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COMPLETE REVISION

January 2005

Process Industry Practices Process Control

PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice. This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.
PRINTING HISTORY March 1998 Issued June 2002 Complete Revision January 2005 Complete Revision Not printed with State funds

COMPLETE REVISION
January 2005

Process Industry Practices Process Control

PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves
Table of Contents 1. Introduction .................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2 1.2 Scope................................................. 2

6. Inherent Flow Characteristics .. 19
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Definitions........................................ 19 Equal Percentage Characteristic..... 21 Linear Characteristic ....................... 22 Quick Opening Characteristic.......... 22

2. References.................................... 2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Process Industry Practices................ 2 Industry Codes and Standards.......... 2 Government Regulations................... 3 Other References .............................. 3

7. Cavitation and Flashing ............ 23
7.1 Cavitation......................................... 23 7.2 Flashing and Erosion....................... 25

3. Valve Materials ............................. 4
3.1 General .............................................. 4 3.2 Valve Body......................................... 4 3.3 Valve Body Material Testing Methods ................................ 5 3.4 Valve Trim.......................................... 6 3.5 Gaskets.............................................. 7 3.6 Packing .............................................. 8

8. Noise Considerations................ 27
8.1. General ............................................ 27 8.2 Noise Reduction .............................. 27

9. Actuators and Accessories ...... 28
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 General ............................................ 28 Sizing and Selection ........................ 28 Actuator Forces ............................... 29 Positioners and Accessories ........... 32

4. Valve Types ................................ 11
4.1 General ............................................ 11 4.2 Globe Styles .................................... 13 4.3 Rotary-Style Valves ......................... 16

10. Valve Storage and Installation ................................ 34
10.1 Shipping and Storage ...................... 34 10.2 Installation of Control Valves........... 34

5. Sizing of Valves.......................... 18
5.1 Sizing Methods ................................ 18 5.2 Sizing Guidelines............................. 19

Process Industry Practices

Page 1 of 35

Pressure or High-Temperature Service. 2.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 1.Process Piping • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) – ASTM A193 . and noise. 1. valve accessories. Introduction 1.Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for High. flow characteristic evaluation.Fabrication and Examination Specification for ASME B31.2 Industry Codes and Standards Applicable requirements in the latest edition (or the edition indicated) of the following standards shall be considered an integral part of this Practice: • American Petroleum Institute (API) – API 609 .3 . Issues addressed include valve selection.Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service – ASTM A194 .and Wafer-Type • American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) – ASME B31. Carbon. and consideration of the effects of flashing.Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged. References Applicable parts of the following PIP Practices. material selection.2 Scope This Practice describes the guidelines and background information for the application of control valves. Lug.1 Purpose This Practice provides designers with engineering guidelines for the application of pneumatically actuated control valves. or Both – ASTM A216 . 2. The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used. industry codes and standards. except as otherwise noted.3 Metallic Piping 2.General Instrument Installation Criteria – PIP PCSCV001 . for High-Temperature Service – ASTM A320 .Specification of Control Valves – PIP PNSC0001 . cavitation.Standard Specification for Alloy/Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service Page 2 of 35 Process Industry Practices . Suitable for Fusion Welding.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) – PIP PCCGN002 . and other references shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. Short titles will be used herein where appropriate. valve and actuator sizing.Standard Specification for Steel Castings.

Inherent Flow Characteristic and Rangeability of Control Valves – ISA RP75.Control Valve Dynamic Testing • NACE International – NACE MR-01-75 . Instrument Engineers’ Handbook. 1989. Chilton Book Company. ISA Handbook of Control Valves. New York. The International Society for Measurement and Control. NY Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 35 . Suitable for High-Temperature Service • The Instrumentation. Friedmann.S. Austenitic. Jr. Hutchinson. Research Triangle Park.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves – ASTM A351 .Considerations for Evaluating Control Valve Cavitation – ANSI/ISA 75.Occupational Noise Exposure • U. Paul G.Standard Specification for Steel Castings. Research Triangle Park. 1976. AusteniticFerric (Duplex). 1995. Fontana and Norbert D Green. first edition. Department of Labor.Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oil Field Equipment 2.23 .11 . Systems.Standard Specification for Castings. NC – J. National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants – 2. NC – Bela Liptak and Kriszta Venczel. PA – Mars G. The International Society for Measurement and Control.W. Section 112. Ferritic and Martensitic for Pressure-Containing Parts.3 Government Regulations • U. McGraw-Hill. Process Control. Radnor. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – Clean Air Act (CAA). and Automation Society (ISA) – ANSI/ISA 75..95 .25 .Valves in Gas/Vapor Service and in Light Liquid Service Other References – Guy Borden. Suitable for Low-Temperature Service – ASTM A217 . Editor in Chief. Martensitic Stainless and Alloy. second edition. Control Valves. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA 1910.4 HON Rule . for Pressure-Containing Parts – ASTM A352 . 1998. Editors. Corrosion Engineering.S. for Pressure-Containing Parts.Standard Specification for Steel Castings.

1. Table 1 provides metallurgy guidance at different design temperatures. For valves in a flammable hydrocarbon service.2. cast iron. bronze.3 3. 3. the final material selection should be made in consultation with those specializing in material science or with the control valve supplier. body materials such as plastic.1.2. Valves should be designed to meet the design pressure and temperature.1.4 3.1.1 The valve body material should be dictated by the piping specification but will commonly be WCB or WCC carbon steel or ASTM type 300 series stainless steel (SS).2 Material selection should be guided by the piping specification and by the process conditions.1 3.1 General 3.1 3.2 Valve Body 3. All materials used in the valve should be compatible with the process for normal and abnormal conditions. Borden and Friedmann (1998) or Liptak and Venczel (1995) should be consulted. For additional general information. 3.4 Page 4 of 35 Process Industry Practices .PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3.2. and aluminum should be avoided so that process integrity can be maintained in an emergency situation involving an external fire. If uncertainty about material selections exists.2.3 3. Valve Materials 3.

pressure. For additional information on materials. temperature occasioned by maintenance (e. use A193 Gr B8M Class 2 strain-hardened studs. may be exacerbated in the valve body. flashing.g. and Hastelloy®) are known to be prone to flaws and voids.2 Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 35 . erosion. 3. 3. fluid impingement. and in ATSM A352.. titanium. Consider Charpy testing. T is design temperature in degrees F. which covers heat treatment and repairs of ferritic and martensitic castings. If design temperature is below –20°F.3 Valve Body Material Testing Methods 3. Physical effects of turbulence.. 4.5 NACE MR-01-75 should be used when selecting material for processes containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Studs.2.3. To ensure acceptable 3. 2. 3. Corrosion. which may have minimal (or acceptable) effects on the pipe. and other abnormal operating conditions may necessitate a different material for the valve body than for the piping in which it is installed. which covers heat treatment and repairs of austenitic castings. For temperatures above 1000° F.6 3. Passivation films that form under relatively quiescent conditions may be worn away by high-velocity fluids. and Testing Temp (°F) 1 -425 < T < 100 -325 < T < 1000 -50 < T < 20 -20 < T < 100 100 < T < 800 800 < T < 1000 800 < T < 1000 1000 < T < 1100 1000 < T < 1100 1100 < T < 1500 Body A351 Gr CF8M A351 Gr CF8M A352 Gr LCB or A352 Gr LCC A216 Gr WCB or A216 Gr WCC A216 Gr WCB or A216 Gr WCC A217 Gr WC9 (Chrome) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) A217 Gr WC9 (Chrome) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) A351 Gr CF8M (316 SS) Bonnet Studs A320 Gr B8 A320 Gr B8M A193 Gr L7 A193 Gr B7 A193 Gr B7 A193 Gr B16 A193 Gr B8M A193 Gr B16 A193 Gr B8M A193 Gr B8M 4 4 Bonnet Nuts A194 Gr 8 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 7 A194 Gr 2H A194 Gr 2H A194 Gr 4 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 4 A194 Gr 8M A194 Gr 8M Testing Charpy at design temp Charpy at design temp Charpy 3 Charpy 2 None None None None None None Notes: 1.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves Table 1.2. Some valve body materials used in the casting (e. Monel™. Valve suppliers should at a minimum follow specifications in ASTM A351.3. cavitation. consult Fontana and Green (1989). Nuts. Selection Guide for Valve Body.1 Control valve suppliers shall have a quality control plan that includes nondestructive examination (NDE) and repair procedures. then Charpy test at –50°F. changes in flow. when line is steamed out).g. This NACE standard provides metallic material requirements for resistance to sulfide stress cracking.

Materials of constructions and welds can be verified by positive material identification (PMI).. NDE of pressure-retaining parts should be completed before machining.4 The following guidelines are not exhaustive but are generally accepted. less than -50°F).g.4.g. Higher alloy grades (e. etc.e. The extent of NDE and acceptance requirements (for pipe fabrication) should be according to ASME B31.2 Standard valve trim.1.4 Valve Trim 3. hardness testing. compared with Types 410 and 416. are relatively ductile and resistant to many types of corrosion. 416 SS. The 300 series metals cannot be hardened by heat treatment.4. 17-4 PH SS) have a proven history in severe service applications. 3.3. If required. dye checking. x-ray. ultrasonic. 3. These guidelines should be compared with actual experience because the issues that impact trim material selection are complex.2. or those in high-pressure applications should be specified with trim having a hardness of at least 38 Rc (hardness Rockwell C). Refer to ASTM A352 Grade LCB materials. The relative softness of 300 series metals. e. General NDE procedures (for pipe fabrication) are covered in PIP PNSC0001. 3.g.3 Testing methods (e..3 Valves in cavitating or flashing services.2.1 Series 300 and 400 series SS are widely used and are frequently available as standard offerings.3. erosion.4.4. and corrosion are more pronounced on valve trim than on the valve body.3 The 400 series SS are generally less corrosion resistant than are the 300 series SS.4.4. those containing erosive or solid-bearing fluids. and the provisions should be included in the purchase order.4. Page 6 of 35 Process Industry Practices . 3. Charpy impact testing is recommended for cold service applications (i. Types 304 and 316. To minimize these effects and to simultaneously control cost.) should be agreed upon with the facility owner’s material engineer before ordering the valves. 3.4.2 Series 300 and 400 Series SS 3.1 General 3. wear-producing applications.4 3. galling.4.3. 3. provisions for PMI should be included in the purchase order.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 valves.2 The 300 series.1. 3.3.1. magnetic particle.. a valve trim of a different metallurgy than that of the valve body may be utilized.1. makes them less desirable in erosive. These alloys are offered as standard on some valves. should be given first consideration.. generally 316 SS. 3.5 3.2.1 The effects of wear.

softer material unprotected.5 Gaskets 3.4. or dry chlorine gas or where the process is a maximum of 20% caustic material.4.5. Refer to valve manufacturer’s literature for limitations.4. leaving the base.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 3.3 Material Overlays 3.3 Valve trim selection may also depend on the valve body geometry.4.3. 3. If gaskets are not specified. Valves having high-pressure recovery coefficients.4 Other Materials 3.4. in steam and water applications in which pressure drops exceed 50 psi.2 3.5.5.4. 3.4. Inconel with laminated graphite can be used from -400°F to 1100°F. For example.5 Assuming compatibility with the chemistry of the process. 3. and galling resistance.3 The facing material can wear or corrode away over time.4 For general service. 3.2 Valve trim parts may be specified with more exotic metallurgy while using a less expensive material for the body. 3.3. and in general applications in which pressure differentials are greater than 500 psi. 3.2.4. 3.1 Type 17-4 PH SS metallurgy may be specified for components such as valve plugs. As an example. the 300 and 400 series SS can be applied in processes from -20°F to 650°F. 6 (CoCr) and tungsten carbide. the default should be a spiral-wound 316 SS gasket.1 The gasket and packing material should be compatible with or match the piping specification and should be compatible with the temperature and chemical requirements of the process.3 Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 35 . trim parts of Monel™ or Hastelloy®.4.2.2 Hard-facing is effective in erosive applications.4.3. could require special or hardened trim. 3. For example. 3.4.4. such as rotary valves. stellite. hardness. streamlined bodies having high-pressure recovery coefficients are more likely to exhibit cavitation. These gaskets can be used in very low temperature applications (down to -400°F). cages. and guide bushings requiring greater strength.4. and 17-4 PH SS can be utilized with carbon steel bodies if the process contains trace quantities of hydrofluoric acid. cavitation trim typically has a more limited range. combined with an asbestos-free filler such as Grafoil®. Types 300 and 400 components can be plated or hard-faced with materials to increase their wear resistance. sulfuric acid.1 Hard-facing material includes stellite No. Moneil™.

4 Pure graphite packing material can be used in temperatures up to 800°F in oxidizing service and up to 1200°F in nonoxidizing service.1 General 3.6.e. 3. A corrosion inhibitor should be utilized if graphite packing is used. studs. Graphite packing will corrode the stem if left wet. 3.6 Packing 3.2. 3.6. PTFE can be applied as packing for temperatures up to 400°F.1 Bellows seals are expensive and prone to fatigue failure.g.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3.6.3 The use of bellow seals should be approved by the owner of the facility.8 Piping systems that are steamed out frequently pull a vacuum when the line cools. 1 inch and less). 3. Pressure-tested to at least 1. PTFE cannot be used below 0°F with a standard bonnet and below -50°F with an extended bonnet.2 If an elastomer like PTFE is selected.1.6.2 Bellow seals should be considered for lethal or cryogenic services.2.6.1. 3. Therefore. dry hydrochloric acid (HCl) becomes extremely corrosive when exposed to the wet atmosphere. and followers should be minimum 316 SS unless 316 SS is not compatible with the process (e. 3.1.1. Approved for use in lethal and cryogenic services b.4 Bellow seals should meet the following requirements: a. ice should not be allowed to form on the stem because it will destroy the packing material.2. screwed packing followers should be used.1.3 times rated maximum allowable service pressure Page 8 of 35 Process Industry Practices . Include an antirotation feature to prevent twisting of bellows during normal maintenance c. 3. 3.6 For smaller valves (i.1.1 Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) is widely used as a packing material because it is generally inert and has a low coefficient of friction.6.5 Packing glands.2.6. The packing manufacturer should be consulted to determine whether the valve should be removed during hydrotesting. allowances should not be taken for the cooling effects of an extended bonnet because heat is drawn into the packing material if a leak occurs.7 Attention should be given to the corrosive effects of leakage through the packing.2. The valve packing should be designed for vacuum service if it is not desirable to pull in air.6..6. 3. Bellows Seals 3. 3.3 In cryogenic services. chlorine).. For example.6.1.6. 3.6.6. Because it becomes hard.1. the stem and packing bolts should be compatible with higher corrosive demands.6.

Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 35 . Guidelines and requirements for valve repair to reduce leakage are given in Article 63. The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990 and subsequent revisions and addenda have specified maximum allowable leakage rates of selected substances (hazardous air pollutants. Repair of these valves is required as necessary to eliminate excessive leakage as defined in the HON Rule. 4. Pressure loss should not exceed -6 1 x 10 cm3/second of helium.168 (d) 63.6.3. If fugitive emissions are problematic.1 General 1. Have bellows set in neutral position at 50% of valve stroke. was signed into law on February 28. f. (b). 1994.168 (g) 63. including control valves.168 (f) 63. Fugitive Emissions Considerations 3. Approved by the facility owner concerning the estimated cycle life 3.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves d. Leakage testing of existing control valves in HON-defined HAP services and toxicity-based services is required.6. or HAPs) to the atmosphere (fugitive emissions) from chemical-handling equipment and piping. The EPA’s final decisions on the rule. The intent of this section is to provide design guidelines for control valves in chemical service that are consistent with the 1990 CAA.168 (i) Note also: 63. Bellows should not be in tension or compression at neutral position. e. (c) 63. 2.168 of the HON Rule.180 Delay of repair Test measures and procedures Frequency of monitoring Time allowed for repair First attempts at repair Unsafe-to-monitor exemption Difficult-to-monitor exemption 5. 3. Helium leak-tested.171 (a). they can be minimized by the application of specifically designed packing material or bellows seals. or the National Emission Standard for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry [SOCMI]). called the HON Rule (Hazardous Organic NESHAP.168 (h) 63. Note particularly the following topics: 63.3.

in the specified service. Bellows seals should be used only where multi-ring.3. Typically.6. Thus. Use of oversized actuators to overcome high packing friction is recommended to meet dead time and dead band requirements for the process. verifying that the purchased valve has been designed and tested to assure that the valve will not leak. 6. 2. Rotary control valves are recommended over sliding-stem valves for low fugitive emissions service wherever feasible. For example. for a minimum service life of 2 years. assume that a closed loop response of 10 seconds is required.5% of its full steady state change.4 Rotary Valves and Bellow Seals 1. 4. but for compliance. Control valves supplied with low fugitive emission packing should operate without leaking.3 Valve Operation 1. Attention should be paid to the necessary dynamic behavior of the valve so that the low-emission packing does not seriously impede the valve’s function as a final control element.6. for a 1% to 10% input step change. 3. T86 should be 40% of the required open loop response. T86 is the interval of time between initiation of an input signal step change and the moment the signal reaches 86. 3. the valve stem should move 8. assembly joints and piping connections should also be carefully designed and maintained throughout the life of the valve.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 3. The step response time (T86) consists of two components: the dead time (Td) and the remainder of the response time. T86 is approximately twice the control valve’s time constant of a first-order response reaching 63. When subjecting the valve to a 10% input step change. with a normal maintenance frequency not to exceed once per year. Low fugitive emissions requirements will mainly affect stuffing box and packing design.3.3. a control valve step response time (T86) of 2 to 6 seconds is suitable. 3. 2. lowemission packing designs will not suffice. as defined in the HON Rule.6% of its stroke within 4 seconds.2 New Valves New valves should be provided with a “Proof of Design” document by the valve manufacturer. the T86 for the valve should be 4 seconds (10 seconds x 40% = 4 seconds). 3. 5. as defined in the HON Rule.6.2% of the full steady state change. Page 10 of 35 Process Industry Practices .

1.2 The cost of ANSI classes 150 and 300 carbon steel and SS valves are approximately the same depending on size.2. If the valve size must be reduced by more than two pipe sizes.2. 4.5 The use of restricted valve trim can be considered for flow rates requiring smaller Cv coefficients. depending on valve size and metallurgy.1 General The following guidelines apply to globe.1. 4.1. 4.1.3.3 Using a line size globe-style valve with reduced trim has the following advantages: a.1 All valves should have a mechanism to prevent stem blowout if the stem detaches from the closure member. This indicates that the pipe is oversized. Valve Types 4. 4.2 The use of the actuator to retain the shaft is not an acceptable blowout prevention method because the actuator can be removed during maintenance. 4. 4.1. The installed cost may be less than that of installing a smaller valve.1.1.1.1. 4.2.1 Valve size should not be more than two sizes smaller than the pipe size. If the stem detaches. Allows for increasing future throughput c. Saves cost of the reducers.4 The process engineer should be notified if the valve is more than one size smaller than the downstream line size.1.1 Valve Stem 4. the piping mechanical stresses should be validated by piping engineers. causing loss of containment.1.1. b.2 The valve manufacturer can also provide valves with expanded inlet and outlet connections that can directly mate with the piping connections.2 Valve Size Less Than Pipe Size 4. Reduces risk of under-sizing valves d.1 For sites that have mainly carbon steel and stainless steel valves.2. ANSI class 300 should be the standard to minimize spare parts inventory.1.1.3. 4. the process fluid can expel the shaft. Valve manufacturers Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 35 .2. Minimizes the manifold size 4.and rotary-style valves.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4.3 Minimum Flange Rating 4. Allows the design of the piping system before final control valve selection e.

7 Bonnet 4.6.6. 4.3 Separable flanges are not preferred because loosening the bolts can allow the valve to rotate.1. Cost may be saved by specifying separable flanges in a less expensive metallurgy. For these reasons.2 Leakage potential is heightened in flangeless valves because the exposed studs will expand in a fire. 4.1. 4. Bonnet Extension Criteria Temperature <0°F 0> <450°F >450°F <750°F >750°F Notes: Graphite Packing Plain extension No extension No extension1 Plain extension2 Elastomer Packing Plain extension No extension Plain Extension No elastomer packing Page 12 of 35 Process Industry Practices . 4.1.5. 4.1.2 If extension bonnets are required.1.1.7.1 Corrosion or erosion effects may indicate that the valve body should be of a higher alloy than the pipe.1. 4.5. 4. Separable Flanges 4.2 Economic incentive for separable flanges is not significant unless the valve is a large 304 or 316 SS valve (i.1. Flangeless (e.. greater than 4 inches) or the metallurgy is higher than 304 or 316 SS.1.1.1. wafer-style) valves should not be used in these services.1.2 The piping engineer should be consulted to verify that flanges are acceptable and to determine what types are acceptable.4.6 Welded End Valves 4. the only difference is how much metal is removed from each casting.1 Welded end valves are not recommended because they are difficult to repair in line and difficult to remove for maintenance.7.1 If available. a warning tag should be affixed to the actuator. and hot services (greater than 400°F) to minimize the risk of flange leaks.5. the Table 2 provides guidelines: Table 2.4 If separable flanges are specified and the valve can rotate when the flange bolts are loosened. separable flanges should be specified only for higher alloy or large SS valves.5. this requirement is meant for manual valves.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 may use the same globe valve body castings to manufacture ANSI classes 150 through 600.g.5.. flanged valves should be specified in hydrocarbon services.1. toxic services.4 Flangeless Valves 4.1 Use of extension bonnets should be minimized.e. 4.4. however. The piping specification may require welded end valves. 4. 4.1. The control valve should be flanged.

4.2. The post and guide bushing of post-guided types. however.2. may be less affected by this type of buildup.2.3 This style of control valve includes globe. single-seated valves are used for tight shutoff applications.1 General 4.2. 4.1. Double-ported. 3. and three-way valves. it is almost impossible to seat both plugs simultaneously. the plug can be either topguided or top. angle. 4. 2. Post-guided. post-guided valves are typically guided by posts at the top and bottom of the plug. require less positioning force than do single-ported valves.2.1. Double-ported valves. In a post-guided configuration.1 Post-Guided 1.2 Flow control is affected by positioning the closure member in relationship to a seat through the area of linear or reciprocating motion of an actuator. they will require more force from the actuator to achieve shutoff if the flow is under the plug. Post-guided valves may be a good choice for dirty service where the fluid or fluid particles would adhere to the guiding surface or would clog the plug vent holes. 2 Consult with valve manufacturer for recommendation on the use of finned extension.2 Guiding Types Globe valves can be classified as post-guided or cage-guided plugs. The double-ported valve actuators can be smaller than for single-ported valves in the same application or with the same shutoff requirements. 6.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 1 This method is preferred if graphite packing is compatible with service conditions. because they are somewhat balanced by differential forces acting in opposite directions across the two plugs. 4. bar stock. 4. Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 35 .2.1.2.and bottom-guided.1 The term “globe valve” is derived from the shape of the valve body. 7. 5.2 Globe Styles 4. under certain conditions. 4. Double-ported valves are not recommended because of their maintenance cost and leakage. Double-ported valves will not provide the same shutoff capability as do the single-ported types because in the doubleported types. because these valves are unbalanced.

lower plug-positioning forces are required from the actuator. or post. 2. 3. 4. As a result. 8. The cage-guided valve can achieve flow characterization with two different style variations. cage-guided valves provide greater rangeability than do their post-guided counterparts. thus. their larger port area allows greater flow capacity compared with post-guided types of equal body size. and stem wear than do postguided types.2 Cage-Guided 1. or flashing services. 4. seat. 5. Cage-guided valves have a cylindrical plug guided through a cage clamped in the valve body. cavitation. The cage is a massive. The other style has rectangular ports and a contoured plug. ported cylindrical spool through which a plug is axially positioned. 7. on the upper side of the plug is guided by a bushing clamped in the valve bonnet or top enclosure. high-noise. Cage-guided valves should not be used in services where coke may form or where solid particles are present.3 Globe valves should have the following characteristics: a.2. Balanced styles undergo less horizontal vibration and consequently less guide. Cage-guided valves may have either unbalanced or balanced plugs. relatively small pressure differentials exist across the plug throughout the valve stroke.2. 4. In balanced styles. Because of their superior stability. 6. 10. the cage ports are contoured and the plug is cylindrical.2. These valve types generally have only one port and a single seat. 9. the plug is vented such that process pressure interacts with the top and bottom side of the plug.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 8. cage– guided valves are subject to less side load and are inherently more stable than are post-guided styles. Unbalanced types can provide a tight shutoff given sufficient actuator force. In high pressure drop. 9. The increased guiding area is desirable for high-pressure drop. In high pressure drop services. an extension. In addition.2. Because of the equal flow distribution through the cage. Removable nonthreaded seat rings Page 14 of 35 Process Industry Practices . 11. In one. the lower guide area should be hardened. and anticavitation applications. Inner valve plug removable through top of valve body (push down to close) b.

Bottoms service e.1 Angle valves should be used for the following: a.5.2. High-pressure applications c.5. The smooth entrance and exit are effective if applied to high-velocity fluids containing erosive solids.4. Special alloys required b. and a mechanical linkage are high-maintenance items and should not be used. High pressure drops 4. The preferred installation is two separate valves with their own actuators and other accessories. one actuator.5 The angle valve has a bottom-exiting venturi throat.3 The plugs on the noncage-guided angle valves in flow-to-close applications tend to be forced into the seat as the plug nears the seat.4. and the piston should be adjusted so that it is near the bottom of the cylinder when the valve is closed.5.2.2. If construction specifications require offset inlet and outlet ports d. Cavitating services g. typically of a hardened material.2 Side and bottom connections should be inlet and outlet.2.1 Three-way valves can control converging or diverging streams. 4. 4. If the valve operates at less than 20% lift at minimum flow.2.4 Angle Valves 4. Severe flashing services d. 4.2. 4.3 Use of three-way valves can simplify failure analysis because only one actuator failure needs to be considered. Drains f.2. 4. a volume tank with double-acting piston actuator should be used.2.2.2.2. 4.2. or a sleeve may be added to the angle valve.5 Three-Way Valves 4.4. Solids carried in suspension c.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4.4 Spring-assisted actuators should be avoided. Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 35 .2 Three-way valves can provide an economical alternative to separate valves and are frequently used to bypass flow around an exchanger (diverging flow) or to mix two streams (converging flow). Coking service b.4 Three-way applications consisting of two valves. 4.4. respectively. Significant cost advantage 4.4.5.3 Bar Stock Bodies Bar stock bodies may be used if any of the following apply: a.

propensity to cavitation.2 For purposes of design.2.7 Shafts should be made of one piece.3 In fugitive emission services.1.3. 4.2 Disadvantages of rotary-style valves include fewer trim sizes. 4.2. Page 16 of 35 Process Industry Practices .1 Butterfly valves.1.10 Bearing material should be selected to prevent galling of the bearing or valve stem.3.3.6 The actuator end of the valve stem should be spline or keyed. more reliable.3 Rotary-Style Valves 4. 4.2.3.2.2.2 Butterfly Valves 4.6 Split Body Globe Valves Split body globe valves are prone to leakage and should be avoided. These high-performance valves have double offset shafts to lift the disk out of the seat immediately upon actuation.3. Leakage is minimized because the disk is pressed into the seats.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 4. including quarter-turn rotary actuation.2. 4. and simpler.8 The shear safety factor should be a minimum 150% at the specified shutoff pressure drop condition.2.3.1 General 4.3. 4.3.5 Butterfly valves are available with seat designs and material that can obtain a tight shutoff.2. 4.2. except for high-performance types with low-torque disk designs.3.4 High-performance butterfly valves are recommended over standard butterfly valves. lower cost.3 High-performance valves having specially designed disks can be selected to permit operation with the disk as much as 90° open.3.1. 4.2. Conventional butterfly valves in particular applications require relatively high opening and closing torque from the actuator.3.3.3. and less friction-producing packing. 4.3. high-performance butterfly valves should be sized to control within a 15° to 75° range of disk opening. if high side thrust loads exist on the shaft and bearings. should be sized to control between 10° and 60° of disk opening. low weight. and general unsuitability for applications requiring body sizes smaller than 2 inches (although “characterized” ball valves are available in smaller sizes).9 The valve stem bearing should be designed to prevent the stem guide bushing from rotating in the valve body. This avoids wear on the seat and disk. 4. 4. 4. Shear pins should be avoided.1 Rotary-style valves have certain features in common. 4.2. 4.3. high capacity. rotary valves rather than reciprocating valves should be considered because of the inherent design of shaft and packing.

2. Special valves having metal seats are available for “firesafe” applications.3 Ball valves and butterfly valves have a large valve coefficient. 2.3.5 Ball valves exhibit a higher potential for flashing and cavitation than do comparably sized globe valves. 4.13 Because of their higher valve coefficient.1 Full Ball 1. tight shutoff can be achieved with sealing designs using elastomeric materials. The ball is supported in the valve body by stub shafts that rotate in bearings or bushings. butterfly valves generally have a high-pressure recovery coefficient. Special anticavitation trims are available that may solve ball valve cavitation in some cases. complete sphere.3.” or other contours on the leading edge of the ball. 4. 4. 4.3. i.3.12 For temperatures up to approximately 400°F. orifice plates. 4. 4.11 The minimum disk-to-pipe clearance should comply with API 609.3. 4. Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 35 .3.3. Full port valves are ball valves having an opening the same diameter as that of the pipe inside diameter. depending on the configuration of the rotating ball. full and segmented.3. In segmented ball valves. and another valve. 4. “V.3. Reduced or normal port ball valves have a port that is commonly one size smaller than the flange size and have much lower Cv values than do the equivalent full port valves.3.3. The higher pressure recovery coefficient makes flashing and cavitation more likely in a butterfly valve than in a globe valve of comparable capacity.2.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 4.e. Temperatures above approximately 400°F will require the use of metal seats.2.3 Ball Valves Ball valves are of two basic types. The designer should be aware that the disk does extend into the pipe and can interfere with a reducer and with close-mounted instruments such as thermowells.2 Segmented Ball 1. 3.3.3.4 The designer should be aware of the effects of pipe reducers commonly used with ball valves and accordingly apply the appropriate factors to the sizing equation. 4.3. A full ball valve has a waterway or port through a solid. 3. and the valve body can be smaller than the line size..2.” “U. a section or segment has been removed from the ball such that the flow is “characterized” as the ball rotates. Reduced port valves are commonly used as block valves. Segmented balls may be cut to provide parabolic.

etc.3. care must be taken to ensure that the manufacturer has all the conditions necessary (startup.1 Sizing Methods 5. Electronic sources provide tutorial instruction and are valuable sources of explanatory information. valve manufacturers’ methods should be used in the final selection of a control valve. upset. When the valve manufacturer is selected. 5. Page 18 of 35 Process Industry Practices . especially on very small valves.2 Sizing Guidelines 5.4 Pinch Valves 4. flashing. the valve trim should be re-sized using the valve manufacturer’s computer program to calculate the valve size. This will limit the valve opening to approximately 10% of maximum for globe valves with equal percentage trim.3.1 Generic valve-sizing methods are available in commercial PC-based electronic formats.1. The need to precisely predict the total system pressure drop is rarely critical because the control system corrects for errors in estimated pressure losses.2 5.) to size the valve for all process conditions. Control valves may initially be sized by any acceptable industry standard. and noise at various flow rates and differential pressures.1 Pinch-type valves can be used with limitations for plugging services and in streams with entrained solids. 5. shutdown.3.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 4. cavitation.1. Sizing of Valves 5.1.1 Pressure Drop Control valves should be sized to consume a certain percentage of the total system pressure drop (typically 30% to 50% at normal design flow).1. which results in valve instability. the valve will throttle too near its closed position.2.4.2 These valves have diaphragms and/or flexible liners that can be proportionally opened and closed by mechanical or pneumatic pressure on the outside line. however. the process data can be supplied to the manufacturer for sizing of the control valves. 5.4.3 5. Alternately. Higher turndown ratios should be used with caution because of the inability of the actuator to accurately position the plug near the seat.2. Valve manufacturers provide sizing services. 4. Viscosity should be considered because it can affect capacity. the application of the 30% to 50% guideline will likely result in an oversized valve.3 Pinch-type valves are also zero emission-type valves.4 5. If this is done.2 Turndown Ratio The valve-sizing coefficient for globe valves should be selected to limit turndown to a ratio of about 30:1.4. At normal flow rate. If greater turndown ratios are required.3. If the system pressure drop is grossly overestimated. 4.

1. 6. liquid-vapor combination should be avoided if possible. Flow-to-close valves may suck the plug into the seat if throttling near the seat.5 Eccentric disk valves may pop out of the seat. In general.5.1 Inherent rangeability is the ratio of the largest flow coefficient to the smallest flow coefficient in which the deviation from the specified inherent flow characteristics does not exceed the limits stated in ISA 75.11. Control of a two-phase. For a discussion of the considerations involved. For this reason a more meaningful representation of valve dynamic behavior is the “installed” flow characteristic. linear.1 Definitions 6.2.1. Inherent Rangeability 6.5 Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 35 . For two-phase and flashing applications. and quick opening. Inherent Flow Characteristics 6. Section 4. An expander should be located on the outlet of the valve. The valve manufacturer develops the “inherent” flow characteristic of the valve by measuring flow through the valve at various openings while maintaining a constant pressure drop across the valve.1. the valve outlet should be no more than one size smaller than the downstream piping size. 6.2. The installed flow characteristic is a more accurate representation of how flow in the system changes relative to changes in valve opening and valve and system pressure drop. the valve differential pressure drop changes as the valve opening changes.1. This makes them unsuitable for throttling near the seat.3 6. refer to Hutchinson (1976).4 5. causing a jump in flow.1 The term “installed flow characteristic” refers to the relationship between the flow rate and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel as the pressure drop across the valve is influenced by the varying process conditions. Installations with sequentially operated parallel valves may also be considered if turndown ratio requirements are even more extreme. This effect makes throttling unsuitable near the seat.2.1.2 6. The primary valve flow inherent characteristics are equal percentage. Two-Phase Fluids Cv calculations for two-phase fluids are more complex than for single fluids. knowing the valve inherent flow characteristic is essential to the initial sizing and application effort. 5.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves consideration should be given to using rotary valves with characterized trim.4 6. A minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe should be provided on the outlet of the valve to minimize vibration of the piping caused by the high-velocity flow from the trim.1. However.3 5.

3 The ratio is of limited value because it does not consider the accuracy of the positioner/linkage.5.55 to 0.2. Table 3 provides typical rangeability and pressure recovery factors. and the changing pressure drop with flow rate. and Pressure Recovery Factors Valve Type Globe Globe w/ cavitation trim Angle w/ venturi Ball standard bore Segmented ball Eccentric rotary plug Ball characterized Butterfly 60° open Butterfly 90° open Inherent Characteristics = % & Lin Lin = % & Lin Lin Lin Lin = % & Lin = % & Lin Lin Rangeability 20:1 to 50:1 20:1 20:1 to 50:1 20:1 300:1 100:1 100:1 to 300:1 20:1 20:1 Pressure Recovery Factor (FL) 0.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 6.9 0. At 50% open.8 to 0.7 0. the inability to control areas near the seat because of bathtub effects or seat stiction.999 0. the flow will be 15% of maximum.3 to 0. Figure 1 shows the relationship between valve opening and valve flow for the equal percentage characteristic.92 to 0.6 0.4 A more meaningful definition of rangeability recognizes the variation in pressure drop and is expressed as the ratio of maximum Cv (at minimum pressure drop) to minimum Cv (at maximum pressure drop).2 Equal Percentage Characteristic 6.5.55 6. Representative Valve Characteristics. Equal percentage increases in valve opening cause equal percentage increases in previous flow through the valve. the instabilities of the process fluid. Rangeability can vary when this definition is applied.2.6 0.55 to 0. the flow will increase 46% to 22% of maximum.2 Inherent rangeability is an indication of how well the valve manufacture can control the effective orifice created by the closure member-to-stroke curve.1 If a constant pressure drop across the valve is assumed. 6.5 0. Table 3. the flow will again increase by 46% to 32% of maximum.1. 6. Rangeability. If the valve is opened another 10% (from 60% to 70%).57 0. rangeability is a useful tool for making initial selections.2 Page 20 of 35 Process Industry Practices . however.6 0. a valve with an equal percentage characteristic produces a nonlinear increase in flow as it opens.1.5. For example. If the valve is opened an additional 10% (from 50% to 60%).55 to 0. consider an equal percentage valve with a 30:1 rangeability over 90% of its stroke. 6.1.

4 Quick Opening Characteristic 6.3 Linear Characteristic 6. depressuring. linearized flow control. 6. As the pressure drop available to the valve decreases.3. % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 2. Initial valve flows are fairly linear until the valve travel is about 50% to 70% open. Linear Characteristic 6.2. equal percentage valves exhibit increasingly linear characteristics.4. Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 35 . 6.3 An equal percentage valve exhibits increasing gain as it opens and is recommended for a process in which the system gain decreases with increasing valve load. and split range. Typical process applications include pressure control and nonlinearized flow control. For this reason.1 Valves with a quick opening characteristic exhibit a rapid increase in flow as the valve opens.4 6. Flow rate “flattens out” as the area created by the rising plug begins to equal the port area. centrifugal compressor antisurge control. pump minimum flow bypass control.2 Valves with linear trim are generally required for applications in which the valve differential pressure drop is relatively constant over the valve travel range. Typical applications include liquid level control. gravity flow level control. equal percentage valves are recommended for systems in which the valve absorbs varying amounts of pressure drop or if a relatively small amount (less than 30%) of the system drop is consumed by the valve.1 As shown in Figure 2. a valve with a linear flow characteristic produces a linear increase in flow as the valve opens.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 1. Equal Percentage Characteristic 6.3.2.

and fluid. If σp < σ.1 ISA RP75.3 (this Practice). Figure 3 shows the flow characteristic curve for the quick opening valve. The small holes used in cavitation trim for the valve are susceptible to plugging during operation.1.4.4.1. flow rate. The sigma recommended should be adjusted from the reference valve to the actual application using size.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 6. depending on valve trim design.4.1.4. pressure drop.4. 7. This results in a sigma proposed (σp).1. Cavitation and Flashing 7.23 describes an effective methodology for communication by defining cavitation parameters. 6.1 Cavitation 7. Quick Opening Characteristic 7.3 % RATED FLOW % VALVE TRAVEL Figure 3. If σp > σ. and reducer factors.23 defines the sigma index as follows: Sigma σ = (P1 -Pv)/(P1 -P2) 7.2 7.3 7. evaluating cavitation characteristics.1. which should be considered in the selection of valves and trim.1. and providing guidelines for selecting control valves.2 ISA RP75.2 Quick opening valves are typically specified for “on-off” service and for pressure-relieving applications but also can be used as linear valves if their travel is restricted to the linear flow regime as cited in Section 6. temperature.4 Page 22 of 35 Process Industry Practices . then a “cavitation control” trim can 7. pressure. Sigma Index 7. Care should be exercised to ensure that the sizing methods are applicable to the valve being evaluated. then the valve should not experience damage.3 The valve manufacturer should provide a recommended sigma (σmr). Cavitation affects valve sizing and can damage valve parts and downstream piping.1.1 Cavitation in a valve body can occur when the pressure of the flowing liquid drops below the fluid vapor pressure and then the pressure is recovered above the vapor pressure.

Install additional valves. 7.6 If cavitation is predicted.Once damage or pitting has commenced at the incipient damage sigma or velocity. b.For water.1.g..1. Velocity factor.1. Relocate the valve to a lower temperature. Anticavitation trim valves are extremely effective in demanding applications and can significantly reduce the capacity of the valve. a strainer is Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 35 .3 b. 7. does the pump need to produce the pressure?) b.2 c.7. Single-stage cavitation trim . c. c. grade versus top of column).1. 7. and the small orifices can plug in particle-laden or viscous fluid applications.4.2.23.1. 7.025 7. or replace valve from available stock. The magnitude represents how many times faster erosion will occur over the threshold damage rate.0 to 2. the following actions may be considered: a. Fluid temperature factor. Verify that the upstream pressure is required. cavitation damage is approximately three times greater halfway between freezing and boiling. Mitigation Methods 7.2 d.7. The intensity index modifies sigma incipient damage (σid) with the following factors: a. FDC . Because of the small holes (on the order of 1/16 inch or less) in the trim. d. intermittent.2.The damage for continuous. FU . (For example. Install a restriction orifice directly downstream of the valve if flow rate variations are small. Relocate the valve to a higher outlet pressure (e.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves be selected or an evaluation can be made using the intensity index (I) described in Annex C of ISA RP75.5 Intensity Index The intensity index is a life reduction factor. Duty cycle factor. Globe and angle .7 Install a spare valve in parallel.2 For severe cavitation in water service (greater than 350 psi drop). f.1. e. FT .4 Nominal values of sigma recommended (σmr) are as follows: a.1 The best method for eliminating cavitation is to find a successfully functioning valve in a similar application and use that design and/or to consult the valve manufacturer. or rare cavitation conditions is considered. an anticaviation trim is recommended.1. Butterfly or ball . the rate of pitting increases exponentially with increased velocity. Three-stage cavitation trim .1.

7. and should provide a minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe downstream of the control valve. This is called flashing.8 In cavitation and erosive services where tight shutoff is required.1. Direct the jets into the center of the cage to cancel the energy force. Break the flow into many small streams. a separate ball valve should be considered.2.4 For moderate cavitation of water (less than 350 psi) and for most hydrocarbon-cavitating services. If the downstream pressure in the valve does not recover.1 If the pressure of a liquid at its flowing temperature is reduced below its vapor pressure. Because all cavitation damage prediction data use water.7. the calculations may be overly conservative for these classes of services. Reduce the pressure in multiple stages.2 Flashing and Erosion 7. b. causing more intense cavitation. and will direct the flow energy at the side of the pipe.1. Two valves can be installed in series to achieve the same anticavitation results. Force the flow through multiple turns or tortuous paths. 7. A rotary-style valve has a higher recovery factor. the valve outlet should not be more than one size smaller than the pipe. c. When selecting hardened trim. A sharp-edge seat port orifice to keep the discharge away from the body wall should be selected.7 Rotary-style valves should not be used in cavitating services or in erosive services.1. d. a multiple plug-style valve should be considered.1.7.5 For minor cavitation applications such as hydrocarbons with less than 500 psig drop. 7. a flow-to-open standard globe valve with hardened trim is recommended. a mixture of liquid and vapor will exit the valve. Page 24 of 35 Process Industry Practices .7. 7.6 Hydrocarbons and especially viscous or mixed hydrocarbons do not cause as much damage to valves as does water. 7. which can cause the pipe to wear. 7.1.3 If plugging is a concern. but remains below the liquid vapor pressure. should immediately expand to the pipe size on the outlet. 7.7. an angle valve with hardened venturi is recommended. The anticavitation trim is designed to do the following: a. If this design is used. the cracking that is due to impact of repeated valve closures and thermal shock should be considered. vapor in the form of bubbles evolves from the liquid.1. 7.7.2.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 recommended upstream. These valves divide the pressure drop into more than one pressure drop.1.1 Flashing 7.

2. body.2. Like flashing.4 Another type of erosion is caused by corrosive agents in the fluid. should be used.2. 7.2. which prevents direct impingement upon the trim. causing loss of fluid. thus effectively eliminating the downstream piping.2.2. or pipe. A minimum of 10 diameters of straight pipe should be provided downstream of the valve.2. 7. If the type of metal used does not corrode because it forms a protective surface film.2 Sacrificial downstream piping. causing leaky valves and changed flow characteristics.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 7. and special trim designs are also recommended for solving problems associated with flashing. multistage pressure reduction.2. the allowable. As an example. 7.1 Erosion is caused by high-velocity flow.2.1. 7.2. 7.3 Increased differential pressure caused by the lower downstream pressure has no effect in accelerating flow through the valve after the effective.1.2 Erosion 7.2.2.3 If a valve is controlling feed flow to a vessel. Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 35 . and corrosion. 7. flashing frequently causes erosion. 7.4 To determine the capacity of the valve under these choked conditions.2 When vapor continues to evolve to the point that flow becomes restricted or choked. differential pressure is reached. this film can be eroded away.3. mounting the valve directly on a vessel flange should be considered. hardened alloys. and a design with streamline flow. Flashing tends to smoothly wear away the plug and seat material.1 To prevent erosion.2.3. hardened trim should be selected. further reduction in downstream pressure serves only to cause more vapor to evolve. A recommended solution is an angle valve with a venturi liner. differential pressure should be used in the sizing formula. 7. This design focuses the energy down the center of the pipe. particles.2.3 Mitigation Methods 7.2.3 Particles—especially hard particles in the moving fluid—can also cause erosion.3.4 Reducing the trim exit velocity to acceptable levels (20 ft/second) helps eliminate problems associated with erosion. the valve should not be more than one size smaller than the downstream pipe. not the actual. exposing a fresh surface to the corrosive agent in the fluid.3.1.2 Because high-velocity flow is associated with flashing. and worse. carbon steel can be used in sulfuric acid if the velocity is kept low. it can erode away the body. If this design is used. the seat can wear.2.2. 7. or allowable. 7. Increasing the size of the pipe and providing straight lengths will allow time to dissipate the energy of the fluid from the valve.

4 8. Proximity of valve to the fence line c.1. 6 stellite b. and the facility owner advised.1. the allowable noise exposure for 95 dBA is 4 hours.2.1.1. A final solution should be rendered in consultation with the valve manufacturer or the facility owner’s noise control expert.1 Noise prediction is a specialized study that typically requires the use of valve manufacturer prediction methods. Facility owner’s location and standard noise limitation practices b.No. If the noise exceeds accepted levels as specified in the PIP PCSCV001 “Control Valve Specification Sheet. Proximity of valve to normally attended versus isolated area d.1. 150 psi .5 8.1.5 The following are recommended pressure drop limits versus material for erosive service: a. Page 26 of 35 Process Industry Practices .8 Noise levels that consistently exceed 110 dBA can cause valve failure. Noise Considerations 8. valve noise should not exceed this level. which is much lower than the acceptable limits within the plant (i.” alternate methods of noise reduction should be evaluated. Almost all states or local governments regulate the acceptable noise level at the plant fence line.3.7 8.3 8.1. therefore. 200 psi .2 8.1.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 7. Acceptable noise level depends on the following: a. 6 Colmonoy® c.6 8.1. Valve manufacturers’ noise prediction calculations normally are accurate to within 5 dBA. 8. It is important to understand the facility owner’s noise reduction strategy and to incorporate it into the selection of valves.tungsten carbide 8. A 115-dBA exposure is the maximum allowable noise for 15 minutes. Frequency of use (continuous versus less than once per year) Comment: The maximum acceptable noise level is identified in the PIP PCSCV001 “Control Valve Specification Sheet” because this value varies between facility owners and locations. >200 psi . General 8. OSHA 1910.17-4 PH SS and No. 70 dBA for adjoining industrial facility and 55 dBA for adjoining residential area). As an example.e..95 provides a formula that calculates acceptable exposure time to the different noise levels to which a person may be exposed during a shift.440-C SS d. 125 psi .

The application of antinoise trim is the only method that will eliminate damaging noise at its source. they tend to work well at the maximum flow conditions. b. plates and diffusers) . the maximum noise will often be calculated at mid range. For this reason. and case pressure specifications. Other solutions to reduce excess noise.2 9.g. the preferred solution is the use of noise reduction trim. Actuators that are infrequently stroked through their entire range may develop stem-packing friction problems.3 9.Noise will reappear downstream at next device.1 General 9.1 9. Acoustic sheds .2 The following discussion applies to spring return.2 Valve actuators are typically sized and selected by the valve supplier or manufacturer. In some applications.2..Noise will reappear downstream at next device.4 Process Industry Practices Page 27 of 35 . given the minimum nominal air supply pressure available at the valve.2. air supply pressure at the plant should be confirmed and regulated to prevent exceeding torque. 8.2. and spring return cylinder (piston) valve actuators. A strainer is recommended upstream of an antinoise trim. Sizing and Selection 9. d. Pipe/valve insulation . Pneumatic spring and diaphragm actuators should not contain forcemultiplying linkages. while possibly less effective or more costly. may include the following path treatment methods: a. diffusers are acceptable only for applications with limited rangeability. and steam-out. Silencers (e. limp diaphragm. Actuators and Accessories 9.Noise will reappear downstream at next device.2 8.3 9. e. Consideration of the additional packing friction force may be indicated for these applications.2 Noise Reduction 8. c. Acoustic lagging .4 Because diffusers work by absorbing some of the pressure drop. Thicker pipe wall .2. the actuator needs to be 9. 8.2.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 8.2. Actuator design should ensure shutoff capability under conditions of maximum differential pressure including abnormal conditions such as startup. Antinoise trims and silencers are susceptible to plugging in some process conditions. In addition.1. shutdown.1.Noise will not reappear downstream at next device.Noise will reappear downstream at next device.1 If noise exceeding acceptable levels for human exposure cannot be mitigated by adjusting the process or piping geometry. Actuators should be sized to meet the control and shutoff requirements. thrust.2. When diffusers are used.1 9.2.

3. In these cases.3 Actuator Forces 9. are commonly available from various manufacturers. pneumatic boosters may be required to provide the necessary actuator air volume and pressure. and may be less expensive than cylinder types of comparative size. The valve manufacturer’s recommended seat load should be used to achieve the leakage class. The amount of unbalanced force that exists due to differential pressure across the plug is termed “static unbalance.3. is dependent on valve port size and shutoff classification. The actuator should be designed to balance the sum of these forces.2 9. The process fluid will exert a force on the plug that will tend to either open or close the valve.” Seat load. This requirement should be identified and designated for the person who specifies the valve 9. the force necessary to provide valve shutoff.3 9.7 9. Because of their higher cylinder pressure ratings.3.3. have a wide range of adaptability to various valve sizes. 9.5 Both diaphragm-type and cylinder-type actuators normally will require positioners (piston types will always require a positioner). Seat loading is based on meeting ANSI/FCI leakage criteria.4 9. the seat load force exerted by the spring to close the valve tightly or position the plug in its fail-safe position. particularly for an unbalanced plug. and the force needed to overcome stem-packing friction.2. 9. cylinder actuators can accept higher instrument air pressure and can generate greater thrust than can comparably sized diaphragm types.3.1 Forces that influence actuator design include those exerted on the plug by the process medium.6 9. positioners by themselves may not be suitable for fast processes such as compressor surge control. the spring forces necessary to stabilize the plug. Table 4 provides nominal seat loadings to ensure repeatable tight shutoff for each seat leakage classification. Slow processes or processes requiring control with a wide proportional band (low gain) normally will benefit from a positioner.2. This can be a significant advantage where high thrust forces are needed because a diaphragm actuator having comparable thrust capability most likely will be larger and heavier.5 Page 28 of 35 Process Industry Practices .2. Diaphragm actuators are more widely used than are cylinder types.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 sized to shut off in the reverse flow direction. However.

Normally the actuator is bench-set to begin moving the plug at the minimum input signal from the controller or positioner (typically 3 psi or 6 psi. and the effects of these forces need to be considered in the various sizing methods provided by the valve supplier.3. and the fluid characteristics. in the absence of service process pressure. graphite packing is used only in applications that are exposed to high temperatures and if fire-safe applications are required.9 Process Industry Practices Page 29 of 35 . Friction between the packing and stem must be considered in sizing the actuator. both the actuator spring force and the force of the fluid against the plug are additive and are opposed by the force provided by the diaphragm case pressure.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves Table 4. If the plug forces are large. respectively). Bench settings are adjustments made to the actuator spring if the valve is out of service or “on the bench.3. Graphite packing has a much greater friction load than does TFE and other elastomers.9. 9.8 9. 9. a positioner may be required to provide the force necessary 9.6 9.” These settings are applied by adjusting the spring compression to compensate for the process pressures that will act on the plug area. Viscous/sticky fluids increase the packing friction forces and will affect the actuator force requirement. the type and style of packing. Nominal Seat Loading versus Leakage Class Leakage Class Class I Class II Class III Class IV metal seats Class IV soft seats Class V metal seats Class V soft seats Class VI soft seats Nominal Port Size <5 inches 10 lb/linear inch 20 lb/linear inch 40 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 250 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch Nominal Port Size >5 inches 10 lb/linear inch 20 lb/linear inch 40 lb/linear inch 80 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 400 lb/linear inch 50 lb/linear inch 100 lb/linear inch Note: Seat load = seating force/port circumference.3. to begin moving the stem and to fully stroke the actuator over its entire range.1 An actuator bench setting is the instrument air pressure required. The actuator should be designed to compensate for the various dynamic forces acting on the control valve plug.7 Seat ring circumference is defined as the line of contact between the plug and the seat if the valve is in the fully closed position.3.2 For an air-to-close actuator on a flow-to-open valve.3.3. This force varies with the diameter of the stem. For these reasons. Dynamic Forces The following is a discussion of the dynamic forces that act on various types of valve and diaphragm actuator combinations: 9. Graphite also tends to bind to the stem if the stem is not moved for a long time.9.

disk.3.3. FM. Torque requirements should be checked at appropriate angles of rotation from nearly closed to fully open.3. the spring force becomes less as the plug approaches the seat. 9.9.4 For an air-to-open actuator with a flow-to-open valve. 9.3 For an air-to-close actuator with a flow-to-close valve. The amount of bench-set force applied to the spring must be reduced by the plug force exerted by the process.1 Electronic Components 9.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 for complete shutoff. 9.4 Positioners and Accessories 9. and requires a bench pressure setting greater than 3 psi to unseat the valve. the dynamic plug forces oppose the actuator spring force and are additive to the diaphragm case pressure. or CSA NRTL approved for the area classification according to OSHA and NEC requirements.4.3.9.3.9.6 A rotary valve actuator applies force through a lever to exert torque on the plug. With this actuator. Break-away torque is a function of seating friction and can be significant for elastomer-lined valves.5 For an air-to-open actuator with a flow-to-close valve.9 The total torque requirement is the sum of the break-away and dynamic torques.3.9.4.1. Major rotary valve torque components are break-away and dynamic torque. the diaphragm case pressure and plug forces are additive and oppose the actuator spring force.7 Break-away torque is that torque required to move the disk from its closed. Determining rotary valve torque requirements involves highly valve-specific sizing procedures. 9. fully seated position. Dynamic torque is a direct function of the effective differential pressure at the various angles of valve rotation. the process pressure on the plug and spring forces are additive and in opposition to the diaphragm force.3. 9.8 Dynamic torque is determined by applying manufacturer-specific factors to the valve differential pressure at selected valve openings. 9. This control valve configuration tends to be unstable and normally should be avoided. 9. or ball.9. calculations should be performed in consultation with the valve supplier or manufacturer. Page 30 of 35 Process Industry Practices . This valve and actuator combination fails closed.9. This type of control valve opens on loss of diaphragm case pressure (fails open). 9. assuming an adequate bench set. Higher bench pressure settings are typically required to ensure adequate shutoff. As such.1 All electronic components should be UL. The actuator air pressure requires less force to unseat the valve while on the bench than when in service.9. The reduced actuator stiffness may cause valve instability in the low lift operation region.

The pneumatic boosters are required to provide necessary actuator air volume and pressure around the positioner. and only a filter should be provided to the positioner.4. open wiring versus conduit systems).3. it is critical to be able to make small movements of the valve position with minimal dead band. Digital positioners (HART®.4 Electronic input positioners are preferred to positioners that accept a pneumatic signal.4 In applications requiring large step changes in the valve travel within short periods (e.2 Boosters are selected to provide the required capacity to stroke the valve in the required time.4.2..1. For this reason. 9.4. 9.1 A well-tuned positioner with zero slop linkage and correctly sized actuator is required for accurate control of the valve.2. 9. 9. Oversized tubing. liquid pressure control) are candidates for ISA 75.4. filters.2 All electronic components should be able to withstand electromagnetic interference for the wiring method used (e. The valve performance should be tested at the valve supplier’s shop.g.3.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 9.3.2. The valve stroking time must be consistent with the valve supplier’s and surge control requirements.4.g. Process Industry Practices Page 31 of 35 .5 ISA 75.4.4.g.2. 9.1 Boosters are one-to-one self-contained regulators that are used to increase the speed of a control valve by providing large air volumes.3 Boosters 9. compressor recycle valve for surge control). 9.25 provides a guide and specification to set dead band and response time requirements for vendors. 9. All piston actuators in throttling service should be furnished with a positioner. 9. and air regulators are also required.4. a postioner is required with volume boosters. then accurate control will not be possible during recycle operation after the quick stroke has occurred. If the positioner is not employed. ISA 75. Fieldbus®. 9.2.4.25 specification. Valves expected to have a large impact with small movements (e.3 If a piston actuator needs air on each side of the piston to operate (typically referred to as double acting).2 To achieve the economic benefit of control strategies available with distributed control.3..25 also includes measurement techniques for dead band and response time.4. fittings.4. two boosters are required.2 Positioners 9.4.) provide capability for valve diagnostics that are not available with analog electronic positioners.. The valve specification should identify special dead band/response time and testing requirements for valves that require a high degree of performance. positioners should be the default choice for valves tied to a distributed control system. etc.3 Valves with piston operators normally require full system pressures of 60 to 100 psig.

4.2 Valves should be stored in an enclosed building that will not flood and that allows protection from rain.4 The port size and tubing shall be sized to trip the valve within the specified time. volume boosters. or Fieldbus®).3 Solenoid valves should be installed between the positioner and the actuator to eliminate the positioner as a source of failure. 10. electrical. To provide the necessary force to move the spool. a “low-powered” solenoid valve should be used so that the wiring used for loop-powered instruments can also be used for the solenoid valve.6 The solenoid valve can be explosion-proof even in Class 1. HART®. 9.1.5. blown dust.5. process.1 Valves should be shipped with all valve openings (e.2 A solenoid valve should be the last device tied to the actuator to directly vent the air off the actuator. 9. and quick exhaust relays. larger tubing.2.. larger tubing. etc.4.5. 10.1 Shipping and Storage 10. Failure direction will be accomplished via volume tank with trip and lock-up pneumatic relays. 9.4.1 Refer to PIP PCCGN002 for installation requirements. 9.2 Installation of Control Valves 10. 9.2 Some positioners provide a continuous signal of the valve-position feedback (e.5 If the solenoid valve is 24 VDC.4. 10. 9.3. Valve Storage and Installation 10.Use volume booster.5. Page 32 of 35 Process Industry Practices .1.4. 2-second full stroke .g.4. Division 2 areas because this type valve minimizes spare parts and because the cost difference is minimal.5 Solenoid Valves 9. mud.4.4.1 Solenoid valves are used to force the valve to a specified position.4.5.PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 9.4 Limit Switches 9.5 The following is a guide to achieve stroking times: a. 1-second full stroke .5.Use double-acting positioner.4.g.. 9. these valves typically require an auxiliary air supply to the pilot valve. 9.1 Valve position switches should be proximity type.4. air) sealed. b. Climate control should not be required. and quick exhaust relays.4.4. enclosed in watertight dust-proof housings with terminal strips for wire connections.

1Ports in valves with cavitation or noise reduction trim are commonly less than 1/4 inch in diameter.2. 10. 10.2 Bypass manifolds should be provided if the process cannot be shut down for repair or replacement of the valve.4.2.2.4. 10. This is typically done by placing the bypass above the valve.COMPLETE REVISION January 2005 PIP PCECV001 Guidelines for Application of Control Valves 10. 10. 10.2.2. consideration should be given to installing redundant control valves in parallel.. in slurry service.3 Take special care with the piping of high-recovery valves (Cd > 20). 10. 10.5 Control Valve Piping 10. especially butterfly and other rotary valves.6 For severe services. 10.4 Bypass Manifolds Bypass manifolds should be identified on the piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID). and drain valves should be installed to enable removal of the control valve.4.1 Bypass manifolds should not be provided in highly reactive chemical services if inadvertent valve leakage could result in an undesirable event such as backflow contamination.3 Bypass manifolds should not be provided if manual control is impossible or if the bypass line cannot be kept in service (e.2.2Bypass manifolds. 10. and for such valves.2 Control valve installations should be accessible from grade or platform to aid in operation and maintenance. an upstream strainer should be installed.5. 10.2.5.3Sufficient block. 10.2. The capacity of high-recovery valves may be significantly decreased by reducers and elbows near the valve ports. vent.2. It is essential that valves with handwheels or bypass manifolds be readily accessible either from the grade or from a permanent platform.g. should be arranged to prevent the accumulation of dirt or other solids in stagnant lines. which will plug stagnant lines).2. which may freeze. 10.2.4Piping should be designed to prevent accumulation of water.4.5. butterfly valves and valves of similar design may require a larger actuator when installed just downstream of an elbow.5. Further.2.5 Block valves used in manifolds with low-recovery control valves should have the same body size as the control valve unless known expansions or uncertain operating conditions dictate the use of linesized valves. Bypass manifolds may affect control valve performance. Process Industry Practices Page 33 of 35 .4.4 Manual throttle valves should be selected for control valve bypass manifolds to provide approximately the same capacity and trim characteristics as those of the control valves that they bypass.2.2.4. if required.

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