# Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5
The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relational Model Concepts 
Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations  Characteristics of Relations  Relational Model Notation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-3

Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas 
Domain Constraints  Key Constraints and Constraints on Null Values  Relational Databases and Relational Database Schemas  Entity Integrity, Referential Integrity, and Foreign Keys  Other Types of Constraints
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-4

Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations 
The Insert Operation  The Delete Operation  The Update Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-5

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-6

Chapter 6
The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT 
The SELECT Operation  The PROJECT Operation  Sequences of Operations and the RENAME Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-8

Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory 
The UNION, INTERSECTION, and MINUS Operations  The CARTESIAN PRODUCT (or CROSS PRODUCT) Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-9

Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION 
The JOIN Operation  The EQUIJOIN and NATURAL JOIN Variations of JOIN  A Complete Set of Relational Algebra Operations  The DIVISION Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-10

Additional Relational Operations 
Aggregate Functions and Grouping  Recursive Closure Operations  OUTER JOIN Operations  The OUTER JOIN Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-11

Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-12

The Tuple Relational Calculus 
Tuple Variables and Range Relations  Expressions and Formulas in Tuple Relational Calculus  The Existential and Universal Quantifiers  Example Queries Using the Existential Quantifier  Transforming the Universal and Existential Quantifiers  Using the Universal Quantifier  Safe Expressions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-13

The Domain Relational Calculus

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-14

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-15

Chapter 7
Relational Database Design by ER- and EERto-Relational Mapping

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping 
ER-to-Relational Mapping Algorithm  Discussion and Summary of Mapping for Model Constructs

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-17

Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations 
Mapping of Specialization of Generalization  Mapping of Shared Subclasses (Multiple Inheritance)  Mapping of Categories (Union Types)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-18

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-19

Chapter 8
SQL-99: Schema Definition, Basic Constraints, and Queries

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

SQL Data Definition and Data Types 
Schema and Catalog Concepts in SQL  The CREATE TABLE Command in SQL  Attribute Data Types and Domains in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-21

Specifying Basic Constraints in SQL 
Specifying Attribute Constraints and Attribute Defaults  Specifying Key and Referential Integrity Constraints  Giving Names to Constraints  Specifying Constraints on Tuples Using CHECK
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-22

Schema Change Statements in SQL 
The DROP Command  The ALTER Command

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-23

Basic Queries in SQL 
The SELECT-FROM-WHERE Structure of Basic SQL Queries  Ambiguous Attribute Names, Aliasing, and Tuple Variables  Unspecified WHERE Clause and Use of the Asterisk  Tables as Sets in SQL  Substring Pattern Matching and Arithmetic Operators  Ordering of Query Results
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-24

More Complex SQL Queries 
Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued Logic  Nested Queries, Tuples, and Set/Multiset Comparisions  Correlated Nested Queries  The EXISTS and UNIQUE Functions in SQL  Explicit Sets and Renaming of Attributes in SQL  Joined Tables in SQL  Aggregate Functions in SQL  Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses  Discussion and Summary of SQL Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-25

Insert, Delete, and Update Statements in SQL 
The INSERT Command  The DELETE Command  The UPDATE Command

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-26

Additional Features of SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-27

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-28

Chapter 9
More SQL: Assertions, Views, and Programming Techniques

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Specifying General Constraints as Assertions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-30

Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL 
Concept of a View in SQL  Specification of Views in SQL  View Implementation and View Update

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-31

Database Programming: Issues and Techniques 
Approaches to Database Programming  Impedence Mismatch  Typical Sequence of Interaction in Database Programming

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-32

Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ 
Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL  Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors  Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL  SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in JAVA  Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-33 

Database Programming with SQL/CLI Using C as the Host Language  JDBC: SQL Function Calls for JAVA Programming

Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-34

Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM 
Database Stored Procedures and Functions  SQL/PSM: Extending SQL for Specifying Persistent Stored Modules

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-35

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-36

Chapter 10
Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schema 
Semantics of the Relation Attributes  Redundant Information in Tuples and Update Anomalies  Null Values in Tuples  Generation of Spurious Tuples  Summary and Discussion of Design Guidelines
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-38

Functional Dependencies 
Definition of Functional Dependency  Inference Rules for Functional Dependencies  Equivalence of Sets of Functional Dependencies  Minimal Sets of Functional Dependencies

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-39

Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys 
Normalization of Relations  Practical Use of Normal Forms  Definition of Keys and Attributes Participating in Keys  First Normal Form  Second Normal Form  Third Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-40

General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms 
General Definition of Second Normal Form  General Definition of Third Normal Form  Interpreting the General Definition of Third Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-41

Boyce-Codd Normal

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-42

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-43

Chapter 11
Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Properties of Relational Decompositions 
Relation Decomposition and Insufficiency of Normal Forms  Dependency Preservation Property of a Decomposition  Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Property of a Decomposition  Testing Binary Decomposition for the Nonadditive Join Property  Successive Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decompositions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-45

Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design 
Dependency-Preserving Decomposition into 3NF Schemas  Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition into BCNF Schemas  Dependency-Preserving and Nonadditive (Lossless) Join Decomposition into 3NF Schemas  Problems with Null Values and Dangling Tuples  Discussion of Normalization Algorithms
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-46

Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form 
Formal Definition of Multivalued Dependency  Inference Rules for Functional and Multivalued Dependencies  Fourth Normal Form  Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition into 4NF Relations
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-47

Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-48

Inclusion Dependencies

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-49

Other Dependencies and Normal Forms 
Template Dependencies  Domain-Key Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-50

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-51

Chapter 12
Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Role of Information Systems in Organizations 
The Organizational Context for Using Database Systems  The Information System Life Cycle  The Database Application System Life Cycle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-53

The Database Design and Implementation Process 
Phase 1: Requirements Collection and Analysis  Phase 2: Conceptual Database Design  Phase 3: Choice of DBMS  Phase 4: Data Model Mapping (Logical Database Design)  Phase 5: Physical Database Design  Phase 6: Database System Implementation and Tuning
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-54

Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification 
UML As a Design Specification Standard  UML for Database Application Design  Different Diagrams in UML  A Modeling and Design Example: University Database

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-55

Relational Rose, A UML Based Design Tool 
Relational Rose for Database Design  Relational Rose Data Modeler  Data Modeling Using Rational Rose Data Modeler

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-56

Automated Database Design Tools

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-57

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-58

Chapter 13
Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction 
Memory Hierarchies and Storage Devices  Storage of Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-60

Secondary Storage Devices 
Hardware Description of Disk Devices  Magnetic Tape Storage Devices

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-61

Buffering Blocks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-62

Placing File Records on Disk 
Records and Record Types  Files, Fixed-Length Records, and VariableLength Records  Record Blocking and Spanned Versus Unspanned Records  Allocating File Blocks on Disk  File Headers
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-63

Operations on Files

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-64

Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-65

Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-66

Hashing Techniques 
Internal Hashing  External Hashing for Disk Files  Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-67

Other Primary File Organizations 
Files of Mixed Records  B-Trees and Other Data Structures as Primary Organization

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-68

Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology 
Improving Reliability with RAID  Improving Performance with RAID  RAID Organizations and Levels

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-69

Storage Area Networks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-70

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-71

Chapter 14
Indexing Structures for Files

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes 
Primary Indexes  Clustering Indexes  Secondary Indexes  Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-73

Multilevel Indexes

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-74

Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees 
Search Trees and B-Trees  B+-Trees

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-75

Indexes on Multiple Keys 
Ordered Index on Multiple Attributes  Partitioned Hashing  Grid Files

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-76

Other Types of Indexes 
Using Hashing and Other Data Structures as Indexes  Logical versus Physical Indexes  Discussion

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-77

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-78

Chapter 15
Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-80

Algorithms for External Sorting

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-81

Algorithms for SELECT and JOIN Operations 
Implementing the SELECT Operation  Implementing the JOIN Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-82

Algorithms for PROJECT and SET Operations

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-83

Implementing Aggregate Operations and Outer Joins 
Implementing Aggregate Operations  Implementing Outer Join

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-84

Combining Operations Using Pipelining

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-85

Using Heuristics in Query Optimization 
Notation for Query Trees and Query Graphs  Heuristic Optimization of Query Trees  Converting Query Trees into Query Execution Plans

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-86

Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization 
Cost Components for Query Execution  Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions  Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT  Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN  Multiple Relation Queries and Join Ordering  Examples to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-87

Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-88

Semantic Query Optimization

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-89

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-90

Chapter 16
Practical Database Design and Tuning

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Physical Database Design in Relational Databases 
Factors That Influence Physical Database Design  Physical Database Design Decisions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-92

An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems 
Tuning Indexes  Tuning the Database Design  Tuning Queries  Additional Query Tuning Guidelines

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-93

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-94

Chapter 17
Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction to Transaction Processing 
Single-User Versus Multiuser Systems  Transactions, Read and Write Operations, and DBMS Buffers  Why Concurrency Control Is Needed  Why Recovery Is Needed

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-96

Transaction and System Concepts 
Transaction States and Additional Operations  The System Log  Commet Point of a Transaction

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-97

Desirable Properties of Transactions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-98

Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability 
Schedules (Histories) of Transactions  Characterizing Schedules Base on Recoverability

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-99

Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability 
Serial, Nonserial, and Conflict-Serializable Schedules  Testing for Conflict Serializability of a Schedule  Uses of Serializability  View Equivalence and View Serializability  Other Types of Equivalence of Schedules
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-100

Transaction Support in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-101

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-102

Chapter 18
Concurrency Control Techniques

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control 
Types of Locks and System Lock Tables  Guaranteeing Serializability by Two-Phase Locking  Dealing with Deadlock and Starvation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-104

Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering 
Timestamps  The Timestamp Ordering Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-105

Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques 
Multiversion Techniques Based on Timestamp Ordering  Multiversion Two-Phase Locking Using Certify Locks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-106

Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-107

Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking 
Granularity Level Considerations for Locking  Multiple Granularity Level Locking

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-108

Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-109

Other Concurrency Control Issues 
Insertion, Deletion, and Phantom Records  Interactive Transactions  Latches

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-110

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-111

Chapter 19
Database Recovery Techniques

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Recovery Concepts 
Recovery Outline and Categorization of Recovery Algorithms  Caching (Buffering) of Disk Blocks  Write-Ahead Logging, Steal/No-Steal, and Force/No-Force  Checkpoints in the System Log and Fuzzy Checkpointing  Transaction Rollback
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-113

Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update 
Recovery Using Deferred Update in a Single-User Environment  Deferred Update with Concurrent Execution in a Multiuser Environment  Transaction Actions That Do Not Affect the Database

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-114

Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update 
UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Immediate Update in a Single-User Environment  UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Immediate Update with Concurrent Execution

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-115

Shadow Paging

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-116

The ARIES Recovery Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-117

Recovery in Multidatabase Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-118

Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-119

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-120

Chapter 20
Concepts for Object Databases

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview of Object-Oriented Concepts

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-122

Object Identity, Object Structure, and Type Constructors 
Object Identity  Object Structure  Type Constructors

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-123

Encapsulation of Operations, Methods, and Persistence 
Specifying Object Behavior via Class Operations  Specifying Object Persistence via Naming and Reachability

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-124

Type and Class Hierarchies and Inheritance 
Type Hierarchies and Inheritance  Constraints on Extents Corresponding to a Type Hierarchy

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-125

Complex Objects 
Unstructured Complex Objects and Type Extensibility  Structured Complex Objects

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-126

Other Objected-Oriented Concepts 
Polymorphism (Operator Overloading)  Multiple Inheritance and Selective Inheritance  Versions and Configurations

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-127

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-128

Chapter 21
Object Database Standards, Languages, and Design

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview of the Object Model of ODMG 
Objects and Literals  Built-in Interfaces for Collection Objects  Atomic (User-Defined) Objects  Interfaces, Classes, and Inheritance  Extents, Keys, and Factory Objects

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-130

The Object Definition Language ODL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-131

The Object Query Language OQL 
Simple OQL Queries, Database Entry Points, and Iterator Variables  Query Results and Path Expressions  Other Features of OQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-132

Overview of the C++ Language Binding

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-133

Object Database Conceptual Design 
Differences Between Conceptual Design of ODB and RDB  Mapping and EER Schema to an ODB Schema

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-134

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-135

Chapter 22
Object-Relational and Extended-Relational Systems

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview of SQL and Its Object-Relational Features 
The SQL Standard and Its Components  Object-Relational Support in SQL-99  Some New Operations and Features in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-137

Evolution and Current Trends of Database Technology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-138

The Informix Universal Server 
Extensible Data Types  Support for User-Defined Routines  Support for Inheritance  Support for Indexing Extensions  Support for External Data Sources  Support for Data Blades Application Programming Interface
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-139

Object-Relational Features of Oracle 8 
Some Examples of Object-Relational Features of Oracle  Managing Large Objects and Other Storage Features

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-140

Implementation and Related Issues for Extended Type Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-141

The Nested Relational Model

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-142

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-143

Chapter 23
Database Security and Authorization

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction to Database Security Issues 
Types of Security  Database Security and the DBA  Access Protection, User Accounts, and Database Audits

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-145

Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking Privileges 
Types of Discretionary Privileges  Specifying Privileges Using Views  Revoking Privileges  Propogation of Privileges Using the GRANT OPTION  An Example  Specifying Limits on Propagation of Privileges
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-146

Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for Multilevel Security 
Comparing Discretionary Access Control and Mandatory Access Control  Role-Based Access Control  Access Control Policies for E-Commerce and the Web

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-147

Introduction to Statistical Database Security

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-148

Introduction to Flow Control 
Covert Channels

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-149

Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures 
The Data and Advanced Encryption Standards  Public Key Encryption  Digital Signatures

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-150

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-151

Chapter 24
Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Active Database Concepts and Triggers 
Generalized Model for Active Databases and Oracle Triggers  Design and Implementation Issues for Active Databases  Examples of Statement-Level Active Rules in STARBURST  Potential Applications for Active Databases  Triggers in SQL-99
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-153

Temporal Database Concepts 
Time Representation, Calendars, and Time Dimensions  Incorporating Time in Relational Databases Using Tuple Versioning  Incorporating Time in Object-Oriented Databases Using Attribute Versioning  Temporal Querying Constructs and the TSQL2 Language  Time Series Data
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-154

Multimedia Databases 
Introduction to Spatial Database Concepts  Introduction to Multimedia Database Concepts

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-155

Introduction to Deductive Databases 
Overview of Deductive Databases  Prolog/Datalog Notation  Datalog Notation  Clausal Form and Horn Clauses  Interpretation of Rules  Datalog Programs and Their Safety  Use the Relational Operations  Evaluation of Nonrecursive Datalog Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-156

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-157

Chapter 25
Distributed Databases and Client±Server Architectures

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Distributed Database Concepts 
Parallel Versus Distributed Technology  Advantages of Distributed Databases  Additional Functions of Distributed Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-159

Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design 
Data Fragmentation  Data Replication and Allocation  Example of Fragmentation, Allocation, and Replication

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-160

Types of Distributed Database Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-161

Query Processing in Distributed Databases 
Data Transfer Costs of Distributed Query Processing  Distributed Query Processing Using Semijoin  Query and Update Decomposition

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-162

Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases 
Distributed Concurrency Control Based on a Distinguished Copy of a Data Item  Distributed Concurrency Control Based on Voting  Distributed Recovery

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-163

An Overview of 3-Tier ClientServer Architecture

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-164

Distributed Databases in Oracle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-165

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-166

Chapter 26
XML and Internet Databases

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-168

XLM Documents, DTD, and XML Schema 
Well-Formed and Valid XML Documents and XML DTD  XML Schema

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-169

XML Documents and Databases 
Approaches to Storing XML Documents  Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases  Breaking Cycles to Convert Graphs into Trees  Other Steps for Extracting XML Documents from Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-170

XML Query 
XPath: Specifying Path Expressions in XML  XQuery: Specifying Queries in XML

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-171

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-172

Chapter 27
Data Mining Concepts

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Overview of Data Mining Technology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-174

Association Rules 
Market-Basket Model, Support, and Confidence  Apriori Algorithm  Sampling Algorithm  Frequent-Pattern Tree Algorithm  Partition Algorithm  Other Types of Association Rules  Additional Considerations for Association Rules

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-175

Classification

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-176

Clustering

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-177

Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems 
Discovery of Sequential Patterns  Discovery of Patterns in Time Series  Regression  Neural Networks  Genetic Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-178

Applications of Data Mining

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-179

Commercial Data Mining Tools

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-180

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-181

Chapter 28
Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-183

Characteristics of Data Warehouses

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-184

Data Modeling for Data Warehouses

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-185

Building a Data Warehouse

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-186

Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-187

Data Warehouse Versus Views

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-188

Problems and Open Issues in Data Warehouses 
Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses  Open Issues in Data Warehousing

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-189

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-190

Chapter 29
Emerging Database Technologies and Applications

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mobil Databases 
Mobil Computing Architectures  Characteristics of Mobile Environments  Data Management Issues  Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases  Selected Bibliography for Mobil Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-192

Multimedia Databases 
The Nature of Multimedia Data and Applications  Data Management Issues  Open Research Problems  Multimedia Database Applications  Selected Bibliography on Multimedia Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-193

Geographic Information Systems 
GIS Applications  Data Management Requirements lof GIS  Specific GIS Data Operations  An Example of a GIS Software: ARC-INFO  Problems and Future Issues in GIS  Selected Bibliography for GIS
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-194

Genome Data Management 
Biological Sciences and Genetics  Characteristics of Biological Data  The Human Genome Project and Existing Biological Databases  Selected Bibliography for Genome Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-195

Appendix A
Alternative Diagrammatic Notations for ER Models

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Appendix C
Parameters of Disks

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Appendix D
Overview of the QBE Language

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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