“Design of 400/220kV Sub-station”

S.M. MUJUMDAR
General Manager (sub-station Engineering) Jyoti Structures Ltd.,

27th April 2005 Mumbai

Agenda

Overview of 400kV sub-station Design Process Design considerations Question / Answer

Imp. considerations in substation design
  

 

Safety of personnel and equipment Reliability and Security Adherence to  Statutory obligations – I.E. rules, Environmental aspects  Electrical design considerations  Structural design considerations Ease of maintenance Possibility to Expand

System parameters
Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Description Nominal system voltage Max. operating voltage Rated frequency Number of phases System neutral earthing Corona Extinction voltage Min. creepage distance Rated short ckt. Current for 1 sec. 400kV 400kV 420kV 50Hz 3 320kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (320kV) 220kV 220kV 245kV 50Hz 3 156kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (156kV)

Effectively earthed

10. Radio interference voltage at 1MHZ (for phase to earth voltage)

System parameters Contd..
Sr. 11. Description Rated insulation levels i) Full wave impulse withstand voltage -- for lines -- for reactor/ X’mer -- for other equipments ii) Switching impulse withstand voltage (dry/wet) iii) One min. power freq. withstand voltage (dry/wet) -- for lines -- for CB / Isolator -- for other equipments 400kV 220kV Remarks

1550kVp 1300kVp 1425kVp 1050kVp

1050kVp 950kVp 1050kVp

680kV 520kV 610kV 630kV

460kV 460kV 530kV 460kV

(Line-ground) (open terminals)

Substation Bird’s view

400kV Circuit Breaker

400kV Isolator

400kV Current Transformer

400kV CVT

400kV Surge Arrester

Shunt Reactor & NGR

400/220 kV Auto Transformer

400kV Bus Post Insulator

Wave Trap

Functions of substation equipments
Equipment 1. Bus-Bar 2. Circuit Breaker 3. Isolators 4. Earthing switch 5. Current Transformer 6. Voltage Transformer 7. Lightning Arrester Function Incoming & outgoing ckts. Connected to bus-bar Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions Disconnection under no-load condition for safety, isolation and maintenance. To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth To step-down currents for measurement, control & protection To step-down voltages for measurement, control & protection To discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to earth

Functions of substation equipments Contd…
8. Shunt reactor 9. Neutral-Grounding resistor 10. Coupling capacitor 11. Line –Trap 12. Shunt capacitors 13. Power Transformer To control over voltages by providing reactive power compensation To limit earth fault current To provide connection between high voltage line & PLCC equipment To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones. To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from one a.c. voltage another a.c. voltage at the same frequency. Compensation of long lines.

14. Series Capacitor

Functions of Associated system in substation
System 1. Substation Earthing system -- Earthmat -- Earthing spikes -- Earthing risers Function To provide an earthmat for connecting neural points, equipment body, support structures to earth. For safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection. To provide the path for discharging the earth currents from neutrals, faults, Surge Arresters, overheads shielding wires etc. with safe step-potential and touch potential. To protect the outdoor substation equipment from lightning strokes.

2. Overhead earth wire shielding or Lightning masts. 3. Illumination system (lighting) -- for switchyard -- buildings -- roads etc.

Contd..
4. Protection system -- protection relay panels -- control cables -- circuit breakers -- CTs, VTs etc. 5. Control cable 6. Power cable 7. PLCC system power line carries communication system -- line trap -- coupling capacitor -- PLCC panels To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimize damage to faulty equipment and associated system.

For Protective circuits, control circuits, metering circuits, communication circuits To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines. For communication, telemetry, telecontrol, power line carrier protection etc.

Contd…
8. Fire Fighting system -- Sensors, detection system -- water spray system -- fire prot. panels, alarm system -- watertank and spray system 9. Auxiliary standby power system -- diesel generator sets -- switchgear -- distribution system 10. Telephone, telex, microwave, OPF To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to initiate water spray, to disconnect power supply to affected region to pin-point location of fire by indication in control room. For supplying starting power, standby power for auxiliaries

For internal and external communication

Basic drawings for design/construction

Single Line Diagram General Arrangement Drawing Electrical Plan and Section Control Room Architectural layout

Supporting drawings

Structural layout Earthmat layout Civil layout Erection Key Diagram Lighting Layout

Single Line Diagram – 220kV

General arrangement layout

Electrical layout

Electrical Section

Control room layout

Control room layout

Structural layout

Earthmat Layout

@ @ @ @

@ @ @

@

@

Civil layout

Erection Key Diagram
4P3 4LA
4SSTM-D4SSTM-D4SSTM-D

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I1

4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1

4I

4I

4I

4I

4P3

4DTTM-1

4LA 4LA 4LA

4LA

4IC2

N1

4DTTM2

4DTTM1

4W1

4I

R1 R1 R1

4W1

4P1

4W

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I1

4I

4I

4IC1

4DTTM-1

4P3

4LA

4W1

4W1

4DTTM2

4I

4I

R2

4DTTM1

4P1

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I1

4DTTM-1

4DTTM2

4DTTM1

4P3

4LA

4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4SSTM-D

4W1

4W

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I

4I

4I

4I

4P3

4LA

4IC2

4W1

4W1

4DTTM2

4DTTM1

4W

4P1

4I1

4DTTM-1

4LA 4LA 4LA

N1

4I

R1 R1 R1

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I

4P3

4LA

4IC1

4W1

4W1

4DTTM1

4P1

4I1

4I2

4DTTM-1

4DTTM2

4I

4I

4I

R2

4C1

4C2

4V

4P

4I

4I

4DTTM1 4DTQB-2 4DTQB2

4DTQB2

EW1 EW2 4SSTM-D 4DTTM1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4S1 4P 4S1 4V 4W 4W 4I 4I R1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4P 3 4S1 4I 4S1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4TM 4S2 EW2 EW2

EW1 EW2 EW2

4I1

4I2

4DTTM-1

4DTTM2

4I

4I

4I2

4B

4B

4I2

4B

4B

4I2

4B

4B

4I2

4I2

4B

4B

4I

4I

4I

4I

4I2

4I2

4B

4B

4I2

4B

4B

4DTQB-1

4DTQB1

4DTQB1

4W1

4W

EW1 EW2

4DTTM1 4S2

4S2

4S2

4S2

4DTTM2 4S1 4SSTMD

4SSTM-T 4S1 4S1 4S1 4TBSM 4S1 4I 4S1 4S1 4P 1 4P 1 4IC1 4IC2 4TBSM 4S1 4I2 4I 4I1 4B 4B 4TBSM

4S1

4S1 4S1 4LA

4S1

4S1 4C1 4C2 4I1 4I2 4IC2

Lighting Design

Adequate lighting is necessary for safety of working personnel and O&M activities Recommended value of Illumination level  Control & Relay panel area - 350 Lux (at floor level)  Test laboratory - 300 Lux  Battery room - 100 Lux  Other indoor area - 150 Lux  Switchyard - 50 Lux (main equipment) - 20 Lux (balance Area / road @ ground level)

Single Bus arrangement

Single Bus System
Merits 1. Low cost Demerits 1. Fault of bus or any circuit breaker results in shut-down of entire substation 2. Difficult to do any maintenance 3. Bus cannot be extended without completely deenergizing substations 4. Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. Remarks 1. Used for distribution substations upto 33kV 2. Not used for large substations. 3. Sectionalizing increases flexibility

2. Simple to Operate 3. Simple Protection

Main & Transfer Bus

Main & transfer busbar system
Merits 1. Low initial & ultimate cost Demerits 1. Requires one extra breaker coupler Remarks 1. Used for 110kV substations where cost of duplicate bus bar system is not justified .

2. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance.

2. Switching is somewhat complex when maintaining a breaker

3. Potential devices may 3. Fault of bus or any be used on the main bus circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation.

Double Busbar arrangement

Double Bus Bar Single Breaker system
Merits 1. High flexibility Demerits 1. Extra bus-coupler circuit breaker necessary. Remarks 1. Most widely used for 66kV, 132kv, 220kV and important 11kv, 6.6kV, 3.3kV substations.

2. Half of the feeders 2. Bus protection scheme connected to each bus may cause loss of substation when it operates. 3. High exposure to bus fault. 4. Line breaker failure takes all circuits connected to the bus out of service. 5. Bus couplers failure takes entire substation out of service.

Double Busbar with Double breaker

Double Bus Bar Double Breaker system
Merits 1. Each has two associated breakers 2. Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to any bus 3. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. 4. High reliability Demerits 1. Most expensive Remarks 1. Not used for usual EHV substations due to high cost. 2. Used only for very important, high power, EHV substations.

2. Would lose half of the circuits for breaker fault if circuits are not connected to both the buses.

Double main & transfer

Double main bus & transfer bus system
Merits 1. Most flexible in operation 2. Highly reliable 3. Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes only one ckt. From service 4. All switching done with breakers 5. Simple operation, no isolator switching required 6. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance. 7. Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service Demerits 1. High cost due to three buses Remarks 1. Preferred by some utilities for 400kV and 220kV important substations.

One & half breaker scheme

One & half breaker scheme
Merits Demerits Remarks 1. Used for 400kV & 220kV substations. 1. Flexible operation for breaker 1. One and half maintenance breakers per circuit, hence higher cost 2. Any breaker can be removed from maintenance without interruption of load. 3. Requires 1 1/2 breaker per feeder. 4. Each circuit fed by two breakers. 5. All switching by breaker. 6. Selective tripping

2. Protection and 2. Preferred. auto-reclosing more complex since middle breaker must be responsive to both associated circuits.

Ring Bus

Mesh (Ring) busbar system
Merits 1. Busbars gave some operational flexibility Demerits 1. If fault occurs during bus maintenance, ring gets separated into two sections. 2.Auto-reclosing and protection complex. 3. Requires VT’s on all circuits because there is no definite voltage reference point. These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronizing live line or voltage indication 4. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. Remarks 1. Most widely used for very large power stations having large no. of incoming and outgoing lines and high power transfer.

Minimum Clearances
400kV 1. Phase to Earth 3500 mm 220kV 2100 mm

2. Phase to phase

4200 mm (Rod-conductor configuration) 4000 mm (Conductor-conductor configuration) 6400 mm

2100 mm

3. Sectional clearance

4300 mm

Clearance Diagram

Bus Bar Design
      

Continuous current rating. Ampacity caculation as per IEEE:738 Short time current rating (40kA for 1 Sec.) IEC-865 Stresses in Tubular Busbar Natural frequency of Tubular Busbar Deflection of Tube Cantilever strength of Post Insulator Aeolian Vibrations

Gantry Structure Design

Sag / Tension calculation : as per IS: 802 1995 Sr. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Temp Min. Min. Every Day Every Day Max. (ACSR 750C/ AAAC 850C) Wind Pressure No wind 36% No wind 100% No wind T <= 22% of UTS T <= 70% of UTS Clearances Limits

Contd..

Short Circuit Forces calculation As per IEC : 865 Short circuit forces during short circuit Short circuit forces after short circuit Short circuit forces due to “Pinch” effect for Bundled conductor Spacer span calculation

Factor of safety of 2.0 under normal condition and 1.5 under short circuit condition

spacers

Spacer span Vs Short Ckt. forces

GRAPH OF SPACER SPAN Vs CONDUCTOR TENSION FOR 400 KV TWIN MOOSE ACSR CONDUCTOR
12000.00 CONDUCTOR TENSION PER PHASE IN KG.

10000.00

8000.00

6000.00

4000.00

2000.00

0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 SPACER SPAN IN MTRS.

Earthing Design
Guiding standards – IEEE 80, IS:3043, CBIP-223.  400kV & 220kV system are designed for 40kA.  Basic Objectives:  Step potential within tolerable  Touch Potential limit  Ground Resistance  Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion)

Touch and step potential

Lightning Protection – Ground Wire

FIG-4a

FIG-4b

Lightning Protection – Lightning Mast

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