft 180.59 mm
4
· = =
With
2
1
1
16.76
1.17 ; 0 ( beams)
14.22
l
n o
l
= = =
Bending moment for column strip:
Negative moment for column strip = 75 % of total negative moment in the panel
= 0.75 x 96.24 = 72.18 ft kips = 97.88 KNm
Positive moment for column strip = 60 % of total positive moment in the panel.
= 0.60 x 51.891 = 31.135 ft kips = 42.21 KNm
static moment along longer direction
2
0
1 350
16.76 14.22 174.75 ftkips=237 KNm
8 1000
M = · · · =
This is distributed as follows:
Negative design moment = 237 x 0. 65 = 154 ftkips = 208.89 KNm
Positive design moment = 237 x 0.35 = 83.00 ft kips = 113.22 KNm
The column strip has a width of
16.76
2 8.38 ft = 212.85 mm
4
· =
With
2
1
14.22
0.8484
16.76
l
l
= =
Bending moment for column strip
Negative moment for column strip = 75 % of total negative moment in the pannel
= 0.75 x 154.00 = 115.50 ft kips = 157.66 KNm
Positive moment for column strip = 60 % of total positive moment in the panel.
= 0.60 x 83.00 = 49.8 ft kips = 67.977 KNm
46
Bending moment for middle strip along shorter span
Negative moment for middle strip = 0.25 x 96.24
= 24.06 ftkips
= 32.84 KNm
positive moment for middle strip = 0.40 x 51.891
= 20.7564 ftkips
= 28.33 KNm
Bending moment for middle strip along longer span
Negative moment for middle strip = 0.25 x 154 = 38.5 ft kip
= 52.55 KNm
Positive moment for middle strip = 0.40 x 83.00 = 33.2 ft kips
= 45.318 KNm
Max moment (+ve or –ve ) along shorter span = 72.18 ft kips
Max moment (+ve or –ve) along longer span = 115.50 ft kips
max
= maximum permitted reinforcement ratio
2
!
,1 2 2
1
1
,2
2
(1 0.59 )
60
[0.90 0.0206 60, 000 14.22(1 0.59 0.0206 )]
4
72.18
1000 (2.43)
12193.65 12193.65
2.43 in = 61.72 mm
115.50 1000
d 3.07 in = 77.79 mm 78 mm
12193.65 12193.65
y
u y
u
u
u
f
M f bd
f
M
M
d
d
M
= ÷
= · · · ÷ · ·
= = · =
¬ =
·
= = =
provide a slab of thickness 6 in.
Drop in flat slabs:
Span of panel in longer direction = 16.76 ft
length of drop panel
1
16.76 2
6
5.58 ft 5.60 ft 1.71 m
= · ·
=
with half width on either side of the centre line of support = 0.85 m
Thickness of drop =
1
(6) 1.5 in = 38.1 mm
4
=
47
Check for punching shear:
u
V
= factored shear, acting at distance d/2 from face of the support.
(assuming column of size 400 mm by 400 mm)
2
350[(16.76 14.22) (1.31 0.5)(1.31 0.5)
350[238.32 1.81 ] 82265.365 lb 365.91 K N
u
V = · ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = =
!
0
c
4000 (4 21.72) 6 32968.64 lb
1.17
c
f b d
= · · · =
=
The nominal stress of concrete will be smallest of the following :
(a)
!
0
4
2
4
2 32968.64 178650.57 lb
1.17
c c
c
V f b d

= ÷

' ¹

= ÷ · =

' ¹
(b)
!
0
0
2
40 6
2 32968.64 157010.87 lb
4 21.72
s
c c
d
V f bd
b

= ÷

' ¹
·

= ÷ · =

·
' ¹
(c)
!
0
4
4 32968.64=131874.56 lb
c c
V f b d =
= ·
131874.56
c u
V V ¬ = >
section safe in punching shear safe.
48
Reinforcement
Depth=6 ft,Width=16.76 ft
Minimum area of steel required = 0.0018 x gross area of concrete
(for control of temperature & s hrinkage cracking)
=
2
2.17
0.0018 6 16.76= 0.1808 in
12
· · =
In 14.22 ft direction,
m i n
0 . 1 8 0 8
0 . 0 0 2 1 1
6 1 4 . 2 2
= =
·
In 16.76 ft direction,
min
0.1808
0.0017
6 16.76
= =
·
·
! 2 2
1 0.588 psi or R
0.90 6 324
u u u
y
c
M M M f
R f
f bd b b

= ÷ = = =

· ·
' ¹
Calculation of area of steel: Along shorter span:
For negative moment in column strip:
·
3
72.18 10
R 150.933
324 14.76 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.0040
Area of reinforcement = 0.0040 x 14.76 x 6 x 12 = 4.250
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No.10, at a spacing of 3.5 in, 7 i n number
For positive moment in column strip :
·
3
31.135 10
R 65
324 14.76 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.0017
Area of reinforcement = 0.0017x 14.76 x 6 x 12 = 1.8066
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No. 8, at a spacing of 5 in, 4 in number
49
For negative moment in middle strip:
·
3
24.6 10
R 50.311
324 14.76 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.0013
Area of reinforcement = 0.0013x 14.76 x 6 x 12 = 1.38
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No. 6, at a spacing of 4 in, 3 in number
For positive moment i n middle strip:
·
3
20.75 10
R 43.40
324 14.76 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.00075
Area of reinforcement = 0.00075x 14.76 x 6 x 12 = 0.79
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No. 4, at a spacing of 3 in, 4 in number
Calculation of area of steel: Along lon ger span:
For negative moment in column strip:
·
3
115.50 10
R 219.77
324 16.22 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.00375
Area of reinforcement = 0.00375 x 16.22 x 6 x 12 = 4.38
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No.11, at a spacing of 4 in, 8 in number
For positive moment in column strip :
·
3
49.8 10
R 94.76
324 16.22 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.00175
Area of reinforcement = 0.00175 x 16.22 x 6 x 12 = 2.04
2
/ in ft
50
Provide Bar No. 7, at a spacing of 3.5 in, 3 in number
For negative moment in middle strip:
·
3
38.50 10
R 73.25
324 16.22 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.00125
Area of reinforcement = 0.00125x 16.22 x 6 x 12 = 1.4598
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No. 6, at a spacing of 4 in, 3 in number
For positive moment in middle strip:
·
3
33.20 10
R 63.17
324 16.22 32.4
u
M
b
·
= = =
·
Reinforcement ratio = 0.00115
Area of reinforcement = 0.00115x 16.22 x 6 x 12 = 1.34
2
/ in ft
Provide Bar No. 7, at a spacing of 5 in, 7 in number
51
Result:  codal comparisons (ACI,NZS,IS)
CODE IS456 ACI318 NZS 3101 Euro code
Shape of test specimen for
concrete strength (mm)
Cube
150x150x150
Cylinder
152.4x304.8
Cylinder
152.4x304.8
Cylinder
152.4x304.8
Grade of concrete(N/mm²) 20 20 30 20
Grade of steel (N/mm²) 415 413.7 420 500
Negative moment(KNm) 188.5 208.89 292.14 192.6
Positive moments(KNm) 90 113.22 147.37 135.5
Area of reinforcement(mm²) 4209 2829 2817 2415.5
Thickness of slab for
Serviceability criteria(mm)
170 150 210 315
Punching shear Safe Safe Safe Safe
52
Conclusions:
 By comparing with different codes we concluded that ACI 318, NZS 3101& euro codes are
most effective in designing of flat slabs.
 As per Indian code we are using cube strength but in international standards cylindered
are used which gives higher strength than cube.
 Drops are important criteria in increasing the shear strength of the slab.
 Enhance resistance to punching failure at the junct ion of concrete slab & column.
 By incorporating heads in slab, we are increasing rigidity of slab.
 In the interior span, the total design moments (Mo) are same for IS, NZS, ACI.
 The negative moment’s section shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior
negative design moments for the span framing into common supports.
 According to Indian standard (IS 456) for RCC code has recommended characteristic
strength of concrete as 20, 25, and 30 and above 30 for high strength concrete. For design
purpose strength of concrete is taken as 2/3 of actual strength this is to compensate the
difference between cube strength and actual strength of concrete in structure. After that
we apply factor of safety of 1.5. So in practice Indian standard actually us es 46% of total
concrete characteristic strength. While in International practice is to take 85% of total
strength achieved by test and then apply factor of safety which is same as Indian standard
so in actual they use 57% of total strength.
 Pre fabricated sections to be integrated into the design for ease of construction.
53
References:
1. Indian standards 456,875.
2. ASI318
3. NZS:3101
4. Euro code
5. Dr.pradeep kumar ramancharala
6. Reinforced concrete design –S.unnikrishna pillai, Devdas menon
7. R.C.C design  S.Ramamrutham
CERTIFICATE
Supervisor Mr. Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar PhD (University of Tokyo) Assistant Professor IIIT Hyderabad
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We sincerely acknowledge and express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Ramancharla Pradeep Kumar (Assistant Professor) the guide of this project. As a guide he gave a maximum help and coordination in finishi ng the project work. With his past years of experience and teaching steered me to come out with success through the most difficult problems faced by me. We would like to place on record our deep sense of gratitude to our guides for their cooperation and un failing courtesy to me at every stage.
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No Abstract …………………………………………………………………………. 05
Chapter I: Introduction…………………………………………………………...
06
Chapter II: Design of flat slabs by IS: 456 ……………………………... Chapter III: Design of flat slabs as per NZS: 3101 ….………………………. Chapter IV: Design of flat slabs as per EURO CODE….…………………... Chapter V: Design of flat slabs using ACI318……………………………. Chapter VI: Results………………………………………………………...
07 21 30 40 51
Chapter VII: conclusion ………………………………………………………… … 52
Chapter VII: References…………………………………………………………
53
4
ABSTRACT
Flat slabs system of construction is one in which the beams used in t he conventional methods of constructions are done away with. The slab directly rests on the column and load from the slab is directly transferred to the columns and then to the foundation. To support heavy loads the thickness of slab near the support with the column is increased and these are called drops, or columns are generally provided with enlarged heads called column heads or capitals. Absence of beam gives a plain ceiling, thus giving better architectural appearance and also less vulnerability in case of fire than in usual cases where beams are used. Plain ceiling diffuses light better, easier to construct and requires cheaper form work. As per local conditions and availability of materials different countries have adopted different me thods for design of flat slabs and given their guidelines in their respective codes. The aim of this project is to try and illustrate the methods used for flat slab design using ACI318, NZ3101, and Eurocode2 and IS: 456 design codes. For carrying out this project a n interior panel of a flat slab with dimensions 6.6 x 5.6 m and super imposed load 7.75 KN / m 2 was designed using the codes given above.
5
Components of flat slabs: Drops: To resist the punching shear which is predominant at the contact of slab and column Support. To resist this negative moment the area at the support needs to be increased . in Such a case the frame system would consist of slab and column without beams. since their behavior resembles the bending of flat plates. the drop dimension should not be less than one third of panel length in that Direction.Introduction Basic definition of flat slab: In general normal frame con struction utilizes columns. slabs & Beams. Column heads: Certain amount of negative moment is transferred from the slab to the column at he support. However it may be possible to undertake construction with out providing beams.this is facilitated by providing column capital/heads Flat slab with drop panel & column head 6 . These types of Slabs are called flat slab.
on each side of the column centreline. L2 =5. is the span in the direction moments are being determined. 12).8 m L1 =5. is the span transverse to 1.4 m But not greater than 0.6 m ( i ) column strip = 0. supported generally without beams.25 L2 = 1.6 – (1.4+1. measured centre to centre of supports.4) = 3.6 m . measured centre to centre of supports and 1.. Components of flat slab design: a) Column strip : Column strip means a design strip having a width of 0. Division into column and middle strip along: Longer span Shorter span L1 =6. b) Middle strip : Middle strip means a design strip bounded on each of its opposite sides by the column strip.4) = 2.65 m But not greater than 0. A flat slab may be solid slab or may have recesses formed on the soffit so that the sof fit comprises a series of ribs in two directions. where I. but not greater than 0.4+1. L2 =6.6 – (1.25 I. by columns with or w ithout flared column heads (see Fig.25 1. The recesses may be formed by removable or permanent filler blocks.4 m (ii) Middle strip = 6..Design of flat slabs by IS: 456 The term flat slab means a reinforced concrete slab with or without drops.6 m ( i ) column strip = 0. c) Panel: Panel means that part of a slab bounde d oneach of its four sides by the centre line of a Column or centrelines of adjacentspans.8 m 7 .65 m (ii) Middle strip = 5.25 L1 = 1.25 L2 = 1.25 L1 = 1.6 m .
6 m The drops when provided shall be rectangular in plan. and have a length in each direction not less than one.8 m M.4 m C.6 m Fig 1: 1.2 m Not less than L1 /3 = 1.866 m Hence provide a drop of size 2. L2 =5.6 m L1 =5.S 1.S 2. shall be considered for design purposes (see Fig. For exterior panels.8 m M. that portion of a column head which lies with in the largest right circular cone or pyramid that has a vertex angle of 90”and can be included entirely within the outlines of the column and the column head.1.4 m d) Drops : C.2 m i.e. L2 =6.6 m Not less than L1 /3 = 2.6 m . in column strip width.6 m . Drop dimensions along: Longer span Shorter span L1 =6.2 x 2. e) column head : Where column heads are provided.4 m C.S 6.S 5.S 3. Since the span is large it is desirable to provide drop. 2). 8 . the width of drops at right angles to the non.S 1.continuous edge and measured from the centre line of the columns shall be equal to one half the width of drop for interior panels.third of the panel length in that direction.4 m C.
9. Continuous 26 For slabs with drops. L2 =5.6 m . span to effective depth ratios gi ven above shall be applied directly. otherwise the span to effective depth ratios in accordance with above shall be multiplied by 0. the longer span of the panel shall be considered.6 m L1 =5. L2 =6.4 m Adopting the diameter of column head = 1. 9 .30 m =1300 mm f) Depth of flat slab: The thickness of the flat slab up to spans of 10 m shall be generally controlled by considerations of span ( L ) to effective depth ( d ) ratios given as below: Cantilever 7. simply supported 20. For this purpose.65 m Not greater than L1 /4 = 1.6 m .6 m Not greater than L1 /4 = 1.Fig 2: Column head dimension along: Longer span Shorter span L1 =6. The minimum thickness of slab shall be 125 mm.
25 KN / m 2 = Floor finishes etc.75 KN / m 2 = wl Total dead load = wd 1 wd 2 wd 1 + wd 2 =7.285 x 25 = 6. 125 mm (minimum slab thickness as per IS: 456) g) Estimation of load acting on the slab: Dead load acting on the slab = 0.7 KN / m 2 = wd 10 .Depth of flat slab: Considering the flat slab as a continuous slab over a span not exceeding 10 m L = 26 d d L 26 Depth considering along: Longer span Shorter span L1 =6. L2 =5.6 m d L 26 6600 =253.45 KN / m 2 = Live load on slab = 7.6 m L1 =5.8 mm 26 d L 26 5600 =215.6 m . L2 =6. load on slab = 1.3 mm 26 Say 260 mm Say 220 mm Taking effective depth of 25mm Overall depth D = 260 +25 = 285 mm It is safe to provide depth of 285 mm.6 m .
W = design load on an area l 1 l 2 ln = clear span extending from face to face of columns.152 m 4 4 Clear span along long span = ln = 6.The design live load shall not exceed three times the design dead load.6 ln 1 (1. brackets or walls.65 l 1 ) Clear span along long span = ok = 5.44 m 3.4 5 K N /m 2 h) Total Design Moment for a Span The absolute sum of the positive and average and is given by negative bending moments in each direction shall be taken as: M W ln 8 0 M 0 = total moment. l 2 = length of span transverse to l 1 .3) 2 1. Equivalent side of the column head having the same area: a d2 (1.152) 2 1 (1.152) 2 4.7 5 7 .64 m (Should not be less than 0. Check: wl wd 7 .7 wd 1 . but not less than 0.29 (Should not be less than 0.65 l 1 l 1 = length of span in the direction of M 0 .152) 2 5. capitals.65 l 1 ) ok 11 .0 0 6 3 ok Total design load = w l 1 5 . Circular supports shall be treated as square supports havi ng the same area.6 1 (1.152) 2 1 (1.448 m 4.
6 m ln =4.4 4 8 4 7 1 .4.4 4 3 2 0 . the total design moment M 0 shall be distributed in the fol lowing proportions: Interior negative design moment: 0. the total design moment M 0 shall be distributed in the following proportions: Negative design moment 0.44 m .4 4 8 8 K N m M M 0 W ln 8 0 4 5 2 .7 4 8 4 .Total design load along: Longer span Shorter span ln =5.4 5 5 . circular supports being treated as square supports having the same 31.5.448 m .35 In an end span. l2 =5. Shall be designed toresist moments arising from loads . l2 =6.6 m M M 0 W ln 8 0 4 7 1 . l2 =6.3 6 5 .9 9 2 5 1 .7 4 KN W 1 5 .1 Columns built integrally with the slab system area. In an interior span.2 K N m (i) Negative and Positive Design Moments : The negative design moment shall be at the fac e of rectangular supports.65 Positive design moment 0.6 5 .6 4 .44 m .63 0.448 m .28 1 1c 12 .75 0.6 m W w 2l n l 1 5 .6 m W w 2l n l ln =4. l2 =5.3 6 KN W The absolute sum of –ve and +ve moment in a panel along: Longer span Shorter span ln =5.4 4 4 5 2 .4 5 6 .10 1 1c Positive design moment: 0.
K s =flexural stiffness of the slab. Column strip : Negative moment at an interior support: At an interior support. so lon g as the total design moment M 0 for the panel in the direction considered is not less than that required by: M W ln 8 0 The negative moment section shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior negative design moments determined for the spans framing into a common support unless an analysis is made to distribute the unbalanced moment in accordance with the stiffness of the adjoining parts.65 1 1c Is the ratio of flexural stiffness of the exterior columns to the flexural stiffness of the slab at a joint taken in the direction moments are being determined and is given by: c Kc Ks K c =sum of the flexural stiffness of the columns meeting at the joint. the column strip shall be designed to r esist 60 percent of the total positive moment in the panel. Negative moment at an exterior support: a) At an exterior support. expres sed as moment per unit rotation It shall be permissible to modify these design moments by up to 10 percent. the column strip shall be designed to resist 75 percent of the total negative moment in the panel at that support. the column strip shall be designed to resist the t otal negative moment in the panel at that support. b) Where the exterior support consists of a column or a wall extending for a distance equal to or greater than threequarters of the value of l 2 .Exterior negative design moment: c 0. Positive moment for each span : For each span. Moments in the middle strip : a) That portion ofthe design moment not resisted by the column strip shall be assigned to the adjacent middle strips. 13 . The length of span transverse t o the direction moments are being determined. the exterior negative moment shall be considered to be uniformly distributed across the length l2 .
mc i n c Hence correction for pattern of loading in the direction of longer span is not required.7 .5 Kc 2 TOP 2 BOTTOM 12 560 From table 17 of IS: 4562000 KS 4E 660 28.0 0 0 . 14 .8 x 3275 = 2620 mm (Assuming one end hinged and other end fixed) stiffness coefficient c Kc Ks s u m o f fle x u ra l s tiffn e s s o f c o lu m n a c ti g a t th e jo in t n fle x u ra l s tiffn e s s o f th e s la b Longer span 4 EI L 4 EI L 4 EI L 4E L 504 12 2 4E 520 103 327. to resist twice the moment assigned to half the middle strip corresponding to the fir st row of interior columns.39 4 E 2273. cl The middle strip adjacent and parallel to an edge supported by a wall shall be proportioned.73 1.53 C Kc Ks 2 4 E 1587.8 4 8 & c .0 m clear height of the column = height of floor –depth of drop – thickness of slab –thickness of head. = 4000 – 140 – 285 – 300 = 3275 mm Effective height of column = 0. Stiffness calculation: let the height of the floor = 4.m in W W L D 1 .b) Each middle strip shall be proportione d to resist the sum of the moments assigned to its two half middle strips.5 L2 L1 0 .
0 Value of c .0 1.6 1.4 12 760 3975.8 12 262 560 28.0 3.25 2.0 2.5 0.8 2.9 1.0 1.7 0.7 0.0 1.0 3.0 0. m in c 1 .0 1.0 3.0 0 Hence the correction for pattern loading in the direction of short span is not required.25 2.0 2.0 0.5 1.8 13.0 3.0 2.0 1.3 1.0 From table 17 of IS 4562000 l Ratio 2 l1 (2) 0.79 1421.0 0 0.1 7 & 0 .6 0.9 4.53 1421.5 1.4 From table 17 of IS: 4562000 for L2 L1 c .cm i n W W ok L D 1 .0 2.min (3) 15 . Imposed load/dead load (1) 0.25 2.7 5 .0 3.2 1.0 1.0 2.8 1.0 0.8 2.5 to 2.8 1.5 0.5 0:8 1.Shorter span Kc Kc c 2 (50) 4 3975.0 1.8 1.3 2.0 2.
3 9 3 2 0 .0 0 .4 0 0 .0 0 .1 0 1 c M 0 0 .M at exterior support = 0 .6 5 3 2 0 .2 8 1 c M 0 0 .6 5 M 1 1 c 0 0 .7 5 0 .2 8 1 c M 0 0 .9 9 0 .9 9 1 1 1 .6 3 1 0 .7 5 0 .7 5 1 0 .2 5 5 5 .7 5 1 0 .9 6 KNm ve BM at interior support = 0 .6 3 1 0 .6 5 M 1 1 c 0 1 .7 5 1 6 6 .6 0 0 .3 9 3 2 0 .9 9 0 .1 0 1 c M 0 0 .1 0 1 1 c 3 2 0 .2 8 1 1 1 .0 K N m +ve span BM = 0 .1 0 1 1 1 .5 0 K N m Middle strip ve BM at exterior support = 0 .6 3 0 .2 8 1 1 1 .3 9 1 .6 0 90 K N m ve span BM at interior support = 0 .6 3 0 .4 0 5 9 .9 9 0 .3 4 K N m +ve span BM = 0 .3 9 3 2 0 .0 1 2 1 .7 5 0 . Longer span column strip ve B.5 0 K N m 16 .Distrubution of bending moment across the panel width It is an exterior panel.9 9 0 .7 5 0 .
2 0.0 1 2 0 .7 5 1 2 7 .63 251.7 5 0 .2 0 .28 1 1 2.79 ve moment at exterior support = +ve moment 0.0 0 .1 0 1 1 2 .2 0 .1 0 1 1 2 .88 KNm 0 .2 8 1 1 2 .50 x 90.6 5 M 1 1 c 0 0 .60 63.7 9 2 5 1 .2 0 .6 5 2 5 1 .6 5 M 1 1 c 0 1 .36 KNm 17 .5 9 K N m ve moment at interior span = 0 .Short span column strip ve moment at exterior support = 0 .7 5 0 .7 5 0 .91 = 136.1 9 K N m 0.91 KNm factored moment = 1.2 5 4 2 .6 3 0 .1 0 1 c M 0 0 .0 K N m +ve midspan moment = 0 .7 5 1 0 .4 0 4 2 .4 3 K N m Middle strip ve moment at exterior support = 0 .7 9 2 5 1 .6 3 1 0 . Maximum +ve BM occurs in the column strip (long span) = 90.4 0 0 .1 0 1 c M 0 0 .2 1 1 2 .0 0 .7 9 2 5 1 .2 8 1 c M 0 0 . from consideration of maximum positive moment any where in the slab.7 5 1 0 .4 4 K N m j) Effective depth of the slab Thickness of the slab.7 5 0 .7 9 1 .
6 m 1.6 m 18 .3 m 2200 mm d/2 300 mm d/2 6.83 mm 140 mm Using 12 mm (diameter) main bars.5 166.138 20 2800 d=132. Overall thickness of slab = 140 15 12 161 mm 170 mm 2 12 Depth (along longitudinal direction) = 170 15 150 mm 2 Depth (along longitudinal direction) = 150 12 138 mm k) Thickness of drop from maximum –ve moment consideration Thickness of drop from consideration of maximum –ve moment any where in the panel.3 mm Say 260 mm. Max –ve BM occurs in the column strip = 166.36 10 6 (M20 grade concrete) 0.6 10 6 0.M0 d= 0.138 f ck bd 2 1.6 KNm M u 0.138 f ck bd 2 (b 2800 mm) 136.138 20 1400 d 2 d 254. Use 12 mm bars Over all thickness of flat slab: D 260 15 12 2 281 mm 1300 mm 2340 mm d/2 d/2 450 300 mm 5.
11 1.6 6.27 KN (1.45 [6. check for shear stress developed in slab The critical section for she ar for the slab will be at a distance d/2 from the face of drop.848 c ).11 N/mm 2 safe design ok v c if v 1.55 N/mm 2 9340 140 0.45 [ L1 L2 (2.27 10 3 4890 260 0.6(5.5 15.26) 2] v 812.5 15.25 f ck c 0.45[5. The shape in plan is geometrically similar to the support immediately below the slab.11 N/mm 2 [safe in shear] 19 .6V 812.348 1 1 v ks c 1 1.78 10 3 0.6 5.25 f ck =0.5 0.25 20=1.3 0.26) 4 4. c ks ks (0.34)(2.848) 1.11 N/mm 2 Permissible shear stress = k s (0.89 m V=1.3 0. 2).5 0. Perimeter of critical section = 4 x 2340 = 9340 mm V0 1. perpendicular to the plane of the slab where d is the effective depth of the section (Fig.78 KN Total factored shear force: Nominal shear stress = v Vu bd c shear strength of concrete = 729.47)] = 729.5 15.34)] = 1.5 c then the slab should be redesign ed m) check for shear in drop b0 (D d0 ) (1.683 N/mm 2 Nominal shear stress : c v 1.l) Shear in Flat Slab The critical section for shear shall be at a distance d/2 from the periphery of the column/capital/ drop panel.
87 f y Ast [ d 0.s 280 mm c/c 20 .48 140] 2 1.42 xu ] 0.48 150] 4209 38 No.5 63.42 xu ] 1.42 0.48 281] 1182 mm 2 1.3 Ast Use 12 mm Ast 3122 mm 2 bars = Use 12 mm 3122 28 No.34 10 6 Ast 4209 mm 2 bars = 0.s (12) 2 4 1.5 121.s 113 1.42 xu ] 0.8 1000 c/c spacing is = 10 bars = 10 No.87 415 Ast [281 0.n) Reinforcement details Longer span ve exterior reinforcement: M u 0. s 113 3.9 mm 3768.42 0.5 106 3768.4 1000 c/c spacing is = 42 mm c/c 33 Middle strip: Use 12 mm bars = Mu Ast 0.9 33 No.87 415 Ast[150 0.88 106 Use 12 mm 1182 (12) 2 4 2.87 f y Ast [d 0.87 415 Ast [140 0.42 0.5 127.4 1000 c/c spacing is = 36 mm c/c 38 +ve steel:1.5 90 10 6 43239.8 1000 c / c spacing = 135 mm c/c 28 Reinforcement along shorter span: Column strip: Mu Ast 0.87 f y Ast [d 0.
in each direction shall not differ by more than 1/3 of the longer spans. Panels shall be rectangular with a ratio of longer to shorter spans .25L2. DESIGN PROCEDURE: First analysis the column strips & middle strips using 0. Column strips is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centre line equal to 0. Drop panel is used to reduce the amount of negative moment reinforcement over the column of the flat slab.Design of flat slabs as per NZS: 3101 DEFINITIONS: A flat slab is reinforced concrete slab directly supporting on column (without any support of beams). beams.centre to centre of supports .25L1/0. A middle strip is a design strip bounded by 2 column strips. Columns may be offsets a maximum of 10% of the span (in direction o offset) from either axis between centre lines of successive columns. the size of drop panel shall be 1/6 of the span length measured from centre –tocentre of support in that direction.25L1 or 0.25l2.not greater than 2. DESIGN METHOD: There must a minimum 3 continuous spans in each directions. or wall centre lines on all sides . Flat slabs is divided into column strips & middle strips. the live loads shall not exceeds 2 times the dead load. A panel is bounded by column. Successive span lengths. All loads shall be due to gravity only and uniformly distributed over entire panels. 21 . centre tocentre of supports.whichever is less.
65 22 .16 0.2. The absolute sum of positive and average negative moments in each direction at the ultimate limit state shall be not less than: Mo=WuL2Ln²/8.75 0.Estimate the depth of flat slabs from clauses 14.5 & 3.2.(b) Assume fy=300MPA. Fy(MPA) 300 Exteriors panels Ln/36 Interior panels Ln/40 400 Ln/32 Ln/35 The absolute sum for the span shall be determined in a strip bounded laterally by the center line of the panel on each side of centre of the supports.2.50 0.57 0.3.63 0.26 0.70 0.65 Positive moments0.35 0 0.65 0.70 0.52 0.35 In end spans Exterior edge unrestrained Slab with beams between all supports Slabs without beams between interior supports Without edge beams With edge beams Exterior edge fully restrained Interior – ve moments Positive moments Exterior – ve moments 0. Negative & positive design moments: In an interior spans Negative moments—0.30 0.70 0.
1 √fc or 9MPA.2fc.17(1+2βc)√fc βc=shorter side/long side of the concentrated load Design the interior panel of flat slabs 6. Vn=nominal shear strength of the section.6 m in size for a super imposed l oad of 7. Where v´=shear force at that sec tion . 23 .6 x 5.1. ¢ =strength reduction factor.75 h in prestressed member 600mm.provide two way reinforcement. The nominal shear stress Vn shall not exceed 0. Spacing limits for shear reinforcements shall be: 0.5d in nonprestressed member 0.75 KN/m^2. Design of slab for two way action shall be based on Vn=Vn/bod Where vn shall not be greater than Vc Vc=0.SHEAR STRENGTH Design of cross section of member subjected to shear shall be based on v´<=¢Vn.
4+1.2m Estimate the depth of flat slabs: From clauses 14.25L2=1.6m Column strip 0.25L1=1.6(1.4m Middle strip 6.25L1=1.86M Hence provide a drop size of 2.2M Shorter span Shall not be less than L/3=5.6m. L2=5.Design steps: LONGER SPAN L1=6.6m.2.4 m Adopt 1.6m Column strip 0. L1=5.4)=3.65m Middle strip 5.4 m ≤0.2x2.6/3 1.8m SHORTER SPAN L2=6.6(1.4)=2.2(b) Fy(MPA) 300 Exteriors panels Ln/36 Interior panels Ln/40 400 Ln/32 Ln/35 24 .3.2.8m Drop dimensions : Longer span Shall not be less than L/3=6.6/3 2.4+1.5 & 3.
3.04=1.Lets adopt fy=300Mpa d=6600/36=183.K Total static moments for the spans:  Mo=Wu l2Ln^2/8 Longer span Mo=389.79KN/M^2 C h e c k W l /W d <2 7.75/5.75kN/M^2 12.3mm for exterior d=6600/40=165mm taking effective depth 25mm overall depth D=185+25=210mm load calculations:nominal density of concrete (ρ=2400kg/m^3): clauses 3.210*24=5.53<2 O.3 (Wd) dead load on slab 0.04kN/M^2 (WL)live load on slab =7.99KNM Shorter span Mo=330KNM 25 .2.
65 271.4 KNM 1.Distribution of bending moments across the panel width: Interior span ve moment=0.8KNM 26 .6 5xMo =253.4 KNM +ve B.65 +ve moment=0.52*Mo=171.75xMo =271.0 +0.M at exterior support =0.63 0.75xMo=292.70xMo KN M =231KNM +ve span BM interior support =0.63xMo =245.64 KNM ve B.M at exterior support =0KNM +ve span BM =0.4KNm 245.3kNm Middle strip ve B.6KN M ve span BM at exterior support =0.M at interior span=0.26xMo=85.M at exterior span=0.M at interior span=0.63*Mo=245.35 Column strip ve B.4kNm 253.64KN M ve span BM at interior support =0.40KNM Column strip ve B.
5 75 1.0 75 2.8KN M Middle strip:ve BM at exterior span=0 KN M +ve BM at mid span =147.M at exterior support =0.0 75 2.Middle strip ve B.65xMoKN M =214.14KNM +ve BM at mid span =147.37KN M ve BM at inerior span =219KN M 27 .5 75 1.0 75 (α L2/L1)>0 90 75 45 Longer span:Column strip:ve BM at exterior span=292.0 75 (α L2/L1)>0 90 75 45 Positive moments L2/L1 (α L2/L1)=0 0.70xMo=231KNM Moments in column strips:  Interior negative moments L2/L1 (α L2/L1)=0 0.37KN M ve BM at inerior span =189.5 KN_M +ve span BM mid span =0.35*Mo=115KN M ve span BM at interior support =0.
KN Vn*= 607.25KN M Check for shear develop in slab v´<=¢Vn.97KNM ve BM at inerior span =64KN M Middle strip:ve BM at exterior span=214.6(2.399 N/mm^2 Vc=0.2 V*=(Vn/bo*d) Vn=nominal shear stress Vn=1.17(1+2βc) √fc Βc=shorter side/long side Vc=2.5 KN M +ve BM at mid span =69.17(1+αd/(2*bo))√fc Vc=0.14KN M +ve BM at mid span =102.5X10^3/9200*165 Vn*=0.5*12.30)] Vn=607.3KN M ve BM at inerior span =173. Design of slab for two way action under clauses 9.79*[5.30)(2.6*6.Shorter span:Column strip:ve BM at exterior span=231.3.15.51 N/mm^2 Vn is not greater than Vc (safe) Reinforcement: Longer span 28 .
59*(Ast*Fy/Fc*b)) Reinforcement ratio ρ=√Fc/(4*Fy) Ρ=0.0045 P=As/b*d As=9477.6 mm^2 Use 12 mm dia bars =83nos c/c spacing 17 mm +ve steel As=3946 mm^2 Use 12 mm dia bars 34 nos c/c spacing 111mm Shorter span Column strip Mu=As*fy(d0.ve exterior reinforcement Mu=As*fy(d0.59*(Ast*Fy/Fc*b)) As=6798mm^2 Use 12 mm 60 nos 23 mm c/c spacing Middle strip As=2648 mm^2 c/c spacing 121mm 29 .
It establishes principles and requirements for safety.g. this is taken as 10 mm. where the application of a Eurocode expected to be provided in a textbook or similar publication. for concrete cast against formwork. The punching shear checks are carried at 2 d from the face of the column and for a rectangular column. 6. Eurocode 2 is applicable for ribbed reinforcement with characteristic yield strengths of 400 to 600 MPa. 4. 30 . columns etc). In addition to the minimum cover an allowance for deviations due to variations in execution (Construction) should be included. The partial factor for steel reinforcement is 1. Eurocode 2 recommends that. Partial fa ctors for actions are given in this Eurocode. some Expressions in the Eurocode are adjusted for classes above C50/60. In this Eurocode2 gives the design of concrete structures. 5. for bendi ng. because the characteristics of higher strength concrete are different. 7. whilst partial factors for materials are prescribed in their relevant Eurocode. However. but guidance is given in the background paper to the UK National Annex10. However. beams. The Eurocode does not provide derived formulae (e. slabs. This is the traditional European approach. Eurocode 2 is generally laid out to give advice on the basis of p henomena (e. EUROCODE 2 1.g.15. durability and fire resistance. the characteristic yield strength of steel that meets the requirements of BS 4449 will be 500 MPa. 3. 2. MPa (1 MPa = 1 N/m m2). only the details of the stress block are expressed). unless the construction is subject to a quality assurance systemic which case it could be reduced to 5 mm or even 0 mm whereon conforming members are rejected (e. It is again divided into different codes based on the materials. 8. There is no guidance on plain bar or mild steel reinforcement in the Eurocode.Higher strengths of concrete are covered by Eurocode 2. Units for stress are mega pascals. shear etc) rather than by member types as in BS 8110 (e. bending. Design is based on characteristic cylinder strengths not cube strengths. the perimeter is rounded at the corners. ser viceability and durability of structures The Eurocode uses a statistical approach to determine realistic values for actions that occur in combination with each other.EURODODE Introduction This Eurocode gives all structural design irrespective of the material of construction.g. up to class C90/105.g. so overall the effect is negligible. in a precast yard). Minimum concrete cover is related to bond strength.
fire and bond requirements 8.Check punching shear capacity 12 . Check for deflection 11 . 1.25. Determine loading arrangements 5. Determine design life 2. cover for durability. Check cover requirements for appropriate fire resistance period 7. Analyse structure to obtain critical moments and shear forces 9. Design flexural reinforcement 10 . 31 . 2. Calculate min. The magnitude of the variable actions excluding partitions does not exceed 5 kN/m 2. Determine which combinatio ns of actions apply 4.Design of flat slabs as per EUROCODE 2 A procedure for carrying out the detailed design of flat slabs is given below. bridges and other civil engineering structures Assess actions on the slab The load arrangements for flat slabs met the following requirements 1. Assess durability requirements and determine concrete strength 6. Assess actions on the slab 3. The ratio of the variable actions (Qk) to the permanent actions (Gk) does not exceed 1.Check spacing of bars Determine design life Based on structural design and their usage the values are given in table Design life(years) 10 1030 1525 50 120 Examples Temporary structures Replaceable structural parts Agricultural and similar structures Buildings and other common structures Monumental buildings.
182 2 – 0.180 0.04 Ac for tension or compression reinforcement outside lap locations . Determine K from the equation K=M /bd2fck Determine K’ from the given Table or K’ = 0.193 0.80 0.21 where ≤ 1.136 Obtain lever arm z from the equation z =d /2[13. Check minimum reinforcement requirements As.063Fl Where F is the total design ultimate load.04Fl 0.063Fl 0.086Fl 0.max = 0. End support/slab connection Pinned continuous End End End End support span Support span First interior support Interior spans Interior supports Moment 0 0.0 % redistribution d (redistribution ratio) K’ % redistribution 0 5 10 15 20 (redistribution ratio) 1.95d Calculate tension reinforcement required from As =M/fyd*z.00 0.53K] ≤ 0.166 0.205 0.Procedure for determining flexural reinforcement Carry out analysis of slab to determine design moments( M) (Where appropriate use coefficients from the below Table). Provide compression reinforcement Otherwise No compression reinforcement K’ 0.26* fctm* bt* d/fyk where fyk ≥ 25 Check maximum reinforcement requirements.min = 0. As.85 0. 32 .151 0.75 If K< K’ .95 0.086Fl 0.90 0.60 – 0. l is the effective span This analysis is only for concrete class<C5 0/60 only.075Fl 0.
Determine basic l/d from below fig 2. Determine Factor 2 (F2) Where the slab span exceeds 7 m and it supports brittle partitions. either by limiting spantodepth ratio or by assessing the theoretical deflection using the Expressions given in the Eurocode.0 3.e.1 ((bf/bw) – 1) ≥ 0.0 4.prov ≤ 1. 33 .req’d Is basic l/d * F1 * F2 *F3 ≥ Actual l/d if this condition is satisfied it is safe from deflection otherwise we have to increase As.0) Check As. Determine Factor 3 (F3) F3 = 310/ss Where ss = Stress in reinforcement at serviceability limit state or ss may be assumed to be 310 MPa (i. F3 = 1. F2 = 7/ leff Otherwise F2 = 1.5 As. Determine Factor 1 (F1) For ribbed or waffle slabs F1 = 1 – 0. In this we have to find using span to depth ratio.prov. Procedure for finding deflection 1.8 Where bf = flange breadth and bw= rib breadth Otherwise F1 = 1.Check for deflection Eurocode 2 has two alternative meth ods of designing for deflection.
rlz are the reinforcement ratios in two orthogonal directions for fully bonded tension steel.max design shear stress at face of column from vEd.max = β VEd /(ui deff) where ui is perimeter of column deff = (dy + dz)/2 (dy and dzare the effective depths in orthogonal dire ctions) Determine value of vRd. The control perimeters for rectangular columns in this have rounded corners. Determine value of vEd. 4. The maximum value of shear at the column face is not limited to 5 MPa. Where shear reinforcement is required the procedure is simpler. 3. However.max from Table 1 Check vEd. 2. (design shear stress) vEd.) Is vEd > vRd. 1. Determine value of vEd. Procedure for determining the punching shear 1. the reinforcement can be laid on a grid provided the spacing rules are followed.max = β VEd /(ui deff) where u1 is length of control perimeter Determine concrete punching shear ca pacity (without shear reinforcement). taken over a width equal to column width plus 3 d each side. vRD.c from where rl = (rly rlz)0.c if it satisfies Punching shear reinforcement not required otherwise 34 . the point at which no shear reinforcement is required can be calculated directly and then used to determine the extent of the area over which shear reinforcement is required. VEd. Determine value of factor β from the below fig 2. will usually be the support reaction at the ultimate limit state .max ≤ vRd.max if not redesign the slab. and depends on the concrete strength used.5 (rly.Punching shear The design value of the punching shear force. It is assumed that the reinforcement will be in a radial arrangement.
5 fywd.5Asw.ef) Where sr is the radial spacing of shear reinforcement fywd.26 fctm bt d/fyk but not less than 0.75vRd. for the principal reinforcement 3h but not more than 400 mm 2.min ≥ (sr. 35 .4 Ac Minimum spacing of reinforcement The minimum spacing of bars should be the greater of: Bar diameter Aggregate size plus 5 mm 20 mm Max spacing of main reinforcement For slabs less than 200 mm thick the following maximum spacing rules apply: 1.Determine area of punching shear reinforcement per perimeter from: Asw = (vEd – 0.st)/F where sr = the spacing of the links in th e radial direction st = the spacing of the links in the tangential direction F can be obtained from Table 10 Max area of reinforcement Outside lap locations.5h but not more than 450 mm The exception is in areas with concentrated loads or areas of maximum moment where the following applies: 1.ef = 250 + 0.25 deff ≤ fywd Determine the length of the outer perimeter where shear reinforcement not required from: uout.c d) Check spacing of bars Min area or reinforcement 1. the maximum area of tension or compress reinforcement should not exceed As. 2. for the secondary reinforcement 3h but not more than 400 mm Where h is the depth of the slab.min /(sr. for the principal reinforcement 2h but not more than 250 mm 2.ef = b VEd/(vRd.0013 b d.max = 0. which can be rearranged as Asw.st) ≥ 0. for the secondary reinforcement: 3.c)sr u1/(1.08fck½fyk. The minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement in the main direction is As. The minimum area of a link leg for vertical punching shear reinforcement is1.min = 0.
3 d to 1. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 2d for any other perimeter.For slabs 200 mm thick or greater reference should be made to Section 7.75 d 4. 6. 5.3. 2. 1. In this case the reinforcement should be placed in the zone 0.5d 36 .5dfrom the face of the column.3 of the Eurocode. The distance between the face of the column and the nearest shear reinforcement should be less than 0. Spacing of punching shear reinforcement Where punching shear reinforcement is required the following rules should be observed. It should be provided between the face of the column and kdinside the outer perimeter where shear reinforcement is no longer required.5. There should be at least two perimeters of shear links.5 d within2d of the column face. unless the perimeter at which reinforcement is no longer required is less than 3 d from the face of the column. 3. k is 1. The tangential spacing of the links should not exceed 1. The radial spacing of the links should not exceed 0.
53K] = 298 ≤ 0.75 KN / m 2 = wd Live load on slab = 7.35 x 25 = 8.21 where ≤ 1. Check: wl/wd = 0.0 = 0.max = β VEd /(ui deff) 37 2 .60 – 0.Numerical example: Longer span = 6.75 KN / m 2 = wl The design live load shall not exceed 1. whereas C20/25 the cube strength as 20 MPa.0129 2 K’ = 0. K= M/bd2fck = 0. Total depth = 314+15 = 350 mm(Based on the axis distance from code) D = 350 mm Load calculations Dead load acting on the slab = 0.6 m Shorter span = 5.118 KN m From this calculate K.4 5 K N /m Total design load = w d Values of secant modulus of elasticity for C20/25 = 29 KN/mm 2 Moments calculations For longer span Calculate M = 503.25 (safe) w l 1 5 . Depth of the slab from deflection criteria = span/21 (this is based on longer span) Effective depth = 314 mm This depth also satisfies the fire resistance accordind to euro code(REI 120).e f ck = 20 MPa Where C20/25 the cylinder strength as 25 MPa.1975 < K (ok ) safe No compression reinforcement required Calculation of Z Z=d /2[13.95 OK (safe) Punching shear calculations For internal columns take vEd.75 kN/m 2 Assume grade of concrete as C20/25 i.0885 < 1.182 – 0.6 m Live load =7.25 times the design dead load.
where ui is perimeter of column = 2000mm vEd.15*896)/(2000*314) = 1.31( from code) vEd.2 mm 2 < 0.5 fywd.0013*1000*314 = 424 mm2 Ok Max area of reinforcement As.75 mm 20 mm Min spacing = 20mm Max spacing of main reinforcement 38 .max ≤ vRd.c)sr u1/(1.75vRd. min = 0.64 KN/mm 2 vRd.26 fctm bt d/fyk = 408.5 mm2 Minimum spacing of reinforcement The minimum spacing of bars should be the greater of: Bar diameter = 12 mm Aggregate size plus 5 mm = 9.75 from code vEd > vRd.16*896*10 3/(1200*314) = 2.4 Ac =2415.max=3. max = 0.max=(1.73 vRd.c ok Area of punching shear reinforcement Asw = (vEd – 0.ef) = 2334.4 mm 2 Min area or reinforcement As.c= 0.max OK (safe) vEd.max = β VEd /(ui deff) vEd = 1.
Use 12 mm 4209 38 No.s 113 1. 39 .4 1000 c/c spacing is = 36 mm c/c 38 bars = Max spacing = 36 mm In this no punching shear rein forcement so no spacing for that.
...... Projection of drop panel below the slab shall be at least one quarter the slab thickness beyond the drop..... 4 in......... In computing required slab reinforcem ent.......... Thickness of the slab : For slabs without interior beams spanning between the supports an d having a ratio of long to short span not greater than 2..... (b) Slabs with drop panels as defined.. MINIMUM THICKNESS OF SLABS WITHOUT INTERIOR BEAMS 40 . the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the provisions of Table below and shall not be less than the following values: (a) Slabs without drop panels as ...... size of drop panel shall be in accordance with the following: Drop panel shall extend in each direction from centerline of support a di stance not less than onesixth the span length measured from center to center of supports in that direction..Design of flat slabs using ACI 318: Drop of flat slabs: Where a drop panel is used to reduce amount of negative moment reinforcement over the column of a flat slab. thickness of drop panel below the slab shall not be assumed greater than onequarter the distance from edge of drop panel to edge of column or column capital... 5 in..
.... whichever is less....35 41 . capitals....65 Positive factored moment ... Absolute sum of positive and average negative factored moments in each direction shall not be less than...20 to 0.. Column head The upper supporting part of a column is enlarged to form the column head.......... or wall centerlines on all sides..65 l1 ......0... Middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips.. Circular or regular polygon shaped supports shall be treated as square supports with the same area. M w u l2 l2n 8 0 wu =load per unit area acting on the slab panel ln =Clear span ln shall extend from face to face of columns.. total static moment M 0 shall be distributed as follows: Negative factored moment .. beam. A panel is bounded by column..... or walls...25 l1... the distance from edge to panel centerline shall be substituted for l2 ....... Value of ln shall not be less than 0. brackets.25 of the span length..25 l2 or 0. The diameter or the column head is made 0.0.....Design strips Column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column centerl ine equal to 0..... l2 =When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered. In an interior span.... Total factored static moment for a span Total factored static moment for a span shall be determined in a strip bounded laterally by centerline of panel on each side of centerline of supports......
Each middle strip shall be proportioned to resist the sum of the moments assigned to its two half middle strips. 42 . Edge beams or edges of slab shall be proportioned to resist in torsion their share of exterior negative factored moments Factored moments in middle strips: That portion of negative and positive factored moments not resisted by column strips shall be proportionately assigned to corresponding half middle strips. total factored static moment M 0 shall be distributed as follows: Negative moment sections shall be designed to resist the larger of the two interior negative factored moments determined for spans framing into a common support unless an a nalysis is made to distribute the unbalanced moment in accordance with stiff nesses of adjoining elements. A middle strip adjacent to and parallel with an edge supported by a wall shall be proportioned to resist twice the moment assigned to the half middle strip corresponding to the first row of interior supports.In an end span.
concentrated loads. or 43 .Factored moments in column strips: Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following portions in percent of exterior negative factored moments: Column strips shall be proportioned to resist the following portions in percent of exterior negative factored moments: Modification of factored moment: Modification of negative and positive factored moments by 10 percent shall be permitted provided the total static moment for a panel in the direction considered is not less than that required by M0 wul2ln2 8 Shear provision(punching shear): Twoway action where each of the critical sections to be investigated shall be located so that its perimeter b0 is a minimum but need not approach closer than d / 2 to (a) Edges or corners of columns. or reaction areas.
6 x 161. concentrated load or reaction area and where s is 40 for interior columns.80 psf = 7.6 KN/m 2 Live load on the slab = 161.22 12 max .5 + 1.58 in .2 x 7.4 mm .20 for corner columns] (a) Vc Vc 2 s 4 c fc !b 0d 2 ! fc b 0 d d (b) b0 4 (c) V c f!c b d 0 Numerical example: consider the slab to be designed with drop’s Depth of the slab from deflection criteria = (for yield stress f yi ln 36 415 N/mm 2 ) 60. Nominal shear strength of concrete: for flat slabs Vc =nominal shear strength of concrete Vc Shall be smallest of the following: [Where c is the ratio of long side to short side of the column. 36 36 max 5. 30 for edge columns. 4.76 12 14.(b) Changes in slab thickness such as edges of capitals or drop panels. 765 KN / m 2 44 .58 6 in 6 in > 4 in (for slabs with drop panels) Providing a slab of thickness 6 in or 152.88 350 psf = 16.74 in 5. Density of concrete = 150 lb / ft 3 6 Dead load on the slab = (150) 75 psf 12 3.80) = 348.75 KN / m 2 Design load on the slab = (1. 000 psi Minimum depth of slab 16.
06 x 0.89 KNm Positive design moment = 237 x 0.50 KNm Positive design moment = 148.22 KNm The column strip has a width of 2 With l2 l1 14.22 16.135 ft kips = 42. 1 0 ( no beams) l1 14.00 = 49.18 ftkips = 97.24 = 72. the total static design moment : 1 350 M0 16.8484 16.36 KNm The column strip has a width of 2 x 2 With 14.75 ftkips=237 KNm 8 1000 This is distributed as follows: Negative design moment = 237 x 0.59 mm l2 16.66 KNm Positive moment for column strip = 60 % of total positive moment in the panel. 65 = 154 ftkips = 208.8 ftkips = 67.35 = 83.22 4 7.For short span direction.00 ft kips = 113.60 x 51.76 0.26 ftkips=201. = 0.22 2 148.04 KNm 8 1000 This is distributed as follow s : Negative design moment = 148.65 = 96.00 = 115.21 KNm static moment along longer direction M0 1 350 16.85 mm Bending moment for column strip Negative moment for column strip = 75 % of total negative moment in the pannel = 0.76 4 8.06 x 0.88 KNm Positive moment for column strip = 60 % of total positive moment in the panel.76 1.977 KNm 45 .50 ft kips = 157.76 14.76 2 14.75 x 96.17 . = 0.891 ft kips = 70.60 x 83.11 ft 180.35 = 51.891 = 31.22 174.75 x 154.22 Bending moment for column strip: Negative moment for column strip = 75 % of total negative moment in the panel = 0.24 ft kips = 130.38 ft = 212.
00 = 33.59 y! ) f 60 )] 4 [0.43 in = 61.891 = 20.58 ft 5.22(1 0.85 m 1 Thickness of drop = (6) 1.65 12193.318 KNm Max moment (+ve or –ve ) along shorter span = 72.07 in = 77.06 ftkips = 32.76 2 6 5.59 0.5 in = 38.2 3.24 = 24.18 1000 (2.79 mm 78 mm 115.60 ft 1.76 ft length of drop panel 1 16.65 provide a slab of thickness 6 in.90 0. d2 Drop in flat slabs: Span of panel in longer direction = 16.1 72.65 d1 2.65 12193.5 ft kip = 52.33 KNm Bending moment for middle strip along longer span Negative moment for middle strip = 0.50 ft kips m ax Mu Mu d12 = maximum permitted reinforcement ratio f f y bd 2 (1 0.71 m with half width on either side of th e centre line of support = 0.7564 ftkips = 28.0206 M u .55 KNm Positive moment for middle strip = 0.0206 60.25 x 96.40 x 51.84 KNm positive moment for middle strip = 0.40 x 83.50 1000 12193. 000 14.Bending moment for middle strip along shorter span Negative moment for middle strip = 0.2 ft kips = 45.43) 2 12193.25 x 154 = 38.72 mm M u .1 mm 4 46 .18 ft kips Max moment (+ve or –ve) along longer span = 115.
76 14.72 (c) Vc 4 f!c b d 0 4 32968.64= 131874.56 lb Vc 131874.87 lb 4 21.57 lb 4 1. (assuming column of size 400 mm by 400 mm) Vu 350[(16.72) 6 32968.17 (1.Check for punching shear: Vu = factored shear. acting at distance d/2 from face of the support.56 Vu section safe in punching shear safe.64 157010.22) 350[238.812 ] f c! b0 d 1.64 178650.31 0.5) 365.365 lb 4000 (4 21.64 lb c The nominal stress of concrete will be smallest of the following : (a) Vc 2 2 4 c fc !b 0d 32968.17 (b) Vc d 2 fc b! d 0 b0 s 40 6 2 32968. 47 .91 K N 82265.5)(1.31 0.32 1.
4 in number 48 . f f ! c m in 0 .0040 x 14. at a spacing of 5 in.4 150.0018 In 14.10.0 0 2 1 1 2. at a spacing of 3.0040 Area of reinforcement = 0.1808 in 2 12 6 0 .Width=16. 8.7 6 Mu bd 2 0 .0017 Area of reinforcement = 0.2 2 In 16.18 103 14.76 32.4 65 Reinforcement ratio = 0.76 ft Minimum area of steel required = 0.76 x 6 x 12 = 4. 7 i n number For positive moment in column strip : R Mu b 324 31.90 6 2 b Mu b 324 R f y 1 0.1 8 0 8 1 4 .0017x 14.76 32.1 8 0 8 6 1 6 .76 ft direction. m in 6 16.76= 0 .0018 x gross area of concrete (for control of temperature & s hrinkage cracking) = 0.76 x 6 x 12 = 1.0 0 1 7 Mu 0.17 0.933 Reinforcement ratio = 0.588 psi or R Calculation of area of steel: Along shorter span: For negative moment in column strip: R Mu b 324 72.250 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No.Reinforcement Depth=6 ft.5 in.135 10 3 14.22 ft direction.8066 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No.
at a spacing of 4 in.00175 x 16.50 10 3 16.38 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No.04 in 2 / ft 49 .76 b 324 16.76 x 6 x 12 = 1.75 103 14.77 Reinforcement ratio = 0.4 43.8 103 R 94.22 32.00075 Area of reinforcement = 0.00375 x 16.4 219.76 32.79 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No. 4 in number Calculation of area of steel: Along lon ger span: For negative moment in column strip: R Mu b 324 115.22 x 6 x 12 = 4. at a spacing of 3 in.22 32.11.76 x 6 x 12 = 0. 3 in number For positive moment in middle strip: R Mu b 324 20. at a spacing of 4 in.For negative moment in middle strip: R Mu b 324 24.4 Reinforcement ratio = 0.311 Reinforcement ratio = 0.76 32.0013x 14. 4.00075x 14.4 50.00375 Area of reinforcement = 0.22 x 6 x 12 = 2.00175 Area of reinforcement = 0. 8 in number For positive moment in column strip : Mu 49.38 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No.0013 Area of reinforcement = 0.6 103 14. 6.40 Reinforcement ratio = 0.
6.25 Reinforcement ratio = 0.22 x 6 x 12 = 1. 3 in number For negative moment in middle strip: R Mu b 324 38.4598 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No. at a spacing of 5 in.22 x 6 x 12 = 1. 3 in number For positive moment in middle strip: R Mu b 324 33.4 73. at a spacing of 3.00115 Area of reinforcement = 0.20 103 16.50 103 16.17 Reinforcement ratio = 0.22 32. 7.22 32.00125 Area of reinforcement = 0.00125x 16.00115x 16. at a spacing of 4 in.4 63.34 in 2 / ft Provide Bar No.5 in. 7.Provide Bar No. 7 in number 50 .
8 30 Cylinder 152.4x304.22 147.7 420 500 Negative moment(KNm) 188.8 20 Cylinder 152.NZS.Result:  codal comparisons (ACI.IS) CODE IS456 ACI318 NZS 3101 Euro code Shape of test specimen for Cube concrete strength (mm) 150x150x150 Grade of concrete(N/mm²) 20 Cylinder 152.89 292.4x304.14 192.5 Area of reinforcement(mm²) 4209 2829 2817 2415.6 Positive moments(KNm) 90 113.37 135.8 20 Grade of steel (N/mm²) 415 413.5 Thickness of slab for Serviceability criteria(mm) Punching shear 170 150 210 315 Safe Safe Safe Safe 51 .5 208.4x304.
Conclusions: 52 .
Ramamrutham 53 .C design .S.875.C.pradeep kumar ramancharala 6.unnikrishna pillai. Dr. ASI318 3. NZS:3101 4. 2. Indian standards 456. Reinforced concrete design –S.References:1. Devdas menon 7. Euro code 5. R.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?