Object Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML


Course description:
OBJECTIVE: The understand the Unified Modeling Language and orient towards Object Oriented methodology using UML for modeling software systems. TARGET AUDIENCE: In particular, it is intended for software professionals who have sound knowledge of object concepts and some experience towards analysis and design. PREREQUISITES: Good understanding of object concepts. Sound knowledge of any object oriented language. Knowledge of software engineering process.

Course description:
TABLE OF CONTENTS: Module1 Introduction Module2 Use case diagram Module3 Flow of events Module 4 Realization of the class diagram
Sequence diagram and Collaboration Diagram

Module5 Module6 Module7

Class diagram and refinement attributes State transition and activity diagram Implementation diagram
Component diagram and Deployment diagram

Module8 Understanding project culture Appendix-A

Module-1 4 .

Importance of modeling What is a model? ± A model is a simplification of reality Why do we model? ± help visualizing ± permit specification ± provides a template ± document decisions 5 .

4 Principles of Modeling Choose your models well Every model may be expressed at various levels of precision The best models are connected to reality No single model is sufficient 6 .

disciplined and qualifiable approach to the development. Software development life cycle has following stages: REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION TESTING 7 .What is Software Engineering? DEFINITION:The application of systematic. operation and maintenance of a software system is software engineering.

How it is to be done ? Two Popular methodology approaches are: Structured Analysis & Design Object Oriented Analysis & Design-OO model 8 .Effort Distribution for each stage: Analysis & design Development Testing 40 % 20 % 40 % Analysis .What is to be done ? Design .

Major benefits of OOAD: The object oriented approach is a way of thinking about a problem using real world concepts instead using adhoc function concepts. We intent to learn OOAD approach for the following reason: ±Promotes better understanding of user requirements ±Leads cleaner design ±Design flexibility' ±Decomposition of the system is consistent ±Facilitates data abstraction & information hiding ±Software reuse ±Easy maintenance ±Implementation flexibility 9 .

Elements of OO Methodology: Following are three elements for every OO methodology: Notation Process / Method Tool 10 .

The Unified Modeling Language [UML] provides a very robust set of notation which grows from analysis to design. the unified modeling language provides the basis for a de facto standard in the domain of object oriented analysis and design founded on a wide base of user experience 11 .What is Notation? Notation: It is collection of graphical symbols for expressing model of the system. This brings end of the method wars as far as notation is concerned with adoption of the language [UML] By unifying the notations used by these object oriented methods.

sets it free to concentrate on more advance and creative problems ³ UML is not a method or process but is the means to express the same. OOSE notations but rather legitimate successor to all three. constructing and documenting the artifacts of software system. OMT. specifying. which is more expressive and more uniform than individual notations. a good notation.What is UML? It is a Unified Modeling Language. 12 . UML is visual modeling language for modeling systems and is non proprietary UML is not a radical departure from Booch. which is mainly a collection of graphical notation that methods use to express the designs. It is an evolutionary step. The UML is language for visualizing. Whitehead says ³ By relieving the brain of unnecessary work.

absolutely anywhere everywhere.Where can you use the UML? System of several different kinds. Primarily for software intensive systems like: Systems software Business processes 13 .

8 Other method Booch OMT OOSE 14 . sept¶97 UML1.9 Unified Method 0.0 Beta version OOPSLA¶96 UML0.The Evolution of the UML: Public Feedback OMG vote¶97 Submission to OMG.1 Submission of OMG group UML1.

Advantages of UML: Captures business processes Enhance communication and ensures the right communication Capability to capture the logical software architecture independent of the implementation language Manages the complexity Enables reuse of design 15 .

package etc. component. State diagram..UML refers to: UML things: Class. interaction diagram. UML diagrams: Use case diagram. relationship.deployment diagram 16 . node. class diagram.

17 .What is Process? What is Process? It is an extensive set of guidelines that address the technical and organizational aspects of software development focusing on requirements. OO model supports the iterative and incremental model for the process. Process basically encapsulates the activities leading to the orderly construction of system model. analysis and design.

implementation technology and skills of team Booch.OMT.More about Process? Guidance as to the order of team¶s activities It specifies what artifacts should be developed It directs the task of individual developers and team as a whole It offers criteria for monitoring and measuring project activities The selection of particular process will vary greatly depending upon things like problem domain. Framework for the every stage of software development life cycle. 18 .OOSE and many other methods have well defined process and UML supports almost all methods There has been some convergence on development process practices but there is no consensus for standardization.

Best Practices followed by Rational Unified Process Develop software iteratively Manage requirements Use component based architectures Visually model software Verify S/W quality Control changes to software. 19 .

Since we are concentrating on requirement. analysis and design phase. following are the names of few tools which are greatly in use: 1. Cayenne 3. Select 20 . Platinum 4.What is a tool? It is automated support for every stage of software development life cycle. Rational Rose 2.

Round trip engineering Conversion from SSAD to OOAD Quick documentation«etc 21 .Why Tool? Helps designer for creating designs much more quickly. Supports validations like: Consistency checking Completeness checking Constrain checking. Time required for certain operation could be predicted . Code generation Reverse engineering.

Notation Tool Method 22 .Triangle for Success: All three components play equally important role towards the success of the project.

Objective of the first module: Get introduced with Unified Modeling Language and know the basic components of software development life cycle. 23 .

Module-2 24 .

OO model: DYNAMIC MODEL STATIC MODEL LOGICAL MODEL PHYSICAL MODEL The models of Object Oriented Development 25 .

26 .Models and Views: 4+1 view of OO model. ± ± ± ± Process view Deployment view Logical view Dynamic view + ± Use case view As shown in the model . for each dimension we define a number of diagrams that denote a view of the system¶s model. The use case view is central since its contents drive the developments of other views.

Behavioral diagrams .Object diagram .Collaboration diagrams 4.Interaction diagrams .State chart diagrams . Class Diagram 3.Component diagram .Deployment diagram 27 . Use case diagram 2.Sequence diagrams .UML diagrams: 1. Implementation diagrams .Activity diagrams .

Semantics of Diagrams: Use case diagrams represent the functions of a system from the user¶s point of view. and correspond to simplified collaboration diagrams that do not represent message broadcasts. Collaboration diagrams are a spatial representation of objects. and interactions. links. Object diagrams represent objects and their relationships. Class diagrams represent the static structure in terms of classes and relationships. Sequence diagrams are a temporal representation of objects and their interactions. 28 .

Deployment diagrams represent the deployment of components on particular pieces of hardware. Component diagrams represent the logical components of an application. State chart diagrams represent the behavior of a class in terms of states Activity diagrams are to represent the parallel behavior of an operation as a set of actions. 29 ..Semantics of Diagrams: Contd..

What is USE CASE diagram? A use case diagram establish the capability of the system as a whole. Components of use case diagram: Actor Use case System boundary Relationship Actor relationship Semantic of the components is followed. 30 .

shown below.ACTOR: What is an actor? An actor is some one or something that must interact with the system under development UML notation for actor is stickman. Customer Manager Cashier 31 .

ACTOR: More about an actor: It is role a user plays with respect to system. Actors are determined by observing the direct uses of the system. 32 . Actors carry out use cases and a single actor may perform more than one use cases. Actors are not part of the system they represent anyone or anything that must interact with the system.

input to and out from the system.receive information from the system.input information to the system. . .ACTOR: Contd« Those are responsible for its use and maintain as well as other systems that interact with the developed system. An actor may . 33 .

34 . They are never part of the system to be developed.ACTOR: How do we find the actor? Ask following questions to find the actors: ± ± ± ± ± ± Who uses the system? Who installs the system? Who Starts up the system? What other systems use this system? Who gets the information from the system? Who provides information to the system? Actor is always external to the system.

35 .ACTOR: 4-Categories of an actor: Principle : Who uses the main system functions. Secondary : Who takes care of administration & maintenance. External h/w : The h/w devices which are part of application domain and must be used. Other system: The other system with which the system must interact.

then new actor can be dropped.ACTOR: Note: If newly identified actor is using a system in a same way like an existing actor. 36 . If two actors use system in the same way they are same actors.

Examples: Open new account Withdrawal of cash from ATM 37 . the system exhibits Each use case is a sequence of related transactions performed by an actor and the system in dialogue.USE CASE: What is USE case? A use case is a pattern of behavior. USE CASE is dialogue between an actor and the system.

It captures a broad view of a primary functionality of the system in a manner that can be easily grasped by non technical user. They model a dialog between actor and system.USE CASE: More about USE CASE: It is a snapshot of one aspect of system. A use case typically represents a major piece of functionality that is complete from beginning to end. Most of the use cases are generated in initial phase. A use case may be small or large. but you find some more as you proceed. 38 .

39 . The use cases may be decomposed into other use cases. Use cases also present a good vehicle for project planning.USE CASE: Contd« A use case must deliver something of value to an actor.

Or delete that information? Does the system need to notify an actor about changes in its internal state? 40 .USE CASE: How do we find the use cases? What functions will the actor want from the system? Does the system store information? What actors will create. read. update.

USE CASE: Generic format for documenting the use case: . Description. List of actors(external agents). primary / secondary. 41 . SYSTEM RESPONSE : Numbered description of system responses.Pre condition: ± Use case : ± Actors : ± ± ± ± Purpose : Overview : Type : Post condition: If any Name of the case. If any Typical Course of Events: ACTOR ACTION : Numbered actions of the actor. indicating who initiates the use case. Intention of the use case.

At the end of complete successful process customer receives the passbook. Customer requests for the new account form. Type :Primary use case. Cashier. fill the same and submits. 42 . Manager Purpose :Like to have new saving account. Description :A customer arrives in the bank to open the new account. Use case :Open new account Actors :Customer. along with the minimal deposit.USE CASE: USE CASE documentation example: The following use case describes the process of opening a new account in the bank.

Grouping USE CASES: Those use case functionality which are directly dependent on the system environment are placed in interface objects Those functionality dealing with storage and handling of information are placed in entity objects Functionality's specific to one or few use cases and not naturally placed in any of the other objects are placed in control objects By performing this division we obtain a structure which helps us to understand the system from logical view 43 .

OOAD --- USE CASE driven
Analysis Design & Implementation


Use cases make up the glue

Capture,clarify & validate use cases

Implement use cases

Verify that use cases are satisfied


What is System Boundary? It is shown as a rectangle. It helps to identify what is external verses internal, and what the responsibilities of the system are. The external environment is represented only by actors.


What is Relationship? Relationship between use case and actor. Communicates Relationship between two use cases Extends Uses Notation used to show the relationships:



.This functionality is placed in a separate use case rather than documenting in every use case that needs it. 47 . Relationship between two use cases is refereed as either uses or extends.Multiple use cases share a piece of same functionality.RELATIONSHIP: Relationship between use case and actor is often referred as ³communicates´ . USES: .

48 . A uses relationship shows behavior that is common to one or more use cases.. which is required only under certain condition.. EXTENDS: It is used to show optional behavior.RELATIONSHIP: Contd.

Balance status report extends Clerk Withdraw cash Customer uses Validation ATM Manager 49 .USE CASE diagram: Use case diagram for the shown functionality.

from user perspective. 50 .Objective of the second module To understand and capture the detailed specification of a system to be developed.

Module-3 51 .

Beginning Analysis and Design Completion of first version of use case diagram initiates the processes of analysis and design. 52 . Every diagram and notation used in the diagram carries the semantics. UML provides the framework to carry out the process of analysis and design in form of set of diagrams. First step towards analysis and design is to specify the flow of events.

Typical contents ± How the use case starts and ends ± Normal flow of events ± Alternate flow of events ± Exceptional flow of events Typical Course of Events has: Actor Action(AA) System Response(SR) 53 . Details about what the system must provide to the actor when the use is executed.Flow of Events: A flow of events document is created for each use case.

5.(SR) The ATM verifies the serial number and password with the bank and gets the notification accordingly.(AA) The user inserts a cash card.(SA)The ATM asks the user to select the kind of transaction.Normal Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash: 1.(SR) The ATM requests the password.(AA) The user enters 1234. 4. 3. 8. 2. 6. 54 . 7.(AA)User selects the withdrawal.(SR) The ATM accepts the card and reads its serial number.(SR) The ATM asks the user to insert a card.

(SR)The ATM asks for the amount of cash. 13. 14. 11.(AA) The user indicates no.. 12. 9.(AA) The user takes the cash. 2500/10. to process the transaction which eventually confirms success and returns the new account balance.(SR) The ATM dispenses cash and asks the user to take it..(SR)The ATM verifies that the amount of cash is within predefined policy limits and asks the bank.(SR) The ATM asks whether the user wants to continue. 55 .Normal Flow of Events: Contd. user enters Rs.

15. ejects the card and asks the user to take them 16. 56 .(SR) The ATM prints a receipt. 17.(AA) The user takes the receipt and the card.Normal Flow of Events: Contd.(SR) The ATM asks a user to insert a card...

The ATM asks for the amount of cash. 57 . the user has change of mind and hits the ³cancel´.Alternative Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash use case: 9.

11 Money gets stuck in the machine. 10 The machine is out of cash.Exceptional Flow of Events: For withdrawal of cash use case: 3 Suspicious pattern of usage on the card. 58 .

59 . Flow of events helps in finding objects of the system to be developed.Why flow of events? It helps in understanding the functionality of a system to be developed. Happens to be most important and very first step towards analysis and design.

60 . Scenarios are developed to help identify objects. classes and object interactions for that use case. A scenarios is one path through the flow of events for the use case.What is Scenario? The functionality of the use case is captured in flow of the events.

61 .Objective of the third module To understand the flow of each functionality and find out the objects and methods required to build the system.

Module-4 62 .

USE CASE Realizations: The use case diagram presents an outside view of the system Interaction diagrams describe how use cases are realized as interactions among societies of objects. Two types of interaction diagrams ± Sequence diagrams ± Collaboration diagrams 63 .

links and interrelations 64 .What is Interaction diagram? Interaction diagrams are models that describe how groups of objects collaborate in some behavior There are 2 kinds of interaction diagrams ‡ Sequence diagram ‡ Collaboration diagram Sequence diagrams are a temporal representation of objects and their interactions Collaboration diagrams are spatial representation of objects.

Shows object interaction arranged in time sequence.What is sequence diagram? Typically these diagrams capture behaviors of the single scenario. vertical represents time & horizontal represents objects. 65 . Components of sequence diagram: -objects -object lifeline -Message -pre/post conditions. It has two dimensions. They show sequence of messages among the objects.

OBJECT & OBJECT LIFE LINE: Object are represented by rectangles and name of the objects are underlined. They are used to model the existence of objects over time. Name:Class 66 . Object life line are denoted as dashed lines.

Messages are denoted as labeled horizontal arrows between life lines.MESSAGES: They are used to model the content of communication between objects. The sender will send the message and receiver will receive the message. and possibly other information according to the characteristics of the request. receiver. 67 . The message instance has a sender. They are used to convey information between objects and enable objects to request services of other objects.

May have parentheses containing an argument list consisting of a comma separated list of actual parameters passed to a method. May have have an asterisk followed by square brackets containing an iteration specification. This is a Boolean condition that must be satisfied to enable the message to be sent.MESSAGES: Contd« May have square brackets containing a guard conditions. May have return list consisting of a comma -separated list of names that designate the values of returned by the operation. 68 . This specifies the number of times the message is sent. Must have a name or identifier string that represents the message.

eject card Request take card Take card Display main screen and prompt for the card. 69 . normal flow] :ATM Verify account Account o.k.Sequence diagram :Customer Insert card Request password Enter the password Request option Enter option Request amount Enter the amount [for withdrawal of cash. Create Transaction :Bank :Transaction Dispense cash Request take cash Take cash Request continuation Update transaction Transaction commit Transaction complete Terminate Print receipt .

without going into the details of user interface. an actor can be displayed in order to represent the triggering of interaction by an element external to the system. Unlike sequence diagram the time is not explicitly represented in these diagrams In collaboration diagram the sequence of messages is indicated by numbering the messages. 70 . using static spatial structure. The UML uses the decimal numbering scheme.What is Collaboration diagram? Collaboration diagrams illustrate the interaction between the objects. This helps in representing the interaction. In these diagrams.

71 . step within thread. ‡ It uses decimal notation. Message names may have the arguments and return values. ‡ Message direction.Components of collaboration diagram: Named objects Links: Links are represented by a continuous line between objects. ‡ Sequence number ‡ Message labels : The name of the message often corresponds to an operation defined in the class of the object that is the destination of the message. ‡ *[iteration]. and indicates the exchange of messages. Messages has following attributes: ‡ Synchronization --thread name.

Messages in the collaboration diagram get transformed to more detailed signature.Semantics of components: Object names identify which objects are participating and the links show which objects collaborate A link between two objects must exist for one object to send message to another and vice a versa. The direction of the message defines the sender and receiver of the message 72 . They use the decimal notation system for numbering the messages.

The elements of message: Predecessor Role names Message qualifiers ± ± ± ± ± Iteration expression Parameters Return values Guard Message stereotypes Concurrent thread sequencing Thread dependencies Message expression [Pre] A1:*(expression):doIt(p.r):return value 73 .

y) 4.2: ote() 4.3.1: isplay(x.n]:Turnoff() 74 .b/4*||[i:=1.. ith other flo of execution Iteration arallel iteration [ ge =18] 6.1:Turnon( amp) 1*: ash() 3.6/c.2:subtract[Today.b.a.The examples of message: 4: isplay(x.y) 3.a.3. irthday]:age imple message ested message ested message ith return value onditional message ynchro.

request take card bad account message. bad account. Take cash.] 1. request kind. eject card. dispense cash. bad bank code TRANSACTION BANK 75 . Insert card Enter password.k. Verify account. request amount. bad password. request password. Take card cancel.Terminate.Collaboration diagram [for withdrawal of cash. bad bank account message process transaction ATM Transaction succeed Transaction failed account o. request take cash request continuation. Continue CUSTOMER Create Transaction Transaction complete Display main screen unreadable card message. canceled message. Enter kind Enter amount. failure message. normal flow. print receipt.

76 . To understand how the messages get matured with more information. To know how objects collaborate among each other and hence delegate the responsibility to the respective objects.Objective of the fifth module To know the interaction among the objects in temporal and spatial form.

Module-5 77 .

aggregation. their structure and behavior. composition.What is Class diagram? A class diagram shows the existence of classes and their relationships in the logical view of a system UML modeling elements in class diagrams are: ± Classes. ± relationships components among the classes like association. dependency and inheritance ± Multiplicity and navigation indicators ± Role names or labels. 78 .

that is it can have different instances. Abstract classes An abstract class is a class that has no direct instance but whose descendants classes have direct instances. An abstract operation defines the form of operation.Major Types of classes: Concrete classes A concrete class is a class that is instantiable. 79 . An abstract class can define the protocol for an operation without supplying a corresponding method we call this as an abstract operation. Only concrete classes may be leaf classes in the inheritance tree. for which each concrete subclass should provide its own implementation.

RELATIONSHIP: Association Aggregation Composition Inheritance Dependency Instantiation 80 .

ASSOCIATION: These are the most general type of relationship: It denotes a semantic connection between two classes It shows BI directional connection between two classes It is a weak coupling as associated classes remain somewhat independent of each other Example: CUSTOMER ATM system 81 .

AGGREGATION: This is a special type of association The association with label ³contains´ or ³is part of´ is an aggregation It represents ³has a ³ relationship It is used when one object logically or physically contains other The container is called as aggregate It has a diamond at its end The components of aggregate can be shared with others It expresses a whole .part relationships 82 .

AGGREGATION: Example: Customer ATM card 83 .

COMPOSITION: This is a strong form of aggregation It expresses the stronger coupling between the classes The owner is explicitly responsible for creation and deletion of the part Any deletion of whole is considered to cascade its part The aggregate has a filled diamond at its end Window Client Area 84 .

Account CurrentAccount SavingAccount 85 .INHERITANCE: The inheritance relationship helps in managing the complexity by ordering objects within trees of classes with increasing levels of abstraction.shown below. Generalization and specialization are points of view that are based on inheritance hierarchies. Notation used is solid line with arrowhead.

This association is unidirectional and is shown with dotted arrowhead line. The server need not know about client. Client Server 86 .DEPENDENCY: Dependency is semantic connection between dependent and independent model elements. In the following example it shows the dependency relationship between client and server. The client avails services provided by server so it should have semantic knowledge of server.

INSTANTIATION This relationship is defined between parameterized class and actual class. Parameterized class is also referred as generic class. A parameterized class can¶t have instances unless we first instantiated it Example: Element Queue Queue<int> 87 .

Common multiplicity values: Symbol Meaning 1 One and only one 0... 88 .* From one to any positive integer Also thought can be given about navigability to every applicable relationship.What is Cardinality? : Definition: Number of instances of each class involved in the dialogue is specified by cardinality..1 Zero or one M«N From M to N (natural integer) 0.* From zero to any positive integer 1.

their interaction and detailed message signature. Relationship is further refined with respect to multiplicity and navigability. This information is carried forward to the class diagram.we group the similar objects and form classes. Messages get mapped to responsibilities for respective classes. Transform the links to appropriate relationships. Find the attributes for every class. At this point.Reaching the class diagram: In collaboration diagram we have shown the objects. This complete procedure brings the minimal class diagram [for withdraw cash use case. normal flow.] 89 .

* Transaction 1...Class diagram [for withdrawal of cash. normal flow] Customer 1 1..* 1.* 1 1 1 Bank[Branch] 90 ..* ATMSystem 0.

Next few slides will take into the discussion of refinement attributes. Similar exercise required to be carried out for every scenario and clubbed all in the class diagram. This process of iterative and incremental development will continue till there is no change in two consecutive iteration.What more to the Class Diagram? Till this slide we have worked out the essentials of class diagram for withdrawal of cash use case. Approximate sketch for this class diagram has been shown at the end of this module. we refine this integrated class diagram to add further fine details. normal flow of events. 91 . Refinement attributes should be updated right from sequence diagram to class diagram. At this point.

OOAD---Iterative & Incremental Approach Identify objects Identify Messages Validate Classes & Objects Group classes into domains Identify class behavior Group Objects into classes Identify & classify Class relationships 92 .

Refinement attributes: Stereotypes: Stereotypes are part of the range of extensibility mechanism provided by UML It permits user to add new model element classes on top of the kernel predefined by UML 93 .

links. A constraint restricts the values that entities can assume. which is subset of UML.Refinement attributes: Contd« Constraints: Constraints are functional relationship between the entities and object model.e. so they may therefore be expressed using natural language. other than they should appear between braces. attributes. UML doesn't specify a particular syntax for constraints. 94 . Object Constraint Language. navigation expression or mathematical expression UML1. classes. The entities include objects.2 does prefer the use of a constraint language OCL i. association. pseudo code.

Constraint on the same class.8 or > 1.e. Transaction {No. of transaction < 5 /day} No window will have an aspect ratio i.5} 95 .5 Window length/width A constraint between the properties of the same object {0. (length/width) of less than 0.Refinement attributes: Example:Constraints Number of withdrawal transaction should be less than five per day.8< length/width < 1.

Refinement attributes: Qualifier: UML provides a role of constraint notation to indicate different kind of collections that may be inherent in the analysis model Common role constraints for multi valued roles include {ordered} {bag} {set} Collection is maintained in sorted manner Collection may have multiple copies of same item. Some constraints may be combined such as: {ordered set} 96 . Collection may have at most one copy of given item.

One to many and many to many association may be qualified. 97 .dictionaries A qualified association relates two object classes and a qualifier The qualifier is a special attribute that reduced the effective multiplicity of an association.Refinement attributes: Qualifier: Another common design scheme is to use a key value to retrieve an item from the collection. maps. This is called as qualified association and the key value as qualifier. A qualified association is the UML equivalent of a programming concept variously known as associative arrays.

normalize with qualifier or association class. 98 . Check for helper functions. Check for the scope forming abstract classes and template classes. Thought can be given for using the design patterns. if any.Refinement attributes: Check for many to many relationship.

Objective of the fifth module:
Learn to build the architecture, which contains the entire information of the system to be developed. It is this architecture which is called as BLUE PRINT is handed over for coding.


Refined Class diagram
Area ATMSystem

[for withdrawal of cash]

Few more relationship can be further added to the shown diagram:

1..* 1 Bank[Branch] 1 1

BankComputer <<abstract>> person

Cash <<abstract>> AccountAccessor

Transaction 1..* Slips 1..* <<abstract>> Account 1 CurrentAccount SavingAccount 1 1

CashierStation Customer BankAssociates 1 TellerScreen 0..1 BankCard NoteHelpForBankCard ATMScreen




the events or the messages that cause a transition from one state to another and the action that result from a state change. A state transition diagram will not be created for every class in the system. Components of State Diagram: ± Start State ± Stop state ± State Transition 102 .What is state transition diagram? A state transition diagram shows the states of a single object.

performs some action. 103 . Notation for stop state is bull¶s eye. Stop State: An object can have multiple stop states. Special states:There are two special states.Semantics of every components: State: A state is a condition during the life of an object when it satisfies some condition. Notation for start state is ³filled solid circle´. Start state: Each state diagram must have one and only one start state. or waits for an event. The UML notation for a state is a rectangle with rounded corners.

Transition label: event name[guard condition] / action 104 .Semantics of every components: Contd.. State transition: A state transition represents a change from an originating to a successor state..

State Transition Diagram [for Account class. ] request and fill the form for new saving account[ validate ] / process Open transaction request[ validate ] / update() transactionStrart / Transfer_to_main_ledger () Dormant Operational no transaction / Transfer_to_Dormant_Ledger Fraud or authorized instruction[Validate] / lockAccount() matter_resolved[ validate ] / unlockAccount() seized fill_the_request_form/update() close fill_the_request_form / update() Note:Account can be closed from open state as well 105 .

state diagrams are used only for those classes that exhibit interesting behavior.More about State Diagram: A state diagram will not be created for every class. State diagram are used to show dynamics of a individual class 106 . State diagrams are also useful to investigate the behavior of user interface and control classes.

What is activity diagram?
It is a special kind of state diagram and is worked out at use case level. These are mainly targeted towards representing internal behavior of a a use case. These may be thought as a kind of flowchart. Flowcharts are normally limited to sequential process; activity diagrams can handle parallel process. Activity diagrams are recommended in the following situations:  Analyzing use case  Dealing with multithreaded application  Understanding workflow across many use cases.


Consistency Checking

Consistency checking is the process of ensuring that, information in both static view of the system(class diagram) and the dynamic view of the system(sequence and collaboration diagram) is telling the same story.


Objective of the sixth module
Understand the dynamic behavior of a class Way to find the parallel processes at use case level.


Module-7 110 .

111 .What is component diagram? COMPONENT DIAGRAM: Component diagrams illustrate the organizations and dependencies among software components. A component may be ‡ A source code component ‡ A run time components ‡ An executable component ‡ Dependency relationship.

dll Branch Bank.dll Branch Bank.exe ATM.Component Diagram policy.exe 112 .dll [for withdrawal of cash] Bank Server.exe customer.

Each node in deployment diagram represents some kind of computational unit. Ethernet connection.What is deployment diagram? A deployment diagram shows the relationship among software and hardware components in the delivered system. in most cases a piece of hardware. Connection among nodes show the communication path over which the system will interact. These diagram include nodes and connections between nodes. 113 . The connections may represent direct hardware coupling line RS-232 cable. they also may represent indirect coupling such as satellite to ground communication.

exe Ethernet Ethernet ATM_ machine ATM.Deployment diagram Branch Bank_ Bank.exe 114 .exe Bank_ server BankServer.

Objective of the seventh module: To understand the organization of software modules and their deployment on the respective hardware. 115 .

Module-8 116 .

Architecture Centric 117 .Requirement Centric 3.Quality Centric 5.Documentation Centric 4.Calendar Centric 2.Understanding the project culture It may be: 1.

Understanding the project¶s culture Architecture driven projects represent the most mature style of development. that are not yet known or well understood. In every sense of the word. Architecture driven style of development is usually the best approach for the creation of most complex software intensive systems 118 . architect-driven policies are in evolutionary step beyond requirement driven policies. These projects are characterized by a focus on creating a frame work that satisfies all known requirement. yet is resilient enough to adapt to those requirements.

Create. making mid-course corrections as necessary to adopt to new requirements as they are uncovered. Specify the system¶s desired behavior through a collection of scenarios. an architecture.Understanding the project¶s culture Architecture driven style of development typically observe the following process: 1. (Design) 3. 119 . Evolve that architecture. (Analysis) 2. then validate.

2. A set of collaboration that specify how those classes co-operate to provide various system function. 120 . typically organized into multiple hierarchies.OOAD---Architecture Centric What exactly is nature of the well structured object oriented architecture?? 1. A set of classes.

121 .ESSENCE OF OOAD AND UML Use case driven Architecture centric Incremental and iterative approach.

CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER Same desire should also be applicable in creating software architecture as well. breathtaking. a place where people can walk and dream for centuries. beautiful.that one day. 122 .Desire for good Architecture Those of us who have been trained as architects have this desire perhaps at the very center of our lives. some where somehow. we shall build one building which is wonderful.

Appendix-A 123 .

Alain Muller Software Engineering ± Roger S Pressman 124 .Strong recommendation Object Technology ± David A. Taylor Object Oriented Analysis and design with Applications ± Grady Booch UML distilled ±Martin Fowler Instant UML ± Pierre .

.1 125 . Winters UML Toolkit ± Hans-Eriksson and Magnus Penker Version1..REFERENCES Contd. Object Oriented Modeling and Design ± James Rumbaugh Object Oriented Software Engineering ± Ivar Jacobson Clouds to code ± Jesse Liberty Applying use cases ± Geri Schneider ±Jason p.

THANK-U! 126 .

One demonstration session on the tool like Rational Rose can be accompanied.Course description: SESSION BREAKUP: The course will be offered in series of fourteen hours theory session. Duration Session Module-1.2 2-hours demonstration lecture Module-3 2-hours Module-4 2-hours Module-5 4-hours Module-6 2-hours Module-7.The following is the suggested agenda for the course.8 2-hours Demonstration 2-hours 127 .

Course description: REFERENCE AND READING MATERIALS: Refer to Appendix-A EXERCISE AND HANDS ON: One case study should be given to the group of four members. TEST: Case study given for exercise can be evaluated as part of the test. 128 .

their syntax and semantics. 129 . Several excellent references are given in Appendix-A.Object oriented analysis and design with applications by Grady Booch Note: UML toolkit should be refereed for UML notations.Course description: INSTRUCTION TO THE FACULTY: Course should emphasize on OO modeling.UML toolkit by Eriksson and Magnus Penker 2.2] and UML diagrams and then applying to a problem. Focus should be primarily on understanding UML[1. Following are strongly recommended reading and should be used as supplementary with this power point courseware. Object oriented analysis and design with applications should be refereed for OO concepts. 1.

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